1,587,286 results match your criteria Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology[Journal]


Platelet-Dense Granules Worsen Pre-Infection Thrombocytopenia during Gram-Negative Pneumonia-Derived Sepsis.

J Innate Immun 2018 Dec 17:1-13. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Center for Experimental and Molecular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Platelet-dense (δ) granules are important for platelet function. Platelets contribute to host defense and vascular integrity during pneumonia and sepsis, and δ granule products, including adenosine diphosphate (ADP), can influence inflammatory responses. We therefore aimed to study the role of platelet δ granules in the host response during sepsis. Read More

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December 2018

Primary Human Neutrophils Exhibit a Unique HIV-Directed Antibody-Dependent Phagocytosis Profile.

J Innate Immun 2018 Dec 17:1-10. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

The only clinical HIV vaccine trial to demonstrate efficacy, RV144, correlated protection with the antibodies (Abs) mediating function via the "constant" immunoglobulin region, the crystallizable fragment (Fc). These data have supported a focus on the induction of Abs by vaccines that trigger antiviral activities by relevant leukocytes via Fc receptors (FcRs). Neutrophils are phagocytes that comprise > 50% of leukocytes and display unique FcRs. Read More

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December 2018
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Current antifungal drugs and immunotherapeutic approaches as promising strategies to treatment of fungal diseases.

Biomed Pharmacother 2018 Dec 14;110:857-868. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Immunology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

Invasive candidiasis (IC) can affect individuals with various underlying diseases hospitalized in different parts of hospitals. In recent decades, IC has caused 27-55% mortality in general population. Although Candida albicans (C. Read More

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December 2018

Patterns and trends of HPV-related cancers other than cervix in South Africa from 1994-2013.

Cancer Epidemiol 2018 Dec 14;58:121-129. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Wits Reproductive Health and HIV Institute, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, 22 Esselen Street, Hillbrow, Johannesburg, 2001, South Africa.

Background: HPV infection causes several cancers which include cervical, vaginal, vulval, penile and oropharyngeal cancer (OPC). Understanding the burden of HPV-related cancers is important for guiding cancer prevention and treatment interventions.

Methods: To inform policy, we analysed trends of age-standardised incidence (ASIR) and mortality (ASMR) rates for HPV-related head and neck (HNC) and anogenital cancers (AGC) in South Africa between 1994 and 2013. Read More

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December 2018

Lack of Bovine leukemia virus transmission during natural breeding of cattle.

Theriogenology 2018 Dec 3;126:187-190. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, 736 Wilson Rd, East Lansing, MI, 48895, USA.

Bovine leukosis is a chronic lymphoproliferative disorder that leads to significant economic losses in the beef and dairy industries. The major route of virus transmission is believed to be iatrogenic through the transfer of blood containing infected lymphocytes. In addition, BLV proviral DNA has been identified in nasal secretions, saliva, milk, colostrum, semen and smegma; however, natural transmission of BLV through these secretions has not been clearly demonstrated. Read More

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December 2018

Drugs of porcine origin - a risk for patients with α-Gal syndrome?

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Infection and Immunity, Luxembourg Institute of Health (LIH), Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg. Electronic address:

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December 2018

Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis: Clinical presentations and diagnosis.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Division of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Immune Deficiency, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH. Electronic address:

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is an overwhelming clinical syndrome associated with extreme immune activation. Familial HLH is caused by autosomal recessive inheritance of gene mutations that cripple lymphocyte cytotoxicity. X-linked lymphoproliferative diseases and mutations in NLRC4 also feature HLH as a predominant manifestation. Read More

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December 2018

Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole vs. colistin or ampicillin-sulbactam for the treatment of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: a retrospective matched cohort study.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Infectious Diseases Institute, Rambam Health Care Campus, P.O.B 9602, Haifa 3109601, Israel; The Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine - Technion Israel Institute of Technology,1 Efron St. P.O.B 9697, Haifa 3109601, Israel. Electronic address:

Objectives: We aimed to assess the effectiveness of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) as monotherapy for the treatment of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) infections.

Methods: In a retrospective cohort study, we included patients receiving TMP/SMX as the main treatment for severe infections caused by CRAB, matched to patients treated with colistin or ampicillin-sulbactam (AMP/SUL) by age, Charlson score, department and source of infection. Read More

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December 2018

Identification of the proteoforms of surface localized Rod A of Aspergillus flavus and determination of the mechanism of proteoform generation.

