459,028 results match your criteria Infectious Disease Clinics of North America[Journal]


Platelet-Dense Granules Worsen Pre-Infection Thrombocytopenia during Gram-Negative Pneumonia-Derived Sepsis.

J Innate Immun 2018 Dec 17:1-13. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Center for Experimental and Molecular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Platelet-dense (δ) granules are important for platelet function. Platelets contribute to host defense and vascular integrity during pneumonia and sepsis, and δ granule products, including adenosine diphosphate (ADP), can influence inflammatory responses. We therefore aimed to study the role of platelet δ granules in the host response during sepsis. Read More

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December 2018

An insight into DNA binding properties of newly designed cationic δ,δ'‑diazacarbazoles: Spectroscopy, AFM imaging and living cells staining studies.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2018 Dec 10;211:260-271. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei 430071, PR China. Electronic address:

Two cationic δ,δ'‑diazacarbazoles, 1‑Methyl‑5H‑pyrrolo[3,2‑b:4,5‑b']dipyridinium iodide (MPDPI) and 1,5‑Dimethyl‑5H‑pyrrolo[3,2‑b:4,5‑b']dipyridinium iodide (DPDPI), were devised and synthesized. Through characterizations of the interactions between DNA and the two δ,δ'‑diazacarbazoles by various spectroscopy means, the strong interactions between the two compounds and double-strand DNA have been observed and the interaction types and mechanisms were explored. UV-Vis and fluorescent data have shown the big changes of DNA in the presence of either of the two compounds, demonstrating that both of the δ,δ'‑diazacarbazoles can bind to DNA tightly, and high ionic strength decreased the intercalative interactions. Read More

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December 2018

Differentiation of Common Variable Immunodeficiency from Igg Deficiency.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Division of Clinical Immunology, Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York. Electronic address:

Background: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and IgG deficiency are two of the more prevalent primary humoral immune defects. Whereas the former is defined by consensus with criteria for quantitative and qualitative antibody defects, the latter is used to describe patients with reduced IgG, who commonly have recurrent sinopulmonary infections but do not fulfill CVID criteria. However, these patients are often given this diagnosis. Read More

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December 2018

Immediate Hypersensitivity to Polyethylene Glycols and Polysorbates: More Common Than We Have Recognized.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

Background: The most common immediate hypersensitivity to macrogols is associated with PEG 3350, however the epidemiology, mechanisms and cross-reactivity are poorly understood. Thousands of medications contain either PEGs or structurally similar polysorbates.

Objective: Our objective was to better understand the mechanism, cross-reactivity and scope of PEG hypersensitivity. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

mcr-1 facilitated selection of high-level colistin resistant mutants in Escherichia Coli.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310016, China;; Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology and Bioinformatics of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310016, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: The mcr-1 gene is the first reported plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene. It has caused world-wide concern about the colistin resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. The aim of this research was to study the impact of mcr-1 on the selection of high-level colistin resistance (HLCR) mutations in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Read More

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December 2018

Status of antimicrobial stewardship programs in Nigerian tertiary healthcare facilities; findings and implications.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom; Health Economics Centre, Liverpool University Management School, Chatham Street, Liverpool, UK. Electronic address:

Objectives: The problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is increasing worldwide with health-related and economic consequences. This is a concern in Africa, including Nigeria the most populous country in Africa, with its high rates of infectious diseases. Approaches to reducing AMR include instigating antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) in hospitals. Read More

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December 2018

Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole vs. colistin or ampicillin-sulbactam for the treatment of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: a retrospective matched cohort study.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Infectious Diseases Institute, Rambam Health Care Campus, P.O.B 9602, Haifa 3109601, Israel; The Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine - Technion Israel Institute of Technology,1 Efron St. P.O.B 9697, Haifa 3109601, Israel. Electronic address:

Objectives: We aimed to assess the effectiveness of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) as monotherapy for the treatment of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) infections.

Methods: In a retrospective cohort study, we included patients receiving TMP/SMX as the main treatment for severe infections caused by CRAB, matched to patients treated with colistin or ampicillin-sulbactam (AMP/SUL) by age, Charlson score, department and source of infection. Read More

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December 2018

Isolation of the first New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) producing, colistin resistant, Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type ST15, from a digestive carrier in Albania, May 2018.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Emerging Bacterial Pathogens Unit, Division of Immunology, Transplantation and Infectious Diseases, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.

