100,861 results match your criteria Influenza


[Health Expertise of Seasonal Influenza Vaccination among Midwife Trainees in North Rhine-Westphalia: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study].

Gesundheitswesen 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Institut für Hausarztmedizin, Medizinische Fakultät der Universität Bonn, Bonn.

Objective: For the first time, the level of knowledge and attitude towards vaccinations in general as well as seasonal influenza vaccination of midwife trainees in Germany was assessed.

Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted between May and July 2017. The written standardized questionnaire was completed by all midwife-trainees in North Rhine-Westphalia. Read More

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http://www.thieme-connect.de/DOI/DOI?10.1055/a-0839-4810
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-0839-4810DOI Listing
February 2019
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Viral infection detection using metagenomics technology in six poultry farms of eastern China.

PLoS One 2019 20;14(2):e0211553. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

China Animal Health and Epidemiology Center, Qingdao, Shandong, China.

With rapidly increasing animal pathogen surveillance requirements, new technologies are needed for a comprehensive understanding of the roles of pathogens in the occurrence and development of animal diseases. We applied metagenomic technology to avian virus surveillance to study the main viruses infecting six poultry farms in two provinces in eastern China. Cloacal/throat double swabs were collected from 60 birds at each farm according to a random sampling method. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0211553PLOS
February 2019

[Mortality due to cerebrovascular disease among the elderly and vaccination against influenza: São Paulo State, Brazil, 1980-2012].

Cad Saude Publica 2019 Feb 18;35(2):e00145117. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, Brasil.

This study describes the trend of the coefficients of mortality due to cerebrovascular diseases (CbVD) among the elderly in São Paulo State, Brazil, from 1980 to 2012, before and after influenza vaccination campaigns, and identifies change points. It is an ecological, time-series study carried out with death data from the Health Ministry's Mortality Information System and population data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. We used linear, polynomial and joinpoint regression models in the data analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0102-311X00145117DOI Listing
February 2019

Is patient insurance type related to physician recommendation, administration and referral for adult vaccination? A survey of US physicians.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

b GSK , Philadelphia , PA , USA.

This study evaluated physician practices and perceived barriers for influenza, tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis (Tdap), and zoster vaccination of adults in the United States (US), with emphasis on patients with Medicare versus commercial insurance. A cross-sectional internet-based survey of board-certified general/family practitioners and internists (N = 1,000) recruited from a national US physician panel was conducted in May 2017. For influenza, rates of physician recommendation (84% of Medicare patients, 82% of commercially-insured patients), administration (80% Medicare, 78% commercial), and referral (11% Medicare, 11% commercial) were similar regardless of insurance type. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2019.1582402DOI Listing
February 2019

Preventive effects of pneumococcal and influenza vaccines on community-acquired pneumonia in older individuals in Japan: a case-control study.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

n Department of Pulmonary Medicine , Kameda Medical Center , Chiba , Japan.

At present, there are few reports that have clarified the effectiveness of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) against all-cause pneumonia or pneumococcal pneumonia in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in older individuals in Japan. We conducted a hospital-based matched case-control study to investigate separately the preventive effects of PPSV23 and trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) on all-cause CAP and pneumococcal CAP in older individuals in Japan. Cases were individuals aged 65 years or older who were newly diagnosed with CAP from October 2010 to September 2014. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2019.1584023DOI Listing
February 2019

Can common characteristics be identified as predictors for seasonal influenza vaccine uptake in pregnancy? A retrospective cohort study from a South London Hospital.

Midwifery 2019 Feb 10;72:67-73. Epub 2019 Feb 10.

School of Allied Health, Midwifery and Social Care, Kingston and St George's Joint Faculty, Health, Social Care and Education, St George's Campus, Cranmer Terrace, London, SW17 0RE, United Kingdom.

Background: Complications due to influenza are contributory factors for maternal deaths in the United Kingdom (UK). Less than half of all pregnant women in the UK receive the influenza vaccination. Increasing immunisation rates for seasonal influenza in pregnant women must remain a public health priority. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2019.02.008DOI Listing
February 2019

Chemical constituents from leaves and trunk bark of Rinorea oblongifolia (Violaceae).