J Proteomics 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Proteomics, Aravind Medical Research Foundation, Aravind Eye Care System, Dr. G. Venkataswamy Eye Research Institute, No:1 Anna Nagar, Madurai, TN, India. Electronic address:

Fungal keratitis is a serious, potentially sight-threatening corneal infection that is more prevalent in the tropical parts of the world including India, and A. flavus and Fusarium solani are the predominant etiological agents. The surface of fungal conidia is covered by hydrophobin family proteins, effectively masking the conidial antigens from immune cells. Read More

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December 2018

Effective Effectors: How T cells Access and Infiltrate the Central nervous System.

Pharmacol Ther 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Duke Brain Tumor Immunotherapy Program, Department of Neurosurgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710., United States; The Preston Robert Tisch Brain Tumor Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710., United States; Department of Neurosurgery, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710., United States; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Pratt School of Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, United States; Department of Pathology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710., United States. Electronic address:

Several Phase II and III clinical trials have demonstrated that immunotherapy can induce objective responses in otherwise refractory malignancies in tumors outside the central nervous system. In large part, effector T cells mediate much of the antitumor efficacy in these trials, and potent antitumor T cells can be generated through vaccination, immune checkpoint blockade, adoptive transfer, and genetic manipulation. However, activated T cells must still traffic to, infiltrate, and persist within tumor in order to mediate tumor lysis. Read More

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December 2018

Aquatic animal viruses mediated immune evasion in their host.

Authors:
Fei Ke Qi-Ya Zhang

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430072, China. Electronic address:

Viruses are important and lethal pathogens that hamper aquatic animals. The result of the battle between host and virus would determine the occurrence of diseases. The host will fight against virus infection with various responses such as innate immunity, adaptive immunity, apoptosis, and so on. Read More

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December 2018

Molecular cloning and expression analysis of coagulation factor VIII and plasminogen involved in immune response to GCRV, and immunity activity comparison of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella with different viral resistance.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Hunan Engineering Technology Research Center of Featured Aquatic Resources Utilization, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, 410128, China; Collaborative Innovation Center for Efficient and Health Production of Fisheries in Hunan Province, Changde, Hunan, 415000, China. Electronic address:

The grass carp reovirus (GCRV) has been shown to cause lethal infections in the grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (C. idella). In order to investigate the immune response to GCRV infection, the full-length cDNA sequences of coagulation factor VIII (CiFVIII) and plasminogen (CiPLG) from C. Read More

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December 2018
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Association between excreta management and extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae incidence rate: Role of health-care worker's knowledge and practices.

J Hosp Infect 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

MiHAR Lab (www.mihar.univ-nantes.fr), University of Nantes, Nantes, FR-44000; Bacteriology and Infection Control Department, Nantes University Hospital, Nantes, FR-44000. Electronic address:

Background: The spread of extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) in healthcare environments has become a major public health threat in recent years.

Aim: To assess how healthcare workers (HCWs) manage excreta and the possible association with ESBL-PE incidence.

Methods: 800 HCWs and 74 nurse-supervisors were questioned through 2 self-report questionnaires in order to assess their knowledge and practices, and to determine the equipment utilized for excreta management in 74 healthcare departments. Read More

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December 2018

Molecular characterization of newly identified Klebsiella PKBSG14 and analysis of its effect on immune response and cell cycle progression using common catfish (Channa punctatus) as a model.

Microb Pathog 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Parasitology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani, 741235, West Bengal, India. Electronic address:

Microbial studies on Catfish revealed that Klebsiella is the most common pathogen causing prevalence of ulcers, fin erosion, and other lesions. During this study, a new strain of bacteria was isolated from Channa punctatus, and molecular identification by 16srRNA revealed the strain was Klebsiella PKBSG14 (Accession no KJ162158). The strain was also PCR positive for two virulent gene wcaG (Accession no LN606595) and rmpA (Accession no LN606594) responsible for inflammatory reactions and induction of innate immune response in the host cell. Read More

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December 2018

Goose MAVS functions in RIG-I-mediated IFN-β signaling activation.

