458,869 results match your criteria Infectious Agents and Cancer [Journal]


Preterm Prelabor Rupture of Membranes: Outcomes with Expectant Management until 34 versus 35 Weeks.

Am J Perinatol 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York.

Objective:  To evaluate outcomes with expectant management of preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PROM) until 35 weeks versus immediate delivery at ≥34 weeks.

Study Design:  This was a multicenter retrospective cohort study of singletons with preterm PROM at >20 weeks from 2011 through 2017. Groups were defined as expectant management until 35 weeks versus immediate delivery at ≥34 weeks. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Functionalized rifampicin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers enhance macrophages uptake and antimycobacterial activity.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2018 Dec 4;175:306-313. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Laboratório de Fitotecnologia, Escola de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, Brazil. Electronic address:

Tuberculosis is an infectious bacterial disease that causes millions of deaths worldwide. Current treatment recommended by WHO is effective, however it is an extensive and arduous process associated to severe adverse effects, which induces a low patient compliance and the emerging of multidrug resistant tuberculosis. Thus, as a main goal of this study, rifampicin nanoparticles were surface functionalized with a tuftsin-modifed peptide to selectively recognize receptors located on infected alveolar macrophages, enhancing nanoparticles uptake by these cells and improving antimycobacterial activity. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers link toxic astrogliosis and microglial activation to multiple sclerosis severity.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2018 Dec 5;28:34-43. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Neuroimmunological Diseases Section (NDS), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Building 10, Room 5N248, 10 Center Drive, MSC1444, Bethesda, MD 20892, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Once multiple sclerosis (MS) reaches the progressive stage, immunomodulatory treatments have limited efficacy. This suggests that processes other than activation of innate immunity may at least partially underlie disability progression during late stages of MS. Pathology identified these alternative processes as aberrant activation of astrocytes and microglia, and subsequent degeneration of oligodendrocytes and neurons. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Effectiveness of Fosfomycin Tromethamine Prophylaxis in Preventing Infection Following Ultrasound-guided Prostate Needle Biopsies: Results from a Large Canadian Cohort.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Université de Sherbrooke, 3001 12e avenue nord, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada J1H5N4; Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Sherbrooke, 3001 12e avenue nord, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada J1H5N4,. Electronic address:

Background: Rates of infection following ultrasound-guided transrectal prostate needle biopsy (TRUSPB) are increasing. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of fosfomycin tromethamine (FMT) prophylaxis in preventing post-TRUSPB infectious complications.

Methods: This nested case-control study included patients who underwent TRUSPB in a Canadian tertiary care hospital, and developed post-TRUSPB bacteremia or urinary tract infections. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Characterization of vanM carrying clinical Enterococcus isolates and diversity of the suppressed vanM gene cluster.

Infect Genet Evol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China; Key Laboratory of Microorganism Technology and Bioinformatics Research of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China. Electronic address:

Here we report the prevalence of the suppressed vanM gene cluster as a reservoir of vancomycin resistance genes. Among 1284 clinical isolates of enterococci from four hospitals in Hangzhou, China, 55 isolates of Enterococcus faecium and one isolate of Enterococcus faecalis screened positive for the vanM genotype. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that 55 of the 56 vanM-positive isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and teicoplanin. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Genetic susceptibility to Tuberculosis: Interaction between HLA-DQA1 and age of onset.

Infect Genet Evol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Microbiology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Several genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified new single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with susceptibility to Tuberculosis (TB). However, many of them were not replicated across ethnic groups. The cause of this phenomenon of genetic heterogeneity is uncertain. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Zika Virus Diagnosis: Challenges and Solutions.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine. Miami, FL, 33133 USA.

Background: Since its sudden appearance and link to microcephaly in 2015, the number of PubMed references for Zika virus (ZIKV) has risen from 181 to 5,163, as of writing, with a vast proportion focused on the consequences of ZIKV infection during pregnancy. This level of attention underlies increased demand for sensitive and specific diagnostic tools able to assess risk to an unborn child, as well as to understand the dynamics and consequences of viral persistence.