Objectives: Carbapenemases represent a public health threat as they can spread through horizontal gene transfer and cause outbreaks. NDM-1 is a metallo-ß-lactamase that has spread rapidly in the last decade causing worldwide alarm. We aimed to describe the first isolate of NDM-1 producing and XDR Klebsiella pneumoniae in Albania, its clinical context and genetic characterization. Read More

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December 2018

MALDI-TOF MS for rapid diagnosis of Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens, an unusual causative agent of bacteraemia in humans. Two case reports and literature review.

Anaerobe 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Clinical Microbiology Department, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, Spain.

Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens is a gram-negative anaerobic spiral rod which is part of the normal flora of dogs and cats and can produce bacteraemia and diarrhoea in humans. In this report we describe two cases of bacteraemia caused by A. succiniciproducens which was successfully identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Read More

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December 2018

The Acute Influence of Acid Suppression with Esomeprazole on Gastrointestinal Microbiota and Brain Gene Expression Profiles in a Murine Model of Restraint Stress.

Neuroscience 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, B168 12700 E. 19th Avenue, Aurora, CO 80045, USA. Electronic address:

The central nervous system (CNS) and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are linked through neuro-endocrine and humoral pathways. Critically ill patients suffer severe physical and emotional stress and frequently receive acid suppressants; however, stress and acid suppression may alter GIT microbiota. This study evaluated the effects of acid suppression on the GIT microbiota and genome-wide expression of brain-specific genes in a murine model of restraint stress. Read More

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December 2018

Effective Effectors: How T cells Access and Infiltrate the Central nervous System.

Pharmacol Ther 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Duke Brain Tumor Immunotherapy Program, Department of Neurosurgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710., United States; The Preston Robert Tisch Brain Tumor Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710., United States; Department of Neurosurgery, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710., United States; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Pratt School of Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, United States; Department of Pathology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710., United States. Electronic address:

Several Phase II and III clinical trials have demonstrated that immunotherapy can induce objective responses in otherwise refractory malignancies in tumors outside the central nervous system. In large part, effector T cells mediate much of the antitumor efficacy in these trials, and potent antitumor T cells can be generated through vaccination, immune checkpoint blockade, adoptive transfer, and genetic manipulation. However, activated T cells must still traffic to, infiltrate, and persist within tumor in order to mediate tumor lysis. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

IgE blockade in autoimmunity: Omalizumab induced remission of bullous pemphigoid.

Clin Immunol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Clinical Immunology, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, WA 6000, Australia; Institute of Immunology and Infectious Diseases (IIID), Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA 6150, Australia. Electronic address:

Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is a blistering dermopathy and a prototypic antibody-mediated autoimmune disease. Detection of IgG autoantibodies against hemidesmosomal proteins BP180 and/or BP230 are diagnostic and levels can correlate with disease activity. Therapies include corticosteroids and oral immunosuppressants, while intravenous immunoglobulin and rituximab are reserved for treatment resistant cases. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Goose MAVS functions in RIG-I-mediated IFN-β signaling activation.

Dev Comp Immunol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Shanghai Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shanghai, 200241, PR China. Electronic address:

Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS) is an essential adaptor protein in retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-mediated antiviral innate immunity in mammals. In this study, the goose MAVS gene (goMAVS) was identified. The 2,019 bp-long goMAVS exhibits 96. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Lectin Complement Pathway in Emphysema.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

National Jewish Health, Medicine, Denver, Colorado, United States.

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December 2018
1 Read

Sera selected from national STI surveillance system shows Chlamydia trachomatis PgP3 antibody correlates with time since infection and number of previous infections.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208652. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Health Protection Research Unit in Evaluation of Interventions at University of Bristol in partnership with Public Health England, Bristol, United Kingdom.

Background: Seroprevalence surveys of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) antibodies are promising for estimating age-specific CT cumulative incidence, however accurate estimates require improved understanding of antibody response to CT infection.

