99,951 results match your criteria Influenza Research and Treatment [Journal]


Population Pharmacokinetic and Exposure-Response Analyses of Baloxavir Marboxil in Adults and Adolescents Including Influenza Patients.

J Pharm Sci 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Project Management Department, Shionogi & Co., Ltd, Osaka, Japan.

Purpose: Baloxavir marboxil, a prodrug that is metabolized to baloxavir acid, suppresses viral replication by inhibiting cap-dependent endonuclease. Our aim is to characterize its pharmacokinetics and exposure-response relationships.

Methods: Population pharmacokinetic analysis of baloxavir acid was performed using 8310 plasma concentration data points from 1109 subjects. Read More

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December 2018

EXPOSURE OF ALASKA BROWN BEARS ( URSUS ARCTOS) TO BACTERIAL, VIRAL, AND PARASITIC AGENTS VARIES SPATIOTEMPORALLY AND MAY BE INFLUENCED BY AGE.

J Wildl Dis 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

2   Daniel B. Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, 180 East Green Street, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA.

We collected blood and serum from 155 brown bears ( Ursus arctos) inhabiting five locations in Alaska during 2013-16 and tested samples for evidence of prior exposure to a suite of bacterial, viral, and parasitic agents. Antibody seroprevalence among Alaska brown bears was estimated to be 15% for Brucella spp., 10% for Francisella tularensis, 7% for Leptospira spp. Read More

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December 2018

A Computational Assay that Explores the Hemagglutinin/Neuraminidase Functional Balance Reveals the Neuraminidase Secondary Site as a Novel Anti-Influenza Target.

ACS Cent Sci 2018 Nov 9;4(11):1570-1577. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Chemistry, Point Loma Nazarene University, San Diego, California, United States.

Studies of pathogen-host specificity, virulence, and transmissibility are critical for basic research as well as for assessing the pandemic potential of emerging infectious diseases. This is especially true for viruses such as influenza, which continue to affect millions of people annually through both seasonal and occasional pandemic events. Although the influenza virus has been fairly well studied for decades, our understanding of host-cell binding and its relation to viral transmissibility and infection is still incomplete. Read More

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November 2018

Improvement Efficacy of Influenza Nanovaccine in Combination with Hemokinin-1 Molecular Adjuvant.

Avicenna J Med Biotechnol 2018 Oct-Dec;10(4):208-213

Department of Microbiology, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran.

Background: H9N2 avian influenza viruses have the potential to become the next human pandemic threat and next generation vaccine technologies are needed. Current studies introduce nanoparticles as a proper vaccine delivery vehicle for induction of protective immunity. In this study, the efficacy of chitosan nanoparticle-based H9N2 influenza vaccine with and without hemokinin-1 (HK-1) as a molecular adjuvant to induce protective immunity against the virus was examined. Read More

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December 2018

Editorial: Emerging Viruses: Host Immunity and Novel Therapeutic Interventions.

Front Immunol 2018 30;9:2828. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Viruses, Infections/Immunity, Vaccines & Asthma, Hunter Medical Research Institute, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.

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November 2018

A comparison of viral microneutralization and haemagglutination inhibition assays as measures of seasonal inactivated influenza vaccine immunogenicity in the first year after reduced intensity conditioning, lymphocyte depleted allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant.

Vaccine 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Clinical Haematology, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield, United Kingdom.

Traditionally, immune response to influenza vaccines has been measured using the haemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay. A broader repertoire of techniques including the sensitive viral microneutralization (VMN) assay is now recommended by the European Medicines Agency (EMA). Comparing HAI and VMN, we determined immune response to a trivalent 2015-2016 seasonal inactivated influenza vaccine (SIIV) administered to 28 recipients of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Read More

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December 2018

Effectiveness of an educational intervention on seasonal influenza vaccination campaign adherence among healthcare workers of the Palermo University Hospital, Italy.

Ann Ig 2019 Jan-Feb;31(1):35-44

Department of Science for Health Promotion and Mother to Child Care "G. D'Alessandro", University of Palermo, Italy.

Introduction: Healthcare workers are continuously exposed to the risk of being infected by influenza viruses during their work, thus representing a threat especially for fragile patients. Although the Italian Ministry of Health strongly recommends influenza vaccination for all HCWs, coverage levels in Italy are still far from the expected. Several studies report that one of the preferred strategies to improve vaccination coverage among Healthcare Workers is improving vaccination knowledge through specific multidisciplinary courses. Read More

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December 2018

Synthesis, structure activity relationship and in vitro anti-influenza virus activity of novel polyphenol-pentacyclic triterpene conjugates.

