121,807 results match your criteria Influenza


Myxovirus resistance protein A for discriminating between viral and bacterial lower respiratory tract infections in children - The TREND study.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Pediatric Emergency Unit, Sachs' Children and Youth Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Objective: Discriminating between viral and bacterial lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in children is challenging, leading to an excessive use of antibiotics. Myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) is a promising biomarker for viral infections. The primary aim of the study was to assess differences in blood MxA levels between children with viral and bacterial LRTI. Read More

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Comparative evaluation of flavonoids reveals the superiority and promising inhibition activity of silibinin against SARS-CoV-2.

Phytother Res 2022 May 21. Epub 2022 May 21.

Research Institute for Medical and Health Sciences, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

Flavonoids are phenolic compounds naturally found in plants and commonly consumed in diets. Herein, flavonoids were sequentially evaluated by a comparative in silico study associated with systematic literature search. This was followed by an in vitro study and enzyme inhibition assays against vital SARS-CoV-2 proteins including spike (S) protein, main protease (M ), RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp), and human transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSS2). Read More

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ILDR1 promotes influenza A virus replication through binding to PLSCR1.

Sci Rep 2022 May 20;12(1):8515. Epub 2022 May 20.

Institute of Poultry Science, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Science, Shandong Provincial Animal and Poultry Green Health Products Creation Engineering Laboratory, Jinan, 250100, Shandong, China.

As a natural antiviral regulator, phospholipid scramblase 1 (PLSCR1) has been shown to inhibit influenza virus replication in infected cells through interacting with NP of influenza A virus (IAV). But its antiviral function as well as the underlying regulatory mechanism has not been examined in vivo. In the present work, we show that PLSCR1 expression is decreased in H1N1 SIV-infected mice, and Plscr1 mice are more susceptible to H1N1 SIV infection. Read More

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Parental socioeconomic and psychological determinants of the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) vaccine uptake in children.

Vaccine 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Turku University Hospital and University of Turku, Turku, Finland. Electronic address:

Background: Before COVID-19, the previous pandemic was caused by influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in 2009. Identification of factors behind parental decisions to have their child vaccinated against pandemic influenza could be helpful in planning of other pandemic vaccination programmes. We investigated the association of parental socioeconomic and psychosocial factors with uptake of the pandemic influenza vaccine in children in 2009-2010. Read More

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AZI2 positively regulates the induction of type I interferon in influenza-trigger pediatric pneumonia.

Pathog Dis 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Pediatrics, Zibo Central Hospital, NO.54 Gongqingtuan West Road, Zibo 255036, Shandong, China.

5-azacytidine-induced protein 2 (AZI2) is known to have a crucial role in antiviral innate immunity. This study aims to explore the roles of AZI2 in influenza-trigger pediatric pneumonia and its molecular mechanism. qPCR and immunoblotting assays were used to determine the levels of target genes and proteins. Read More

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The paradox of immune checkpoint inhibition reactivating tuberculosis.

Eur Respir J 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Africa Health Research Institute, Durban, South Africa.

By attenuating T cell activation, immune checkpoints (ICs) limit optimal anti-tumor responses, and immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) has emerged as a new therapy for a broad range of cancers. T cell responses are indispensable to TB immunity in humans. However, boosting T cell immunity in cancer patients by blocking the PD-1/PDL-1 axis can trigger reactivation of latent tuberculosis (TB). Read More

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Generation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against the hemagglutinin of H3N2 influenza A viruses.

Virus Res 2022 May 17:198815. Epub 2022 May 17.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, and National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, the First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310003, China. Electronic address:

Seasonal influenza viruses are highly contagious, leading to 290,000-650,000 mortalities every year globally. Among the influenza viruses, influenza A virus (H3N2) has attracted much attention due to its high frequency of antigenic variations, resulting in poor protection by vaccination. We generated a panel of murine neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against A/Texas/50/2012 (H3N2) and identified the relevant epitopes that potentially influence the antigenicity by selecting mAb-resistant mutants. Read More

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Clinical and phylogenetic influenza dynamics for the 2019-20 season in the global influenza hospital surveillance network (GIHSN) - Pilot study.

J Clin Virol 2022 May 14;152:105184. Epub 2022 May 14.

Laboratoire de Virologie, Institut des Agents Infectieux (IAI), Hospices Civils de Lyon, 103 Grande Rue de la Croix-Rousse, Lyon 69317 CEDEX 04, France; Centre National de Référence des virus des infections respiratoires dont la grippe, Lyon, France. Electronic address:

Background: The Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network (GIHSN) has operated with the aim of investigating epidemiological and clinical factors related to severe influenza-related hospitalisations.