Methods: We used GUMCAD, England's national sexually transmitted infection (STI) surveillance system, to select sera taken from female STI clinic attendees on the day of or after a chlamydia diagnosis. Serum specimens were collected from laboratories and tested anonymously on an indirect and a double-antigen ELISA, both of which are based on the CT-specific Pgp3 antigen. Read More

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December 2018

Whole genome sequencing of Moraxella bovoculi reveals high genetic diversity and evidence for interspecies recombination at multiple loci.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209113. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Genetics, Breeding, and Animal Health Research Unit, U.S. Meat Animal Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Clay Center, Nebraska, United States of America.

Moraxella bovoculi is frequently cultured from the ocular secretions and conjunctiva of cattle with Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK). Previous work has shown that single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) diversity in this species is quite high with 81,284 SNPs identified in eight genomes representing two distinct genotypes isolated from IBK affected eyes (genotype 1) and the nasopharynx of cattle without clinical IBK signs (genotype 2), respectively. The goals of this study were to identify SNPs from a collection of geographically diverse and epidemiologically unlinked M. Read More

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December 2018

Retrospective analysis of long-term gastrointestinal symptoms after Clostridium difficile infection in a nonelderly cohort.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209152. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Health Outcomes Unit, Department of Health Law, Policy and Management, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Elderly patients and those with comorbid conditions are at high risk for poor outcomes after Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) but outcomes in a healthier, nonelderly population are not well described. We sought to investigate gastrointestinal diagnoses and CDI during hospitalizations in the 24 to 36 months after an initial episode of CDI in nonelderly patients in a cohort with an overall low prevalence of comorbid conditions. We performed a retrospective analysis of hospital admissions from 2010-2013 using the Truven MarketScan database of employment-based private insurance claims. Read More

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December 2018

Laboratory strains of Bacillus anthracis exhibit pervasive alteration in expression of proteins related to sporulation under laboratory conditions relative to genetically related wild strains.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209120. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Chemical and Biological Signature Science, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, United States of America.

The spore forming pathogen Bacillus anthracis is the etiologic agent of anthrax in humans and animals. It cycles through infected hosts as vegetative cells and is eventually introduced into the environment where it generates an endospore resistant to many harsh conditions. The endospores are subsequently taken up by another host to begin the next cycle. Read More

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December 2018

Genome-wide association study (GWAS) of ovarian cancer in Japanese predicted regulatory variants in 22q13.1.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209096. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Laboratory of Clinical Genome Sequencing, Department of Computational Biology and Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified greater than 30 variants associated with ovarian cancer, but most of these variants were investigated in European populations. Here, we integrated GWAS and subsequent functional analyses to identify the genetic variants with potential regulatory effects. We conducted GWAS for ovarian cancer using 681 Japanese cases and 17,492 controls and found that rs137672 on 22q13. Read More

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December 2018
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Broad-spectrum monoclonal antibodies against chikungunya virus structural proteins: Promising candidates for antibody-based rapid diagnostic test development.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208851. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

In response to the aggressive global spread of the mosquito-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an accurate and accessible diagnostic tool is of high importance. CHIKV, an arthritogenic alphavirus, comprises three genotypes: East/Central/South African (ECSA), West African (WA), and Asian. A previous rapid immunochromatographic (IC) test detecting CHIKV E1 protein showed promising performance for detection of the ECSA genotype. Read More

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December 2018

Robustness of the reproductive number estimates in vector-borne disease systems.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Dec 17;12(12):e0006999. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Centre for Mathematics and the Environment, University of Exeter, Penryn Campus, Penryn, UK.

Background: The required efforts, feasibility and predicted success of an intervention strategy against an infectious disease are partially determined by its basic reproduction number, R0. In its simplest form R0 can be understood as the product of the infectious period, the number of infectious contacts and the per-contact transmission probability, which in the case of vector-transmitted diseases necessarily extend to the vector stages. As vectors do not usually recover from infection, they remain infectious for life, which places high significance on the vector's life expectancy. Read More

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December 2018

A graph-based evidence synthesis approach to detecting outbreak clusters: An application to dog rabies.

PLoS Comput Biol 2018 Dec 17;14(12):e1006554. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

MRC Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modelling, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

Early assessment of infectious disease outbreaks is key to implementing timely and effective control measures. In particular, rapidly recognising whether infected individuals stem from a single outbreak sustained by local transmission, or from repeated introductions, is crucial to adopt effective interventions. In this study, we introduce a new framework for combining several data streams, e. Read More

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December 2018

Quantitative RNAseq analysis of Ugandan KS tumors reveals KSHV gene expression dominated by transcription from the LTd downstream latency promoter.

