458,690 results match your criteria Infectious Myositis
Rev Esp Quimioter 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Benito Almirante, Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital Universitario Vall d'Hebron Passeig de la Vall d'Hebron, 119-129 - 08035 Barcelona, Spain.
Objective: Clostridium difficile infections have a high recurrence rate, which can complicate the prognosis of affected patients. It is therefore important to establish an early detection and an appropriate therapeutic strategy. The objective of this manuscript was to gather the opinion of an expert group about the predictive factors of poor progression, as well as when to use fidaxomicin in different groups of high-risk patients. Read More
Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1903:45-59
Molecular Biophysics Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.
Drug repurposing has garnered much interest as an effective method for drug development among biopharmaceutical companies. The availability of information on complete sequences of genomes and their associated biological data, genotype-phenotype-disease relationships, and properties of small molecules offers opportunities to explore the repurpose-able potential of existing pharmacopoeia. This method gains further importance, especially, in the context of development of drugs against infectious diseases, some of which pose serious complications due to emergence of drug-resistant pathogens. Read More
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.
The invention of new techniques to manipulate materials at their nanoscale had an evolutionary effect on various medical sciences. At the time, there are thousands of nanomaterials which can be divided according to their shape, origin, or their application. The nanotechnology provided new solutions for old problems. Read More
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Medicine, Solna, Infectious Diseases Unit, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
The aim of this study was to use a 16S rDNA sequencing method in combination with conventional culture in patients with parapneumonic effusions (PPE) to evaluate the methods, study the microbiological spectrum, and examine the presence of bacteria within the different stages of PPE. Adults with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and PPE (n = 197) admitted to the Departments of Infectious Diseases at four hospitals in Stockholm County during 2011-2014 were prospectively studied. All patients underwent thoracentesis. Read More
AIDS Behav 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Health Services Research and Development, Seattle, WA, USA.
To quantify health care facility-level variation in pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use in the Veteran's Health Administration (VHA); to identify facility characteristics associated with PrEP use. Retrospective analysis of the health care facility-level rate of PrEP initiation in VHA through June 30, 2017. Standardized PrEP initiation rates were used to rank facilities. Read More
Breast Cancer Res Treat 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Human Pathology in Adulthood and Childhood "G. Barresi", University Hospital of Messina, Messina, Italy.
Semin Immunopathol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard, 400 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA.
Vaccines are among the most impactful public health interventions, preventing millions of new infections and deaths annually worldwide. However, emerging data suggest that vaccines may not protect all populations equally. Specifically, studies analyzing variation in vaccine-induced immunity have pointed to the critical impact of genetics, the environment, nutrition, the microbiome, and sex in influencing vaccine responsiveness. Read More
eNeurologicalSci 2018 Dec 4;13:63-69. Epub 2018 Jul 4.
Hospital Emergencias Pediatricas, Lima, Peru.
Multicenter collaborative networks are essential for advancing research and improving clinical care for a variety of conditions. Research networks are particularly important for central nervous system infections, which remain difficult to study due to their sporadic occurrence and requirement for collection and testing of cerebrospinal fluid. Establishment of long-term research networks in resource-limited areas also facilitates diagnostic capacity building, surveillance for emerging pathogens, and provision of appropriate treatment where needed. Read More
eNeurologicalSci 2018 Dec 21;13:56-62. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
Strong Epilepsy Center, Department of Neurology, University of Rochester, 265 Crittenden Blvd, CU420694, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.
Background And Purpose: Stigma hinders care for patients with neurologic illness. Layered stigma due to comorbid disease is common yet poorly characterized due to lack of instruments. Epilepsy and HIV are prototypical stigmatized conditions widespread in sub-Saharan Africa. Read More
Sci Adv 2018 Dec 12;4(12):eaau5294. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Complex Systems Research Group, School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and IT, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.
