99,913 results match your criteria Influenza


Urbanization affects peak timing, prevalence, and bimodality of influenza pandemics in Australia: Results of a census-calibrated model.

Sci Adv 2018 Dec 12;4(12):eaau5294. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Complex Systems Research Group, School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and IT, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

We examine salient trends of influenza pandemics in Australia, a rapidly urbanizing nation. To do so, we implement state-of-the-art influenza transmission and progression models within a large-scale stochastic computer simulation, generated using comprehensive Australian census datasets from 2006, 2011, and 2016. Our results offer a simulation-based investigation of a population's sensitivity to pandemics across multiple historical time points and highlight three notable trends in pandemic patterns over the years: increased peak prevalence, faster spreading rates, and decreasing spatiotemporal bimodality. Read More

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December 2018
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A rainbow of influenza virions.

Authors:
Ursula Hofer

Nat Rev Microbiol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Nature Reviews Microbiology, .

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December 2018

Issues in Building a Nursing Home Syndromic Surveillance System with Textmining: Longitudinal Observational Study.

JMIR Public Health Surveill 2018 Dec 13;4(4):e69. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Equipe de recherche (HANDIReSP), UFR des Sciences de la Santé Simone Veil, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines et Université Paris-Saclay, Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France.

Background: New nursing homes (NH) data warehouses fed from residents' medical records allow monitoring the health of elderly population on a daily basis. Elsewhere, syndromic surveillance has already shown that professional data can be used for public health (PH) surveillance but not during a long-term follow-up of the same cohort.

Objective: This study aimed to build and assess a national ecological NH PH surveillance system (SS). Read More

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December 2018

Modulation of Innate Immune Responses by the Influenza A NS1 and PA-X Proteins.

Viruses 2018 Dec 12;10(12). Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, NY 14642, USA.

Influenza A viruses (IAV) can infect a broad range of animal hosts, including humans. In humans, IAV causes seasonal annual epidemics and occasional pandemics, representing a serious public health and economic problem, which is most effectively prevented through vaccination. The defense mechanisms that the host innate immune system provides restrict IAV replication and infection. Read More

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December 2018

The Relationship between Infectious Diseases and Housing Maintenance in Indigenous Australian Households.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 Dec 11;15(12). Epub 2018 Dec 11.

School of Public Health, The University of Queensland, Brisbane 4006, Australia.

This research aimed to identify systemic housing-level contributions to infectious disease transmission for Indigenous Australians, in response to the Government program to 'close the gap' of health and other inequalities. A narrative literature review was performed in accordance to PRISMA guidelines. The findings revealed a lack of housing maintenance was associated with gastrointestinal infections, and skin-related diseases were associated with crowding. Read More

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December 2018

Recent Advances in AIV Biosensors Composed of Nanobio Hybrid Material.

Micromachines (Basel) 2018 Dec 9;9(12). Epub 2018 Dec 9.

School of Integrative Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 06974, Korea.

Since the beginning of the 2000s, globalization has accelerated because of the development of transportation systems that allow for human and material exchanges throughout the world. However, this globalization has brought with it the rise of various pathogenic viral agents, such as Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Zika virus, and Dengue virus. In particular, avian influenza virus (AIV) is highly infectious and causes economic, health, ethnical, and social problems to human beings, which has necessitated the development of an ultrasensitive and selective rapid-detection system of AIV. Read More

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December 2018

New Zealand's experience of the 1918-19 influenza pandemic: a systematic review after 100 years.

N Z Med J 2018 Dec 14;131(1487):54-69. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Professor of Public Health, Department of Public Health, University of Otago, Wellington.

Background: The 1918-1919 influenza pandemic has been New Zealand's most severe disaster event (around 9,000 deaths). We aimed to review the literature related to this pandemic in New Zealand and among New Zealanders overseas, to identify any remaining research gaps (given ongoing risks of future influenza pandemics and from new pathogens, eg, synthetic bioweapons).

Methods: Systematic literature searches and comparisons with international findings for this pandemic to facilitate identification of research gaps. Read More

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December 2018

Influenza Activity - United States, September 30-December 1, 2018.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Dec 14;67(49):1369-1371. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, CDC.