Aim: Review the expanding knowledge on ZIKV persistence and diagnostic challenges and summarize current advancements in detection. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Clinical relevance of enteropathogen co-infections in preschool children - a population-based repeated cross-sectional study.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Center for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, the Netherlands; Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Objectives: This study aimed to (i) determine risk factors for enteropathogen co-infections, (ii) determine whether enteropathogen co-infections influence gastroenteritis risk, and (iii) determine whether enteropathogen co-infection occurred randomly in preschool children.

Methods: A monthly-repeated cross-sectional survey in Dutch children aged 0-48 months was conducted during October 2012-October 2014. 981 stool samples were collected along with questionnaires collecting data on gastrointestinal symptoms and potential risk factors. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Alpha-synuclein is highly prone to distribution in the hippocampus and midbrain in tree shrews, and its fibrils seed Lewy body-like pathology in primary neurons.

Exp Gerontol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Kunming 650118, China; Medical Primate Research Center & Neuroscience Center, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100005, China; Yunnan Key Laboratory of Vaccine Research Development on Severe Infectious Diseases, Kunming 650118, China. Electronic address:

The Chinese tree shrew (TS) has many unique advantages that make it suitable for use as an experimental animal model for human disease including moderate body size, low cost of feeding, short reproductive cycle and lifespan, and close phylogenetic relationship to primates. Our previous studies have shown that TS treated with the mitochondrial inhibitor MPTP displayed classic Parkinsonian symptoms. Additionally, the structure of TS alpha-synuclein (α-syn) is highly homologous to that found in humans. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Revival of a Potent Therapeutic Maytansinoid Agent using a Strategy that Combines Covalent Drug Conjugation with Sequential Nanoparticle Assembly.

Int J Pharm 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

The First Affiliated Hospital, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Key Laboratory of Combined Multi-Organ Transplantation, Ministry of Public Health, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310003, PR China. Electronic address:

Maytansine and its related analogues are a class of highly potent anti-proliferation agents that have failed to be exploited as clinical drugs for human therapy due to unacceptable systemic toxicity. Here, we delineate a novel strategy that combines rational drug conjugation with subsequent nanoparticle assembly to systemically deliver this highly potent and toxic drug. To demonstrate this concept, we covalently coupled the thiolated maytansine derivative, the DM1 agent, to amphiphilic block co-polymers, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-block-polylactide (PLA), in varying molecular weights to generate two prodrug constructs (i. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Non-covalent hitchhiking on endogenous carriers as a protraction mechanism for antiviral macromolecular prodrugs.

J Control Release 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark. Electronic address:

Albumin is a highly successful tool of drug delivery providing drastically extended body and blood residence time for the associated cargo, but it only traffics single drug copies at a time. In turn, macromolecular prodrugs (MP) are advantaged in carrying a high drug payload but offering only a modest extension of residence time to the conjugated drugs. In this work, we engineer MP to contain terminal groups that bind to albumin via non-covalent association and reveal that this facile measure affords a significant protraction for the associated polymers. Read More

View Article
December 2018

The Impact of Prefilled Syringes on Endophthalmitis following Intravitreal Injection of Ranibizumab.

Am J Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Mid Atlantic Retina, Wills Eye Hospital, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA. Electronic address:

Purpose: To compare the rates of infectious endophthalmitis following intravitreal injection of ranibizumab using prefilled syringes vs. conventional preparation.

Design: Multicenter, retrospective, cohort study METHODS: All eyes receiving intravitreal injection of 0. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Improving the quality and workflow of bacterial genome sequencing and analysis: paving the way for a Switzerland-wide molecular epidemiological surveillance platform.

Swiss Med Wkly 2018 Dec 15;148:w14693. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Facing multidrug resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogens is one of the most important challenges for our society. The spread of highly virulent and resistant pathogens can be described using molecular typing technologies; in particular, whole genome sequencing (WGS) data can be used for molecular typing purposes with high resolution. WGS data analysis can explain the spatiotemporal patterns of pathogen transmission. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

A community outbreak of Legionnaires' disease in Geneva, Switzerland, June to September 2017.

Swiss Med Wkly 2018 Nov 2;148:w14687. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Laboratory of Virology, Division of Laboratory Medicine and Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Geneva Hospitals, Switzerland; University of Geneva Medical School, Switzerland.