Nat Prod Res 2019 Feb 20:1-8. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

a Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Science , University of Yaounde I , Yaounde , Cameroon.

Two new coruleoellagic acid derivatives, 3,4',5,5',-tetramethylcoruleoellagic acid (1); 3',4,4',5,5'-pentamethylcoruleoellagic acid (2) and a new friedelane-type triterpene derivative rinol (5), were isolated from leaves and trunk bark of Rinorea oblongifolia (Violaceae) along with seven known compounds including 3,3',4,4',5'-pentamethylcoruleoellagic acid (3), hexamethylcoruleoellagic acid (4), 28-hydroxyfriedelin (6), friedelin (7), friedelan-3-ol (8), scopoletin (9) and β-sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (10). Their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic methods including IR, 1D and 2D NMR in conjunction with mass spectrometry. Crude extracts of leaves and trunk bark as well as compounds 1-4 were evaluated for their antibacterial activities against 7 pathogenic bacterial strains (Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC49619, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300, Klepsiella pneumoniae ATCC 700603, Haemophilus influenza ATCC 49247, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa HM601, Staphylococcus aureus BAA 977). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2019.1573230DOI Listing
February 2019

Induction of protective immune response to intranasal administration of influenza virus-like particles in a mouse model.

J Cell Physiol 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Virology Department, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Human influenza A viruses (IAVs) cause global pandemics and epidemics, which remains a nonignorable serious concern for public health worldwide. To combat the surge of viral outbreaks, new treatments are urgently needed. Here, we design a new vaccine based on virus-like particles (VLPs) and show how intranasal administration of this vaccine triggers protective immunity, which can be exploited for the development of new therapies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.28339DOI Listing
February 2019

Pterodontic acid isolated from Laggera pterodonta suppressed RIG-I/NF-KB/STAT1/Type I interferon and programmed death-ligand 1/2 activation induced by influenza A virus in vitro.

Inflammopharmacology 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510120, People's Republic of China.

Influenza viruses can bring about acute respiratory diseases and are a potential hazard to human health. Antiviral drugs are the main ways to control the influenza virus infection except the vaccine. In this study, the immune regulation activity of pterodontic acid isolated from Laggera pterodonta induced by influenza A virus in vitro was evaluated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10787-019-00571-yDOI Listing
February 2019

Egg-based influenza split virus vaccine with monoglycosylation induces cross-strain protection against influenza virus infections.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan

Each year influenza virus infections cause hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide and a significant level of morbidity with major economic burden. At the present time, vaccination with inactivated virus vaccine produced from embryonated chicken eggs is the most prevalent method to prevent the infections. However, current influenza vaccines are only effective against closely matched circulating strains and must be updated and administered yearly. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1819197116DOI Listing
February 2019

Incidence of hospitalisation for severe complications of influenza virus infection in Japanese patients between 2012 and 2016: a cross-sectional study using routinely collected administrative data.

BMJ Open 2019 Jan 17;9(1):e024687. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Department of Health Sciences, University of Yamanashi, Chuo City, Japan.

Objective: To calculate the incidence of hospitalisation due to acute respiratory failure, pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), febrile seizures and encephalitis/encephalopathy among influenza-positive patients in Japan, where point-of-care tests are routinely used to diagnose influenza.

Design: A cross-sectional study using routinely collected data.

Setting: Japanese clinics and hospitals between 2012 and 2016. Read More

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http://bmjopen.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-02468
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-024687DOI Listing
January 2019
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Evaluation of influenza surveillance systems in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review protocol.

BMJ Open 2019 Jan 28;9(1):e023335. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Cochrane South Africa, South African Medical Research Council, Tygerberg, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa.

Introduction: Influenza infrastructure systems are crucial for maintaining surveillance operations, and for mitigating and responding to the disease. The role of surveillance is to isolate and identify as rapidly as possible any new influenza strains and collate this information for the preparedness for, and response to, an impending influenza activity in humans. However, sources of surveillance information, particularly in Africa, are meagre. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-023335DOI Listing
January 2019

A role for IL-34 in osteolytic disease of multiple myeloma.