Eur J Med Chem 2018 Dec 7;163:560-568. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China; State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201, China. Electronic address:

It is urgently necessary to develop more effective anti-influenza agents due to the continuous emergence of drug-resistant strains of influenza virus. Our earlier studies have identified that certain pentacyclic triterpene derivatives are effective inhibitors of influenza virus infection. In the present study, a series of C-28 modified pentacyclic triterpene derivatives via conjugation with a series of polyphenols were synthesized, and their antiviral activities against influenza A/WSN/33 (H1N1) virus in MDCK (Madin-Darby canine kidney) cells were evaluated. Read More

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December 2018
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Mortality, morbidity, and hospitalisations due to influenza lower respiratory tract infections, 2017: an analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.

Authors:

Lancet Respir Med 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Background: Although the burden of influenza is often discussed in the context of historical pandemics and the threat of future pandemics, every year a substantial burden of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) and other respiratory conditions (like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) are attributable to seasonal influenza. The Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2017 is a systematic scientific effort to quantify the health loss associated with a comprehensive set of diseases and disabilities. In this Article, we focus on LRTIs that can be attributed to influenza. Read More

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December 2018
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Reconciling estimates of the global influenza burden.

Lancet Respir Med 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

WHO Collaborating Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Control, School of Public Health, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China.

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December 2018
2 Reads

The efficacy, effectiveness, and immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in Africa: a systematic review.

Lancet Infect Dis 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Vaccines and Immunity Theme, Medical Research Council Unit The Gambia at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Banjul, The Gambia; Centre of International Child Health, Section of Paediatrics, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, St Mary's Campus, London, UK. Electronic address:

The burden of influenza in Africa is substantial and underappreciated. Although surveillance has increased, the medical community's understanding of seasonal influenza vaccine performance remains limited. We did a systematic review, using PRISMA guidelines (PROSPERO CRD42017058107), on the efficacy, effectiveness, and immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in populations within Africa with the aim of identifying key data gaps to help direct future research. Read More

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December 2018

Highly Pathogenic Avian H7N9 Influenza Viruses: Recent Challenges.

Trends Microbiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Novel highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N9 viruses of the fifth epidemic wave infect humans and poultry. Recently, HPAI H7N9 viruses have evolved into different subtypes and genotypes, exhibited heightened virulence in mammals, and extended their host range, thereby posing a potential threat to public health and the poultry industry. Read More

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December 2018

Safety and immunogenicity of influenza A(H5N1) vaccine stored up to twelve years in the National Pre-Pandemic Influenza Vaccine Stockpile (NPIVS).

Vaccine 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA), Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Washington, DC, USA.

Background: As part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Pandemic Influenza Plan preparedness and response strategy, the National Pre-Pandemic Influenza Vaccine Stockpile (NPIVS) program was established by the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) in 2005 with the goal of building and maintaining a stockpile of vaccines for influenza viruses with pandemic potential to vaccinate 20 million people in the critical workforce in the event of a pandemic. Read More

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December 2018

Oral vaccination with influenza hemagglutinin combined with human pulmonary surfactant-mimicking synthetic adjuvant SF-10 induces efficient local and systemic immunity compared with nasal and subcutaneous vaccination and provides protective immunity in mice.

Vaccine 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Division of Enzyme Chemistry, Institute for Enzyme Research, Tokushima University, Tokushima, Japan. Electronic address:

We reported previously that a synthetic mucosal adjuvant SF-10, which mimics human pulmonary surfactant, delivers antigen to mucosal dendritic cells in the nasal cavity and promotes induction of humoral and cellular immunity. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of oral administration of antigen combined with SF-10 (antigen-SF-10) on systemic and local immunity. Oral administration of ovalbumin, a model antigen, combined with SF-10 enhanced ovalbumin uptake into intestinal antigen presenting MHC IICD11c cells and their CD11bCD103 and CD11bCD103 subtype dendritic cells, which are the major antigen presenting subsets of the intestinal tract, more efficiently compared to without SF-10. Read More

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December 2018

Probable reverse zoonosis of influenza A(H1N1)pdm 09 in a striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis).

Zoonoses Public Health 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Wildlife and Habitat Branch, BC Ministry of Forests, Lands, Natural Resource Operations and Rural Development, Nanaimo, British Columbia, Canada.