We examine salient trends of influenza pandemics in Australia, a rapidly urbanizing nation. To do so, we implement state-of-the-art influenza transmission and progression models within a large-scale stochastic computer simulation, generated using comprehensive Australian census datasets from 2006, 2011, and 2016. Our results offer a simulation-based investigation of a population's sensitivity to pandemics across multiple historical time points and highlight three notable trends in pandemic patterns over the years: increased peak prevalence, faster spreading rates, and decreasing spatiotemporal bimodality. Read More
Bio Protoc 2018 Nov;8(21)
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, USA.
Sendai virus (SeV) is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus of the family . SeV is a useful tool to study its infectious pathomechanism in immunology and the pathomechanism of a murine model of IgA nephropathy. Virus quantification is essential not only to determine the original viral titers for an appropriate application, but also to measure the viral titers in samples from the harvests from experiments. Read More
Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev 2018 Dec 23;11:155-165. Epub 2018 Oct 23.
UCL Cancer Institute, University College London, Paul O'Gorman Building, 72 Huntley Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK.
Lentiviral vectors (LVs) have recently witnessed an increasing demand in research and clinical applications. Their current purification processes represent the main bottleneck in their widespread use, as the methods used are cumbersome and yield low recoveries. We aimed to develop a one-step method to specifically purify LVs, with high yields and reduced levels of impurities, using the biotin-streptavidin system. Read More
Open Forum Infect Dis 2018 Dec 17;5(12):ofy306. Epub 2018 Nov 17.
The National Centre for Infections in Cancer, Department of Infectious Diseases, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
Antibiotic allergies are reported by up to 1 in 4 cancer patients, almost 50% of which are considered low risk and precede the cancer diagnosis. We demonstrate the successful and safe implementation of a pilot oral penicillin challenge program for cancer patients with low-risk penicillin allergies, increasing the use of penicillin and narrow-spectrum beta-lactams post-testing. Read More
Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2018 27;8:413. Epub 2018 Nov 27.
Center for Global Infectious Disease Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, WA, United States.
Within the liver, sporozoites traverse cells searching for a "suitable" hepatocyte, invading these cells through a process that results in the formation of a parasitophorous vacuole (PV), within which the parasite undergoes intracellular replication as a liver stage. It was previously established that two members of the s48/45 protein family, P36 and P52, are essential for productive invasion of host hepatocytes by sporozoites as their simultaneous deletion results in growth-arrested parasites that lack a PV. Recent studies point toward a pathway of entry possibly involving the interaction of P36 with hepatocyte receptors EphA2, CD81, and SR-B1. Read More
Oncoimmunology 2019 2;8(1):e1523097. Epub 2018 Nov 2.
Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Munich, Germany.
The major goal of radiotherapy is the induction of tumor cell death. Additionally, radiotherapy can function as cancer vaccination by exposing tumor antigens and providing adjuvants for anti-tumor immune priming. In this regard, the mode of tumor cell death and the repertoire of released damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are crucial. Read More
Oncoimmunology 2019 16;8(1):e1518672. Epub 2018 Oct 16.
AIDS Institute and Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, PR China.
Antitumor cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are essential for immune surveillance, yet the blockade of eliciting such CTLs during oncolytic virotherapy remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that oncolysis of mesothelioma by modified vaccinia Tiantan (MVTT) induces damage-associated molecular patterns exposure. Although MVTT leads to regression of established mesothelioma dose-dependently, antitumor CTLs are rarely induced. Read More
Oncoimmunology 2019 5;8(1):e1512943. Epub 2018 Sep 5.
Project neuroArm, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.
Meningioma is the most common brain tumor in adults. Surgical resection remains the primary treatment. No chemotherapy exists. Read More
J Clin Imaging Sci 2018 15;8:47. Epub 2018 Nov 15.
Department of Imaging Sciences, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA.
The major and minor salivary glands of the head and neck are important structures that contribute to many of the normal physiologic processes of the aerodigestive tract. The major salivary glands are routinely included within the field of view of standard neuroimaging, and although easily identifiable, salivary pathology is relatively rare and often easy to overlook. Knowledge of the normal and abnormal imaging appearance of the salivary glands is critical for forming useful differential diagnoses, as well as initiating proper clinical workup for what are often incidental findings. Read More
Mol Clin Oncol 2018 Dec 5;9(6):661-665. Epub 2018 Oct 5.