Study Design: A common GIHSN core protocol for prospective patient enrolment was implemented. Hospital personnel completed a standardized questionnaire regarding the included patients' medical history, compiled a hospitalisation summary, collected an upper respiratory swab sample for laboratory diagnosis, and genome sequencing was performed for a subset of samples. Read More

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Genuine lethal infection of a wood pigeon (Columba palumbus) with high pathogenicity avian influenza H5N1, clade 2.3.4.4b, in Germany, 2022.

Vet Microbiol 2022 May 13;270:109461. Epub 2022 May 13.

Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany. Electronic address:

Despite the increasing frequency of avian influenza (AI) cases in wild birds in Europe during the last decade, doves and pigeons were not recognized to be part of the AI epidemiology. Here we describe a natural, lethal HPAIV infection of subtype H5N1, clade 2.3. Read More

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Comparison of influenza and COVID-19-associated hospitalizations among children < 18 years old in the United States-FluSurv-NET (October-April 2017-2021) and COVID-NET (October 2020-September 2021).

Clin Infect Dis 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York, United States.

Background: Influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2 are significant causes of respiratory illness in children.

Methods: Influenza and COVID-19-associated hospitalizations among children <18 years old were analyzed from FluSurv-NET and COVID-NET, two population-based surveillance systems with similar catchment areas and methodology. The annual COVID-19-associated hospitalization rate per 100 000 during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic (October 1, 2020-September 30, 2021) was compared to influenza-associated hospitalization rates during the 2017-18 through 2019-20 influenza seasons. Read More

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Influenza chimeric hemagglutinin structures in complex with broadly protective antibodies to the stem and trimer interface.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2022 May 20;119(21):e2200821119. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037.

SignificanceSequential vaccination with chimeric hemagglutinins (cHAs) that contain the same stem, but different head domains, can direct the antibody immune response to the conserved stem region. Structural information on cHAs is limited to one example containing a group 1 stem. Here, X-ray and electron microscopy structures revealed that cHAs cH4/3 and cH15/3, which contain a group 2 stem, with broadly protective stem antibody 31. Read More

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Databases, Knowledgebases, and Software Tools for Virus Informatics.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2022 ;1368:1-19

Institutes for Systems Genetics, Frontiers Science Center for Disease-Related Molecular Network, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Virus infection is a common social health issue. In the past decades, serious virus infectious events have caused great loss in people's life and the economics. The nature of rapid widespread and frequent variation increases the difficulty for precision viral prevention and treatment. Read More

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January 2022

Commentary: Population attributable fraction of non-vaccination of child and adolescent vaccines attributed to parental vaccine hesitancy, 2018-2019.

Authors:
Abram L Wagner

Am J Epidemiol 2022 May 19. Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States.

Vaccine hesitancy - the delay or refusal of vaccines despite their availability - has been linked to lower vaccination rates and outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. Using cross-sectional surveys of 78,725 parents and other family members in the US, Nguyen et al. (Am J Epidemiol. Read More

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Surveillance of influenza B severe hospitalized cases during ten seasons in Catalonia. Does the lineage make a difference?

J Med Virol 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Introduction: Influenza B viruses circulates in two lineages (B/Victoria and B/Yamagata). Although classically affecting children, recently it has shown high rate of infection and increased hospitalization in the elderly.

Objective: To describe and analyze the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of severe hospitalized laboratory confirmed influenza B virus (SHLCI-B) cases in Catalonia associated to mismatch from Influenza B virus strain included in the trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV). Read More

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Respiratory viruses among pediatric inpatients with acute lower respiratory tract infections in Jinan, China, 2016-2019.

J Med Virol 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Shandong Provincial Hospital affiliated to Shandong First Medical University, Jinan, Shandong, PR China.

The viral etiologies responsible for acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI) are a major cause of pediatric hospitalization, and some develop severe diseases requiring pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of viruses and risk factors associated with PICU admission among patients hospitalized for ALRI. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected to detect human rhinovirus (HRV), influenza A and B viruses (IAV, IBV), parainfluenza viruses (PIV), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and adenovirus (ADV) by PCR. Read More

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Trends in Influenza Vaccination Rates in Participants With Airflow Limitation: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2018.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2022 3;9:870617. Epub 2022 May 3.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: Influenza vaccination is strongly recommended for people with chronic lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, to reduce risk of exacerbation. We assess the influenza vaccination rate and its related factors in participants with airflow limitation (AFL) using nationally representative data in Korea.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2018. Read More

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Upregulated influenza A viral entry factors and enhanced interferon-alpha response in the nasal epithelium of pregnant rats.