Blood Adv 2019 Feb;3(4):541-551

Division of Immunobiology, Institute for Genetic Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological malignancy that grows in multiple sites of the axial skeleton and causes debilitating osteolytic disease. Interleukin-34 (IL-34) is a newly discovered cytokine that acts as a ligand of colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) receptor and can replace CSF-1 for osteoclast differentiation. In this study, we identify IL-34 as an osteoclastogenic cytokine that accelerates osteolytic disease in MM. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2018020008DOI Listing
February 2019

Changes in cold-related mortalities between 1995 and 2016 in South East England.

Public Health 2019 Feb 18;169:36-40. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Centre for Environmental and Respiratory Health Research, University of Oulu, Finland.

Objective: The aim of the study was to examine trends in cold-related mortalities between 1995 and 2016.

Study Design: This is a longitudinal mortality study.

Methods: For men and women aged 65-74 years or those older than 85 years in South East England, the relationship between daily mortality (deaths per million population) and outdoor temperatures below 18 °C, with allowance for influenza epidemics, was assessed by linear regression on an annual basis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2019.01.008DOI Listing
February 2019

[Pathogens in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of children with lower respiratory tract infection].

Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2019 Feb;21(2):144-149

Department of Pediatrics, Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, China.

Objective: To study the features of pathogens in children with lower respiratory tract infection.

Methods: A total of 108 children who were hospitalized due to lower respiratory tract infection and underwent fiber bronchoscopy between January 2017 and June 2018 were enrolled. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples were collected. Read More

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February 2019

MicroRNA expression profiles from HEK293 cells expressing H5N1 avian influenza virus non-structural protein 1.

Innate Immun 2019 Feb;25(2):110-117

College of Animal Science, Southwest University, Veterinary Scientific Engineering Research Center, Chongqing, People's Republic of China.

H5N1 avian influenza poses a serious threat to the poultry industry and human health. Non-structural protein 1 (NS1) plays an important role in the replication and pathogenesis of avian influenza virus (AIV). However, the function of the NS1 gene is still unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1753425919826342DOI Listing
February 2019

Effect of rapid influenza diagnostic tests on patient management in an emergency department.

Clin Exp Emerg Med 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan, Korea.

Objective: We evaluated the effect of rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs) on patient management in an emergency department for 3 years after 2009, and also identified factors associated with the choice of treatment for patients with influenza-like illnesses.

Methods: The study period consisted of three influenza epidemic seasons. Patients older than 15 years who underwent RIDTs in the emergency department and were then discharged without admission were included. Read More

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http://www.ceemjournal.org/journal/view.php?doi=10.15441/cee
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15441/ceem.17.281DOI Listing
February 2019
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Pathogenicity and Transmissibility of North American H7 Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Chickens and Turkeys.

Viruses 2019 Feb 16;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 16.

VA-MD Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA.

Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses can silently circulate in poultry and wild aquatic birds and potentially mutate into highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses. In the U.S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11020163DOI Listing
February 2019

Influenza A virus (H1N1) triggers a hypoxic response by stabilizing hypoxia-inducible factor-1α via inhibition of proteasome.

Virology 2019 Feb 11;530:51-58. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 201620, China. Electronic address:

Virus reprogramming of host cellular function is a critical strategy for viral survival and replication. A better understanding of virus-host interaction may provide new potential avenues for the treatment of viral diseases. It has been reported that hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) pathway is activated by a range of pathogens via different mechanisms, but the impact of Influenza A virus on HIF-1 signaling is still unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2019.02.010DOI Listing
February 2019

A comparison of interferon gene expression induced by influenza A virus infection of human airway epithelial cells from two different donors.

Virus Res 2019 Feb 16. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Division of Biotechnology Review and Research II, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States of America.