Striped skunks (skunks) are susceptible to respiratory infection by influenza A viruses (IAV). As they are common synanthropes, maintenance of IAV in skunks could provide a source of infection for humans. We previously studied the nasal turbinates, lungs and faeces of 50 free-ranging skunks for the presence of IAV and identified two individuals with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection during the 2009/2010 and 2013/2014 flu seasons. Read More

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December 2018

Evidence of pandemic H1N1 influenza exposure in dogs and cats, Thailand: A serological survey.

Zoonoses Public Health 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Center of Excellences for Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases in Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Influenza A virus causes respiratory disease in both humans and animals. In this study, a survey of influenza A antibodies in domestic dogs and cats was conducted in 47 animal shelters in 19 provinces of Thailand from September 2011 to September 2014. One thousand and eleven serum samples were collected from 932 dogs and 79 cats. Read More

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December 2018

Influenza Virus N-linked Glycosylation and Innate Immunity.

Biosci Rep 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Influenza Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, 30324, United States

Influenza viruses cause seasonal epidemics and sporadic pandemics in humans. The virus's ability to change its antigenic nature through mutation and recombination, and the difficulty in developing highly effective universal vaccines against it, make it a serious global public health challenge. Influenza virus's surface glycoproteins, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase, are all modified by the host cell's N-linked glycosylation pathways. Read More

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December 2018
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Clinical, immunological and bacteriological characteristics of H7N9 patients nosocomially co-infected by Acinetobacter Baumannii: a case control study.

BMC Infect Dis 2018 Dec 14;18(1):664. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Immunity, State Key Discipline of Infectious Disease, Shenzhen Third People's Hospital, Shenzhen, 518112, China.

Background: Bacterial co-infection of patients suffering from influenza pneumonia is a key element that increases morbidity and mortality. The occurrence of Acinetobacter baumannii co-infection in patients with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus infection has been described as one of the most prevalent bacterial co-infections. However, the clinical and laboratory features of this entity of H7N9 and A. Read More

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December 2018
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Serologic Status of Routine Childhood Vaccines, Cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr Virus in Children With Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Section of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Department of Paediatrics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Background: Data on the serologic status of childhood vaccines, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), are limited in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, we evaluated vaccine coverage and seroprotection, along with CMV and EBV seropositivity, in pediatric IBD.

Methods: In a cross-sectional study, demographic data, IBD history, vaccine records, and serum for antibodies against measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, tetanus, varicella, hepatitis B (HBV), CMV, and EBV were collected from children with IBD. Read More

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December 2018
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Comparative immunogenicity of enhanced seasonal influenza vaccines in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Infect Dis 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Influenza Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Introduction: A number of enhanced influenza vaccines have been developed for use in older adults, including the high-dose, MF59-adjuvanted, and intradermal vaccines.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review examining the improvements in antibody responses measured by the hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay associated with these enhanced vaccines, compared to each other, and compared to standard-dose vaccine using random effects models.

Results: Thirty-nine trials were included. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Etiology and epidemiology of community-acquired pneumonia in adults requiring hospital admission: a prospective study in rural Central Philippines.

Int J Infect Dis 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Virology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Japan980-8575; Collaborating Research Center for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, 9002 Research Drive, Filinvest Corporate City, Alabang, Muntinlupa City, Metro Manila, Philippines 1781.

Background: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality among adults worldwide. However, the distribution of etiology of CAP varies from one country to another with limited data from rural areas.

Methods: A prospective hospital-based study on adult CAP was conducted in Leyte, Central Philippines from May 2010 to May 2012. Read More

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December 2018
2.330 Impact Factor

A high throughput neutralization test based on GFP expression by recombinant rabies virus.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Dec 14;12(12):e0007011. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.

The effectiveness of rabies vaccination in both humans and animals is determined by the presence of virus neutralizing antibodies (VNAs). The Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test (RFFIT) is the method traditionally used for detection and quantification of VNAs. It is a functional in vitro test for assessing the ability of antibodies in serum to bind and prevent infection of cultured cells with rabies virus (RABV). Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Factors affecting influenza vaccination in adults aged 50-64 years with high-risk chronic diseases in South Korea.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

b GSK , Rockville , MD , USA.

Influenza is a communicable disease with most of the mortality burden falling on high-risk populations and those with pre-existing comorbidities and chronic diseases. In South Korea, adults aged 50-64 years are recommended for influenza vaccination, but no government financial support is offered to encourage vaccination uptake, which has led to suboptimal vaccination rates and significant public health concerns. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors affecting influenza vaccine uptake in adults aged 50-64 years and to compare high-risk and non-high-risk groups. Read More

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December 2018

[Etiological structure of influenza and other ARVI in St. Petersburg during epidemic seasons 2012-2016.]