Department of Pathology, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Disease Center Komagome Hospital, Tokyo 113-0021, Japan.
Primary gastric undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) is a rare disease with insufficient long-term follow-up data. In the present study, a 70-year-old male complained of abdominal fullness and visited our hospital. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a large tumor in the upper part of the stomach, which was accompanied by smaller tumors in the small intestinal mesentery. Read More
Biomed Rep 2018 Dec 2;9(6):491-496. Epub 2018 Oct 2.
Department of Internal Medicine, Teikyo University, Tokyo 173-8606, Japan.
Osteoporosis is one of the chronic complications seen in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, and affects patients at high prevalence. The causes of osteoporosis in HIV-infected patients are multiple, and include chronic HIV infection, living habits such as smoking and alcohol consumption, and antiretroviral drug use. Among antiretroviral drugs, protease inhibitors have been reported to be associated with osteoporosis. Read More
J Glob Health 2018 Dec;8(2):020313
Department of Global Health Policy, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
Oncol Lett 2018 Dec 3;16(6):7123-7130. Epub 2018 Oct 3.
Department of Infectious Diseases, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110022, P.R. China.
Despite improved screening programs, the vast majority of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are diagnosed at an advanced stage. A lack of effective diagnosis methods for preclinical HCC has resulted in a low rate of early detection. Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B10 (AKR1B10) is associated with several cancer types. Read More
Front Immunol 2018 28;9:2801. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Institute for Translational Medicine, Medical College of Qingdao University, Qingdao, China.
Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are functional RNA molecules that are transcribed from DNA but not translated into proteins. ncRNAs function as key regulators of gene expression and chromatin modification. Recently, the functional role of ncRNAs in teleost fish has been extensively studied. Read More
Front Immunol 2018 28;9:2781. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Cape Town Component, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Cape Town, South Africa.
Liver fibrosis is a wound-healing process purposely aimed at restoring organ integrity after severe injury caused by autoimmune reactions, mechanical stress or infections. The uncontrolled solicitation of this process is pathogenic and a pathognomonic feature of diseases like hepatosplenic schistosomiasis where exacerbated liver fibrosis is centrally positioned among the drivers of the disease morbidity and mortality. Intriguingly, however, liver fibrosis occurs and progresses dissimilarly in schistosomiasis-diseased individuals with the same egg burden and biosocial features including age, duration of residence in the endemic site and gender. Read More
Front Immunol 2018 28;9:2779. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Gonçalo Moniz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Salvador, Brazil.
Sand flies bite mammalian hosts to obtain a blood meal, driving changes in the host inflammatory response that support the establishment of infection. This effect is partially attributed to components of sand fly saliva, which are able to recruit and activate leukocytes. Our group has shown that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) favors survival in infected cells by reducing inflammatory responses. Read More
Front Pharmacol 2018 28;9:1330. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Telethon Kids Institute, Perth, WA, Australia.
Antimicrobial-resistant microbes are an increasing threat to human health. In cystic fibrosis (CF), airway infections with remain a key driver of lung damage. With few new antibiotics on the development horizon, alternative therapeutic approaches are needed against antimicrobial-resistant pathogens. Read More
Clin Med Insights Gastroenterol 2018 3;11:1179552218815169. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Infectious Diseases Inc., Bellevue, NE, USA.
For more than a decade, the therapeutic focus for Crohn's disease has remained fixed at temporary arrestment of symptomology. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) lists Crohn's disease as a disease entity without current cure. Biologics in combination with antibiotics can frequently achieve remissions. Read More
Nat Rev Microbiol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.
Fusobacterium nucleatum has long been found to cause opportunistic infections and has recently been implicated in colorectal cancer; however, it is a common member of the oral microbiota and can have a symbiotic relationship with its hosts. To address this dissonance, we explore the diversity and niches of fusobacteria and reconsider historic fusobacterial taxonomy in the context of current technology. We also undertake a critical reappraisal of fusobacteria with a focus on F. Read More
Nat Microbiol 2019 Jan;4(1)
Nat Microbiol 2019 Jan 13;4(1):10-19. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Immunology and Microbiology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA.
