458,420 results match your criteria Infectious Esophagitis Imaging


Evaluation of in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of strains isolated during anthrax outbreaks in Italy from 1984 to 2017.

J Vet Sci 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Puglia e della Basilicata, Anthrax Reference Institute of Italy, Foggia 71121, Italy.

Anthrax, caused by , is a non-contagious infectious disease that affects a wide range of animal species (primarily ruminants), as well as humans. Due to the often fatal outcome in human cases, the quick administration of definitely effective antimicrobials is crucial either as prophylaxis or for the therapy of clinical cases. In this study, a total of 110 strains, temporally, geographically and genetically different, isolated during anthrax outbreaks in Italy from 1984 to 2017, were screened for their susceptibility towards 16 clinically relevant antimicrobial agents using the broth microdilution method. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Xenotransplantation: Progress Along Paths Uncertain from Models to Application.

ILAR J 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Translational Medicine and The Comparative Medicine Institute, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina.

For more than a century, transplantation of tissues and organs from animals into man, xenotransplantation, has been viewed as a potential way to treat disease. Ironically, interest in xenotransplantation was fueled especially by successful application of allotransplantation, that is, transplantation of human tissue and organs, as a treatment for a variety of diseases, especially organ failure because scarcity of human tissues limited allotransplantation to a fraction of those who could benefit. In principle, use of animals such as pigs as a source of transplants would allow transplantation to exert a vastly greater impact than allotransplantation on medicine and public health. Read More

View Article
December 2018
2 Reads

Household transmission of seasonal influenza from HIV-infected and -uninfected individuals in South Africa, 2013-2014.

J Infect Dis 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Centre for Respiratory Diseases and Meningitis, National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: Differential transmission from HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected individuals may impact influenza burden. We estimated the household secondary infection risk (SIR) and serial interval (SI) for influenza transmission from HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected index cases and identified associated factors.

Methods: Index cases were the first symptomatic person in a household with influenza-like illness, testing influenza positive on real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). Read More

View Article
December 2018

Improvement in insulin sensitivity and serum leptin concentration after the switch from a ritonavir-boosted PI to raltegravir or dolutegravir in non-diabetic HIV-infected patients.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Unit of Infectious Diseases, 'Alma Mater Studiorum' University of Bologna, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, via Massarenti 11, Bologna, Italy.

Objectives: An observational, prospective, cohort study was performed to assess changes in insulin sensitivity and serum leptin level after a switch from a ritonavir-boosted PI (PI/r) to raltegravir or dolutegravir in HIV-infected adults on stable combination ART (cART).

Methods: Non-diabetic HIV-infected patients receiving suppressive cART including tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine plus one PI/r, who underwent a switch from the PI/r to raltegravir (group A) or dolutegravir (group B), were enrolled in the study. Serum levels of insulin, leptin and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA) index were evaluated during a 12 month follow-up. Read More

View Article
December 2018

The role of glutamine metabolism for host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

J Infect Dis 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Radboud university medical center, Department of Internal Medicine and Radboud Center of Infectious Diseases, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Background: Rewiring cellular metabolism is important for activation of immune cells during host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Glutamine has been implicated as an immunomodulatory nutrient, but its role in response to M. tuberculosis is unknown. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Older HIV+ and HIV- Adults Provide Similar Definitions of Successful Aging: A Mixed-Methods Examination.

Gerontologist 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego.

Background And Objective: As HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals age, there is a need to understand successful aging (SA) from the patient perspective. This study compared SA definitions between HIV+ and HIV-uninfected (HIV-) older adults and then examined correlates of SA categories.

Research Design And Methods: Ninety-three HIV+ and 46 HIV- older (aged 50+) adults provided brief definitions of SA, which was examined using content analysis. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Implementation of a Stirling number estimator enables direct calculation of population genetics tests for large sequence data sets.

Authors:
Swaine L Chen

Bioinformatics 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore; and Infectious Diseases Group, Genome Institute of Singapore, Singapore.

Motivation: Stirling numbers enter into the calculation of several population genetics statistics, including Fu's Fs. However, as alignments become large (>∼50 sequences), the Stirling numbers required rapidly exceed the standard floating point range. Another recursive method for calculating Fu's Fs suffers from floating point underflow issues. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Single-dose radical cure for Plasmodium vivax.