Influenza is an acute respiratory disease that can cause local annual epidemics and worldwide pandemics of different morbidity and mortality. Our understanding of host factors that modulate the frequency and severity of influenza virus infections is less than complete. In this study, we examined the inter-individual variations in the innate immune responses to H1N1 and H3N2 influenza A viruses (IAV) using primary cultures of normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells derived from two different donors (D1 and D2). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2019.02.002DOI Listing
February 2019

Comparison of the new fully automated extraction platform eMAG to the MagNA PURE 96 and the well-established easyMAG for detection of common human respiratory viruses.

PLoS One 2019 19;14(2):e0211079. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Central Virology Laboratory, Ministry of Health, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Ramat-Gan, Israel.

Respiratory viral infections constitute the majority of samples tested in the clinical virology laboratory during the winter season, and are mainly diagnosed using molecular assays, namely real-time PCR (qPCR). Therefore, a high-quality extraction process is critical for successful, reliable and sensitive qPCR results. Here we aimed to evaluate the performance of the newly launched eMAG compared to the fully automated MagNA PURE 96 (Roche, Germany) and to the semi-automated easyMAG (bioMerieux, France) extraction platforms. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0211079PLOS
February 2019

Multiscale modeling of influenza A virus replication in cell cultures predicts infection dynamics for highly different infection conditions.

PLoS Comput Biol 2019 Feb 19;15(2):e1006819. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Max Planck Institute for Dynamics of Complex Technical Systems, Magdeburg, Germany.

Influenza A viruses (IAV) are commonly used to infect animal cell cultures for research purposes and vaccine production. Their replication is influenced strongly by the multiplicity of infection (MOI), which ranges over several orders of magnitude depending on the respective application. So far, mathematical models of IAV replication have paid little attention to the impact of the MOI on infection dynamics and virus yields. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1006819DOI Listing
February 2019

Immunogenicity and safety of a trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine produced in Shenzhen, China versus a comparator influenza vaccine: a phase IV randomized study.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

e Sanofi Pasteur , Swiftwater , PA , USA.

Seasonal influenza causes substantial morbidity and mortality in China, which largely results from limited vaccine accessibility and poor vaccination coverage. Since 2013, Sanofi Pasteur's facilities in Shenzhen, China have produced a trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (Shz-IIV3) for each influenza season according to Chinese pharmacopeia requirements. However, the immunogenicity of Shz-IIV3 has not been compared to existing Chinese trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV3s). Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/21645515.2019.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2019.1581541DOI Listing
February 2019
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The Special Pathogens Research Network: Enabling Research Readiness.

Health Secur 2019 Jan/Feb;17(1):35-45

Christopher J. Kratochvil, MD, is Associate Vice Chancellor for Clinical Research, the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE.

The 2013-2016 epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD) that originated in West Africa underscored many of the challenges to conducting clinical research during an ongoing infectious disease epidemic, both in the most affected countries of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, as well as in the United States and Europe, where a total of 27 patients with EVD received care in biocontainment units. The Special Pathogens Research Network (SPRN) was established in the United States in November 2016 to provide an organizational structure to leverage the expertise of the 10 Regional Ebola and Other Special Pathogen Treatment Centers (RESPTCs); it was intended to develop and support infrastructure to improve readiness to conduct clinical research in the United States. The network enables the rapid activation and coordination of clinical research in the event of an epidemic and facilitates opportunities for multicenter research when the RESPTCs are actively caring for patients requiring a biocontainment unit. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/hs.2018.0106DOI Listing
February 2019

Human CD8 T cell cross-reactivity across influenza A, B and C viruses.

Nat Immunol 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, at the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

Influenza A, B and C viruses (IAV, IBV and ICV, respectively) circulate globally and infect humans, with IAV and IBV causing the most severe disease. CD8 T cells confer cross-protection against IAV strains, however the responses of CD8 T cells to IBV and ICV are understudied. We investigated the breadth of CD8 T cell cross-recognition and provide evidence of CD8 T cell cross-reactivity across IAV, IBV and ICV. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41590-019-0320-6
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41590-019-0320-6DOI Listing
February 2019
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Assessing the Dynamics and Control of Droplet- and Aerosol-Transmitted Influenza Using an Indoor Positioning System.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 18;9(1):2185. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Global Health Institute, School of Life Sciences, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland.

