1,728 results match your criteria Infectious Disease Clinics of North America[Journal]


What's in a Name and Why "Tropical Medicine" Matters in 2019.

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2019 Mar;33(1):xiii-xiv

McGill University Health Centre, 1001 Boulevard Décarie, Glen Site, Office #EM3.3242, Montréal, QC H4A 3J1, Canada. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.12.001DOI Listing

Visceral Leishmaniasis: Recent Advances in Diagnostics and Treatment Regimens.

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2019 Mar;33(1):79-99

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Gondar, Post Office Box 196, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Diagnostic advances in visceral leishmaniasis include the development of the rK39 and rK28 rapid diagnostic test. The direct agglutination test is also increasingly used, as well as conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction, which also performs well on peripheral blood. The choice of treatment for visceral leishmaniasis depends on the geographic region where the infection is acquired. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.10.005DOI Listing
March 2019
6 Reads

Human African Trypanosomiasis: Progress and Stagnation.

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2019 Mar;33(1):61-77

Department of Clinical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nationalestraat 155, Antwerpen 2000, Belgium.

Control efforts have considerably reduced the prevalence of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in West/Central Africa and to Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense in East Africa. Management of T brucei gambiense HAT has recently improved, with new antibody-based rapid diagnostic tests suited for mass screening and clinical care, and simpler treatments, including the nifurtimox-eflornithine combination therapy and the new oral drug fexinidazole to treat the second stage of the disease. In contrast, no major advance has been achieved for the treatment of T brucei rhodesiense HAT, a zoonosis that occasionally affects short-term travelers to endemic areas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.10.003DOI Listing

Malaria: What's New in the Management of Malaria?

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2019 Mar;33(1):39-60

Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus, Headington, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK; Mahidol-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit (MORU), Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, 3/F 60th, Anniversary Chalermprakiat Building, 420/6 Rajvithi Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand. Electronic address:

The global burden of malaria remains high, with 216 million cases causing 445,000 deaths in 2016 despite first-line treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapy. Decreasing transmission in Africa shifts the risk for severe malaria to older age groups as premunition wanes. Prompt diagnosis and treatment with intravenous artesunate in addition to appropriate supportive management are critical to reduce deaths from severe malaria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.10.002DOI Listing

Migration Medicine.

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2019 Mar;33(1):265-287

University Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, University of Brescia and ASST Spedali Civili, Piazza del Mercato, 15, Lombardy, Brescia 25121, Italy; UNESCO Chair "Training and Empowering Human Resources for Health Development in Resource-Limited Countries", University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.

Migration is increasing and practitioners need to be aware of the unique health needs of this population. The prevalence of infectious diseases among migrants varies and generally mirrors that of their countries of origin, but is modified by the circumstance of migration, the presence of pre-arrival screening programs and post arrival access to health care. To optimize the health of migrants practitioners; (1) should take all opportunities to screen migrants at risk for latent infections such as tuberculosis, chronic hepatitis B and C, HIV, strongyloidiasis, schistosomiasis and Chagas disease, (2) update routine vaccines in all age groups and, (3) be aware of "rare and tropical infections" related to migration and return travel. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.10.014DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Evidence-Based Clinical Management of Ebola Virus Disease and Epidemic Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers.

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2019 Mar;33(1):247-264

Interdepartmental Division of Critical Care, University of Toronto, 209 Victoria Street, 4th Floor, Room 411, Toronto, Ontario M5B 1T8, Canada; Department of Medicine, Université de Sherbrooke, 300112e Avenue Nord, Sherbrooke, Québec J1H 5N4, Canada. Electronic address:

The 2014 to 2016 Ebola virus disease outbreak underscored the threat posed by hemorrhagic fevers. Filoviral outbreaks have been identified since 1967, but data collection has remained sparse, limiting current knowledge of these illnesses. Documentation of objective physical signs and laboratory parameters and appropriate clinical management are connected and interdependent. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.10.013DOI Listing

Antimicrobial Resistance in the Tropics.

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2019 Mar;33(1):231-245

Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke, Office 200, 150 Place Charles-Le Moyne, Longueuil, Québec J4K 0A8, Canada.