Emerging viruses have the potential to impose substantial mortality, morbidity and economic burdens on human populations. Tracking the spread of infectious diseases to assist in their control has traditionally relied on the analysis of case data gathered as the outbreak proceeds. Here, we describe how many of the key questions in infectious disease epidemiology, from the initial detection and characterization of outbreak viruses, to transmission chain tracking and outbreak mapping, can now be much more accurately addressed using recent advances in virus sequencing and phylogenetics. Read More
Nat Microbiol 2019 Jan;4(1):8-9
Research Centre for Infectious Diseases, Department of Molecular and Biomedical Science, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.
Nat Microbiol 2019 Jan;4(1):6-7
Department of Infectious Diseases, School of Immunology and Microbial Sciences, King's College London, London, UK.
Nat Microbiol 2019 Jan 13;4(1):35-45. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Internal Medicine, Infectious Diseases Division, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
The human body is colonized by a diverse community of microorganisms collectively referred to as the microbiota. Here, we describe how the human microbiota influences susceptibility to infectious diseases using examples from the respiratory, gastrointestinal and female reproductive tract. We will discuss how interactions between the host, the indigenous microbiota and non-native microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses and fungi, can alter the outcome of infections. Read More
Emerg Microbes Infect 2018 Dec 13;7(1):213. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Institut Pasteur, Unité Dynamique des Lyssavirus et Adaptation à l'Hôte, WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Rabies, Paris Cedex 15, 75724, Paris, France.
Leukemia 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Haematology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have a high risk of bloodstream infections (BSI). BSI cause significant morbidity and mortality among CLL patients; approximately one-third of fatalities in CLL list infections as cause of death. All CLL patients in Denmark diagnosed between 2008 and 2016 were followed through registries for the event of a BSI. Read More
Bone Marrow Transplant 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University Hospital, Collegium Medicum UMK, Bydgoszcz, Poland.
To determine the current practices on the management of Adenovirus (ADV) infection after allogenic stem cell transplantation, a survey was undertook among EBMT centres. The response rate was 20% (91/446): 46% were adult, 44% were paediatric and 10% were mixed centres, respectively. The overall incidence of ADV infection was 7. Read More
Bone Marrow Transplant 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Division of Hematology/Oncology, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
We analyzed CIBMTR data to evaluate the incidence of non-relapse mortality (NRM) and association with overall survival (OS) for bacterial blood stream infections (BSIs) occurring within 100 days of alloHCT in 2 different phases: pre-/peri-engraftment (BSI very early phase, BSI-VEP) and BSI post-engraftment (BSI occurring between 2 weeks after engraftment and day 100, late early phase, BSI-LEP). Of the 7128 alloHCT patients, 2656 (37%) had ≥1 BSI by day 100. BSI-VEP, BSI-LEP, and BSI-Both constituted 56% (n = 1492), 31% (n = 824), and 13% (n = 340) of total BSI, respectively. Read More
Bone Marrow Transplant 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Science, Fukuoka, Japan.
Currently, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is the only available curative modality for patients with adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL). When used in conjunction with posttransplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCY) for graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis, allo-HCT from an HLA haplo-identical donor yields promising outcomes for many diseases other than ATL. However, appropriate comparisons with other donor sources, especially cord blood and conventional HLA haplo-identical donors, are needed to validate the safety and efficacy of this modality. Read More
Emerg Microbes Infect 2018 Dec 13;7(1):212. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Division of Chemical & System Biology, Department of Integrative Biomedical Science, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
Mycobacterium manages to evade the host cell immune system, partially owing to its ability to survive redox stress after macrophage engulfment. Exposure to redox stress has been linked to later replication, persistence, and latent infection. In this work, mass spectrometry was used to elucidate the cell-wide changes that occur in response to sublethal doses of hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide over time, with Mycobacterium smegmatis being used as a model organism. Read More
Haematologica 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Institute of Cardiology, Jagiellonian University Medical College; John Paul II Hospital, Krakow.