Heliyon 2022 May 11;8(5):e09407. Epub 2022 May 11.

Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Despite the increased severity of influenza A infection in pregnancy, knowledge about the expression of cell entry factors for influenza A virus (IAV) and the innate immune response in the nasal epithelium, the primary portal of viral entry, is limited. Here, we compared the expression of IAV cell entry factors and the status of the innate immune response in the nasal epithelium of pregnant . non-pregnant female rats. Read More

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Adult Vaccination as a Protective Factor for Dementia: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of Population-Based Observational Studies.

Front Immunol 2022 3;13:872542. Epub 2022 May 3.

Hengyang Medical School, University of South China, Hengyang, China.

Background: Common vaccinations may have impacts on dementia risk, but current evidence is inconsistent. We therefore investigated the association between vaccinations and dementia risk by systematic review and meta-analysis approach.

Methods: We conducted an extensive search of PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science to identify studies that compared the risk of dementia in vaccinated versus unvaccinated populations. Read More

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Immediate myeloid depot for SARS-CoV-2 in the human lung.

bioRxiv 2022 Apr 29. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

In the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, considerable focus has been placed on a model of viral entry into host epithelial populations, with a separate focus upon the responding immune system dysfunction that exacerbates or causes disease. We developed a precision-cut lung slice model to investigate very early host-viral pathogenesis and found that SARS-CoV-2 had a rapid and specific tropism for myeloid populations in the human lung. Infection of alveolar macrophages was partially dependent upon their expression of ACE2 and the infections were productive for amplifying virus, both findings which were in contrast with their neutralization of another pandemic virus, Influenza A virus (IAV). Read More

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Viral Inactivation and Biocompatibility Study of Electrically Activated Water Mist.

Microbiol Insights 2022 13;15:11786361221096651. Epub 2022 May 13.

ICMR-National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

In addition to the ongoing global problem of healthcare-acquired infections, the COVID-19 pandemic continues to pose a serious threat to the health of the global population. This unprecedented pandemic situation has reinforced the need for the development of technologies that can curb the transmission of viruses among human beings and help to control the infection. Existing disinfection techniques using either ultraviolet light or harsh chemicals pose safety risks and are not suitable for use in the presence of humans. Read More

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Importance of Influenza Anti-Hemagglutinin Antibodies During the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic in the 2019/2020 Epidemic Season in Poland.

Med Sci Monit 2022 May 20;28:e936495. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Influenza Research, National Influenza Center, National Institute of Public Health NIH - National Research Institute, Warsaw, Poland.

BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to determine the level of anti-hemagglutinin antibodies in the serum of recovered patients during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in the 2019/2020 epidemic season in Poland, and the course of COVID-19. MATERIAL AND METHODS The material for the study consisted of the sera of COVID-19 convalescents obtained from the following 9 Regional Blood Donation and Blood Supply Centers located in 8 voivodeships. The hemagglutination inhibition reaction assay (HAI) using 8 viral hemagglutination units was used to determine antibody levels, in accordance with WHO recommendations. Read More

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Effect of COVID-19 restrictions and border closures on vaccine preventable diseases in Victoria, Australia, 2020-2021.

Commun Dis Intell (2018) 2022 May 19;46. Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Health, Victoria, Australia.

Background: In 2020, Victoria introduced multiple interventions aimed at containing the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We examine the effect of these restrictions on other vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs).

Methods: We analysed the mandatory reporting data, notified to the Victorian Department of Health, for VPDs from January 2015 to December 2021. Read More

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Disease of influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2 coinfection: Flurona or Flucovid?

J Med Virol 2022 May 19. Epub 2022 May 19.

NHC Key Lab of Reproduction Regulation (Shanghai Institute for Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technologies), Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Recently, the new term Flurona has emerged to describe coinfection of influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2, causing flu and COVID-19, respectively . This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. Read More

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Effects of statins on the risks of ischemic stroke and heart disease in human immunodeficiency virus infection, influenza and severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus: respiratory virus infection with steroid use.

Postgrad Med 2022 May 19. Epub 2022 May 19.

Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.

Objectives: We sought to fill the research gap on the effects of statins on the risks of ischemic stroke and heart disease among individuals with human immunodeficiency virus infection, influenza, and severe acute respiratory syndrome associated-coronavirus (HIS) disorders.

