98,853 results match your criteria Influenza


Combined use of live-attenuated and inactivated influenza vaccines to enhance heterosubtypic protection.

Virology 2018 Sep 21;525:73-82. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Centre of Influenza Research, School of Public Health, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China. Electronic address:

The limited protection of current commerical vaccines necessitates the investigation of novel vaccine strategies for unpredictable outbreaks. To investigate the feasibility of using vaccines derived from Group 1 influenza A virus to induce broadly cross-reactive immune responses against multiple influenza subtypes, we tested a panel of sequential 4-dose immunization regimens in mice. Mice were treated with inactivated (seasonal H1N1, pandemic H1N1 and H5N1) and vaccinia virus-based H5N1 live-attenuated vaccines in different combinations. Read More

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September 2018

A family cluster of two fatal cases infected with influenza A (H7N9) virus in Kunming China, 2017.

Infect Genet Evol 2018 Sep 21. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Kunming National High-level Biosafety Research Center, Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Institute of Medical Biology, China.

Two imported family cases (mother and daughter) of fatal H7N9 infection in Kunming, China were reported in 2017. Epidemiological investigation showed that the two family members had both been exposed to sick chickens in a poultry market. The onset of illness and death of the mother was 7 days later than her daughter, raising concerns about human-to-human transmission of H7N9 in the locality. Read More

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September 2018

Influenza virus replication raises the temperature of cells.

Virus Res 2018 Sep 21. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Department of Frontier Bioscience, Hosei University, Koganei, Tokyo, 184-8584, Japan; Research Center of Phamacy, Nihon University, Narashino-dai, Chiba, 274-0005, Japan. Electronic address:

Influenza virus invades the cell by binding sialic acid on the cell membrane through haemagglutinin (HA), and then genome replication and transcription are carried out in the nucleus to produce progeny virus. Multiplication of influenza virus requires metabolites, such as nucleotides and amino acids, as well as cellular machinery to synthesize its genome and proteins, thereby producing viral particles. Influenza virus infection forces the start of several metabolic systems in the cell, which consume or generate large amounts of energy. Read More

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September 2018

Lethal influenza A virus preferentially activates TLR3 and triggers a severe inflammatory response.

Virus Res 2018 Sep 21. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Key Laboratory of Animal Epidemiology of Ministry of Agriculture, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing, PR China. Electronic address:

The "cytokine storm" and excessive inflammation triggered by lethal avian influenza virus (IAV) are responsible for its high virulence and mortality. However, the molecular mechanism behind these effects is unclear. In this study, we used LA795 cells and a mouse model to assess the crucial role of TLR3 during infection with lethal avian influenza A virus and subsequent inflammation. Read More

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September 2018

An SEIR model of influenza A virus infection and reinfection within a farrow-to-finish swine farm.

PLoS One 2018 24;13(9):e0202493. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 Canada.

Influenza A virus (IAV) in swine is a pathogen that causes a threat to the health as well as to the production of swine. Moreover, swine can spread this virus to other species including humans. The virus persists in different types of swine farms as evident in a number of studies. Read More

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September 2018

Influenza A-Associated Epiglottitis and Compensatory Pursed Lip Breathing in an Infant.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2018 Sep 21. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Baylor College of Medicine.

The last 3 decades have seen a shift in the epidemiology of epiglottitis. Epiglottitis was once most commonly associated with Haemophilus influenzae type B. However, with the implementation of the H. Read More

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September 2018
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ACOG Committee Opinion No. 753: Assessment and Treatment of Pregnant Women With Suspected or Confirmed Influenza.

Authors:

Obstet Gynecol 2018 Oct;132(4):e169-e173

Pregnant and postpartum women are at high risk of serious complications of seasonal and pandemic influenza infection. Pregnancy itself is a high-risk condition, making the potential adverse effects of influenza particularly serious in pregnant women. If a pregnant woman has other underlying health conditions, the risk of adverse effects from influenza is even greater. Read More

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October 2018

ACOG Committee Opinion No. 753 Summary: Assessment and Treatment of Pregnant Women With Suspected or Confirmed Influenza.

Authors:

Obstet Gynecol 2018 Oct;132(4):1077-1079

Pregnant and postpartum women are at high risk of serious complications of seasonal and pandemic influenza infection. Pregnancy itself is a high-risk condition, making the potential adverse effects of influenza particularly serious in pregnant women. If a pregnant woman has other underlying health conditions, the risk of adverse effects from influenza is even greater. Read More

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October 2018

Clinical, radiological and prognostic features of influenza cases in the influenza epidemic during years 2016-2017.