Influenza activity in the United States was low during October 2018, and, although it increased slowly during November, activity remains low across most of the country.* During the week ending December 1, 2018, the percentage of outpatient visits for influenza-like illness (ILI) was equal to the national baseline (Figure) and was at or slightly above the region-specific baseline in four of the 10 U.S. Read More

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December 2018

Structured illumination microscopy combined with machine learning for the high throughput analysis of virus structure.

Elife 2018 Dec 13;7. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Optical super-resolution microscopy techniques enable high molecular specificity with high spatial resolution and constitute a set of powerful tools in the investigation of the structure of supramolecular assemblies such as viruses. Here, we report on a new methodology which combines Structured Illumination Microscopy (SIM) with machine learning algorithms to image and classify the structure of large populations of biopharmaceutical viruses with high resolution. The method offers information on virus morphology that can ultimately be linked with functional performance. Read More

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December 2018

A campaign aimed at increasing seasonal influenza vaccination coverage among post graduate medical residents in an Italian teaching hospital.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

a Section of Hygiene - Institute of Public Health , Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore , Roma , Italy.

We analysed the impact of several strategies aimed at increasing influenza immunisation rates among Medical Residents (MRs) of an Italian teaching Hospital. During the 2015-16 and 2016-17 influenza seasons we carried out several interventions: ambulatory doubling where vaccination was offered, ambulatory opening hour extension, email invitations, informative materials, forum theatre and vaccination campaign conference. In addition, during the 2016-17 the OSV was carried out: MRs who go to specific wards where they perform influenza immunisation counselling and eventually vaccinate the personnel. Read More

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December 2018

[Vaccinations in the elderly - who, when and which vaccine to use].

MMW Fortschr Med 2018 Dec;160(21-22):52-61

Institut für Infektionsmedizin und Krankenhaushygiene, Universitätsklinikum Jena, Am Klinikum 1, D-07747, Jena, Deutschland.

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December 2018

Prevalence of Common Respiratory Viral Infections and Identification of Adenovirus in Hospitalized Adults in Harbin, China 2014 to 2017.

Front Microbiol 2018 27;9:2919. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Microbiology, Public Health College, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

Respiratory infections pose a great challenge in global health, and the prevalence of viral infection in adult patients has been poorly understood in northeast China. Harbin is one of the major cities in northeast China, and more than half of any given year in Harbin is occupied by winter. To reveal the viral etiology and seasonality in adult patients from Harbin, a 4-year consecutive survey was conducted in Harbin, China. Read More

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November 2018

Baculovirus as an efficient vector for gene delivery into mosquitoes.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 12;8(1):17778. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Institute of Molecular Biology, Academia Sinica, No. 128, Sec. 2, Academia Road, Nankang, Taipei, 115, Taiwan, Republic of China.

Efficient gene delivery technologies play an essential role in the gene functional analyses that are necessary for basic and applied researches. Mosquitoes are ubiquitous insects, responsible for transmitting many deadly arboviruses causing millions of human deaths every year. The lack of efficient and flexible gene delivery strategies in mosquitoes are among the major hurdles for the study of mosquito biology and mosquito-pathogen interactions. Read More

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December 2018
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Ultrasound mediated accelerated Anti-influenza activity of Aloe vera.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 12;8(1):17782. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Konkuk University, Seoul, 143-701, Korea.

Aloe vera (AV) is popular and has been commercialized as a beauty product, laxative, herbal medicine, the antimicrobial activity of AV is proven. The antiviral activity of AV however, has not been well documented except for a handful reports. Till date extraction of AV compounds is popularized using organic solvents, since the active components are effectively extracted in methanol. Read More

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December 2018

Autoimmunity to hypocretin and molecular mimicry to flu in type 1 narcolepsy.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Center for Sleep Sciences and Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA 94304;

Type 1 narcolepsy (T1N) is caused by hypocretin/orexin (HCRT) neuronal loss. Association with the HLA DQB1*06:02/DQA1*01:02 (98% vs. 25%) heterodimer (DQ0602), T cell receptors (TCR) and other immune loci suggest autoimmunity but autoantigens are unknown. Read More

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December 2018

Practical Guidance for Clinical Microbiology Laboratories: Viruses Causing Acute Respiratory Tract Infections.