Dev Comp Immunol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Shanghai Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shanghai, 200241, PR China. Electronic address:

Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS) is an essential adaptor protein in retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-mediated antiviral innate immunity in mammals. In this study, the goose MAVS gene (goMAVS) was identified. The 2,019 bp-long goMAVS exhibits 96. Read More

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December 2018
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Development of a Graft Inoculation Method and a Real-Time RT-PCR Assay for Monitoring Tomato chlorosis virus Infection in Tomato.

J Virol Methods 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Applied Sciences University of Isparta, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Technologies, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, 32260, Isparta, Turkey.

A graft inoculation method coupled with RT-qPCR was developed for monitoring ToCV infection in tomato plants. Ten seed-grown tomato seedlings were graft inoculated with phloem tissue-containing stem segments from a ToCV-infected tomato plants. Another group of tomato seedling were grafted with similar stem segments from a healthy tomato plant as mock inoculated control. Read More

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December 2018

The biomarker potential of cell-free microRNA from cerebrospinal fluid in Parkinsonian Syndromes.

Mov Disord 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Neurology, Bispebjerg University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of protein synthesis. Extracellular microRNAs are accessible in a stable form in biofluids.

Objectives: The aim was to identify individual microRNAs and/or subsets of microRNAs in CSF with biomarker potential and thus identify specific putative pathophysiological pathways. Read More

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December 2018

Eosinophilic cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis associated with neural Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in a dog.

Vet Clin Pathol 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Small Animal Clinical Science, Institute of Veterinary Science, University of Liverpool, Neston, UK.

A 1-year-old, female intact Pug dog was presented to the Small Animal Teaching Hospital of the University of Liverpool with a 4-week history of progressive multifocal intracranial signs. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detected multiple hemorrhagic lesions in the brain. The Baermann and zinc sulfate flotation tests with centrifugation, performed on fecal samples, were positive for lungworm larvae and an antigenic test confirmed Angiostrongylus vasorum infection. Read More

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December 2018

Sera selected from national STI surveillance system shows Chlamydia trachomatis PgP3 antibody correlates with time since infection and number of previous infections.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208652. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Health Protection Research Unit in Evaluation of Interventions at University of Bristol in partnership with Public Health England, Bristol, United Kingdom.

Background: Seroprevalence surveys of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) antibodies are promising for estimating age-specific CT cumulative incidence, however accurate estimates require improved understanding of antibody response to CT infection.

Methods: We used GUMCAD, England's national sexually transmitted infection (STI) surveillance system, to select sera taken from female STI clinic attendees on the day of or after a chlamydia diagnosis. Serum specimens were collected from laboratories and tested anonymously on an indirect and a double-antigen ELISA, both of which are based on the CT-specific Pgp3 antigen. Read More

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December 2018

Retrospective analysis of long-term gastrointestinal symptoms after Clostridium difficile infection in a nonelderly cohort.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209152. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Health Outcomes Unit, Department of Health Law, Policy and Management, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Elderly patients and those with comorbid conditions are at high risk for poor outcomes after Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) but outcomes in a healthier, nonelderly population are not well described. We sought to investigate gastrointestinal diagnoses and CDI during hospitalizations in the 24 to 36 months after an initial episode of CDI in nonelderly patients in a cohort with an overall low prevalence of comorbid conditions. We performed a retrospective analysis of hospital admissions from 2010-2013 using the Truven MarketScan database of employment-based private insurance claims. Read More

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December 2018

Laboratory strains of Bacillus anthracis exhibit pervasive alteration in expression of proteins related to sporulation under laboratory conditions relative to genetically related wild strains.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209120. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Chemical and Biological Signature Science, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, United States of America.

The spore forming pathogen Bacillus anthracis is the etiologic agent of anthrax in humans and animals. It cycles through infected hosts as vegetative cells and is eventually introduced into the environment where it generates an endospore resistant to many harsh conditions. The endospores are subsequently taken up by another host to begin the next cycle. Read More

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December 2018

HIV screening among patients seeking care at Xuanwu Hospital: A cross-sectional study in Beijing, China, 2011-2016.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208008. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.