Authors:
Kevin C Kain

J Travel Med 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Tropical Disease Unit, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto; SAR Laboratories, Sandra Rotman Centre for Global Health, University Health Network-Toronto General Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

View Article
December 2018

Safety Considerations When Working with Humanized Animals.

ILAR J 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School in Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Research using laboratory animals has been revolutionized by the creation of humanized animal models, which are immunodeficient animals engrafted with human cells, tissues, or organs. These animal models provide the research community a unique and promising opportunity to mimic a wide variety of disease conditions in humans, from infectious disease to cancer. A vast majority of these models are humanized mice like those injected with human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells and patient-derived xenografts. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Detection of IgG1 against rK39 improves monitoring of treatment outcome in visceral leishmaniasis.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, Sudan.

Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by the Leishmania donovani complex, is a fatal neglected tropical disease that is targeted for elimination in India, Nepal and Bangladesh. Improved diagnostic tests are required for early case detection and for monitoring outcome of treatment. Previous investigations using Leishmania lysate antigen demonstrated that IgG1 response is a potential indicator of clinical status after chemotherapy. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Babesiosis-Associated Splenic Rupture: Case Series from a Hyperendemic Region.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Medicine, Rhode Island Hospital and Alpert Medical School of Brown University.

Background: Spontaneous splenic rupture is an increasingly reported complication of babesiosis and has been described as a severe complication.

Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review in a high prevalence area to identify seven cases of babesiosis-related splenic rupture between 2014 - 2016.

Results: Splenic rupture occurred in approximately 1% of babesiosis cases. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Effects of Enteral Immunonutrition in Patients Undergoing Pancreaticoduodenectomy: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Ann Nutr Metab 2018 Dec 12;74(1):53-61. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Background: The effect of enteral immunonutrition (EIN) in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is still doubtful. This meta-analysis aimed to assess the impact of EIN on postoperative clinical outcomes for patients undergoing PD.

Methods: A literature search was carried out to identify all of the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) concerning the use of EIN for PD. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Additional Effect of Perioperative, Compared with Preoperative, Immunonutrition After Pancreaticoduodenectomy: A Randomized, Controlled Trial.

Int J Surg 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

From the Department of General Surgery, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba, Japan, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, Chiba, 260-0856, Japan.

Background: We have reported that perioperative and preoperative immunonutrition reduced infectious complications in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy; however, it is unclear whether perioperative immunonutrition has additional effects compared with preoperative immunonutrition. The present study evaluated whether perioperative, compared with preoperative, immunonutrition has additional effects on cell-mediated immunity and the infection rate after pancreaticoduodenectomy.

Materials And Methods: This was a prospective, randomized clinical trial conducted in our institution. Read More

View Article
December 2018

V2-Directed Vaccine-like Antibodies from HIV-1 Infection Identify an Additional K169-Binding Light Chain Motif with Broad ADCC Activity.

Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(11):3123-3135.e6

National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg 2131, South Africa; Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2000, South Africa; Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA), University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban 4041, South Africa. Electronic address:

Antibodies that bind residue K169 in the V2 region of the HIV-1 envelope correlated with reduced risk of infection in the RV144 vaccine trial but were restricted to two ED-motif-encoding light chain genes. Here, we identify an HIV-infected donor with high-titer V2 peptide-binding antibodies and isolate two antibody lineages (CAP228-16H/19F and CAP228-3D) that mediate potent antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Both lineages use the IGHV5-51 heavy chain germline gene, similar to the RV144 antibody CH58, but one lineage (CAP228-16H/19F) uses a light chain without the ED motif. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells Produce IL-10 to Elicit DNMT3b-Dependent IRF8 Silencing to Promote Colitis-Associated Colon Tumorigenesis.

Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(11):3036-3046.e6

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912, USA; Georgia Cancer Center, Augusta University, Augusta, GA 30912, USA; Charlie Norwood VA Medical Center, Augusta, GA 30904, USA. Electronic address:

IL-10 functions as a suppressor of colitis and colitis-associated colon cancer, but it is also a risk locus associated with ulcerative colitis. The mechanism underlying the contrasting roles of IL-10 in inflammation and colon cancer is unknown. We report here that inflammation induces the accumulation of CD11bGr1 myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) that express high levels of IL-10 in colon tissue. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Heterogeneous Responses of Hematopoietic Stem Cells to Inflammatory Stimuli Are Altered with Age.

Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(11):2992-3005.e5

Division of Biology and Biological Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA. Electronic address:

Long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs) maintain hematopoietic output throughout an animal's lifespan. However, with age, the balance is disrupted, and LT-HSCs produce a myeloid-biased output, resulting in poor immune responses to infectious challenge and the development of myeloid leukemias. Here, we show that young and aged LT-HSCs respond differently to inflammatory stress, such that aged LT-HSCs produce a cell-intrinsic, myeloid-biased expression program. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Destructive lesion of the temporomandibular joint: A case of tophaceous pseudogout.

Ear Nose Throat J 2018 Dec;97(12):E18-E20

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Virginia Commonwealth University, West Hospital, 1200 East Broad St., 12th Floor, South Wing, Suite 313, Box 980146, Richmond, VA 23298-0146, USA.

Tophaceous pseudogout of the temporomandibular joint is a rare entity that clinically and radiographically mimics neoplastic or infectious conditions. Diagnosis requires histopathologic examination. Given the rarity of this condition, there is a paucity of information pertaining to the surgical approach, reconstructive options, and postoperative outcomes. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Changes of sexual risk behaviors and sexual connections among HIV-positive men who have sex with men along their HIV care continuum.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0209008. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Stanley Ho Centre for Emerging Infectious Diseases, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

Background: While HIV incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM) is increasing in Hong Kong, unprotected sex apparently remains prevalent among those infected but virally non-suppressed. Little is known about how sexual behaviours and sexual connections may change among MSM along their HIV care continuum.

Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, HIV-positive MSM attending the largest HIV specialist clinic in Hong Kong between October and December 2014 were invited to complete a self-administrated structured questionnaire. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Engaging community leaders to improve male partner participation in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0207986. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Public Health Sciences, Global Health (IHCAR), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Male partner participation improves uptake, retention and outcomes of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) services. However, in patriarchal settings few men accompany their partners to antenatal care (ANC) and PMTCT services. We explored whether community leaders can improve male partner participation in ANC and PMTCT. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Development of Onchocerca volvulus in humanized NSG mice and detection of parasite biomarkers in urine and serum.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Dec 12;12(12):e0006977. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia Pennsylvania, United States of America.

Background: The study of Onchocerca volvulus has been limited by its host range, with only humans and non-human primates shown to be susceptible to the full life cycle infection. Small animal models that support the development of adult parasites have not been identified.

Methodology/principal Findings: We hypothesized that highly immunodeficient NSG mice would support the survival and maturation of O. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Introduction to Special Issue on Pathogens in China.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

3 Biosecurity Research Institute, Kansas State University , Manhattan, Kansas.

View Article
December 2018

G-protein-coupled formyl peptide receptors play a dual role in neutrophil chemotaxis and bacterial phagocytosis.

Mol Biol Cell 2018 Dec 12:mbcE18060358. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Chemotaxis Signal Section, Laboratory of Immunogenetics, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD.

A dogma of innate immunity is that neutrophils use G-Protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) for chemoattractant to chase bacteria through chemotaxis and then use phagocytic receptors coupled with tyrosine kinases to destroy opsonized bacteria via phagocytosis. Our current work showed that G-protein-coupled formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) directly mediate neutrophil phagocytosis. Mouse neutrophils lacking formyl peptide receptors (Fpr1/2) are defective in the phagocytosis of E. Read More

View Article
December 2018

PD-1 Polymorphisms Are Associated with Susceptibility of Acute Anterior Uveitis in Chinese Population.

DNA Cell Biol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

1 The Eye Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical University , Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China .

Acute anterior uveitis (AAU) is an ordinary type of uveitis, which is an autoimmune disease produced by T cells. Programmed apoptosis protein 1 (PD-1) is a vital negative regulatory protein of immune tolerance. We detect the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs41386349, rs10204525, and rs2227982 of PD-1 to investigate the correlation between PD-1 polymorphisms and AAU. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Association of Screening and Treatment for Preoperative Asymptomatic Bacteriuria With Postoperative Outcomes Among US Veterans.

JAMA Surg 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Medicine, VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, Massachusetts.

Importance: Limited data suggest that screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) prior to nonurologic procedures is not useful. However, high-quality evidence to support consensus recommendations and influence clinical practice is lacking.

Objective: To characterize the association between detection and treatment of preoperative ASB and postoperative outcomes. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Water quality, availability, and acute gastroenteritis on the Navajo Nation - a pilot case-control study.