Purpose: Eight confirmed cases of Legionnaires’ disease were identified at the Geneva University Hospitals between 28 July 2017 and 02 August 2017, leading to a detailed outbreak investigation.

Methods: Legionnaires’ disease cases were defined according to Swiss and European (ELDSNet) consensus guidelines. An outbreak investigation task force was put in place. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Evidence of pandemic H1N1 influenza exposure in dogs and cats, Thailand: A serological survey.

Zoonoses Public Health 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Center of Excellences for Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases in Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Influenza A virus causes respiratory disease in both humans and animals. In this study, a survey of influenza A antibodies in domestic dogs and cats was conducted in 47 animal shelters in 19 provinces of Thailand from September 2011 to September 2014. One thousand and eleven serum samples were collected from 932 dogs and 79 cats. Read More

View Article
December 2018

HBcAg-induced up-regulated 4-1BB ligand on B cells contributes to B cell hyperactivation during chronic hepatitis B infection.

J Med Virol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, China.

During the natural history of chronic hepatitis B infection (CHB) the function of B cells is still obscure. Several limited studies have suggested that B cells are highly active in CHB patients. In present work, we reported that the 4-1BB ligand (4-1BBL) expression on B cells was significantly higher in CHB patients than that in healthy subjects, meanwhile the CHB patients had higher serological IgG levels. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

H, C, and N backbone resonance assignments for KPC-2, a class A serine-β-lactamase.

Biomol NMR Assign 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Miami University, 651 E. High St, Oxford, OH, 45056, USA.

The ever-increasing occurrence of antibiotic resistance presents a major threat to public health. Specifically, resistance conferred by β-lactamases places the efficacy of currently available antibiotics at risk. Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-2 (KPC-2) is a β-lactamase that enables carbapenem resistance and represents a clear and present danger to global public health. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Thymosin beta 4-Induced Autophagy Increases Cholinergic Signaling in PrP (106-126)-Treated HT22 Cells.

Neurotox Res 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Laboratory Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonbuk National University, 79 Gobongro, Iksan, 54596, Republic of Korea.

Prion protein peptide (PrP) has been associated with neurotoxicity in brain cells and progression of prion diseases due to spongiform degeneration and accumulation of the infectious scrapie prion protein (PrP). Autophagy has been shown to provide protective functions for neurodegenerative diseases, including prion disease. Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ) plays a key role in the nervous system, providing a neuronal growth effect that includes motility, neurite outgrowth, and proliferation. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy in Primary Immunodeficiencies.

J Clin Immunol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Haematology, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades, France et Université Paris Descartes, 149 rue de Sèvres, 75015, Paris, France.

Purpose: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare but severe demyelinating disease caused by the polyomavirus JC (JCV) in immunocompromised patients. We report a series of patients with primary immune deficiencies (PIDs) who developed PML.

Methods: Retrospective observational study including PID patients with PML. Read More

View Article
December 2018

[Mimics of lung cancer].

Radiologe 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Institut für Röntgendiagnostik, Otto-Wagner-Spital, Baumgartner Höhe 1, 1140, Wien, Österreich.

Lung cancer is a histologically, immunologically and therefore morphologically and functionally very heterogeneous group of neoplasms with the highest cancer mortality worldwide. Therefore, the range of diseases mimicking lung cancer is also very broad and includes congenital, infectious and inflammatory changes as well as other benign space-occupying lesions and other primary and secondary pulmonary neoplasms. The difficulty in radiology lies in the ability to diagnose lung cancer with a high degree of certainty. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Is research from databases reliable? Yes.

Intensive Care Med 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Biostatistics and Clinical Research, CHU de Caen, Caen, France.

View Article
December 2018

Author Correction: A human monoclonal antibody prevents malaria infection by targeting a new site of vulnerability on the parasite.

Nat Med 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

In the version of this article originally published, data were incorrectly ascribed to monoclonal antibody CIS34 because of a labeling error. The data were generated with monoclonal antibody CIS04. Full details can be found in the correction notice. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Avian Toll-like receptor allelic diversity far exceeds human polymorphism: an insight from domestic chicken breeds.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 14;8(1):17878. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Charles University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Viničná 7, Prague, 12843, Czech Republic.