Science 2018 Dec 13;362(6420):1236-1241. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
All Souls College, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 4AL, UK.
JMIR Res Protoc 2018 Dec 13;7(12):e188. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
Background: The conduct and publication of scientific research are increasingly open and collaborative. There is growing interest in Web-based platforms that can effectively enable global, multidisciplinary scientific teams and foster networks of scientists in areas of shared research interest. Designed to facilitate Web-based collaboration in research evidence synthesis, TaskExchange highlights the potential of these kinds of platforms. Read More
Vaccine 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.
Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130062, China. Electronic address:
Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most severe avian infectious disease inflicting a great loss on poultry industry worldwide. The control of ND relies on proper vaccination strategies. The vaccine strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) mainly belong to genotype I, II or III, which cannot fully prohibit virus shedding against the prevalent genotype VII virulent strain attack. Read More
Vaccine 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, WC1E 7HT London, United Kingdom; Modelling and Economics Unit, Public Health England, 61 Colindale Avenue, NW9 5EQ London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:
Background: National Immunisation Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs) are multi-disciplinary expert groups that provide policy-makers with independent, evidence-based advice on vaccination. Between 2008 and 2017, the SIVAC Initiative supported establishment and strengthening of NITAGs in low and lower-middle income countries though its impact was never assessed quantitatively.
Aim: To quantitatively assess whether SIVAC support is associated with a faster rate at which NITAGs became functional based on six performance indicators. Read More
Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Section of Infectious Diseases, New Haven, CT, 06520, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, Maryland, 20815, USA.
Ixodes scapularis vectors several pathogens including Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease. Nymphal and larval stages, and the pathogens transmitted by I. scapularis are maintained in a zoonotic cycle involving rodent reservoir hosts, predominantly Peromyscus leucopus. Read More
J Pediatr 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.
Division of General Academic Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA.
Objective: To develop a parent-reported Pediatric Rhinosinusitis Symptom Scale (PRSS) that could be used to monitor symptoms of young children with acute sinusitis in response to therapy.
Study Design: We developed an 8-item symptom severity scale and evaluated its internal reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness in children 2-12 years of age with acute sinusitis. Parents of 258 children with acute sinusitis completed the PRSS at the time of diagnosis, as a diary at home, and at the follow-up visit at days 10-12. Read More
J Am Coll Cardiol 2018 Dec;72(24):3110-3111
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Rochester, Minnesota; Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Rochester, Minnesota. Electronic address: https://twitter.com/riz1998.
Clin Epigenetics 2018 Dec 13;10(1):155. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine, 300 George Street, 950 Campbell Ave, West Haven, New Haven, CT, 06511, USA.
Background: The effects of tobacco smoking on epigenome-wide methylation signatures in white blood cells (WBCs) collected from persons living with HIV may have important implications for their immune-related outcomes, including frailty and mortality. The application of a machine learning approach to the analysis of CpG methylation in the epigenome enables the selection of phenotypically relevant features from high-dimensional data. Using this approach, we now report that a set of smoking-associated DNA-methylated CpGs predicts HIV prognosis and mortality in an HIV-positive veteran population. Read More
Microbiome 2018 Dec 13;6(1):221. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
University of Manitoba IBD Clinical and Research Centre, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.
Background: Immune-mediated inflammatory disease (IMID) represents a substantial health concern. It is widely recognized that IMID patients are at a higher risk for developing secondary inflammation-related conditions. While an ambiguous etiology is common to all IMIDs, in recent years, considerable knowledge has emerged regarding the plausible role of the gut microbiome in IMIDs. Read More
Parasit Vectors 2018 Dec 13;11(1):634. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Basic Medicine, School of Medicine, Shihezi University, Shihezi, Xinjiang, Uygur Autonomous Region, China.
Background: Rickettsia species belonging to the spotted fever group (SFG) cause infections in humans, domestic animals and wildlife. At least ten SFG Rickettsia species are known to occur in China. However, the distribution of rickettsiae in ticks and fleas in the border region of northwestern China have not been systematically studied to date. Read More