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is on the rise and spreading rapidly worldwide. Low- and middle-income countries, because of weak health systems, are particularly vulnerable to this increase. Population mobility further fuels the globalization of AMR, with travelers and migrants at significant risk of harboring drug-resistant organisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.10.009DOI Listing

The Rickettsioses: A Practical Update.

Authors:
Lucas S Blanton

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2019 Mar;33(1):213-229

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555-0435, USA. Electronic address:

Rickettsia are small, obligately intracellular, gram-negative bacilli. They are distributed among a variety of hematophagous arthropod vectors and cause illness throughout the world. Rickettsioses present as an acute undifferentiated febrile illness and are often accompanied by headache, myalgias, and malaise. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.10.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6364315PMC
March 2019
1 Read

New Tools to Test Stool: Managing Travelers' Diarrhea in the Era of Molecular Diagnostics.

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2019 Mar;33(1):197-212

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Division of Medical Microbiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Electronic address:

Travelers' diarrhea affects up to 60% of visitors to tropical and subtropical regions. Although symptoms are generally self-limited, some infections are associated with significant morbidity and occasional mortality. Newer molecular diagnostic techniques allow for highly sensitive, specific, and expeditious testing of a wide range of potential pathogens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.10.012DOI Listing

Venomous Bites, Stings, and Poisoning: An Update.

Authors:
David A Warrell

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2019 Mar;33(1):17-38

Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK. Electronic address:

This article discusses the epidemiology, prevention, clinical features, and treatment of venomous bites by snakes, lizards, and spiders; stings by fish, jellyfish, echinoderms, insects, and scorpions; and poisoning by ingestion of fish, turtles, and shellfish. Invertebrate stings cause fatalities by anaphylaxis, secondary to acquired hypersensitivity (Hymenoptera, such as bees, wasps, and ants; and jellyfish), and by direct envenoming (scorpions, spiders, jellyfish, and echinoderms). Simple preventive techniques, such as wearing protective clothing, using a flashlight at night, and excluding venomous animals from sleeping quarters, are of paramount importance to reduce the risk of venomous bites and stings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.10.001DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Sound Around the World: Ultrasound for Tropical Diseases.

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2019 Mar;33(1):169-195

Center for Tropical Diseases, IRCSS, Sacro Cuore Don Calabria Hospital, Via Don A Sempreboni 5, Negrar, Verona 37024, Italy.

Ultrasound for diagnosis and staging of schistosomiasis and echinococcosis have paved the way over the past several decades for the application of ultrasound in tropical diseases. Until recently, the size and cost of ultrasound systems limited the application in low-resource settings. The increase in portable ultrasound systems has given more clinicians access to ultrasound, and clinically based protocols for the care of patients have emerged, such as focused assessment with sonography for HIV/TB and tropical cardiac ultrasound. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.10.008DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Neurocysticerosis: An Individualized Approach.

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2019 Mar;33(1):153-168

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461, USA. Electronic address:

Neurocysticercosis is an infection of the central nervous system by the larval stage of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium. The combination of modern diagnostic tests, use of antiparasitic drugs, improved anti-inflammatory treatments, and minimally invasive neurosurgery has improved outcomes in patients with neurocysticercosis. This parasitic infection is complex in both the clinical presentation and the treatment approach, which depends on the number of cysts, location in the brain, stage of degeneration, and host inflammatory response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.10.007DOI Listing
March 2019
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Strongyloidiasis: A Neglected Tropical Disease.

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2019 Mar;33(1):135-151

Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Building 4 - Room B1-03, 4 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892-0425, USA. Electronic address:

Most of the 30 to 100 million people infected with Strongyloides stercoralis have subclinical (or asymptomatic) infections. These infections are commonly chronic and longstanding. A change in immune status can increase parasite numbers, leading to hyperinfection syndrome, dissemination, and death if unrecognized. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08915520183009
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.10.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367705PMC
March 2019
4 Reads

American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas Disease).