There is increasing evidence that aerosol transmission is a major contributor to the spread of influenza. Despite this, virtually all studies assessing the dynamics and control of influenza assume that it is transmitted solely through direct contact and large droplets, requiring close physical proximity. Here, we use wireless sensors to measure simultaneously both the location and close proximity contacts in the population of a US high school. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-38825-yDOI Listing
February 2019

A decision-support framework to optimize border control for global outbreak mitigation.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 18;9(1):2216. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales (UNSW) Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 2052, Australia.

The introduction and spread of emerging infectious diseases is increasing in both prevalence and scale. Whether naturally, accidentally or maliciously introduced, the substantial uncertainty surrounding the emergence of novel viruses, specifically where they may come from and how they will spread, demands robust and quantifiably validated outbreak control policies that can be implemented in real time. This work presents a novel mathematical modeling framework that integrates both outbreak dynamics and outbreak control into a decision support tool for mitigating infectious disease pandemics that spread through passenger air travel. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-38665-wDOI Listing
February 2019

Influenza Vaccination Coverage Among Pregnant Women in the U.S., 2012-2015.

Am J Prev Med 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Immunization Service Division, Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Introduction: Pregnant women are at increased risk for severe illness from influenza and influenza-related complications. Vaccinating pregnant women is the primary strategy to protect them and their infants from influenza. This study aims to assess influenza vaccination coverage during three influenza seasons (2012-2015) from a national probability-based sampling survey and evaluate potential factors that influence vaccination uptake among pregnant women. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2018.11.020DOI Listing
February 2019

Predictors of Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Completion Among Low-Income Latina/o Adolescents.

J Adolesc Health 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Behavioral Sciences and Social Medicine, College of Medicine, Florida State University (FSU), Tallahassee, Florida.

Purpose: The purpose of this longitudinal study was to identify individual and interpersonal factors associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine series completion in a sample of low-income Latina/o adolescent girls and boys.

Methods: Caregiver-adolescent dyads (N = 161) were recruited from a rural Federally Qualified Health Center in southwest Florida when the adolescent (aged 11-17 years) received the first dose of HPV vaccine. Dyads completed a baseline assessment that measured demographic and cultural characteristics, past medical history, provider-patient communication, HPV knowledge, health beliefs about completing the series, and the adolescent's experience receiving the first dose. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1054139X183080
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2018.12.001DOI Listing
February 2019
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Cost Benefit of High-Dose vs Standard-Dose Influenza Vaccine in a Long-Term Care Population During an A/H1N1-Predominant Influenza Season.

J Am Med Dir Assoc 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Brown School of Public Health, Health Service Policy & Practice, Providence, RI; Center for Gerontology & Healthcare Research, Providence, RI; Providence Veterans Administration Hospital, Providence, RI; Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI.

Objectives: Influenza is a leading cause of avoidable admissions for nursing home (NH) residents. We previously evaluated the effectiveness of a high-dose trivalent influenza vaccine (HD) compared to a standard-dose influenza vaccine (SD) through a cluster-randomized trial of NH residents. Fewer residents from facilities randomized to HD were hospitalized. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2018.12.003DOI Listing
February 2019

Recombinant influenza A viruses as vaccine vectors.

Expert Rev Vaccines 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

a University of Veterinary Medicine (TiHo), Research Center for Emerging Infections and Zoonoses (RIZ) , Bünteweg 17, 30559 Hannover , Germany.

Introduction: Various viruses, including poxviruses, adenoviruses and vesicular stomatitis virus, have been considered as vaccine vectors for the delivery of antigens of interest in the development of vaccines against newly emerging pathogens. Areas covered: Here, we review results that have been obtained with influenza A viruses (IAV) as vaccine vectors. With the advent of reverse genetics technology, IAV-based recombinant vaccine candidates have been constructed that induce protective immunity to a variety of different pathogens of interest, including West Nile virus, Plasmodium falciparum and respiratory syncytial virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14760584.2019.1582338DOI Listing
February 2019

Vaccination Practices Among Obstetrician/Gynecologists for Non-pregnant Patients.