Tuberk Toraks 2018 Jun;66(2):144-149

Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Hitit University, Corum, Turkey.

Introduction: Influenza subtypes vary by clinical, radiological, and prognostic courses and may go along with viral pneumonia. We aimed to identify clinical, radiological, and prognostic aspects of influenza epidemic during years 2016-2017.

Materials And Methods: Influenza cases reported to the Public Health Directorate in our city was assessed retrospectively. Read More

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Cross-Protective Efficacy of Monovalent Live Influenza B Vaccines against Genetically Different Lineages of B/Victoria and B/Yamagata in Ferrets.

Biomed Res Int 2018 30;2018:9695628. Epub 2018 Aug 30.

Institute of Experimental Medicine, St Petersburg, Russia.

Background: Currently, two genetic lineages of influenza B virus, B/Victoria and B/Yamagata, are cocirculating in humans in various countries. This situation has raised a question regarding the possibility of cross-protection between B components of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) belonging to different lineages. This study aimed to assess in naïve ferrets the potential protective activity of monovalent B-LAIVs against challenge with homologous and heterologous wild-type (WT) influenza B viruses. Read More

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: A New Way to Assess the Quality of Healthcare by Examining Causes of Premature Death for Which Highly Efficacious Medical Interventions Are Available.

Biomed Res Int 2018 2;2018:5456074. Epub 2018 Sep 2.

Health Inequalities Research Group-Employment Conditions Network (GREDS-EMCONET), Department of Political and Social Sciences, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Amenable mortality, or premature deaths that could be prevented with medical care, is a proven indicator for assessing healthcare quality when adapted to a country or region's specific healthcare context. This concept is currently used to evaluate the performance of national and international healthcare systems. However, the levels of efficacy and effectiveness determined using this indicator can vary greatly depending on the causes of death that are included. Read More

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September 2018
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The 2015 Outbreak of Severe Influenza in Kashmir, North India: Emergence of a New Clade of A/H1n1 Influenza Virus.

PLoS Curr 2018 Aug 8;10. Epub 2018 Aug 8.

National Institute of Virology, Pune, India.

Introduction: Following the initial outbreak of A/H1N1pdm09, periodic resurgences of the virus, with variable morbidity and mortality, have been reported from various parts of India including the temperate Kashmir region of northern India. An outbreak of A/H1N1 was reported in early 2015 across India with a high morbidity and mortality. We studied patients during the outbreak in Kashmir. Read More

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A Fatal Case of Influenza B Myocarditis with Cardiac Tamponade.

Case Rep Crit Care 2018 30;2018:8026314. Epub 2018 Aug 30.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.

Background: Influenza B is generally regarded as a less severe counterpart to influenza A, typically causing mild upper respiratory symptoms. Myocardial involvement with influenza B is a rare complication, better described in children than adults. However, when it occurs, it can lead to profound myocarditis with progression to shock requiring aggressive supportive care. Read More

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Erratum: Publisher Correction: Augmented CD4 T-cell and humoral responses after repeated annual influenza vaccination with the same vaccine component A/H1N1pdm09 over 5 years.

NPJ Vaccines 2018 11;3:45. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

1The Influenza Centre, Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/s41541-018-0069-1.]. Read More

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September 2018

Mathematical Analysis of Influenza A Dynamics in the Emergence of Drug Resistance.

Comput Math Methods Med 2018 29;2018:2434560. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Strathmore University, P.O. Box 59857-00200, Nairobi, Kenya.

Every year, influenza causes high morbidity and mortality especially among the immunocompromised persons worldwide. The emergence of drug resistance has been a major challenge in curbing the spread of influenza. In this paper, a mathematical model is formulated and used to analyze the transmission dynamics of influenza A virus having incorporated the aspect of drug resistance. Read More

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Influenza Virus-Host Co-evolution. A Predator-Prey Relationship?

Front Immunol 2018 7;9:2017. Epub 2018 Sep 7.

Medical School, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.

Influenza virus continues to cause yearly seasonal epidemics worldwide and periodically pandemics. Although influenza virus infection and its epidemiology have been extensively studied, a new pandemic is likely. One of the reasons influenza virus causes epidemics is its ability to constantly antigenically transform through genetic diversification. Read More

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September 2018

Correction to: Blocking of opioid receptors in experimental formaline-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (FI-RSV) immunopathogenesis: from beneficial to harmful impacts.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 Sep 22. Epub 2018 Sep 22.

Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

In the original publication, seventh author's name was incorrectly published as 'Maryam Golaram'. Read More

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September 2018

Numerical analysis of Steele et al. (2018): "Cause of Cambrian explosion - Terrestrial or Cosmic?"

Prog Biophys Mol Biol 2018 Sep 20. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

22Parklands Boulevard, Little Mountain, Queensland, 4551, Australia. Electronic address:

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September 2018

Estimates of the global, regional, and national morbidity, mortality, and aetiologies of lower respiratory infections in 195 countries, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016.

Authors:

Lancet Infect Dis 2018 Sep 19. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Background: Lower respiratory infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) Study 2016, provides an up-to-date analysis of the burden of lower respiratory infections in 195 countries. This study assesses cases, deaths, and aetiologies spanning the past 26 years and shows how the burden of lower respiratory infection has changed in people of all ages. Read More

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September 2018

Gene expression profiling toward the next generation safety control of influenza vaccines and adjuvants in Japan.

Vaccine 2018 Sep 19. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Department of Safety Research on Blood and Biological Products, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 4-7-1 Gakuen, Musashimurayama, Tokyo 208-0011, Japan. Electronic address:

Influenza becomes epidemic worldwide every year, and many individuals receive vaccination annually. Quality control relating to safety and potency of influenza vaccines is important to maintain public confidence. The safety of influenza vaccines has been assessed by clinical trials, and animal safety tests are performed to monitor the consistent quality between vaccines used for clinical trials and marketing; the biological responses in vaccinated animals are evaluated, including changes in body weight and white blood cell count. Read More

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September 2018
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Should Genetic Testing for Variants Associated with Influenza Infection Be Mandatory for Health Care Employees?

AMA J Ethics 2018 Sep 1;20(9):E819-825. Epub 2018 Sep 1.

A pediatrician and attorney with training in bioethics and health services research and a member of the faculty at the Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics in Baltimore.

Scientists are beginning to understand more about the role of host genetics in individuals' responses to influenza virus exposure. This fictional case addresses a situation in which a health care organization proposes requiring all health care practitioners with direct patient care responsibilities to undergo mandatory genetic testing for genetic variants used to (1) predict individuals' responses to the influenza vaccine, (2) determine individual susceptibility to influenza infection, and (3) identify individuals at increased risk for severe disease. This commentary will discuss ethical and legal issues associated with use of genetic test results to determine employee work assignments during an influenza pandemic. Read More

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September 2018

A naturally protective epitope of limited variability as an influenza vaccine target.

Nat Commun 2018 Sep 21;9(1):3859. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3PS, UK.

Current antigenic targets for influenza vaccine development are either highly immunogenic epitopes of high variability or conserved epitopes of low immunogenicity. This requires continuous update of the variable epitopes in the vaccine formulation or boosting of immunity to invariant epitopes of low natural efficacy. Here we identify a highly immunogenic epitope of limited variability in the head domain of the H1 haemagglutinin protein. Read More

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September 2018
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High genetic stability in MDCK-SIAT1 passaged human influenza viruses.

J Infect Chemother 2018 Sep 18. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

Japan Physicians Association, Influenza Study Group, Tokyo, Japan.

MDCK-induced amino acid (AA) mutation, such as D151G/N in the neuraminidase (NA) of influenza A/H3N2 viruses, is of concern. MDCK-SIAT1 cells, modified derivatives with an increased expression of α2,6-linked sialic acid receptors are increasingly used due to their superiority in a viral recovery. However, MDCK-SIAT1 induced AA mutations have not been fully examined. Read More

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September 2018

Maternal antibody inhibition of recombinant Newcastle disease virus vectored vaccine in a primary or booster avian influenza vaccination program of broiler chickens.