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2019 Mar;33(1):119-134

Division of Cardiology, Department of Cardiac Sciences, Libin Cardiovascular Institute of Alberta, University of Calgary, Foothills Medical Centre, Room C823, 1403 29th Street Northwest, Calgary, Alberta T2N 2T9, Canada. Electronic address:

American trypanosomiasis is caused by a parasite endemic of the Americas. Current migration has globalized Chagas disease. Acute infection usually resolves spontaneously. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.10.015DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Updates in Diagnosis and Management.

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2019 Mar;33(1):101-117

U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit Number 6, Lima, Peru.

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a diverse human disease caused by more than 20 Leishmania species transmitted by the bite of an infected sand fly. Diagnostic testing is recommended to confirm infection and determine the infecting species. Treatment decisions are complex and providers should consider infecting species, patient comorbidities, extent and location of lesions, and previous treatments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.10.004DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Introduction to Tropical Medicine.

Authors:
Priscilla Rupali

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2019 Mar;33(1):1-15

Department of Infectious Diseases, Infectious Diseases Training and Research Center, Ida Scudder Road, Christian Medical College Hospital, Vellore, Tamilnadu 632004, India. Electronic address:

Tropical medicine deals with infectious and noninfectious diseases geographically located between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. It encompasses diseases that result from poverty, poor sanitation, infrastructure, and inadequate health resources. Lack of availability of clean water and food made with unhygienic practices add to the morbidity of these diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.10.011DOI Listing

Device-Associated Infections.

Authors:
Vivian H Chu

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2018 12;32(4):ix-x

Division of Infectious Diseases, Duke University School of Medicine, Duke Box 102359, Durham, NC 27710, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.09.001DOI Listing
December 2018

Intravascular Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infections.

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2018 12 18;32(4):765-787. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 985400 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA.

Despite recent gains, intravascular catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) remains an important clinical problem resulting in significant morbidity, mortality, and excess economic cost. Successful prevention of CRBSI requires careful attention to insertion and maintenance protocols as well as judicious application of innovative technologic advancements. Appropriate treatment of CRBSI depends on a well-considered diagnosis, correct antimicrobial choice, removal of the offending device in many circumstances, and careful patient selection and application of antimicrobial lock therapy in patients in whom catheter salvage is attempted. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08915520183005
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.06.002DOI Listing
December 2018
5 Reads

Prosthetic Joint Infection Update.

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2018 12 18;32(4):843-859. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

Division of Infectious Disease, Departments of Medicine and Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street Southwest, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

Prosthetic joint infection occurs in a minority of arthroplasties performed; however, it brings a large burden to both the individual and society in terms of morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditure. Although prevention of prosthetic joint infection is becoming more effective, the number of total arthroplasties in patients with increasing comorbidities continues to rise, and the total number of diagnosed and managed prosthetic joint infections is expected to rise accordingly. Management is complex and involves a multispecialty approach. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.06.005DOI Listing
December 2018

Vascular Graft Infections: An update.

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2018 12 18;32(4):789-809. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, American University of Beirut, Cairo Street, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020, Lebanon; Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Cairo Street, PO Box 11-0236/11D, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020, Lebanon. Electronic address:

Vascular graft infection is a devastating complication of vascular reconstructive surgery. The infection can occur early in the postoperative period and is largely due to intraoperative contamination or by contiguous extension from a nearby infection. It can also occur years after implantation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.06.003DOI Listing
December 2018

Understanding Biofilms and Novel Approaches to the Diagnosis, Prevention, and Treatment of Medical Device-Associated Infections.

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2018 12 18;32(4):915-929. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

Division of Clinical Microbiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street Southwest, Rochester, MN 55905, USA; Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street Southwest, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. Electronic address:

Treatment of medical device-related infections is challenging and recurrence is common. The main reason for this is that microorganisms adhere to the surfaces of medical devices and enter into a biofilm state in which they display distinct growth rates, structural features, and protection from antimicrobial agents and host immune mechanisms compared with their planktonic counterparts. This article reviews how microorganisms form biofilms and the mechanisms of protection against antimicrobial agents and the host immune system provided by biofilms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.06.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6215726PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Breast Implant Infections: An Update.