Immune genes show remarkable levels of adaptive variation shaped by pathogen-mediated selection. Compared to humans, however, population polymorphism in animals has been understudied. To provide an insight into immunogenetic diversity in birds, we sequenced complete protein-coding regions of all Toll-like receptor (TLR) genes with direct orthology between mammals and birds (TLR3, TLR4, TLR5 and TLR7) in 110 domestic chickens from 25 breeds and compared their variability with a corresponding human dataset. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Nanopore-based detection and characterization of yam viruses.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 14;8(1):17879. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

CIRAD, BGPI, Montpellier, France.

We here assessed the capability of the MinION sequencing approach to detect and characterize viruses infecting a water yam plant. This sequencing platform consistently revealed the presence of several plant virus species, including Dioscorea bacilliform virus, Yam mild mosaic virus and Yam chlorotic necrosis virus. A potentially novel ampelovirus was also detected by a complimentary Illumina sequencing approach. Read More

View Article
December 2018

F-FDG-PET/CT-guided treatment duration in patients with high-risk Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a proof of principle.

J Nucl Med 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Dept of Internal Medicine & Radboud Center for Infectious Diseases, Radboud university medical ctr.

Current guidelines recommend intravenous antibiotic therapy for at least 4 weeks in patients with high-risk Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB), because of the risk for metastatic infection. We evaluated the safety of shorter duration of treatment in patients with high-risk SAB without signs of metastatic infection at presentation, using standard F-FDG PET/CT and echocardiography. Retrospective analyses were performed of patients with SAB admitted between 2013 and 2017 in two medical centers. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Zip6 Transporter Is an Essential Component of the Lymphocyte Activation Machinery.

J Immunol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Laboratory of Molecular Physiology, Department of Experimental and Health Sciences, Pompeu Fabra University, 08003 Barcelona, Spain;

Zinc deficiency causes immune dysfunction. In T lymphocytes, hypozincemia promotes thymus atrophy, polarization imbalance, and altered cytokine production. Zinc supplementation is commonly used to boost immune function to prevent infectious diseases in at-risk populations. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Direct-Acting Antivirals in Hepatitis C Virus-Associated Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphomas.

Oncologist 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Background: International guidelines suggest hepatitis C virus (HCV) eradication by direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) after first-line immunochemotherapy (I-CT) in patients with HCV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), although limited experiences substantiate this recommendation. Moreover, only a few data concerning concurrent administration of DAAs with I-CT have been reported.

Subjects, Materials, And Methods: We analyzed hematological and virological outcome and survival of 47 consecutive patients with HCV-positive DLBCL treated at 23 Italian and French centers with DAAs either concurrently (concurrent cohort []: = 9) or subsequently (sequential cohort []: = 38) to first-line I-CT (mainly rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone [R-CHOP]-like). Read More

View Article
December 2018

Postdischarge Mortality Prediction in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Pediatrics 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Centro de Investigação em Saúde de Manhiça, Maputo, Mozambique;

Background: Although the burden of postdischarge mortality (PDM) in low-income settings appears to be significant, no clear recommendations have been proposed in relation to follow-up care after hospitalization. We aimed to determine the burden of pediatric PDM and develop predictive models to identify children who are at risk for dying after discharge.

Methods: Deaths after hospital discharge among children aged <15 years in the last 17 years were reviewed in an area under demographic and morbidity surveillance in Southern Mozambique. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Safety of Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter Use in Children From Rural Versus Urban Settings Receiving Long-term Parenteral Antimicrobial Therapy.

Hosp Pediatr 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, and

Objectives: To determine the safety of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) use for delivery of outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (PAT) in children discharged to rural or urban locales. We hypothesized that children from rural settings would experience higher complication rates.

Patients And Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of children admitted to an academic medical center in the Southwestern United States over 9 years who were discharged with a PICC to complete a course of PAT with follow-up at our institution. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Vaccine-Induced Protection from Homologous Tier 2 SHIV Challenge in Nonhuman Primates Depends on Serum-Neutralizing Antibody Titers.