Vaccine 2018 Sep 18. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

Exotic and Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Research Unit, Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, U.S. National Poultry Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 934 College Station Rd, 30605 Athens, GA, USA. Electronic address:

Maternally-derived antibodies (MDA) provide early protection from disease, but may interfere with active immunity in young chicks. In highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV)-enzootic countries, broiler chickens typically have MDA to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and H5 HPAIV, and their impact on active immunity from recombinant vectored vaccines is unclear. We assessed the effectiveness of a spray-applied recombinant NDV vaccine with H5 AIV insert (rNDV-H5) and a recombinant turkey herpesvirus (HVT) vaccine with H5 AIV insert (rHVT-H5) in commercial broilers with MDA to NDV alone (MDA:AIVNDV) or to NDV plus AIV (MDA:AIVNDV) to provide protection against homologous HPAIV challenge. Read More

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September 2018
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Development of a sensitive and specific xMAP assay for detection of antibodies against infectious laryngotracheitis and bronchitis viruses.

Virol J 2018 Sep 21;15(1):146. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Guangdong Laboratory Animals Monitoring Institute and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Laboratory Animals, Guangzhou, 510640, China.

Background: A serological method to simultaneously detect antibodies against infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is imperative for the differential diagnosis and evaluation of antibodies titers after vaccination.

Method: The microspheres coated with purified recombinant glycoprotein D (gD) of ILTV or nucleocapsid (N) protein of IBV were incubated with serum samples. The simultaneous quantification of ILTV and IBV antibodies were achieved through the interrogation of microspheres by Luminex 200 detection system. Read More

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September 2018

The Pregnancy and Influenza Multinational Epidemiologic (PRIME) study: a prospective cohort study of the impact of influenza during pregnancy among women in middle-income countries.

Reprod Health 2018 Sep 21;15(1):159. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Influenza Division, United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd MS A-32, Atlanta, GA, 30329, USA.

Background: The World Health Organization identifies pregnant women as at high-risk for severe influenza, but influenza vaccines are underutilized among pregnant women. Data on influenza burden during pregnancy are largely limited to high-income countries and data on the impact of influenza on birth and perinatal outcomes are scarce.

Methods/design: This prospective, longitudinal cohort study of pregnant women in middle-income countries is designed to address three primary objectives: 1) to evaluate the effect of laboratory-confirmed influenza during pregnancy on pregnancy and perinatal outcomes; 2) to estimate the incidences of all-cause acute respiratory illness and laboratory-confirmed influenza during pregnancy; and 3) to examine the clinical spectrum of illness associated with influenza viruses. Read More

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September 2018

Human Coronavirus Infections in Israel: Epidemiology, Clinical Symptoms and Summer Seasonality of HCoV-HKU1.

Viruses 2018 Sep 21;10(10). Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Central Virology Laboratory, Ministry of Health, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, P.O.B. 5265601, Ramat-Gan 5290002, Israel.

Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) cause mild to severe respiratory diseases. Six types of HCoVs have been discovered, the most recent one termed the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). The aim of this study is to monitor the circulation of HCoV types in the population during 2015⁻2016 in Israel. Read More

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September 2018

Virus-Like Particles Are a Superior Platform for Presenting M2e Epitopes to Prime Humoral and Cellular Immunity against Influenza Virus.

Vaccines (Basel) 2018 Sep 20;6(4). Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA.

Influenza virus M2 protein has a highly conserved ectodomain (M2e) as a cross-protective antigenic target. We investigated the antigenic and immunogenic properties of tandem repeat M2e (5xM2e) proteins and virus-like particles (5xM2e VLP) to better understand how VLP and protein platform vaccines induce innate and protective adaptive immune responses. Despite the high antigenic properties of 5xM2e proteins, the 5xM2e VLP was superior to 5xM2e proteins in inducing IgG2a isotype antibodies, T cell responses, plasma cells and germinal center B cells as well as in conferring cross protection. Read More

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September 2018

CDC25B promotes influenza A virus replication by regulating the phosphorylation of nucleoprotein.

Virology 2018 Sep 18;525:40-47. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

Cell division cycle 25 B (CDC25B) is a member of the CDC25 phosphatase family. It can dephosphorylate cyclin-dependent kinases and regulate the cell division cycle. Moreover, siRNA knockdown of CDC25B impairs influenza A virus (IAV) replication. Read More

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September 2018

Trans-maternal Helicobacter pylori exposure reduces allergic airway inflammation in offspring through regulatory T-cells.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2018 Sep 18. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

Institute of Molecular Cancer Research, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Background: The trans-maternal exposure to tobacco, microbes, nutrients and other environmental factors shapes the fetal immune system through epigenetic processes. The gastric microbe Helicobacter pylori represents an ancestral constituent of the human microbiota that causes gastric disorders on the one hand, and is inversely associated with allergies and chronic inflammatory conditions on the other.