Authors:
Tahaniyat Lalani

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2018 Dec 18;32(4):877-884. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

Preventive Medicine and Biostatistics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Science, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA. Electronic address:

Prosthetic breast implantation is a common surgical procedure for augmentation and reconstruction after mastectomy. The incidence of implant infection is 1% to 2.5% and is higher for reconstruction following mastectomy compared with augmentation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.06.007DOI Listing
December 2018

New Developments in the Prevention of Gastrointestinal Scope-Related Infections.

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2018 Dec 18;32(4):899-913. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

Department of Hospital Epidemiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 8635 W 3rd Street, Suite 1150W, Los Angeles, CA, USA; Department of Medical Affairs, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, Suite 2211, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA. Electronic address:

Gastrointestinal endoscopes are used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes and are the most common medical device implicated in health care-associated outbreaks. Infections can be divided into endogenous or exogenous. Exogenous infections were associated with lapses in reprocessing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.06.008DOI Listing
December 2018

Urinary Catheter-Associated Infections.

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2018 Dec 18;32(4):885-897. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Michigan Medicine, F4007 University Hospital South, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5226, USA; Antimicrobial Stewardship Program, Michigan Medicine, F4141 University Hospital South, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5226, USA.

Catheter-associated urinary tract infection remains one of the most prevalent, yet preventable, health care-associated infections. General prevention strategies include strict adherence to hand hygiene and antimicrobial stewardship. Duration of urinary catheterization is the most important modifiable risk factor. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08915520183006
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.07.002DOI Listing
December 2018
11 Reads

Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Device Infections.

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2018 12 18;32(4):811-825. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Duke University Hospital, Duke Box 102359, Durham, NC 27710, USA. Electronic address:

Infections associated with cardiac implantable electronic devices are increasing and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This article reviews the epidemiology, microbiology, and risk factors for acquisition of these infections. The complex diagnostic and management strategies associated with these serious infections are reviewed with an emphasis on recent updates and advances, as well as existing controversies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.06.004DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Ventricular Assist Device-Associated Infection.

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2018 12 18;32(4):827-841. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

Department of Clinical Microbiology, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, University College Dublin, Eccles Street, Dublin 7, Dublin, Ireland. Electronic address:

Heart transplant remain the definitive therapy for end-stage heart failure but is limited by the availability of suitable donors. Ventricular assist devices (VAD) are designed as mechanical pumps to supplement or replace the function of damaged ventricles and maintain appropriate blood flow in patients with end-stage heart failure. Survival rates continue to increase in patient with VAD but infection remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in VAD patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.07.001DOI Listing
December 2018
5 Reads

Neurosurgical Device-Related Infections.

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2018 12 18;32(4):861-876. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, PO Box 102359, Durham, NC 27710, USA; Division of Infectious Diseases, Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention, Duke University Medical Center, PO Box 102359, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

In this review article, we discuss the epidemiology, microbiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of infections associated with cerebrospinal fluid shunts, cerebrospinal fluid drains, and deep brain stimulators. We also briefly discuss prevention strategies with appropriate antibiotics, devices, and operating room practices to decrease the risk of these infections. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08915520183005
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.06.006DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Management of Strongyloides in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients.

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2018 09;32(3):749-763

University of Alabama at Birmingham, THT229, 1720 2nd Avenue South, Birmingham, AL 35294-0006, USA. Electronic address:

Strongyloides stercoralis is a threadworm parasite with the unique capacity to complete its entire life cycle in a human host. Although asymptomatic in normal hosts, S stercoralis infection in solid organ transplant recipients is often severe, disseminated, and fatal. Risk factors for disease acquisition include travel to endemic regions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.04.012DOI Listing
September 2018
2 Reads

Prevention and Treatment of Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients.

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2018 09;32(3):733-748

Division of Infectious Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine, 101 Woodruff Circle, WMB #2101, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

Clostridium difficile infection is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant recipients. Risk factors in this population include frequent hospitalizations, receipt of immunosuppressive agents, and intestinal dysbiosis triggered by several factors, including exposure to broad-spectrum antimicrobials. The incidence and potential for significant adverse outcomes among solid organ transplant recipients with C difficile infection highlight the evolving need for strategic C difficile infection risk factor modification and novel approaches to disease management in this patient population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.05.001DOI Listing
September 2018
16 Reads

Management of Mycobacterium Other than Tuberculosis in Solid Organ Transplantation.