PLoS Pathog 2018 Dec 17;14(12):e1007441. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.

KSHV is endemic in Uganda and the HIV epidemic has dramatically increased the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma (KS). To investigate the role of KSHV in the development of KS, we obtained KS biopsies from ART-naïve, HIV-positive individuals in Uganda and analyzed the tumors using RNAseq to globally characterize the KSHV transcriptome. Phylogenetic analysis of ORF75 sequences from 23 tumors revealed 6 distinct genetic clusters with KSHV strains exhibiting M, N or P alleles. Read More

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December 2018

Identification of long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) deregulated in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs).

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209342. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Institute for Digestive Research, Academy of Medicine, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.

Long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) are >200 nucleotides long non-coding RNAs, which have been shown to be implicated in carcinogenic processes by interacting with cancer associated genes or other non-coding RNAs. However, their role in development of rare gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) is barely investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to define lincRNAs deregulated in GIST and find new GIST-lincRNA associations. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Hepatitis E virus seroprevalence and determinants in various study populations in the Netherlands.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208522. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Public Health Service Amsterdam (GGD), Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: The epidemiology of hepatitis E virus (HEV) is not fully understood. In this study, we assessed putative risk factors for HEV seropositivity in various study populations in the Netherlands.

Methods: Data and samples from five different study populations were analysed: (A) blood donors (n = 5,239), (B) adults reporting a vegetarian life style since the age of 12 years (n = 231), (C) residents of Amsterdam, the Netherlands, with different ethnic backgrounds (n = 1,198), (D) men who have sex with men (MSM) (HIV positive and HIV negative) (n = 197), and (E) persons who use drugs (PWUD) (HIV positive and HIV negative) (n = 200). Read More

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December 2018

Widespread circulation of West Nile virus, but not Zika virus in southern Iran.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Dec 17;12(12):e0007022. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Clinical Virology, Clinical Microbiology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Namazi Hospital, Shiraz, Iran.

West Nile virus (WNV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are mosquito-borne viral infections. Over the past few decades, WNV has been associated with several outbreaks involving high numbers of neuroinvasive diseases among humans. The recent re-emergence of ZIKV has been associated with congenital malformation and also with Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

NMR metabolomics of cerebrospinal fluid differentiates inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Dec 17;12(12):e0007045. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, California, United States of America.

Background: Myriad infectious and noninfectious causes of encephalomyelitis (EM) have similar clinical manifestations, presenting serious challenges to diagnosis and treatment. Metabolomics of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was explored as a method of differentiating among neurological diseases causing EM using a single CSF sample.

Methodology/principal Findings: 1H NMR metabolomics was applied to CSF samples from 27 patients with a laboratory-confirmed disease, including Lyme disease or West Nile Virus meningoencephalitis, multiple sclerosis, rabies, or Histoplasma meningitis, and 25 controls. Read More

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December 2018

The adjuvant AlhydroGel elicits higher antibody titres than AddaVax when combined with HIV-1 subtype C gp140 from CAP256.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208310. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Science, University of Cape Town, South Africa.

With the HIV-1 epidemic in southern Africa still rising, a prophylactic vaccine against the region's most prolific subtype (subtype C) would be a significant step forward. In this paper we report on the effect of 2 different adjuvants, AddaVax and AlhydroGel, formulated with HIV-1 subtype C gp140, on the development of binding and neutralising antibody titres in rabbits. AddaVax is a squalene-based oil-in-water nano-emulsion (similar to MF59) which can enhance both cellular and humoral immune responses, whilst AlhydroGel (aluminium hydroxide gel) mainly drives a Th2 response. Read More

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December 2018

Protective versus pathologic pre-exposure cytokine profiles in dengue virus infection.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Dec 17;12(12):e0006975. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Institute for Immunology and Informatics, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Rhode Island, Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America.

Background: Hyperendemic circulation of all four types of dengue virus (DENV-1-4) has expanded globally, fueling concern for increased incidence of severe dengue. While the majority of DENV infections are subclinical, epidemiologic studies suggest that type-cross-reactive immunity can influence disease outcome in subsequent infections. The mechanisms controlling these differential clinical outcomes remain poorly defined. Read More

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December 2018

The authors reply.