J Water Health 2018 Dec;16(6):1018-1028

Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, Georgia 30029, USA E-mail:

The Navajo Nation includes approximately 250,000 American Indians living in a remote high desert environment with limited access to public water systems. We conducted a pilot case-control study to assess associations between acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and water availability, use patterns, and quality. Case patients with AGE and non-AGE controls who presented for care to two Indian Health Service hospitals were recruited. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Adhesion and biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates under conditions relevant to the host: relationship with macrolide resistance and clonal lineages.

J Med Microbiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

4​Department of Medicine, Campus Biomedico University, Via Alvaro del Portillo 200, 00128 Rome, Italy.

Purpose: Staphylococcus aureus isolates, collected from various clinical samples, were analysed to evaluate the contribution of the genetic background of both erythromycin-resistant (ERSA) and -susceptible (ESSA) S. aureus strains to biofilm formation.

Methods: A total of 66 ESSA and 43 ERSA clinical isolates were studied for adhesiveness and biofilm formation under different atmospheres. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Polymorphisms in the TGFB1 and IL2RA genes are associated with clinical forms of leprosy in Brazilian population.

Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2018 Dec 10;113(12):e180274. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Instituto Lauro de Souza Lima, Bauru, SP, Brasil.

BACKGROUND Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, and compromises the skin and peripheral nerves. This disease has been classified as multibacillary (MB) or paucibacillary (PB) depending on the host immune response. Genetic epidemiology studies in leprosy have shown the influence of human genetic components on the disease outcomes. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Molecular typing reveals the co-existence of two transmission cycles of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Andean Region of Venezuela with Lutzomyia migonei as the vector.

Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2018 Dec 6;113(12):e180323. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Universidad de Carabobo, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Centro Nacional de Referencia de Flebotomos y otros Vectores, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas Dr Francisco J Triana-Alonso, Maracay, Venezuela.

BACKGROUND The transmission routes for American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) are in flux, so studies examining its transmission in humans, mammalian hosts, and sand fly vectors are urgently needed. OBJECTIVES The aim of this work was understand the epidemiological cycles of Leishmania spp., which causes ACL in the Andean Region of Venezuela, by identifying the Leishmania and the sand fly species involved in human and dog infections. Read More

View Article
December 2018

The role of Epstein-Barr virus in multiple sclerosis: from molecular pathophysiology to imaging.

Neural Regen Res 2019 Mar;14(3):373-386

Buffalo Neuroimaging Analysis Center, Department of Neurology, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences; Center for Biomedical Imaging at Clinical Translational Science Institute, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system characterized by inflammation, demyelination, and neuronal damage. Environmental and genetic factors are associated with the risk of developing MS, but the exact cause still remains unidentified. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), vitamin D, and smoking are among the most well-established environmental risk factors in MS. Read More

View Article

Macrophage Raptor Deficiency-Induced Lysosome Dysfunction Exacerbates Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis.

Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Sep 19;7(1):211-231. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Metabolic Diseases, Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is an increasingly prevalent nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration and hepatocellular damage. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) has been investigated extensively in the context of cancer, including hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the role of mTORC1 in NASH remains largely unknown. Read More

View Article
September 2018

Incidence and risk factors of brucellosis in Kermanshah province, Iran during 2010-2014.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Infectious diseases research center, AJA University of medical sciences, Tehran. Iran.

Introduction: Incidence of brucellosis was growing up in Iran during the past years. Kermanshah province-west of Iran is one of the endemic regions of the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and risk factors of brucellosis in Kermanshah province during a recent five-year period. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Fast, economic and simultaneous identification of clinically relevant Gram-negative species with multiplex real-time PCR.

Future Microbiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Research & Development, Abbott (Alere Technologies GmbH), Jena, Germany.

Aim: A newly designed multiplex real-time PCR (rt-PCR) was validated to detect four clinically relevant Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa).

Materials & Methods: Serial dilutions of genomic DNA were used to determine the limit of detection. Colony PCR was performed with isolates of the four selected species and other species as negative controls. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Biobanking of Urine Samples.