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2018 09;32(3):719-732

Section of Infectious Diseases, Yale School of Medicine, PO Box 208022, New Haven, CT 06520-8022, USA. Electronic address:

Mycobacteria other than tuberculosis are important pathogens to consider in solid organ transplant recipients. Delay in recognition and treatment may incur significant morbidity and mortality. Management of mycobacteria other than tuberculosis requires a knowledge of treatment specific for each species and drug-drug interactions between antimicrobial and immunosuppressive drugs. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08915520183004
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.04.011DOI Listing
September 2018
14 Reads

Prevention and Management of Tuberculosis in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients.

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2018 09;32(3):703-718

Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, 300 Pasteur Drive, Lane Building, Mail Code 5107, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Electronic address:

Solid organ transplant recipients are at an increased risk of tuberculosis and transplant candidates should be screened early in their evaluation with a detailed history, tuberculin skin test or tuberculosis interferon-gamma release assay, and chest radiograph. For latent tuberculosis treatment, isoniazid and rifamycin-based regimens have advantages and disadvantages; treatment decisions should be customized. Tuberculosis after solid organ transplantation generally occurs after months or years; early infections should raise the possibility of donor-derived infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.05.002DOI Listing
September 2018

Mold Infections in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients.

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2018 09;32(3):687-701

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and HIV Medicine, UH Cleveland Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, 11100 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA. Electronic address:

Mold infections carry a substantial clinical and economic burden in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients with a high overall mortality of near 30%. The most important pathogens include Aspergillus, the Zygomycetes, Fusarium, Scedosporium/Pseudallescheria, and the dematiaceous (dark) molds. Risk factors for the infections vary by transplant type but include degree of immune suppression and loss of skin or mucosal integrity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.04.006DOI Listing
September 2018
7 Reads

Endemic Mycoses in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients.

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2018 09;32(3):667-685

Division of Infectious Diseases, University of North Carolina, CB 7030, 130 Mason Farm Road, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA. Electronic address:

The endemic mycoses are a group of thermally dimorphic fungal pathogens occupying a specific geographic range. In North America, the chief endemic mycoses are histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and blastomycosis. Endemic fungi can cause serious infections in solid organ transplant recipients from primary infection, reactivation of latent disease, or donor-derived infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.04.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6230265PMC
September 2018
4 Reads

Yeast Infections in Solid Organ Transplantation.

Authors:
Sarah Taimur

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2018 09;32(3):651-666

Division of Infectious Diseases, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, One-Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA. Electronic address:

Invasive candidiasis (IC) remains the most common invasive fungal infection following solid-organ transplant (SOT), but risk factors are evolving. Current challenges include infection due to drug resistant non-albicans and emerging novel species such as Candida auris. Preventive antifungal use in SOT needs to be re-examined in light of these current challenges. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.04.005DOI Listing
September 2018
15 Reads

Management of Viral Hepatitis in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients.

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2018 09;32(3):635-650

Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Alberta, 11350 83 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G2G3, Canada. Electronic address:

With potent nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) therapy, hepatitis B virus (HBV) is now an uncommon indication for liver transplant (LT) in North America. NA therapy, with or without hepatitis B immunoglobulin, results in low recurrence rates and excellent outcomes after LT. Direct-acting antiviral therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV), results in cure in most patients, either before or after transplant. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08915520183004
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.04.010DOI Listing
September 2018
16 Reads

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Organ Transplantation.

Authors:
Alan J Taege

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2018 09;32(3):615-634

Department of Infectious Disease, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA. Electronic address:

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has become a chronic disease with a near normal life span resulting in increased risk of organ failure. HIV organ transplantation is a proven and accepted intervention in appropriately selected cases. HIV-positive organ transplantation into HIV-positive recipients is in its nascent stages. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.04.013DOI Listing
September 2018
13 Reads

Management of BK Polyomavirus Infection in Kidney and Kidney-Pancreas Transplant Recipients: A Review Article.