Clin Microbiol Rev 2019 Jan 12;32(1). Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

SUMMARYRespiratory viral infections are associated with a wide range of acute syndromes and infectious disease processes in children and adults worldwide. Many viruses are implicated in these infections, and these viruses are spread largely via respiratory means between humans but also occasionally from animals to humans. This article is an American Society for Microbiology (ASM)-sponsored Practical Guidance for Clinical Microbiology (PGCM) document identifying best practices for diagnosis and characterization of viruses that cause acute respiratory infections and replaces the most recent prior version of the ASM-sponsored Cumitech 21 document, , published in 1986. Read More

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January 2019

Influenza infection enhances antibody-mediated NK cell functions via Type I interferon dependent pathways.

J Virol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, at the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Victoria 3010, Australia

NK cells are an important component in the control of influenza infection, acting to both clear virus-infected cells and release antiviral cytokines. Engagement of CD16 on NK cells by antibody-coated influenza-infected cells results in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Increasing the potency of antibody-mediated NK cell activity could ultimately lead to improved control of influenza infection. Read More

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December 2018

Autophagy benefits the replication of influenza A virus in vitro.

J Virol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China

Influenza A virus (IAV) infection could induce autophagosome accumulation. However, the impact of the autophagy machinery on IAV infection remains controversial. Herein, we showed that induction of cellular autophagy by starvation or rapamycin treatment increases the progeny virus production, while devastation of autophagy using siRNA and pharmacological inhibitor reduces the progeny virus production. Read More

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December 2018

Protein Microarray Analysis of the Specificity and Cross-Reactivity of Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin-Specific Antibodies.

mSphere 2018 Dec 12;3(6). Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Vaccine Research and Development Center, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of California Irvine, Irvine, California, USA

Current seasonal influenza virus vaccines engender antibody-mediated protection that is hemagglutinin (HA) subtype specific and relatively short-lived. Coverage for other subtypes or even variants within a subtype could be improved from a better understanding of the factors that promote HA-specific antibody cross-reactivity. Current assays to evaluate cross-reactivity, such as the ELISA, require a separate test for each antigen and are neither high-throughput nor sample-sparing. Read More

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December 2018

Improving uptake of seasonal influenza vaccination by healthcare workers: Implementation differences between higher and lower uptake NHS trusts in England.

Infect Dis Health 2018 Oct 19. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

NatCen Social Research, 35 Northampton Square, London, EC1V 0AX, UK.

Background: Uptake of influenza vaccination by healthcare workers (HCWs) may be related to how influenza campaigns are implemented. This study explores differences in annual influenza campaign implementation between NHS trusts (healthcare organisations) with higher and lower vaccine uptake.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey with influenza campaign staff in 2016/2017 in 87 NHS trusts in England. Read More

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October 2018

"With fever it's the real flu I would say": laypersons' perception of common cold and influenza and their differences - a qualitative study in Austria, Belgium and Croatia.

BMC Infect Dis 2018 Dec 12;18(1):647. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of General Practice and Family Medicine, Center for Public Health, Medical University of Vienna, Kinderspitalgasse 15, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

Background: There is little research on laypersons' perceptions regarding common cold and influenza, their symptomatic distinction and considerations of risk. This study investigates understanding of pathogenesis across three European countries and provides a knowledge base from which adequate prevention recommendations and treatment advice can be derived.

Methods: This is a qualitative research study. Read More

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December 2018

Evaluating the Value of Defensins for Diagnosing Secondary Bacterial Infections in Influenza-Infected Patients.

Front Microbiol 2018 20;9:2762. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

MOH Key Laboratory of Systems Biology of Pathogens, Peking Union Medical College, Institute of Pathogen Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Acute respiratory infections by influenza viruses are commonly causes of severe pneumonia, which can further deteriorate if secondary bacterial infections occur. Although the viral and bacterial agents are quite diverse, defensins, a set of antimicrobial peptides expressed by the host, may provide promising biomarkers that would greatly improve the diagnosis and treatment. We examined the correlations between the gene expression levels of defensins and the viral and bacterial loads in the blood on a longitudinal, precision-medical study of a severe pneumonia patient infected by influenza A H7N9 virus. Read More

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November 2018

When kidneys and lungs suffer together.

J Nephrol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

University of Insubria, Varese, Italy.

A significant interaction between kidneys and lungs has been shown in physiological and pathological conditions. The two organs can both be targets of the same systemic disease (eg., some vasculitides). Read More

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December 2018

Influenza vaccination and critical patient protection: responsibility of healthcare workers.