Am J Prev Med 2019 Mar;56(3):429-436

Adult and Child Consortium for Health Outcomes Research and Delivery Science, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, Colorado; Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado.

Introduction: Many non-pregnant women see obstetrician-gynecologists as their sole source of medical care, yet little is known about vaccination practices of obstetrician-gynecologists for non-pregnant patients. The objectives were to assess, among a national sample of obstetrician-gynecologists, practices related to vaccine delivery in non-pregnant patients and factors associated with stocking and administering more than three different vaccines to non-pregnant patients.

Methods: E-mail and mail surveys were administered July-October 2015, with analyses performed during October-November 2015 and April-June 2018. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S07493797183238
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2018.10.025DOI Listing
March 2019
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Wild birds do not harbor higher diversity of influenza virus internal genes than poultry.

Virology 2019 Feb 7;530:59-64. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Microbes and Functional Genomics, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210023, China. Electronic address:

Avian influenza A virus (AIV) has threatened global economy and public health. Wild birds have long been thought to serve as the natural reservoir of influenza virus, and thus it is expected that wild birds harbor higher viral diversity than poultry. Yet, this hypothesis has not been formally tested. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2019.02.003DOI Listing
February 2019

House dust mite exposure attenuates influenza A infection in a mouse model of pulmonary allergic inflammation.

Microb Pathog 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, 78229, USA. Electronic address:

Environmental allergens elicit complex immune responses in the lungs that can promote the development of asthma or exacerbate preexisting asthma in susceptible individuals. House dust mites are one of the most common indoor allergens and are a significant driver of allergic disease. Respiratory infections are known factors in acute exacerbations of asthma but the impact of allergen on the pathogen is not well understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2019.02.019DOI Listing
February 2019

Infection Studies in Pigs and Porcine Airway Epithelial Cells Reveal an Evolution of A(H1N1)pdm09 Influenza A Viruses Toward Lower Virulence.

J Infect Dis 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Institute of Virology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, Germany.

We analyzed the virulence of pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza A viruses in vivo and in vitro. Selected viruses isolated in 2009, 2010, 2014, and 2015 were assessed using an aerosol-mediated high-dose infection model for pigs as well as air-liquid interface cultures of differentiated airway epithelial cells. Using a dyspnea score, rectal temperature, lung lesions, and viral load in the lung as parameters, the strains from 2014-2015 were significantly less virulent than the strains isolated in 2009-2010. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiy719DOI Listing
February 2019

Development of a HA1-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against pandemic influenza virus A H1N1.

Clin Exp Vaccine Res 2019 Jan 31;8(1):70-76. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been used in the diverse field to evaluate influenza virus infection; for the surveillance, diagnosis, efficacy evaluation, and development of the vaccine. The aim of this study was to establish an ELISA for detecting HA strain-specific antibodies using recombinant pandemic A H1N1 (pH1N1) HA1 (rHA1) protein.

Materials And Methods: rHA1 was produced in baculovirus system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7774/cevr.2019.8.1.70DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6369127PMC
January 2019

Nucleoprotein vaccine induces cross-protective cytotoxic T lymphocytes against both lineages of influenza B virus.

Clin Exp Vaccine Res 2019 Jan 31;8(1):54-63. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: The influenza B virus diverges into two antigenically distinct lineages: B/Yamagata and B/Victoria. Influenza B is the dominant circulating virus during some influenza seasons, and recent data demonstrated that influenza A and B infection similarly cause severe clinical symptoms in hospitalized patients. Nucleoprotein (NP) is a good target for a universal influenza vaccine. Read More

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https://synapse.koreamed.org/DOIx.php?id=10.7774/cevr.2019.8
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7774/cevr.2019.8.1.54DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6369129PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Assessing global preparedness for the next pandemic: development and application of an Epidemic Preparedness Index.

BMJ Glob Health 2019 29;4(1):e001157. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Metabiota, San Francisco, California, USA.