Authors:
Neda A Moatamed

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1897:115-124

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Urine is a major repository of biometabolites, some proteins, and DNA. Within the past few decades, it has become increasingly apparent that certain infectious, neoplastic, and congenital diseases can be investigated using urine samples for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. In this chapter, a number of pertinent urine analytes and methods of banking urine samples for future analyses are discussed. Read More

View Article
January 2019

Biobanking of Cerebrospinal Fluid.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1897:107-114

Division of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a physiologically essential fluid produced by the brain that is involved in protecting the brain and in the exchange of nutrients and waste products. CSF has long been utilized to confirm clinical suspicion of various infectious and inflammatory disorders, such as meningitis and multiple sclerosis. However, there has been increasing interest in collecting CSF in order to study the clinical significance of additional biomarkers. Read More

View Article
January 2019

[Georg von Hofmann-Wellenhof-130 years ago the first victim at the beginning of the investigation of infectious diseases in Austria].

Authors:
Heinz Flamm

Wien Med Wochenschr 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Klinisches Institut, Universität Wien, Martinstraße 7, 3400, Klosterneuburg, Österreich.

After his medical studies in Vienna and Graz, Georg von Hofmann-Wellenhof, born in 1860 in Vienna, became an assistant at the Pathology Institute at the University of Graz. In 1887, he described a bacterium in the pharynx which resembled diphtheria bacillus. As it was not pathogenic in animal experiments, he named it Bacillus pseudodiphthericus, now Corynebacterium pseudodiphthericum. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Pathogenicity of two novel human-origin H7N9 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in chickens and ducks.

Arch Virol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Division of Transboundary Animal Disease, National Institute of Animal Health, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO), 3-1-5 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0856, Japan.

Human infection by low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H7N9 subtype was first reported in March 2013 in China. Subsequently, these viruses caused five outbreaks through September 2017. In the fifth outbreak, H7N9 virus possessing a multiple basic amino acid insertion in the cleavage site of hemagglutinin emerged and caused 4% of all human infections in that period. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Delafloxacin meglumine for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI).

Drugs Today (Barc) 2018 Nov;54(11):657-666

Division of Microbiology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India.

Delafloxacin meglumine (Baxdela, WQ-3034, ABT-492, RX-3341; Melinta Therapeutics) was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in June 2017 for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections on the basis of data from two phase III trials. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Role of viruses, prions and miRNA in neurodegenerative disorders and dementia.

Virusdisease 2018 Dec 29;29(4):419-433. Epub 2018 Sep 29.

Drug Design & Development Section, Translational Gerontology Branch, Intramural Research Program, National, Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Biomedical Research Center, 251 Bayview Boulevard, Baltimore, MD 21224 USA.

Dementia is known as loss of cellular communications in the brain at a region caused by multi-factorial diseases and pathogenic infections. Approximately eighty percent reported cases of Alzheimer's disease are followed by vascular dementia. The common symptoms of dementia include memory loss, concentration problems, thinking, and language solving situations. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Antimicrobial Susceptibility Trends Observed in Urinary Pathogens Obtained From New York State.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2018 Nov 16;5(11):ofy297. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Pharmacy Practice, Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Albany, New York.

International guidelines recommend using local susceptibility data to direct empiric therapy for acute uncomplicated cystitis. We evaluated outpatient urinary isolate susceptibility trends in New York State. Nitrofurantoin had the lowest resistance prevalence whereas trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and fluoroquinolones had higher prevalences. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Effect of On-Demand Oral Pre-exposure Prophylaxis With Tenofovir/Emtricitabine on Herpes Simplex Virus-1/2 Incidence Among Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Substudy of the ANRS IPERGAY Trial.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2018 Nov 8;5(11):ofy295. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) Unité, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Unité Mixte de Recherche, Institut Universitaire d'Hématologie, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Université Paris Diderot, Hôpital Saint Louis, France.

We evaluated the impact of on-demand oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC) for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) on herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1/2 incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM) enrolled in the ANRS IPERGAY trial. Serum samples were tested at baseline and at the last visit for HSV-1/2 antibodies. Overall HSV-1 incidence was 11. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Multidisciplinary Authorship Among Infectious Diseases Society of America Clinical Practice Guidelines: Examining the Contributions of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2018 Nov 17;5(11):ofy287. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy & Outcomes Sciences, University of South Carolina College of Pharmacy, Columbia, South Carolina.

We describe the proportion of pharmacist representation among current and corresponding prior editions of Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Pharmacist representation was 13% and 21% in previous and current editions, respectively, increasing significantly since 2011. We advocate for continued collaborations between IDSA and pharmacy organizations to enhance multidisciplinary representation in CPGs. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Comprehensive Assessment of Didactic Curriculum and Career Interest in Infectious Diseases Among Graduating United States Pharmacy Students.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2018 Nov 31;5(11):ofy284. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of California San Francisco School of Pharmacy.