Med Intensiva 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid, España.

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December 2018

Understanding influenza vaccination rates and reasons for refusal in caregivers and household contacts of cancer patients.

Am J Infect Control 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA; Infection Prevention, Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, Seattle, WA; Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Care Alliance, Seattle, WA; Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Electronic address:

Cancer patients are at increased risk for morbidity and mortality from seasonal influenza but are known to respond poorly to influenza vaccination. This single-center survey suggests that approximately one-third of cancer patients and their caregivers and family did not receive the vaccine in the prior season. Patients felt strongly that caregiver vaccination was important, whereas caregivers' decisions did not appear to be affected by the patients' disease. Read More

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December 2018

A regional collaboration between competing healthcare systems to establish influenza season parameters.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018 Dec 7:1-2. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

6Department of Infection Prevention,High Point Regional UNC Health Care,High Point, North Carolina.

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December 2018

Incidence and etiology of fever following seasonal influenza vaccination in hospitalized patients.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018 Dec 7:1-3. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

1Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine,Washington University School of Medicine,St Louis, Missouri.

We conducted a retrospective cohort to examine the incidence and etiology of fever postinfluenza vaccination among hospitalized patients during the 2015-2016 influenza season. Fever occurred in 63 (1.5%) of 4,185 vaccinated patients. Read More

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December 2018

[A Rickettsia case caused by Rickettsia conorii].

Mikrobiyol Bul 2018 Oct;52(4):431-438

Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Public Health, Microbiology Reference Laboratory, Ankara, Turkey.

Rickettsia species are gram-negative intracellular, small pleomorphic coccobacilli in the Rickettsiaceae family. This genus is serologically and genotypically divided into four groups as spotted fever group, typhus group, Rickettsia belli and Rickettsia canadensis. Rickettsia conorii (R. Read More

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October 2018

[Respiratory virus infections and inflammatory cytokines in hospitalized patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi 2018 Dec;41(12):942-948

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Ruijin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University; Institute of Respiratory Diseases, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200025, China.

To investigate the characteristics of respiratory viral infections, and correlation between inflammatory cytokines and respiratory virus infections in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A prospective cohort of patients with acute exacerbations of COPD was enrolled. The sputum of all patients were collected, and 15 respiratory viruses were detected using multi-channel real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. Read More

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December 2018

Household transmission of seasonal influenza from HIV-infected and -uninfected individuals in South Africa, 2013-2014.

J Infect Dis 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Centre for Respiratory Diseases and Meningitis, National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: Differential transmission from HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected individuals may impact influenza burden. We estimated the household secondary infection risk (SIR) and serial interval (SI) for influenza transmission from HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected index cases and identified associated factors.

Methods: Index cases were the first symptomatic person in a household with influenza-like illness, testing influenza positive on real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). Read More

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December 2018

Molecular point-of-care testing for influenza to improve early neuraminidase inhibitor treatment and outcomes in hospitalised adults.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Academic Unit of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.

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December 2018

Closure of live bird markets leads to the spread of H7N9 influenza in China.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208884. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Epidemiological Survey Division, China Animal Health and Epidemiology Center, Qingdao, Shandong, China.

Following the emergence of H7N9 influenza in March 2013, local animal and public health authorities in China have been closing live bird markets as a measure to try to control the H7N9 influenza epidemic. The role of live bird market (LBM) closure on the spread of N7N9 influenza following the closure of LBMs during March to May 2013 (the first wave) and October 2013 to March 2014 (the second wave) is described in this paper. Different provinces implemented closure actions at different times, and intensive media reports on H7N9 in different provinces started at different times. Read More

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December 2018
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TEMPORAL COMPARISON OF WHEEZING PREVALENCE IN THE FIRST YEAR OF LIFE IN SÃO PAULO: INTERNATIONAL STUDY OF WHEEZING IN INFANTS.

Rev Paul Pediatr 2018 Oct-Dec;36(4):445-450

Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.

Objective: To assess the prevalence and severity of wheezing in the first year of life of infants, using the standardized protocol of the Estudio Internacional de Sibilancias en Lactantes- phase 3, and compare the values obtained with those found in phase 1, conducted at the same center.