Methods: We enrolled a HIS cohort treated with statins (n = 4921) and a HIS cohort not treated with statins (n = 4921). The cumulative incidence of ischemic stroke and heart disease was analyzed using a time-dependent Cox proportional regression analysis. Read More

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Nanodiamond conjugated SARS-CoV-2 spike protein: electrochemical impedance immunosensing on a gold microelectrode.

Mikrochim Acta 2022 May 20;189(6):226. Epub 2022 May 20.

Faculty of Chemical Engineering Technology, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), 02600, Arau, Perlis, Malaysia.

A promising immunosensing strategy in diagnosing SARS-CoV-2 is proposed using a 10-µm gap-sized gold interdigitated electrode (AuIDE) to target the surface spike protein (SP). The microelectrode surface was modified by (3-glycidyloxypropyl) trimethoxysilane to enforce the epoxy matrix, which facilitates the immobilization of the anti-SP antibody. The immunosensing performance was evaluated by integrating a nanosized (~ 10 nm) diamond-complexed SP as a target. Read More

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The 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Hemagglutinin Stalk Remained Antigenically Stable after Circulating in Humans for a Decade.

J Virol 2022 May 19:e0220021. Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Microbiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvaniagrid.25879.31, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

An H1N1 influenza virus caused a pandemic in 2009, and descendants of this virus continue to circulate seasonally in humans. Upon infection with the 2009 H1N1 pandemic strain (pH1N1), many humans produced antibodies against epitopes in the hemagglutinin (HA) stalk. HA stalk-focused antibody responses were common among pH1N1-infected individuals because HA stalk epitopes were conserved between the pH1N1 strain and previously circulating H1N1 strains. Read More

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Ecological divergence of wild birds drives avian influenza spillover and global spread.

PLoS Pathog 2022 May 19;18(5):e1010062. Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Infectious Disease and Global Health, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine Tufts University, North Grafton, Massachusetts, United States of America.

The diversity of influenza A viruses (IAV) is primarily hosted by two highly divergent avian orders: Anseriformes (ducks, swans and geese) and Charadriiformes (gulls, terns and shorebirds). Studies of IAV have historically focused on Anseriformes, specifically dabbling ducks, overlooking the diversity of hosts in nature, including gull and goose species that have successfully adapted to human habitats. This study sought to address this imbalance by characterizing spillover dynamics and global transmission patterns of IAV over 10 years at greater taxonomic resolution than previously considered. Read More

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Perspective: Role of Micronutrients and Omega-3 Long-chain polyunsaturated Fatty Acids for Immune Outcomes of Relevance to Infections in Older Adults - a Narrative Review and Call for Action.

Adv Nutr 2022 May 19. Epub 2022 May 19.

Nutritional Immunology Laboratory, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA.

The immune system is weakened by advancing age, often referred to as immunosenescence, increasing the vulnerability to, and frequently the severity of, infectious diseases in older people. This has become very apparent in the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic for which older people are at higher risk of severe outcomes, even those who are fully vaccinated. Aging affects both the innate and adaptive immune systems and is characterized by an imbalanced inflammatory response. Read More

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["Nessuno vuole vedermi": è una battaglia persa contro una malattia tropicale trascurata?]

Recenti Prog Med 2022 May;113(5):329-331

Department of Nuclear Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi.

Riassunto. Le malattie tropicali trascurate (NTD) sono una serie di malattie che prosperano nelle comunità povere di risorse, in particolare nei climi tropicali. I fattori sociali, ambientali ed economici contribuiscono alla loro persistenza. Read More

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The Evolution of the National Special Pathogen System of Care.

Health Secur 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

John J. Lowe, PhD, is Co-Principal Investigator, National Emerging Special Pathogens Training and Education Center (NETEC), a Professor, Department of Environmental, Agricultural, and Occupational Health, College of Public Health, and Assistant Vice Chancellor for Health Security Training and Education, UNMC; Omaha, NE.

Infectious disease outbreaks and pandemics have repeatedly threatened public health and have severely strained healthcare delivery systems throughout the past century. Pathogens causing respiratory illness, such as influenza viruses and coronaviruses, as well as the highly communicable viral hemorrhagic fevers, pose a large threat to the healthcare delivery system in the United States and worldwide. Through the Hospital Preparedness Program, within the US Department of Health and Human Services Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, a nationwide Regional Ebola Treatment Network (RETN) was developed, building upon a state- and jurisdiction-based tiered hospital approach. Read More

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