Background: The growing need for clinicians with antimicrobial stewardship (AS) skills has resulted in an examination of educational methods for pharmacy and medical learners. This study explores characteristics associated with student assessment of didactic infectious diseases (ID) education quality and variables associated with a career interest in ID and/or AS.

Methods: Infectious diseases faculty from US pharmacy schools were sent a 15-question survey in September 2017. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Overproduction of IL-6 and Type-I IFN in a Lethal Case of Chikungunya Virus Infection in an Elderly Man During the 2017 Italian Outbreak.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2018 Nov 25;5(11):ofy276. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

National Institute for Infectious Diseases "L. Spallanzani" IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Chikungunya fever is caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and is generally considered a self-limiting disease. However, severe clinical presentations with a high mortality rate have been reported in association with underlying medical conditions. This study reports the molecular characterization of the virus and an abnormal pattern of circulating cytokines in a unique lethal CHIKV case during the 2017 outbreak in Italy, which involved an elderly patient with underlying cardiac disease. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Predictors of Surgical Intervention in Dialysis Patients With Infective Endocarditis.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2018 Nov 20;5(11):ofy265. Epub 2018 Oct 20.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, Georgia.

Background: The use of valve surgery for infective endocarditis (IE) in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients may be different than in the general population. We assessed predictors of early surgery in ESRD patients with IE.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study among dialysis patients with left-sided IE between 2005 and 2015. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Microbial Identification Using DNA Target Amplification and Sequencing: Clinical Utility and Impact on Patient Management.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2018 Nov 10;5(11):ofy257. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases.

Broad-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is increasingly used in patients with culture-negative infections; however, few studies have assessed the diagnostic utility of this test in this context. We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients who had clinical specimens sent for broad-range PCR, aiming to evaluate performance and determine impact on patient management. Organisms were identified in 21/71 samples. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Mediators of Inflammation - A Potential Source of Biomarkers in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

J Immunol Res 2018 12;2018:1061780. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

"Victor Babes" Clinical Hospital for Infectious Diseases, 281 Mihai Bravu, 030303 Bucharest, Romania.

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common tumour of the oral cavity, associated with significant morbidity and mortality. It is a multifactorial condition, both genetic and environmental factors being involved in its development and progression. Its pathogenesis is not fully elucidated, but a pivotal role has been attributed to inflammation, strong evidence supporting the association between chronic inflammation and carcinogenesis. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Antimicrobial Consumption and Susceptibility of : A Global Ecological Analysis.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2018 27;5:329. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Reproductive Health and Research, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

The reasons why antimicrobial resistance in has emerged explosively in certain populations but not others are poorly understood. We hypothesized that population level consumption of antimicrobials plays a role. Using susceptibility data from the World Health Organizations Global Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme and antimicrobial consumption data from the IMS Health MIDAS database we built linear regression models with country-level cephalosporin, macrolide, and fluoroquinolone consumption (standard doses/1,000 population/year) as the explanatory variable and 1-year lagged ceftriaxone, azithromycin, and ciprofloxacin resistance as the outcome variables. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Models for Predicting Time to Sputum Conversion Among Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis Patients in Lagos, South-West Nigeria.

Front Public Health 2018 27;6:347. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Research and Innovation, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.

Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) develops due to problems such as irregular drug supply, poor drug quality, inappropriate prescription, and poor adherence to treatment. These factors allow the development and subsequent transmission of resistant strains of the pathogen. However, due to the chronic nature of MDR-TB, cure models allow us to investigate the covariates that are associated with the long-term effects of time-to-sputum conversion among multi-drug resistant (MDR-TB) tuberculosis individuals. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Sofosbuvir-Based Therapies for Patients with Hepatitis C Virus Infection: Real-World Experience in China.

Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 13;2018:3908767. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Infectious Diseases and Hepatology Unit, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background And Aims: There is scarcity of data in literature regarding the treatment response to sofosbuvir- (SOF-) based therapies in Chinese patients with chronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SOF-based regimens for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients without cirrhosis in a real-world setting in mainland China.

Methods: A total of 226 patients receiving SOF plus daclatasvir (DCV), ledipasvir (LDV), or velpatasvir (VEL) were enrolled from December 2014 to June 2017. Read More

View Article
November 2018