Objective: Here, we investigate the consequences of trans-maternal exposure to H. Read More

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September 2018

Spatial transmission of H5N2 highly pathogenic avian influenza between Minnesota poultry premises during the 2015 outbreak.

PLoS One 2018 21;13(9):e0204262. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Secure Food Systems Team, Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, Minnesota, United States of America.

The spatial spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N2 during the 2015 outbreak in the U.S. state of Minnesota was analyzed through the estimation of a spatial transmission kernel, which quantifies the infection hazard an infectious premises poses to an uninfected premises some given distance away. Read More

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September 2018

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy triggered by influenza B.

Pol Merkur Lekarski 2018 Aug;45(266):67-70

Józef Struś Hospital, Poznań, Poland: Department of Infectious Diseases; Poznań University of Medical Sciences, Poland: Department of Infectious Diseases.

Influenza is associated with a high prevalence of cardiac complications, including myocarditis and exacerbation of ischemic heart disease or heart failure (HF). However, only four cases of stress-induced takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC), all of them triggered by virus A influenza, have been reported so far. Another two TC cases after anti-influenza vaccination are also available in the literature. Read More

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August 2018
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[Cistus - queen of teas].

Pol Merkur Lekarski 2018 Aug;45(266):53-56

Students of Medical Faculty.

The aim of our article is to present a healthy qualities of Cistus. Cistus is plant belonging to the Cistaceae has strong health-promoting properties through its antioxidant, immunomodulatory, bacteriostatic and antifungal activities. Cistus has an inhibitory effect on the multiplication of viruses, which can be used to treat cold and influenza. Read More

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Pro-viral miRNAs detected in BALF extracellular vesicles of patients with influenza virus-induced ARDS.

J Infect Dis 2018 Sep 15. Epub 2018 Sep 15.

Institute for Lung Research, Universities of Giessen and Marburg Lung Center, Philipps-University Marburg, Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Marburg, Germany.

Influenza A virus (IAV) causes severe respiratory infections and alveolar epithelial damage resulting in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Extracellular vesicles (EV) have been shown to mediate cellular crosstalk in inflammation by transfer of microRNAs. In this study, we found significant changes in the miRNA composition of EVs in the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from patients with IAV-induced ARDS. Read More

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September 2018

Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Impact on Pandemic H1N1 Vaccine Efficacy.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 Sep 20. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Military Population Health Directorate, Deployment Health Department, Naval Health Research Center, San Diego, California.

Background: In 2009, a novel influenza A (pH1N1) was identified, resulting in a pandemic with significant morbidity and mortality. A monovalent pH1N1 vaccine was separately produced in addition to the seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine. Formulation of the seasonal influenza vaccine (injectable trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine [TIV] vs. Read More

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September 2018

Clinical effectiveness of influenza vaccination after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: A cross-sectional prospective observational study.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 Sep 15. Epub 2018 Sep 15.

Microbiology Department, Hospital Clínico Universitario, Institute for Research INCLIVA, Valencia, Spain.

Background: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell recipients (allo-HSCT) are at high risk for morbidity and mortality from influenza respiratory virus infection (RVI). Vaccination is the primary method for preventing influenza RVI. Although the influenza vaccine is able to achieve serological response in some allo-HSCT recipients, its clinical benefit is still uncertain. Read More

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September 2018

Development and evaluation of a multiplex reverse-transcription real-time PCR assay for detection of equine respiratory disease viruses.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2018 Sep 21:1040638718799388. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Departments of Virology (Ghoniem) and Biotechnology (Aggour), Animal Health Research Institute, Dokki, Egypt.

We developed a multiplex reverse-transcription real-time PCR (RT-rtPCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of the main equine respiratory viruses: equid alphaherpesviruses 1 and 4 (EHV-1, -4) and equine influenza virus (EIV; species Influenza A virus). The primers and probes amplified only the targeted viruses, and there were no inter-assay cross-amplifications or nonspecific interactions. The multiplex assay efficiencies were 92. Read More

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September 2018
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Influenza vaccination and the 'diversity paradox'.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018 Sep 21:1-5. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

a Department of Zoology , University of Oxford , Oxford , UK.