Immunity 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Immunology and Microbiology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA; Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery (CHAVI-ID), The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA; IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center and the Collaboration for AIDS Vaccine Discovery (CAVD), The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA; Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Electronic address:

Passive administration of HIV neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) can protect macaques from hard-to-neutralize (tier 2) chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenge. However, conditions for nAb-mediated protection after vaccination have not been established. Here, we selected groups of 6 rhesus macaques with either high or low serum nAb titers from a total of 78 animals immunized with recombinant native-like (SOSIP) Env trimers. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Inference of the HIV-1 VRC01 Antibody Lineage Unmutated Common Ancestor Reveals Alternative Pathways to Overcome a Key Glycan Barrier.

Immunity 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; Department of Immunology, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Elicitation of VRC01-class broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) is an appealing approach for a preventative HIV-1 vaccine. Despite extensive investigations, strategies to induce VRC01-class bnAbs and overcome the barrier posed by the envelope N276 glycan have not been successful. Here, we inferred a high-probability unmutated common ancestor (UCA) of the VRC01 lineage and reconstructed the stages of lineage maturation. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Simultaneous Loss of Both Atypical Protein Kinase C Genes in the Intestinal Epithelium Drives Serrated Intestinal Cancer by Impairing Immunosurveillance.

Immunity 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Cancer Metabolism and Signaling Networks Program, Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Electronic address:

Serrated adenocarcinoma, an alternative pathway for colorectal cancer (CRC) development, accounts for 15%-30% of all CRCs and is aggressive and treatment resistant. We show that the expression of atypical protein kinase C ζ (PKCζ) and PKCλ/ι was reduced in human serrated tumors. Simultaneous inactivation of the encoding genes in the mouse intestinal epithelium resulted in spontaneous serrated tumorigenesis that progressed to advanced cancer with a strongly reactive and immunosuppressive stroma. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Development of an anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) agent through the structure-activity relationship of the interferon-like small compound CDM-3008.

Bioorg Med Chem 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of System Chemotherapy and Molecular Sciences, Division of Bioinformatics and Chemical Genomics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan. Electronic address:

Hepatitis B, a viral infectious disease caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV), is a life-threatening disease that leads liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. Because the current treatments for HBV, such as an interferon (IFN) formulation or nucleoside/nucleotide analogues, are not sufficient, the development of a more effective agent for HBV is urgent required. CDM-3008 (1, 2-(2,4-bis(trifluoromethyl)imidazo[1,2-a][1,8]naphthyridin-8-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole) (RO8191)) is a small molecule with an imidazo[1,2-a][1,8]naphthyridine scaffold that shows anti-HCV activity with an IFN-like effect. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Age-specific HPV prevalence among 116,052 women in Australia's renewed cervical screening program: A new tool for monitoring vaccine impact.

Vaccine 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

VCS Pathology, VCS Foundation, 265 Faraday Street, Carlton South, Victoria 3053, Australia; Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia. Electronic address:

Australia's transition to primary human papillomavirus (HPV) based cervical screening, has for the first time, provided a passive mechanism for monitoring the impact of vaccination on infection prevalence among women attending screening. We assessed oncogenic HPV prevalence by single year of age in the first 7  months of the program, using data collected from a large screening laboratory in Victoria, Australia, which is routinely screening using cobas 4800, cobas 6800 and Seegene assays. Among 116,052 primary screening samples from women aged 25-74, 9. Read More

View Article
December 2018

A trivalent gC2/gD2/gE2 vaccine for herpes simplex virus generates antibody responses that block immune evasion domains on gC2 better than natural infection.

Vaccine 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Infectious Disease Division, Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6073, United States. Electronic address:

Vaccines for prevention and treatment of genital herpes are high public health priorities. Our approach towards vaccine development is to focus on blocking virus entry mediated by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein D (gD2) and to prevent the virus from evading complement and antibody attack by blocking the immune evasion domains on HSV-2 glycoproteins C (gC2) and E (gE2), respectively. HSV-2 gC2 and gE2 are expressed on the virion envelope and infected cell surface where they are potential targets of antibodies that bind and block their immune evasion activities. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Clinical characteristics of ER patients reporting synthetic cannabinoid use.