Vopr Virusol 2018 ;63(5):233-239

Federal State Research Institute of Influenza, St. Petersburg, 197376, Russian Federation.

The etiological structure of influenza and other acute respiratory viral infections including their rate of incidence in St. Petersburg and Leningrad region during 4 epidemic seasons has been studied. Seasonality of some respiratory viruses was shown and peaks of circulation of RSV, adenovirus, parainfluenza viruses, rhinovirus, bocavirus, metapneumovirus and coronavirus were marked. Read More

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January 2018

Heamophilus Influenza-B Epiglottitis in a Vaccinated Child: A Note of Caution.

Isr Med Assoc J 2018 Dec;20(12):786-787

Department of Pediatrics, Padeh Poria Medical Center, Tiberias, Israel.

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December 2018
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Cationic Poly(Amino Acid) Vaccine Adjuvant for Promoting Both Cell-Mediated and Humoral Immunity Against Influenza Virus.

Adv Healthc Mater 2018 Dec 14:e1800953. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, Yonsei-ro 50, Seoul, 03722, Republic of Korea.

Powerful adjuvants to augment vaccine efficacy with a less immunogenic vaccine system are in great demand. In this study, a novel squalene-based cationic poly(amino acid) adjuvant (CASq) that elicits both cellular (Th1) and humoral (Th2) immune responses is developed. CASq is demonstrated to promote cellular uptake of viral antigen and stimulate macrophages, leading to active production of interleukin-12. Read More

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December 2018

Etiology of acute viral respiratory infections common in Pakistan: A review.

Rev Med Virol 2018 Dec 12:e2024. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Respiratory infections, especially those of the lower respiratory tract, remain a foremost cause of mortality and morbidity of children greater than 5 years in developing countries including Pakistan. Ignoring these acute-level infections may lead to complications. Particularly in Pakistan, respiratory infections account for 20% to 30% of all deaths of children. Read More

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December 2018

Memory CD4 T cells enhance B cell responses to drifting influenza immunization.

Eur J Immunol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Infectious Disease Research Institute, 1616 Eastlake Ave. E., Suite 400, Seattle, WA, 98102, USA.

Influenza A annually infects 5-10% of the world's human population resulting in one million deaths. Influenza causes annual epidemics and re-infects previously exposed individuals because of antigenic drift in the glycoprotein hemagglutinin. Due to antigenic drift, the immune system is simultaneously exposed to novel and conserved parts of the influenza virus via vaccination and/or infection throughout life. Read More

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December 2018

Consecutive influenza surveillance of neuraminidase mutations and neuraminidase inhibitor resistance in Japan.

Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Japan Physicians Association, Influenza Study Group, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: The large consumption of neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors (NAIs) for the treatment of influenza virus infections places Japan at risk of becoming the epicenter of the global spread of NAI-resistant viruses.

Objective: To clarify NA amino acid mutations of epidemic influenza viruses in Japan and their related NAI resistance METHODS: A total of 1791 samples, including 396 A/H1N1pdm09, 1117 A/H3N2, and 278 B isolates, were collected to determine of their 50% inhibitory concentration (IC ) values by NAIs (oseltamivir, zanamivir, peramivir, and laninamivir) during the Japanese seasons from 2011-12 to 2016-17. Then, 380 samples including 49 A/H1N1pdm09, 251 A/H3N2, and 80 B isolates, were sequenced for the entire NA genes. Read More

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December 2018

Urbanization affects peak timing, prevalence, and bimodality of influenza pandemics in Australia: Results of a census-calibrated model.

Sci Adv 2018 Dec 12;4(12):eaau5294. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Complex Systems Research Group, School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and IT, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

We examine salient trends of influenza pandemics in Australia, a rapidly urbanizing nation. To do so, we implement state-of-the-art influenza transmission and progression models within a large-scale stochastic computer simulation, generated using comprehensive Australian census datasets from 2006, 2011, and 2016. Our results offer a simulation-based investigation of a population's sensitivity to pandemics across multiple historical time points and highlight three notable trends in pandemic patterns over the years: increased peak prevalence, faster spreading rates, and decreasing spatiotemporal bimodality. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

A rainbow of influenza virions.

Authors:
Ursula Hofer

Nat Rev Microbiol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Nature Reviews Microbiology, .