Methods: Between 2009 and 2010, parents and guardians of infants answered the written questionnaire of the Estudio Internacional de Sibilancias en Lactantes - phase 3, and its results were compared to those of phase 1, performed between 2005 and 2006. We divided the infants into wheezing and non-wheezing. Read More

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Profiling of N-Methyladenosine in Zika Virus RNA and Host Cellular mRNA.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1870:209-218

Department of Pediatrics and Institute for Genomic Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

N-Methylation of adenosine (mA) in viral RNA was first identified in Rous sarcoma virus, influenza virus, and SV40 virus several decades ago. More recently, human immunodeficiency virus-1, hepatitis C virus, and Zika virus (ZIKV) RNAs have also been reported to be modified by mA, highlighting the significance of this posttranscriptional RNA modification. Nevertheless, the functions of mA and their roles in the context of viral infections are not completely understood. Read More

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January 2019
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Pathogenicity of two novel human-origin H7N9 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in chickens and ducks.

Arch Virol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Division of Transboundary Animal Disease, National Institute of Animal Health, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO), 3-1-5 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0856, Japan.

Human infection by low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H7N9 subtype was first reported in March 2013 in China. Subsequently, these viruses caused five outbreaks through September 2017. In the fifth outbreak, H7N9 virus possessing a multiple basic amino acid insertion in the cleavage site of hemagglutinin emerged and caused 4% of all human infections in that period. Read More

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December 2018
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Influenza B in a temperate region of northern India 2010-2016: co-circulation of the two lineages with northern hemispherical seasonality.

Virusdisease 2018 Dec 26;29(4):553-559. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

2National Institute of Virology, Pune, Mahrashtra India.

Scant data exist about the epidemiology of influenza B in India. We set out to address the epidemiology of influenza B in a temperate region of northern India from 2010 to 2016. Outpatient and inpatient surveillance was conducted in patients presenting with acute respiratory infection in a northern Indian hospital from September 2010 till April 2016. Read More

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December 2018
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PR8 virus harbouring H5N1 gene contributed for THP-1 cell tropism.

Virusdisease 2018 Dec 20;29(4):548-552. Epub 2018 Oct 20.

1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok Noi, Bangkok, Thailand.

Innate immune cells are key player in immune response to influenza virus infection. Influenza infected monocytes exacerbate the disease pathology. However, monocytes differ in susceptibilities to influenza virus infection. Read More

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December 2018
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Implications of protein conformations to modifying novel inhibitor Oseltamivir for 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus by simulation and docking studies.

Virusdisease 2018 Dec 1;29(4):461-467. Epub 2018 Sep 1.

Department of Biological Science and Engineering, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal, India.

Recently three FDA approved existing drugs, namely-Oseltamivir, Peramivir and Zanamivir, used against Neuraminidase (NA) for the inhibitory effect on the process of viral progeny release to inhibit infection. All NA subtypes has been divided into two groups (Group 1 and Group 2) based on phylogenetic study. Oseltamivir and Zanamivir drugs are designed for Group 2 NA but are also used against 2009 H1N1 NA that lies in Group 1. Read More

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December 2018

Epidemiological and molecular analysis of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in Shanghai, China, 2013-2017.

Infect Drug Resist 2018 22;11:2411-2424. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Animal Science, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China,

Background: Human infections with a novel avian influenza A virus (H7N9) were reported in Shanghai municipality, China, at the beginning of 2013. High-pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N9 virus emerged in late February 2017 along with existing low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H7N9 virus, and this has the potential to develop into a pandemic that could be harmful to humans.

Methods: To elucidate the epidemiological characteristics of H7N9-infected cases from 2013 to 2017 in Shanghai, data on the 59 laboratory-confirmed human cases and 26 bird and environmental contamination cases were collected from the WHO website and Food and Agriculture Organization Emergency Prevention System for Animal Health (FAO EMPRES-AH). Read More

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November 2018

Structural-functional interactions of NS1-BP protein with the splicing and mRNA export machineries for viral and host gene expression.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Cell Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390;

The influenza virulence factor NS1 protein interacts with the cellular NS1-BP protein to promote splicing and nuclear export of the viral M mRNAs. The viral M1 mRNA encodes the M1 matrix protein and is alternatively spliced into the M2 mRNA, which is translated into the M2 ion channel. These proteins have key functions in viral trafficking and budding. Read More