Crit Care Med 2019 Jan;47(1):e64-e66

UMR 1137 - IAME Team 5 - DeSCID: Decision SCiences in Infectious Diseases, control and care Inserm/University Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, F-75018, Paris, France, and Medical Intensive Care Unit, Bichat University Hospital, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Paris, France Medical-Surgical Intensive Care Unit, André Mignot Hospital, 177, rue de Versailles, 78000, Le Chesnay, France ICUREsearch, Department of Biostatistics, Paris, France Medical Intensive Care Unit, Saint-Louis University Hospital, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Paris, France UMR 1137 - IAME Team 5 - DeSCID: Decision SCiences in Infectious Diseases, control and care Inserm/University Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, F-75018, Paris, France, and Medical Intensive Care Unit, Bichat University Hospital, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Paris, France.

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January 2019

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis recurrence in patients with cirrhosis receiving secondary prophylaxis with norfloxacin.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Liver Unit.

Objective: Few studies carried out more than 20 years ago have evaluated spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) recurrence in patients receiving secondary antibiotic prophylaxis. These studies reported a 1-year recurrence rate of 20-26%. Changes in the bacteriology of SBP over the last few years might have negative effects on secondary prophylaxis. Read More

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December 2018

The pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and mucosal responses to maraviroc-containing PrEP Regimens in Men who have Sex with Men.

AIDS 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York.

Objective: HIV Prevention Trials Network 069/AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5305 was a study of 48-week oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) regimens in MSM and transgender women. A rectal substudy was included to evaluate drug concentrations in rectal compartment vs. blood, gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) responses to four antiretroviral PrEP regimens [maraviroc (MVC), MVC + emtricitabine (FTC), MVC + tenofovir (TFV) disoproxil fumarate, and TFV disoproxil fumarate + FTC], and to determine whether ARV exposure was associated with ex-vivo suppression of HIV infection in colorectal explants. Read More

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December 2018

EXPOSURE OF ALASKA BROWN BEARS ( URSUS ARCTOS) TO BACTERIAL, VIRAL, AND PARASITIC AGENTS VARIES SPATIOTEMPORALLY AND MAY BE INFLUENCED BY AGE.

J Wildl Dis 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

2   Daniel B. Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, 180 East Green Street, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA.

We collected blood and serum from 155 brown bears ( Ursus arctos) inhabiting five locations in Alaska during 2013-16 and tested samples for evidence of prior exposure to a suite of bacterial, viral, and parasitic agents. Antibody seroprevalence among Alaska brown bears was estimated to be 15% for Brucella spp., 10% for Francisella tularensis, 7% for Leptospira spp. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of catalpol on the activity of human liver cytochrome P450 enzymes.

Xenobiotica 2018 Dec 17:1-19. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

a Department of Endocrinology , Seventh People's Hospital of Shanghai University of TCM , Shanghai 200137 , China.

1. Catalpol possesses numerous pharmacological activities, and however, little data available for the effects of catalpol on the activity of human liver cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. 2. Read More

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December 2018

Impedance-Based Detection of Bacteria.

Chem Rev 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Chemistry , University of California , Berkeley , California 94720-1460 , United States.

Pathogenic bacteria have always posed one of the most serious threats to public health, and continue to be especially dangerous with the rise in antibiotic resistance. The prevalence of these infectious agents necessitates rapid, point-of-care sensors for their detection, identification, and monitoring. Electrochemical sensors are promising for the low-cost monitoring of bacterial growth and the detection of specific microbial species due to the consistency and ease-of-use of impedance measurements. Read More

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December 2018

Overexpression of long non-coding RNA MINCR contributes to progressive clinicopathological features and poor prognosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2018 Dec;22(23):8197-8202

Department of Infectious Disease, Luoyang Central Hospital Affiliated to Zhengzhou University, Luoyang, Henan, China.

Objective: MYC-induced long non-coding RNA (MINCR) has been shown to be a long noncoding RNA that facilitates the progression of a number of malignancies, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, few studies have explored the expression and role of MINCR in HCC. In this study, we aimed to investigate the clinical significance of MINCR in HCC. Read More

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December 2018

Minimum Information about an Uncultivated Virus Genome (MIUViG).