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2018 09;32(3):599-613

Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, University Hospitals, Cleveland Medical Center, 11100 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.

BK virus (BKV) can cause graft dysfunction or failure in kidney transplant recipients and hemorrhagic cystitis in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. BKV-associated nephropathy (BKVAN) emerged as a common complication in the late 1990s, probably due to the introduction of potent immunosuppressive agents. BKVAN occurred in up to 5% of kidney transplant recipients, with graft failure in up to 70%. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.04.009DOI Listing
September 2018
2 Reads

Prevention and Treatment of Cytomegalovirus Infections in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients.

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2018 09;32(3):581-597

Department of Infectious Diseases, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Box G21, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA. Electronic address:

Despite advances in prevention and treatment, cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and disease remain an expected problem in solid organ transplant recipients. Because of the effect of immunosuppressing medications, CMV primary, secondary, and reactivated infection requires antiviral medications to prevent serious direct and indirect effects of the virus. Side effects and drug resistance, however, often limit the capacity of traditional antiviral therapies. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08915520183004
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.04.008DOI Listing
September 2018
7 Reads

Multidrug-Resistant Bacterial Infections in Solid Organ Transplant Candidates and Recipients.

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2018 09;32(3):551-580

Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Sant'Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna, Via Massarenti 11, Bologna 40138, Italy.

The current era is ruled by an alarming evolution of antimicrobial resistance. Solid organ transplant recipients are prone to develop infections caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens. The current challenges in this setting include screening of donors and recipients, and prevention/treatment of donor-derived and posttransplant infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.04.004DOI Listing
September 2018
1 Read

Strategies for Antimicrobial Stewardship in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients.

Authors:
Jonathan Hand

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2018 09;32(3):535-550

Department of Infectious Diseases, The University of Queensland School of Medicine, Ochsner Clinical School, Ochsner Medical Center, 1514 Jefferson Highway, New Orleans, LA 70121, USA. Electronic address:

Complications of antimicrobial therapy, such as multidrug-resistant organisms and Clostridium difficile, commonly affect solid-organ transplant recipients and have been associated with graft loss and mortality. Although opportunities are abundant, antimicrobial stewardship practices guiding appropriate therapy have been infrequently reported in transplant patients. A patient-centered, multidisciplinary structure, using established antimicrobial optimization principles, is needed to create nuanced approaches to protect patients and antimicrobials and improve outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.04.003DOI Listing
September 2018
9 Reads

Immunization of Solid Organ Transplant Candidates and Recipients: A 2018 Update.

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2018 09;32(3):517-533

Division of Infectious Diseases & Immunology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Avenue North, S7-715, Worcester, MA 01655, USA. Electronic address:

This article discusses the recommended vaccines used before and after solid organ transplant period, including data regarding vaccine safety and efficacy and travel-related vaccines. Vaccination is an important part of the preparation for solid organ transplantation, because vaccine-preventable diseases contribute to the morbidity and mortality of these patients. A pretransplantation protocol should be encouraged in every transplant center. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.04.002DOI Listing
September 2018
7 Reads

Safe Living Following Solid Organ Transplantation.

Authors:
Barbra M Blair

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2018 09;32(3):507-515

Division of Infectious Diseases, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 110 Francis Street, Suite GB, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Electronic address:

Living safely after organ transplantation starts before transplant and continues after transplant. To minimize a solid organ transplant (SOT) recipient's risk for infection and risk for injury, it is important to plan for numerous potential exposures after transplant. These include potential exposure to others with viral or bacterial illness, potential exposure to food and water sources, participation in recreational activities, resuming sexual activity, living with pets, and opportunities for travel, especially internationally. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.04.014DOI Listing
September 2018
1 Read

Is This Organ Donor Safe?: Donor-Derived Infections in Solid Organ Transplantation.