The antigenic evolution of influenza is widely assumed to occur by antigenic drift, in which strains incrementally acquire mutations in highly variable epitopes under strong immune selective pressure, such as those in the major influenza antigen haemagglutinin. However, this is not easy to reconcile with epidemiological observations, which show that each influenza season is dominated by a limited number of strains. Here, we discuss this paradox in light of recent influenza epidemics that have been characterised by low vaccine effectiveness and dominated by strains of limited antigenic and genetic diversity. Read More

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September 2018

New NMR Avenues to Characterize the Interactions of Extended N-glycans with Proteins: The Influenza Hemagglutinin Case.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2018 Sep 20. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

SPAIN.

Long chain multiantenna N-glycans are extremely complex molecules from the structural perspective. Their inherent flexibility and the presence of repetitions of monosaccharide units in similar chemical environments hamper their full characterization by X-ray diffraction or standard NMR methodologies. Therefore, the exploration of their interaction properties in solution, especially with regard to branch specificity and molecular recognition features, remains a challenge. Read More

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September 2018

A HRP-labeled lateral flow immunoassay for rapid simultaneous detection and differentiation of influenza A and B viruses.

J Med Virol 2018 Sep 20. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccine and Molecular Diagnostics, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.

Rapid and sensitive diagnosis of influenza is urgently needed to address the limitations of low sensitivity associated with current rapid tests available for clinics and on-site monitoring. A novel horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled lateral flow immunoassay strip (HRP-LFIA) for rapid simultaneous detection and differentiation of influenza A (INF A) and influenza B (INF B) viruses was developed. This immunoassay was based on the signal amplification by the HRP-catalyzed oxidation of 3, 3,' 5, 5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) forming colored insoluble product which was proportional to the analyte concentration. Read More

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September 2018

Birth and death of Mx genes and the presence/absence of genes regulating Mx transcription are correlated with the diversity of anti-pathogenicity in vertebrate species.

Mol Genet Genomics 2018 Sep 20. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Key Laboratory of Genomics and Precision Medicine, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, NO. 1 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100101, People's Republic of China.

Gene duplication and amino acid substitution are two types of genetic innovations of antiviral genes in inhibiting the emerging pathogens in different species. Mx proteins are well known for inhibiting negative-stranded RNA viruses and have evolved a number of paralogs or orthologs, showing distinct antiviral activities or capacities within or between species. The presence of upstream genes in the signaling pathway(s) that activates Mx genes (upstream regulators of Mx gene) also exhibits variety across species. Read More

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September 2018

Genetic variations of the Hemagglutinin gene of Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) viruses in Assam, India during 2016.

3 Biotech 2018 Oct 14;8(10):408. Epub 2018 Sep 14.

Regional Medical Research Centre, ICMR, N.E. Region, Post Box 105, Dibrugarh, Assam 786001 India.

Since its emergence in 2009, Influenza A/H1N1pdm09 virus has evolved continuously. Marked genetic variations have occurred in the HA1 domain of the hemagglutinin gene causing the emergence of new variants. The present study genetically characterized the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of Influenza A/H1N1pdm09 strains from Assam circulating in 2016 that caused a mild outbreak without any reported mortality. Read More

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October 2018

Molecular surveillance of respiratory viruses with bioaerosol sampling in an airport.

Trop Dis Travel Med Vaccines 2018 17;4:11. Epub 2018 Sep 17.

1Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, 310 Trent Drive, Durham, North Carolina 27710 USA.

Recognizing that crowded, high-traffic airports and airplanes have been implicated in respiratory disease transmission, we partnered with administrators of Raleigh Durham International Airport (RDU) in conducting a pilot study of aerosol surveillance for respiratory viruses at RDU. From January to March 2018 we used NIOSH 2-stage samplers to collect 150 min aerosol samples in crowded areas at RDU. Four (17%) of the 24 samples were positive for known respiratory pathogens including influenza D virus and adenovirus. Read More

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September 2018

Transient elevation of squamous cell carcinoma antigen levels with influenza virus infection.

Authors:
Atsushi Sano

Respirol Case Rep 2018 Nov 14;6(8):e00362. Epub 2018 Sep 14.

Department of Thoracic Surgery Chigasaki Municipal Hospital Japan.

We report a case of squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) elevation due to influenza B infection. A 78-year-old male had undergone right middle lobectomy and lymphadenectomy for lung squamous cell carcinoma two years and four months previously. His SCCA level ranged from 0. Read More

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November 2018

Pharmacists as immunizers, their pharmacies and immunization services: A survey of Ontario community pharmacists.