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December 2018
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Issues in Building a Nursing Home Syndromic Surveillance System with Textmining: Longitudinal Observational Study.

JMIR Public Health Surveill 2018 Dec 13;4(4):e69. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Equipe de recherche (HANDIReSP), UFR des Sciences de la Santé Simone Veil, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines et Université Paris-Saclay, Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France.

Background: New nursing homes (NH) data warehouses fed from residents' medical records allow monitoring the health of elderly population on a daily basis. Elsewhere, syndromic surveillance has already shown that professional data can be used for public health (PH) surveillance but not during a long-term follow-up of the same cohort.

Objective: This study aimed to build and assess a national ecological NH PH surveillance system (SS). Read More

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December 2018

Modulation of Innate Immune Responses by the Influenza A NS1 and PA-X Proteins.

Viruses 2018 Dec 12;10(12). Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, NY 14642, USA.

Influenza A viruses (IAV) can infect a broad range of animal hosts, including humans. In humans, IAV causes seasonal annual epidemics and occasional pandemics, representing a serious public health and economic problem, which is most effectively prevented through vaccination. The defense mechanisms that the host innate immune system provides restrict IAV replication and infection. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

The Relationship between Infectious Diseases and Housing Maintenance in Indigenous Australian Households.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 12 11;15(12). Epub 2018 Dec 11.

School of Public Health, The University of Queensland, Brisbane 4006, Australia.

This research aimed to identify systemic housing-level contributions to infectious disease transmission for Indigenous Australians, in response to the Government program to 'close the gap' of health and other inequalities. A narrative literature review was performed in accordance to PRISMA guidelines. The findings revealed a lack of housing maintenance was associated with gastrointestinal infections, and skin-related diseases were associated with crowding. Read More

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December 2018

Recent Advances in AIV Biosensors Composed of Nanobio Hybrid Material.

Micromachines (Basel) 2018 Dec 9;9(12). Epub 2018 Dec 9.

School of Integrative Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 06974, Korea.

Since the beginning of the 2000s, globalization has accelerated because of the development of transportation systems that allow for human and material exchanges throughout the world. However, this globalization has brought with it the rise of various pathogenic viral agents, such as Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Zika virus, and Dengue virus. In particular, avian influenza virus (AIV) is highly infectious and causes economic, health, ethnical, and social problems to human beings, which has necessitated the development of an ultrasensitive and selective rapid-detection system of AIV. Read More

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December 2018
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New Zealand's experience of the 1918-19 influenza pandemic: a systematic review after 100 years.

N Z Med J 2018 Dec 14;131(1487):54-69. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Professor of Public Health, Department of Public Health, University of Otago, Wellington.

Background: The 1918-1919 influenza pandemic has been New Zealand's most severe disaster event (around 9,000 deaths). We aimed to review the literature related to this pandemic in New Zealand and among New Zealanders overseas, to identify any remaining research gaps (given ongoing risks of future influenza pandemics and from new pathogens, eg, synthetic bioweapons).

Methods: Systematic literature searches and comparisons with international findings for this pandemic to facilitate identification of research gaps. Read More

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December 2018

Influenza Activity - United States, September 30-December 1, 2018.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Dec 14;67(49):1369-1371. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, CDC.

Influenza activity in the United States was low during October 2018, and, although it increased slowly during November, activity remains low across most of the country.* During the week ending December 1, 2018, the percentage of outpatient visits for influenza-like illness (ILI) was equal to the national baseline (Figure) and was at or slightly above the region-specific baseline in four of the 10 U.S. Read More

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December 2018

Structured illumination microscopy combined with machine learning for the high throughput analysis of virus structure.

Elife 2018 Dec 13;7. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Optical super-resolution microscopy techniques enable high molecular specificity with high spatial resolution and constitute a set of powerful tools in the investigation of the structure of supramolecular assemblies such as viruses. Here, we report on a new methodology which combines Structured Illumination Microscopy (SIM) with machine learning algorithms to image and classify the structure of large populations of biopharmaceutical viruses with high resolution. The method offers information on virus morphology that can ultimately be linked with functional performance. Read More

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December 2018

A campaign aimed at increasing seasonal influenza vaccination coverage among post graduate medical residents in an Italian teaching hospital.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

a Section of Hygiene - Institute of Public Health , Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore , Roma , Italy.