Am J Emerg Med 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Louisville School of Medicine, United States of America. Electronic address:

View Article
December 2018

Production and characterization of recombinant P1 adhesin essential for adhesion, gliding, and antigenic variation in the human pathogenic bacterium, Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka, 558-8585, Japan; The OCU Advanced Research Institute for Natural Science and Technology (OCARINA), Osaka City University, Osaka, Japan. Electronic address:

Mycoplasma pneumoniae forms an attachment organelle at one cell pole, binds to the host cell surface, and glides via a unique mechanism. A 170-kDa protein, P1 adhesin, present on the organelle surface plays a critical role in the binding and gliding process. In this study, we obtained a recombinant P1 adhesin comprising 1476 amino acid residues, excluding the C-terminal domain of 109 amino acids that carried the transmembrane segment, that were fused to additional 17 amino acid residues carrying a hexa-histidine (6 × His) tag using an Escherichia coli expression system. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Epidemic preparedness: why is there a need to accelerate the development of diagnostics?

Lancet Infect Dis 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

UNICEF-UNDP-World Bank-WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland; Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. Electronic address:

Global epidemics of infectious diseases are increasing in frequency and severity. Diagnostics are needed for rapid identification of the cause of the epidemic to facilitate effective control and prevention. Lessons learned from the recent Ebola virus and Zika virus epidemics are that delay in developing the right diagnostic for the right population at the right time has been a costly barrier to disease control and prevention. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Fighting Cancer Using an Oncofetal Glycosaminoglycan-Binding Protein from Malaria Parasites.

Trends Parasitol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Centre for Medical Parasitology at Department of Immunology and Microbiology, University of Copenhagen and Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address:

Malaria research has led to the discovery of oncofetal chondroitin sulfate, which appears to be shared between placental trophoblasts and cancer cells and can be detected by the evolutionary refined malaria protein VAR2CSA. Interestingly, using recombinant VAR2CSA to target oncofetal chondroitin sulfate shows promise for novel cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Can immune biomarkers predict infections in solid organ transplant recipients? A review of current evidence.

Transplant Rev (Orlando) 2018 Oct 9. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Centre for Inflammatory Diseases, School of Clinical Sciences, Monash University, Australia; Department of Nephrology, Monash Medical Centre, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia. Electronic address:

Despite improvements in graft survival, solid organ transplantation is still associated with considerable infection induced morbidity and mortality. If we were able to show that serious infection risk was associated with excessive suppression of immune capacity, we would be justified in "personalizing" the extent of immunosuppression by carefully monitored reduction to see if we can improve immune compromize without increasing the risk of rejection. Reliable biomarkers are needed to identify this patients at an increased risk of infection. Read More

View Article
October 2018

Saliva of hematophagous insects: a multifaceted toolkit.

Curr Opin Insect Sci 2018 Oct 24;29:102-109. Epub 2018 Jul 24.

Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, 12735 Twinbrook Parkway, Rockville, MD 20852, USA.

Transcriptomic, proteomic and genomic studies significantly improved our understanding of the complexity of blood feeding insect saliva providing unparalleled evolutionary insights. Salivary genes appeared to be under strong selective pressure with gene duplication and functional diversification being a powerful driver in the evolution of novel salivary genes/functions. The first insect salivary proteins responsible for complement inhibition were identified and a widespread mechanism of action shared by unrelated salivary protein families was recognized and named kratagonism. Read More

View Article
October 2018

Editorial overview: Vectors and medical and veterinary entomology.

Authors:
Jason L Rasgon

Curr Opin Insect Sci 2018 Aug;28:iv-v

Department of Entomology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, United States of America; Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, United States of America; Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, United States of America. Electronic address:

View Article

Densonucleosis viruses ('densoviruses') for mosquito and pathogen control.

Curr Opin Insect Sci 2018 Aug 24;28:90-97. Epub 2018 May 24.

Molecular, Cellular, and Integrative Biosciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 United States; Department of Entomology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 United States; Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 United States; Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 United States. Electronic address:

Mosquito specific viruses such as densonucleosis viruses ('densoviruses') have long been suggested as alternative mosquito control agents in the face of increasing insecticide resistance. Densoviruses are very species-specific and have been found to infect many important mosquito species. While some strains are highly pathogenic, other strains are more benign. Read More

View Article

Progress, challenges, and the role of public engagement to improve tick-borne disease literacy.

Authors:
Joyce M Sakamoto

Curr Opin Insect Sci 2018 Aug 26;28:81-89. Epub 2018 May 26.