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December 2018

Type I Interferons: Distinct Biological Activities and Current Applications for Viral Infection.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2018 11;51(5):2377-2396. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, OIE/National Foot-and-Mouth Disease Reference Laboratory, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou,

The interferons (IFNs) are a primary defense against pathogens because of the strong antiviral activities they induce. IFNs can be classified into three groups: type I, type II and type III, according to their genetic, structural, and functional characteristics and their receptors on the cell surface. The type I IFNs are the largest group and include IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-ε, IFN-ω, IFN-κ, IFN-δ, IFN-τ and IFN-ζ. Read More

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December 2018

Seasonal Viral Influenza Among Persons with Primary Antibody Immunodeficiency.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Medical Advisory Committee Member, Immune Deficiency Foundation, Towson, MD.

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December 2018
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Understanding barriers to effective management of influenza outbreaks by residential aged care facilities.

Australas J Ageing 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Sydney Local Health District, Public Health Unit, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Objective: To identify the perceived barriers to the implementation of the Australian national guidelines on influenza outbreak management with Sydney Local Health District (SLHD) residential aged care facility (RACF) staff.

Methods: All SLHD RACFs were invited to participate in a telephone interview. The questionnaire collected information about demographic characteristics and participants' level of agreement with statements regarding perceived barriers to implementing the national guidelines for influenza outbreak management. Read More

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December 2018

Sialyl-LacNAc-PNA∙DNA concatamers by rolling circle amplification as multivalent inhibitors for Influenza A virus particles.

Chembiochem 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Institut ür Chemie, Brook-Taylor-Str. 2, 12489, Berlin, GERMANY.

The surface of influenza A virus (IAV) particles is packed with hundreds of homo-trimeric hemagglutinins (HA). Monovalent sugars have low affinity but distance optimized bi- or trivalent sialyl-LacNAc (SLN) conjugates bind HA with 10³─10⁴-fold enhanced potency. Herein we describe the oligomerization of distance-optimized bivalent binders by branched and linear hybridization on long repetitive DNA templates. Read More

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December 2018

Antibody levels in a cohort of pregnant women after the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic: waning and association with self-reported severity and duration of illness.

Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Division of Infection Control and Environmental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, 0213, Oslo, Norway.

Background: A population-based pregnancy cohort was established in Norway to study potential effects of exposure to the 2009 influenza pandemic or pandemic vaccination during pregnancy.

Objectives: We studied maternal A(H1N1)pdm09-specific hemagglutination inhibition (HI)-titer levels and waning in women with influenza-like illness (ILI) in pregnancy compared to vaccinated women. Moreover, we studied the association between HI-titers and self-reported severity and duration of ILI. Read More

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December 2018

Synthesis and biological evaluation of substituted indole and its analogs as influenza A virus inhibitors.

Chem Biodivers 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

: Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, China, CHINA.

Influenza A virus (IAV), a highly pathogenic virus to human beings, is most susceptible to mutation and thus causes rapid, severe global pandemics resulting in millions of fatalities worldwide. Since resistance to the existing anti-influenza drugs is developing, innovative inhibitors with a different mode of action are urgently needed. The lead compound 6092B-E5 has proven to be an effective antiviral reagent in our previous work. Read More

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December 2018

Neonatal influenza-specific effector CTLs retain elevated CD31 levels at the site of infection and have decreased IFN-γ production.

J Leukoc Biol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Microbiology and Immunology, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

The underlying mechanisms that regulate neonatal immune suppression are poorly characterized. CD31 (PECAM1) is highly expressed on neonatal lymphocytes and is a known modulator of TCR signaling. To further characterize the role of CD31 in the neonatal CTL response, 3-d and 7-d-old murine neonates were infected with influenza virus and compared to adults. Read More

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December 2018

Antibodies to vaccine antigens in pooled polyclonal human IgG products.

Authors:
Melvin Berger

Transfusion 2018 Dec;58 Suppl 3:3096-3105

Global Medical Affairs, CSL Behring, LLC, King of Prussia, Pennsylvania.

Immune-deficient patients depend on the antibodies in pooled human immunoglobulin G (IgG) preparations to remain free from serious infections. The potency of IgG preparations is therefore an ongoing concern. The use of pooled IgG to prevent infection is based on the concept that healthy adults have recovered from infections earlier in life and maintain relatively high antibody titers. Read More

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December 2018
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