Nat Biotechnol 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California, USA.

We present an extension of the Minimum Information about any (x) Sequence (MIxS) standard for reporting sequences of uncultivated virus genomes. Minimum Information about an Uncultivated Virus Genome (MIUViG) standards were developed within the Genomic Standards Consortium framework and include virus origin, genome quality, genome annotation, taxonomic classification, biogeographic distribution and in silico host prediction. Community-wide adoption of MIUViG standards, which complement the Minimum Information about a Single Amplified Genome (MISAG) and Metagenome-Assembled Genome (MIMAG) standards for uncultivated bacteria and archaea, will improve the reporting of uncultivated virus genomes in public databases. Read More

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December 2018
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Shed EBA-175 mediates red blood cell clustering that enhances malaria parasite growth and enables immune evasion.

Elife 2018 Dec 17;7. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Laboratory of Malaria Immunology and Vaccinology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, United States.

Erythrocyte Binding Antigen of 175 kDa (EBA-175) has a well-defined role in binding to glycophorin A (GpA) during invasion of erythrocytes. However, EBA-175 is shed post invasion and a role for this shed protein has not been defined. We show that EBA-175 shed from parasites promotes clustering of RBCs, and EBA-175-dependent clusters occur in parasite culture. Read More

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December 2018

Kocuria tytonis sp. nov., isolated from the uropygial gland of an American barn owl (Tyto furcata).

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

1​Institute of Pharmacy and Molecular Biotechnology, Heidelberg University, INF 364, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

Avian uropygial glands have received increasing attention in recent years, but little is known about micro-organisms in uropygial glands. In this study, we isolated a strain of Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming cocci, designated 442, from the uropygial gland of an American barn owl (Tyto furcata) and characterized it using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis placed the isolate in the genus Kocuria. Read More

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December 2018

Parechovirus A3 (PeV-A3)-associated myalgia/myositis occurs irrespective of its genetic cluster: a longitudinal molecular epidemiology of PeV-A3 in Yamagata, Japan between 2003 and 2016.

J Med Microbiol 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

1​Department of Microbiology, Yamagata Prefectural Institute of Public Health, Yamagata, 990-0031, Japan.

No longitudinal molecular epidemiology of parechovirus A3 (PeV-A3) over a decade is available and PeV-A3-associated myalgia/myositis has been reported only in Japan. Thus, we aimed to clarify the longitudinal molecular epidemiology of PeV-A3 with a major focus on the strains detected from PeV-A3-associated myalgia/myositis cases. We performed sequence and phylogenetic analysis for the VP1 region of PeV-A3 strains in Yamagata, Japan, between 2003 and 2016. Read More

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December 2018

CotL, a new morphogenetic spore coat protein of Clostridium difficile.

Environ Microbiol 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Laboratoire Pathogenèse des Bactéries Anaérobies, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.

The strict anaerobe Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. The oxygen-resistant C. difficile spores play a central role in the infectious cycle, contributing to transmission, infection and recurrence. Read More

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December 2018

Mammillary fistula revisited: Implications for immediate breast reconstruction.

Breast J 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

We present two patients with inverted nipples who underwent bilateral nipple-sparing mastectomies (NSM) with immediate placement of tissue expanders with acellular dermal matrix (ADM). Both were complicated by postoperative infection and developed mammillary fistulae from the nipple into the breast capsule, and eroding through the ADM. For the first time, we report inverted nipples as a risk for the iatrogenic formation of mammillary fistulae and their infectious implications after NSM. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Fly control to prevent diarrhoea in children.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 17;12:CD011654. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Division of Women and Child Health, Aga Khan University Hospital, Stadium Road, PO Box 3500, Karachi, Sind, Pakistan.

Background: Diarrhoeal disease accounts for millions of child deaths every year. Although the role of flies as vectors of infectious diarrhoea has been established, fly control is not often mentioned as an approach to decrease childhood diarrhoea. Theoretically, fly control for decreasing diarrhoea incidence can be achieved by intervening at four different levels: reduction or elimination of fly breeding sites; reduction of sources that attract houseflies; prevention of contact between flies and disease-causing organisms; and protection of people, food, and food utensils from contact with flies. Read More

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December 2018

A new DNA sensor system for specific and quantitative detection of mycobacteria.