Department of Entomology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 United States; Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 United States. Electronic address:

Vector-borne diseases have increased worldwide, facilitated by globalization and variations in climate. Tick and tick-borne disease researchers, veterinarians, medical practitioners, and public health specialists are working to share their expertise on tick ecology, disease transmission, diagnostics, and treatment in order to control tick-borne epidemics and potential pandemics. This review will be a brief overview of the current status of tick-borne diseases, challenges on the scientific and public fronts, and the role of public engagement in improving citizen education within the context of ticks and tick-borne disease research. Read More

View Article

Challenging diagnosis of congenital malaria in non-endemic areas.

Malar J 2018 Dec 14;17(1):470. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Unit of Parasitology, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, Piazza Sant'Onofrio 4, 00165, Rome, Italy.

Background: Congenital malaria is usually defined as the detection of asexual forms of Plasmodium spp. in a blood sample of a neonate during perinatal age if there is no possibility of postpartum infection by a mosquito bite. The incidence of congenital malaria is highly variable and seems related to several factors, such as different diagnostic methods for Plasmodium spp. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Clinical, immunological and bacteriological characteristics of H7N9 patients nosocomially co-infected by Acinetobacter Baumannii: a case control study.

BMC Infect Dis 2018 Dec 14;18(1):664. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Immunity, State Key Discipline of Infectious Disease, Shenzhen Third People's Hospital, Shenzhen, 518112, China.

Background: Bacterial co-infection of patients suffering from influenza pneumonia is a key element that increases morbidity and mortality. The occurrence of Acinetobacter baumannii co-infection in patients with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus infection has been described as one of the most prevalent bacterial co-infections. However, the clinical and laboratory features of this entity of H7N9 and A. Read More

View Article
December 2018

A Lateral Neck Myeloid Sarcoma Presenting as Acute Otitis Externa.

Arch Iran Med 2018 Nov 1;21(11):544-546. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS (IRCHA), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Myeloid sarcoma (MS) is a solid extra-medullary tumor of immature myeloid cells which could occur before, during or after remission of acute leukemia at any site on the body. Owing to variation in differential diagnosis, pathologic evaluation and immunohistochemical staining are essential for definitive diagnosis. Rarely, MS has been shown as an isolated extramedullary relapse (iEMR) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT), which often does not necessarily result in bone marrow involvement. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Self-Replicating RNA Viruses for RNA Therapeutics.

Molecules 2018 Dec 13;23(12). Epub 2018 Dec 13.

PanTherapeutics, Route de Lavaux 49, CH1095 Lutry, Switzerland.

Self-replicating single-stranded RNA viruses such as alphaviruses, flaviviruses, measles viruses, and rhabdoviruses provide efficient delivery and high-level expression of therapeutic genes due to their high capacity of RNA replication. This has contributed to novel approaches for therapeutic applications including vaccine development and gene therapy-based immunotherapy. Numerous studies in animal tumor models have demonstrated that self-replicating RNA viral vectors can generate antibody responses against infectious agents and tumor cells. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Frequency of Adverse Events Following Q Fever Immunisation in Young Adults.

Vaccines (Basel) 2018 Dec 13;6(4). Epub 2018 Dec 13.

National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance, Westmead, NSW 2145, Australia.

Q fever is a zoonosis of concern in many countries. Vaccination is the most effective means of prevention, and since 1989, Australia has had a licensed Q fever vaccine, Q-VAX. This vaccine was also used in the Netherlands in 2011 following the largest recorded Q fever outbreak globally. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Enhanced Systemic Response of Matrix Metalloproteinases and Their Regulators in and Patients.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2018 Dec 13;8(4). Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology, Uppsala University, Dag Hammarskjölds väg 38, 75237 Uppsala, Sweden.

Campylobacters are major enteropathogens worldwide with a substantial financial burden. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteolytic metalloendopeptidases with ability to modify immune response and shown to be upregulated in patients with several tissue destructive diseases, including infections. We measured here serum concentrations of MMP-8 and MMP-9 together with their regulators myeloperoxidase (MPO), human neutrophil elastase (HNE), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1 in 80 and 25 patients as well as in 27 healthy controls. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read