Objectives: One-third of people living with HIV in China are still unaware of their status, so we sought to better understand HIV testing in the general hospital setting in China.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using the electronic medical records of all patients who attended Xuanwu Hospital in Beijing, January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2016. HIV screening and detection rates and characteristics of patients diagnosed with HIV were assessed. Read More

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December 2018

Robustness of the reproductive number estimates in vector-borne disease systems.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Dec 17;12(12):e0006999. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Centre for Mathematics and the Environment, University of Exeter, Penryn Campus, Penryn, UK.

Background: The required efforts, feasibility and predicted success of an intervention strategy against an infectious disease are partially determined by its basic reproduction number, R0. In its simplest form R0 can be understood as the product of the infectious period, the number of infectious contacts and the per-contact transmission probability, which in the case of vector-transmitted diseases necessarily extend to the vector stages. As vectors do not usually recover from infection, they remain infectious for life, which places high significance on the vector's life expectancy. Read More

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December 2018

Role of CTRP3, CTRP9 and MCP-1 for the evaluation of T2DM associated coronary artery disease in Egyptian postmenopausal females.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208038. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, African Union Authority St. Abassia, Cairo, Egypt.

C1q complement/tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related protein (CTRP) family comprises of 15 proteins that posses important implications in energy homeostasis, infection and inflammation. However, their roles in diabetes mellitus (DM) and its vascular complications have not been completely assessed. This works aims to study the association of two CTRPs; 3 and 9, with pro-inflammatory cytokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and biochemical parameters of type 2 diabetes (T2D), dyslipidemia and coronary artery disease (CAD). Read More

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December 2018

Hepatitis E virus seroprevalence and determinants in various study populations in the Netherlands.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208522. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Public Health Service Amsterdam (GGD), Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: The epidemiology of hepatitis E virus (HEV) is not fully understood. In this study, we assessed putative risk factors for HEV seropositivity in various study populations in the Netherlands.

Methods: Data and samples from five different study populations were analysed: (A) blood donors (n = 5,239), (B) adults reporting a vegetarian life style since the age of 12 years (n = 231), (C) residents of Amsterdam, the Netherlands, with different ethnic backgrounds (n = 1,198), (D) men who have sex with men (MSM) (HIV positive and HIV negative) (n = 197), and (E) persons who use drugs (PWUD) (HIV positive and HIV negative) (n = 200). Read More

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December 2018

NMR metabolomics of cerebrospinal fluid differentiates inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Dec 17;12(12):e0007045. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, California, United States of America.

Background: Myriad infectious and noninfectious causes of encephalomyelitis (EM) have similar clinical manifestations, presenting serious challenges to diagnosis and treatment. Metabolomics of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was explored as a method of differentiating among neurological diseases causing EM using a single CSF sample.

Methodology/principal Findings: 1H NMR metabolomics was applied to CSF samples from 27 patients with a laboratory-confirmed disease, including Lyme disease or West Nile Virus meningoencephalitis, multiple sclerosis, rabies, or Histoplasma meningitis, and 25 controls. Read More

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December 2018

The adjuvant AlhydroGel elicits higher antibody titres than AddaVax when combined with HIV-1 subtype C gp140 from CAP256.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208310. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Science, University of Cape Town, South Africa.

With the HIV-1 epidemic in southern Africa still rising, a prophylactic vaccine against the region's most prolific subtype (subtype C) would be a significant step forward. In this paper we report on the effect of 2 different adjuvants, AddaVax and AlhydroGel, formulated with HIV-1 subtype C gp140, on the development of binding and neutralising antibody titres in rabbits. AddaVax is a squalene-based oil-in-water nano-emulsion (similar to MF59) which can enhance both cellular and humoral immune responses, whilst AlhydroGel (aluminium hydroxide gel) mainly drives a Th2 response. Read More

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December 2018

Protective versus pathologic pre-exposure cytokine profiles in dengue virus infection.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Dec 17;12(12):e0006975. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Institute for Immunology and Informatics, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Rhode Island, Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America.

Background: Hyperendemic circulation of all four types of dengue virus (DENV-1-4) has expanded globally, fueling concern for increased incidence of severe dengue. While the majority of DENV infections are subclinical, epidemiologic studies suggest that type-cross-reactive immunity can influence disease outcome in subsequent infections. The mechanisms controlling these differential clinical outcomes remain poorly defined. Read More

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December 2018

Integrative Medicine in Plastic Surgery: A Systematic Review of Our Literature.