We analysed the impact of several strategies aimed at increasing influenza immunisation rates among Medical Residents (MRs) of an Italian teaching Hospital. During the 2015-16 and 2016-17 influenza seasons we carried out several interventions: ambulatory doubling where vaccination was offered, ambulatory opening hour extension, email invitations, informative materials, forum theatre and vaccination campaign conference. In addition, during the 2016-17 the OSV was carried out: MRs who go to specific wards where they perform influenza immunisation counselling and eventually vaccinate the personnel. Read More

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December 2018

[Vaccinations in the elderly - who, when and which vaccine to use].

MMW Fortschr Med 2018 Dec;160(21-22):52-61

Institut für Infektionsmedizin und Krankenhaushygiene, Universitätsklinikum Jena, Am Klinikum 1, D-07747, Jena, Deutschland.

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December 2018

Prevalence of Common Respiratory Viral Infections and Identification of Adenovirus in Hospitalized Adults in Harbin, China 2014 to 2017.

Front Microbiol 2018 27;9:2919. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Microbiology, Public Health College, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

Respiratory infections pose a great challenge in global health, and the prevalence of viral infection in adult patients has been poorly understood in northeast China. Harbin is one of the major cities in northeast China, and more than half of any given year in Harbin is occupied by winter. To reveal the viral etiology and seasonality in adult patients from Harbin, a 4-year consecutive survey was conducted in Harbin, China. Read More

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November 2018

Baculovirus as an efficient vector for gene delivery into mosquitoes.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 12;8(1):17778. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Institute of Molecular Biology, Academia Sinica, No. 128, Sec. 2, Academia Road, Nankang, Taipei, 115, Taiwan, Republic of China.

Efficient gene delivery technologies play an essential role in the gene functional analyses that are necessary for basic and applied researches. Mosquitoes are ubiquitous insects, responsible for transmitting many deadly arboviruses causing millions of human deaths every year. The lack of efficient and flexible gene delivery strategies in mosquitoes are among the major hurdles for the study of mosquito biology and mosquito-pathogen interactions. Read More

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December 2018
5 Reads

Ultrasound mediated accelerated Anti-influenza activity of Aloe vera.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 12;8(1):17782. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Konkuk University, Seoul, 143-701, Korea.

Aloe vera (AV) is popular and has been commercialized as a beauty product, laxative, herbal medicine, the antimicrobial activity of AV is proven. The antiviral activity of AV however, has not been well documented except for a handful reports. Till date extraction of AV compounds is popularized using organic solvents, since the active components are effectively extracted in methanol. Read More

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December 2018

Autoimmunity to hypocretin and molecular mimicry to flu in type 1 narcolepsy.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Center for Sleep Sciences and Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA 94304;

Type 1 narcolepsy (T1N) is caused by hypocretin/orexin (HCRT) neuronal loss. Association with the HLA DQB1*06:02/DQA1*01:02 (98% vs. 25%) heterodimer (DQ0602), T cell receptors (TCR) and other immune loci suggest autoimmunity but autoantigens are unknown. Read More

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December 2018

Practical Guidance for Clinical Microbiology Laboratories: Viruses Causing Acute Respiratory Tract Infections.

Clin Microbiol Rev 2019 Jan 12;32(1). Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

SUMMARYRespiratory viral infections are associated with a wide range of acute syndromes and infectious disease processes in children and adults worldwide. Many viruses are implicated in these infections, and these viruses are spread largely via respiratory means between humans but also occasionally from animals to humans. This article is an American Society for Microbiology (ASM)-sponsored Practical Guidance for Clinical Microbiology (PGCM) document identifying best practices for diagnosis and characterization of viruses that cause acute respiratory infections and replaces the most recent prior version of the ASM-sponsored Cumitech 21 document, , published in 1986. Read More

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January 2019

Influenza infection enhances antibody-mediated NK cell functions via Type I interferon dependent pathways.

J Virol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, at the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Victoria 3010, Australia

NK cells are an important component in the control of influenza infection, acting to both clear virus-infected cells and release antiviral cytokines. Engagement of CD16 on NK cells by antibody-coated influenza-infected cells results in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Increasing the potency of antibody-mediated NK cell activity could ultimately lead to improved control of influenza infection. Read More

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December 2018

Autophagy benefits the replication of influenza A virus in vitro.

J Virol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China

Influenza A virus (IAV) infection could induce autophagosome accumulation. However, the impact of the autophagy machinery on IAV infection remains controversial. Herein, we showed that induction of cellular autophagy by starvation or rapamycin treatment increases the progeny virus production, while devastation of autophagy using siRNA and pharmacological inhibitor reduces the progeny virus production. Read More

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December 2018