Nanoscale 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark. and Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

In the current study, we describe a novel DNA sensor system for specific and quantitative detection of mycobacteria, which is the causative agent of tuberculosis. Detection is achieved by using the enzymatic activity of the mycobacterial encoded enzyme topoisomerase IA (TOP1A) as a biomarker. The presented work is the first to describe how the catalytic activities of a member of the type IA family of topoisomerases can be exploited for specific detection of bacteria. Read More

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December 2018
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The need to consider context in the evaluation of anti-infectious and immunomodulatory effects of Vitamin A and its derivatives.

Curr Drug Targets 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro. Brazil.

Vitamin A and its derivatives (retinoids) act as potent regulators in many aspects of mammalian reproduction, development, repair, and maintenance of differentiated tissue functioning. Unlike other vitamins, Vitamin A and retinoids, which have hormonal actions, present significant toxicity, which plays roles in clinically relevant situations, such as hypervitaminosis A and retinoic acid ("differentiation") syndrome. Although clinical presentation is conspicuous in states of insufficient or excessive Vitamin A and retinoid concentration, equally relevant effects on host resistance to specific infectious agents, and in the general maintenance of immune homeostasis, may go unnoticed, because their expression requires either pathogen exposure or the presence of inflammatory co-morbidities. Read More

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December 2018

Improving the rates of Aspergillus detection: an update on current diagnostic strategies.

Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2018 Dec 17:1-12. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

d Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine , University of California-San Diego , San Diego , CA , USA.

Introduction: The spectrum of disease caused by Aspergillus spp. is dependent on the immune system of the host, and ranges from invasive aspergillosis (IA) to chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA). Early and reliable diagnosis of Aspergillus disease is important to decrease associated morbidity and mortality. Read More

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December 2018

Chicken endothelial cells are highly responsive to viral innate immune stimuli and are susceptible to infections with various avian pathogens.

Avian Pathol 2018 Dec 17:1-41. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

a INRA, Université François Rabelais , UMR1282 Infectiologie et Santé Publique , 37380 Nouzilly , France.

It is well established that the endothelium plays a prominent role in the pathogenesis of various infectious diseases in mammals. However, little is known about the role of endothelial cells (EC) as targets for avian pathogens and their contribution to the pathogenesis of infectious diseases in galliform birds. First, we explored the innate immune response of primary chicken aortic endothelial cells (pchAEC) obtained from 18 day-old embryos to stimulation with pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or recombinant chicken interferons (type I, II and III IFNs). Read More

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December 2018

Intralesional Cidofovir for Treatment of Acyclovir-Resistant Laryngeal Herpes Manifesting as Supraglottic Mass.

Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2018 Dec 17:3489418818579. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

3 Johns Hopkins Otolaryngology-Laryngology Division, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Introduction:: Laryngopharyngeal herpes simplex virus infection is rare and presents typically in the supraglottis. Findings on presentation can range from small mucosal lesions to fungating obstructive masses mimicking neoplasm. Laryngopharyngeal herpes is a medically treated disease. Read More

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December 2018

Inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Mycobacterium tuberculosis disulfide bond forming enzymes.

Mol Microbiol 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

In bacteria, disulfide bonds confer stability on many proteins exported to the cell envelope or beyond, including bacterial virulence factors. Thus, proteins involved in disulfide bond formation represent good targets for the development of inhibitors that can act as antibiotics or anti-virulence agents, resulting in the simultaneous inactivation of several types of virulence factors. Here, we present evidence that the disulfide bond forming enzymes, DsbB and VKOR, are required for P. Read More

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December 2018

Disseminated Bartonella henselae disease mimicking Langerhans' cell histiocytosis.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2018 Dec 17:e27573. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Infectious Disease Research Program, Center for Bone Marrow Transplantation, Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Children's University Hospital Münster, Münster, Germany.

Bartonella henselae, the causative agent of cat-scratch disease, has been recognized to be responsible for a broad range of clinical syndromes. We report the case of a patient with disseminated B. henselae infection mimicking Langerhans cell histiocytosis at presentation and its successful management with neurosurgery, prolonged antibacterial therapy, and observation. Read More

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December 2018