Introduction: Robust metrics for national-level preparedness are critical for assessing global resilience to epidemic and pandemic outbreaks. However, existing preparedness assessments focus primarily on public health systems or specific legislative frameworks, and do not measure other essential capacities that enable and support public health preparedness and response.

Methods: We developed an Epidemic Preparedness Index (EPI) to assess national-level preparedness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2018-001157DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6352812PMC
January 2019

Enhanced germinal center reaction by targeting vaccine antigen to major histocompatibility complex class II molecules.

NPJ Vaccines 2019 11;4. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

K.G. Jebsen Centre for Influenza Vaccine Research, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, N-0027 Oslo, Norway.

Enhancing the germinal center (GC) reaction is a prime objective in vaccine development. Targeting of antigen to MHCII on APCs has previously been shown to increase antibody responses, but the underlying mechanism has been unclear. We have here investigated the GC reaction after targeting antigen to MHCII in (i) a defined model with T and B cells of known specificity using adjuvant-free vaccine proteins, and (ii) an infectious disease model using a DNA vaccine. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41541-019-0101-0
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41541-019-0101-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6370881PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Global transcriptome analysis of H5N1 influenza virus-infected human cells.

Hereditas 2019 6;156:10. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

2CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Background: Influenza A virus (IAV) belongs to the family. IAV causes a highly contagious respiratory disease in humans that exacts severe economic losses globally. The virus uses strategies developed to exploit and subvert cellular proteins and pathways to increase its own replication and to inhibit antiviral immune response. Read More

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https://hereditasjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41065-019-0085-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6366111PMC
February 2019
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Prebiotic oligosaccharides in early life alter gut microbiome development in male mice while supporting influenza vaccination responses.

Benef Microbes 2019 Feb 18:1-14. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

2 Danone Nutricia Research, Department of Immunology / Microbiology, Uppsalalaan 12, 3584 CT Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Beneficial modulation of the gut microbiota is an attractive therapeutic approach to improve the efficacy of vaccine-induced immunity. In this study, mice were supplemented with the prebiotic milk oligosaccharide 2'-fucosyllactose (2'FL) as well as a complex mixture of immune modulatory prebiotic short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scGOS/lcFOS) from different stages in early life. Adult mice were vaccinated with trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) and both development of the gut microbiota and antibody-mediated vaccine responses were followed over time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3920/BM2018.0098DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

SPRi-based hemagglutinin quantitative assay for influenza vaccine production monitoring.

Vaccine 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Univ Lyon, GEMBAS Team, CNRS UMR 5246, INSA, CPE-Lyon, ICBMS, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Villeurbanne cedex, France; CPE Lyon, Bâtiment Hubert Curien, 43 bd du 11 Novembre 1918, LyonTech - La Doua, Villeurbanne, France.

Influenza vaccine manufacturers lack tools, whatever the involved production bioprocess (egg or cell-based), to precisely and accurately evaluate vaccine antigen content from samples. Indeed, the gold standard single-radial immunodiffusion (SRID) assay, which remains the only validated assay for the evaluation of influenza vaccine potency, is criticized by the scientific community and regulatory agencies since a decade for its high variability, lack of flexibility and low sensitivity. We hereby report an imaging surface plasmon resonance (SPRi) assay for the quantification of both inactivated vaccine influenza antigens and viral particles derived from egg- and cell-based production samples, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.01.083DOI Listing
February 2019
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Influenza Hemagglutinin Modulates Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate Membrane Clustering.

Biophys J 2019 Jan 25. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Maine, Orono, Maine. Electronic address:

The lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) forms nanoscopic clusters in cell plasma membranes; however, the processes determining PIP2 mobility and thus its spatial patterns are not fully understood. Using super-resolution imaging of living cells, we find that PIP2 is tightly colocalized with and modulated by overexpression of the influenza viral protein hemagglutinin (HA). Within and near clusters, HA and PIP2 follow a similar spatial dependence, which can be described by an HA-dependent potential gradient; PIP2 molecules move as if they are attracted to the center of clusters by a radial force of 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpj.2019.01.017DOI Listing
January 2019

Influenza-Related Communication and Community Mitigation Strategies: Results From the 2015 Pandemic Influenza Readiness Assessment.