Authors:
Staci A Fischer

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2018 09;32(3):495-506

The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, 222 Richmond Street, Providence, RI 02903, USA; Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, 401 North Michigan Avenue, Suite 2000, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. Electronic address:

Infection is an inevitable complication of solid organ transplantation. Unrecognized infection may be transmitted from a donor and result in disseminated disease in the immunosuppressed host. Recent outbreaks of deceased donor-derived infections resulting in high rates of mortality and severe morbidity have emphasized the need to be cautious in using donors with possible meningoencephalitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.04.001DOI Listing
September 2018
6 Reads

Management of Infections in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients.

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2018 09 13;32(3):xiii-xvii. Epub 2018 Jul 13.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Respiratory Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Section of Transplant Infectious, Diseases and Transplant Center, Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University, 9500 Euclid Avenue G21, Room 131, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.06.001DOI Listing
September 2018

Removing the Barriers from the Path to Eliminate Hepatitis C.

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2018 06;32(2):xv-xvi

Philadelphia FIGHT Community Health Centers, Viral Hepatitis Program, 1233 Locust Street, 5th floor, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.03.001DOI Listing

The Road to Hepatitis C Virus Cure: Practical Considerations from a Health System's Perspective.

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2018 06;32(2):481-493

Mid-Atlantic Permanente Medical Group, PC, Mid-Atlantic Permanente Research Institute, 2101 East Jefferson Street, Rockville, MD 20852, USA.

Hepatitis C virus infection remains a significant global health problem. Many individuals are unaware of their infection or disease stage. Innovations in care that promote rapid and easy identification of at-risk populations for screening, comprehensive diagnostic screening, and triage to curative direct-acting antiviral medications will accelerate efforts to eradicate hepatitis C. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.02.007DOI Listing
June 2018
7 Reads

Estimation of Hepatitis C Disease Burden and Budget Impact of Treatment Using Health Economic Modeling.

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2018 06;32(2):461-480

Department of Gastroenterology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Rae Bareli Road, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh 226014, India.

Oral direct-acting antiviral agents have revolutionized treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Nonetheless, barriers exist to elimination of HCV as a public health threat including low uptake of treatment, limited budget allocations for HCV treatment, and low awareness rates of HCV status among infected people. Mathematical modeling provides a systematic framework to analyze and compare potential solutions and elimination strategies by simulating the HCV epidemic under different conditions. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08915520183001
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.02.008DOI Listing
June 2018
5 Reads

A Guide to the Economics of Hepatitis C Virus Cure in 2017.

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2018 06;32(2):447-459

Section of Infectious Diseases, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.

This commentary reviews the core principals of cost-effectiveness and applies them to the rapidly evolving context of hepatitis C virus treatment in the United States. The article provides a foundation of evidence that hepatitis C virus treatment provides good economic value, even though it is expensive, and even when treating people who inject drugs who are at high risk for hepatitis C virus reinfection. The price of medications has decreased, but the high price continues to limit access to care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.02.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6085105PMC
June 2018
1 Read

Hepatitis C Virus Diagnosis and the Holy Grail.

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2018 06;32(2):425-445

Clinton Health Access Initiative, 383 Dorchester Avenue Suite 400, Boston, MA 02127, USA.

The world has embraced the call for global elimination of hepatitis C virus by 2030. The unprecedented speed of therapeutic development and increased access to direct-acting antivirals has made elimination a possibility. We must screen hundreds of millions of people to diagnose and treat those currently infected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.02.010DOI Listing
June 2018
2 Reads

Hepatitis C Virus Elimination in the Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Coinfected Population: Leveraging the Existing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infrastructure.

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2018 06;32(2):407-423

Division of Infectious Diseases, Duke University Medical Center, 315 Trent Drive, Hanes House, Room 181, DUMC Box 102359, Durham, NC 27710, USA; Duke Clinical Research Institute, 2400 Pratt Street, Durham, NC 27705, USA. Electronic address:

The objective of this review is to consider how existing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infrastructure may be leveraged to inform and improve hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment efforts in the HIV-HCV coinfected population. Current gaps in HCV care relevant to the care continuum are reviewed. Successes in HIV treatment are then applied to the HCV treatment model for coinfected patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2018.02.005DOI Listing
June 2018
4 Reads