Can Pharm J (Ott) 2018 Jul-Aug;151(4):263-273. Epub 2018 Jun 4.

School of Pharmacy (Alsabbah, Wenger, Church, Waite), University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario.

Background: To improve patient access to the influenza vaccine in Ontario, pharmacists have been authorized to administer the vaccine since 2012. A survey was conducted to describe pharmacist immunizers, their pharmacies and immunization services.

Methods: Ontario community pharmacists completed an anonymous online survey regarding influenza immunization. Read More

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A Comprehensive Review on Equine Influenza Virus: Etiology, Epidemiology, Pathobiology, Advances in Developing Diagnostics, Vaccines, and Control Strategies.

Front Microbiol 2018 6;9:1941. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

Division of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Swiss Institute for Equine Medicine (ISME), Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern and Agroscope, Bern, Switzerland.

Among all the emerging and re-emerging animal diseases, influenza group is the prototype member associated with severe respiratory infections in wide host species. Wherein, Equine influenza (EI) is the main cause of respiratory illness in equines across globe and is caused by equine influenza A virus (EIV-A) which has impacted the equine industry internationally due to high morbidity and marginal morality. The virus transmits easily by direct contact and inhalation making its spread global and leaving only limited areas untouched. Read More

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September 2018

Comparison the pathogen diagnosis of severe pneumonia by using next generation sequencing and traditional detection methods, China, 2010-2018.

J Infect 2018 Sep 17. Epub 2018 Sep 17.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, No. 650 New Songjiang Road, Songjiang, Shanghai, 201600, China.

Severe pneumonia is one of the most common infectious diseases and can be fatal. The benefits of early pathogen diagnosis in intensive care units are known, but the association between early pathogen diagnosis by next-generation sequencing (NGS) and in-hospital mortality of patients with severe pneumonia has rarely been studied. The study aims to explore the association between early pathogen diagnosis by NGS and the mortality of patients with severe pneumonia admitted to intensive care units, effects of early pathogen diagnosis on ICU and hospital lengths of stay, and other clinical outcome. Read More

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September 2018
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Evolutionary pathway for the 2017 emergence of a novel highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) virus among domestic poultry in Tennessee, United States.

Virology 2018 Sep 17;525:32-39. Epub 2018 Sep 17.

Department of Basic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, MS 39762, USA. Electronic address:

In March 2017, a novel highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) virus was detected at two commercial broiler breeder facilities in Tennessee, United States. In this study, a wild bird low pathogenic avian influenza A virus, A/blue-winged teal/Wyoming/AH0099021/2016(H7N9), was shown to be the probable precursor of the novel H7N9 virus; this low pathogenic virus has eight possible progenitor genes sharing > 99% sequence identity with the novel H7N9 virus. Phylogeographic analyses showed that viral gene constellations that formed and circulated among dabbling ducks contributed to the emergence of the novel H7N9 virus. Read More

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September 2018
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Potent suppression of HIV-1 cell attachment by Kudzu root extract.

Retrovirology 2018 Sep 20;15(1):64. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Department of Immunology and Microbiology, The Scripps Research Institute, 130 Scripps Way, 3C1, Jupiter, FL, 33458, USA.

There is a constant need to improve antiretrovirals against HIV since therapy is limited by cost, side effects and the emergence of drug resistance. Kudzu is a climbing vine from which the root extract (Pueraria lobata), rich in isoflavones and saponins, has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine for a variety of purposes, from weight loss to alcoholism prevention. Here we show that Kudzu root extract significantly inhibits HIV-1 entry into cell lines, primary human CD4T lymphocytes and macrophages, without cell-associated toxicity. Read More

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September 2018
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Attitudes and barriers associated with seasonal influenza vaccination uptake among public health students; a cross-sectional study.

BMC Public Health 2018 Sep 20;18(1):1131. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Department of Health Sciences, California State University, Northridge, 18111 Nordhoff St., Northridge, CA, 91330, USA.

Background: Although research has explored influenza vaccination uptake among medical and college students, there is a dearth of research in understanding influenza vaccination uptake and attitudes toward the vaccine among future public health practitioners. Undergraduate public health students represent future public health practitioners who may be a significant educational resource for health information, including the importance of vaccinations.

Methods: This cross-sectional study utilized survey data from 158 undergraduate public health students attending a large public university in Southern California. Read More

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September 2018