Health Promot Pract 2019 Feb 17:1524839919826582. Epub 2019 Feb 17.

1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Emergence of a novel infectious disease, such as pandemic influenza, is the one global crisis most likely to affect the greatest number of people worldwide. Because of the potentially severe and contagious nature of influenza, a rapid multifaceted pandemic response, which includes nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) and effective strategies for communication with the public are essential for a timely response and mitigating the spread of disease. A web-based questionnaire was administered via email in July 2015 to 62 Public Health Emergency Preparedness (PHEP) directors across jurisdictions that receive funding through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention PHEP cooperative agreement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1524839919826582DOI Listing
February 2019

Antiviral, embryo toxic and cytotoxic activities of Astragalus membranaceus root extracts.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2019 Jan;32(1):137-142

Department of Microbiology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.

Antiviral activity of Astragalus membranaceus aqueous and methanol root extracts was determined against Avian influenza H9 virus. Toxicity profile of extracts was evaluated using chicken embryos and BHK-21 cell line. Different concentrations (400, 200, 100, 50, 25. Read More

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January 2019
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Acute Respiratory Illness in Rural Haiti.

Int J Infect Dis 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; Department of Health Services Research, Management and Policy, College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. USA.

Objectives: Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) is the most common cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries, including Haiti. Our objective was to detect pathogens found in children with ARI in rural Haiti to help develop evidence-based guidelines for treatment and prevention.

Methods: Retrospective study of students with ARI at four schools in rural Haiti. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2019.02.003DOI Listing
February 2019
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Compressed Influenza Vaccination in U.S. Older Adults: A Decision Analysis.

Am J Prev Med 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Family Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Introduction: Tradeoffs exist between efforts to increase influenza vaccine uptake, including early season vaccination, and potential decreased vaccine effectiveness if protection wanes during influenza season. U.S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2018.11.015DOI Listing
February 2019

Baloxavir marboxil susceptibility of influenza viruses from the Asia-Pacific, 2012-2018.

Antiviral Res 2019 Feb 13;164:91-96. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza, VIDRL, Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia; University of Melbourne, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia. Electronic address:

Baloxavir Marboxil (BXM) is an influenza polymerase inhibitor antiviral that binds to the endonuclease region in the PA subunit of influenza A and B viruses. To establish the baseline susceptibility of viruses circulating prior to licensure of BXM and to monitor for susceptibility post-BXM use, a cell culture-based focus reduction assay was developed to determine the susceptibility of 286 circulating seasonal influenza viruses, A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2), B (Yamagata/Victoria) lineage viruses, including neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) resistant viruses, to Baloxavir Acid (BXA), the active metabolic form of BXM. BXA was effective against all influenza subtypes tested with mean EC values (minimum-maximum) of 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2019.02.007DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Co-infection with different serotypes of FMDV in vaccinated cattle in Southern Egypt.

Virus Genes 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Center of Scientific Excellence for Influenza Viruses, Water Pollution Research Department, Environmental Research Division, National Research Centre (NRC), Egypt, Dokki, Giza, 12622, Egypt.

During 2015-2016 period, an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) was observed in cattle in four governorates of the upper of Egypt. The infection was extended to the vaccinated cattle. A total of 54 mouth swabs and serum samples were collected from vaccinated cattle for serological and virological investigation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11262-019-01645-3DOI Listing
February 2019
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Non-lytic clearance of influenza B virus from infected cells preserves epithelial barrier function.

Nat Commun 2019 Feb 15;10(1):779. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, 27710, USA.

Influenza B virus (IBV) is an acute, respiratory RNA virus that has been assumed to induce the eventual death of all infected cells. We and others have shown however, that infection with apparently cytopathic viruses does not necessarily lead to cell death; some cells can intrinsically clear the virus and persist in the host long-term. To determine if any cells can survive direct IBV infection, we here generate a recombinant IBV capable of activating a host-cell reporter to permanently label all infected cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-08617-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6377627PMC
February 2019
1 Read