Ann Plast Surg 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Division of General Medicine and Primary Care, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Background: Surveys have reported that as high as 80% of plastic surgery patients utilize integrative medicine approaches including natural products (NPs) and mind-body practices (MBPs). Little is known regarding the evidence of benefit of these integrative therapies specifically in a plastic surgery patient population.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review of studies in MEDLINE, PubMed, and EMBASE (inception through December 2016) evaluating integrative medicine among plastic surgery patients. Read More

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December 2018

Modified V-Y Fasciocutaneous Flap Reconstruction After Abdominoperineal Resection in Irradiated Patients Prevents Wound Dehiscence and Associated Complications: A Retrospective Analysis and Benchtop Confirmation.

Ann Plast Surg 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham NC.

Background: Primary perineal closure following abdominal perineal resection (APR) is reported to have a wound complication rate as high as 66%, whereas flap reconstruction reduces wound complications to 15% to 35%. A modified de-epithelialized V-Y fasciocutaneous flap aims to further improve results in this patient population.

Methods: To study the breaking force of a simple interrupted suture in either skin or subcutaneous fat, various quantitative assessments were performed in a porcine flap model using uniaxial static tensile testing with an Instron tensiometer, with a single or triple row of 3 Vicryl sutures in both skin and fat. Read More

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December 2018
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The pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and mucosal responses to maraviroc-containing PrEP Regimens in Men who have Sex with Men.

AIDS 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York.

Objective: HIV Prevention Trials Network 069/AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5305 was a study of 48-week oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) regimens in MSM and transgender women. A rectal substudy was included to evaluate drug concentrations in rectal compartment vs. blood, gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) responses to four antiretroviral PrEP regimens [maraviroc (MVC), MVC + emtricitabine (FTC), MVC + tenofovir (TFV) disoproxil fumarate, and TFV disoproxil fumarate + FTC], and to determine whether ARV exposure was associated with ex-vivo suppression of HIV infection in colorectal explants. Read More

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December 2018

CSF extracellular vesicles and neurofilament light protein as biomarkers of CNS injury in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy.

AIDS 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Cancer Immunology and Virology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA.

Objective: The relationship of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) extracellular vesicles (EVs) to neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in HIV-infected individuals is unclear. Here, we characterize CSF EVs and their association with CNS injury-related biomarkers (neurofilament light [NFL], S100B, neopterin) and NCI in HIV+ subjects on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART).

Design: Cross-sectional and longitudinal study of CSF samples from HIV+ subjects on cART. Read More

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December 2018

Socio-behavioural and community predictors of unsuppressed viral load: multi-level results from a hyper-endemic rural South African population.

AIDS 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Africa Health Research Institute, Durban, South Africa.

Objective: Extensive anti-retroviral therapy scale-up is expected to prevent onward transmission of HIV by reducing the overall community viral load (VL). Despite countless studies about predictors of VL derived from clinical settings, to date, no study has established them in sub-Saharan Africa hyperendemic community settings that can inform population-based interventions designed to halt HIV transmission. We used one of Africa's largest population-based prospective cohorts in rural KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, to establish for the first time the socio-demographic, behavioral and community predictors of unsuppressed VL. Read More

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December 2018

Survey of Reticuloendotheliosis Virus in Wild Turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo) in Texas, USA.

J Wildl Dis 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

1 Tarleton State University, Department of Biological Sciences, Box T-0100, Stephenville, Texas 76402, USA.

Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) is an immunosuppressive and sometimes oncogenic avian retrovirus that establishes lifelong infection in a wide range of avian species. REV-infected wild birds roaming near at-risk captive flocks, such as is the case for the highly endangered Attwater's prairie chicken ( Tympanuchus cupido attwateri; APC), could act as a reservoir for viral transmission. In wild birds, prevalence rates of REV are low and appearance of associated disease is uncommon. Read More

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December 2018

AN INTERFERON GAMMA RELEASE ASSAY FOR THE DETECTION OF IMMUNE SENSITIZATION TO MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS IN AFRICAN WILD DOGS ( LYCAON PICTUS).

J Wildl Dis 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

1   Department of Science and Technology-National Research Foundation Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Tuberculosis Research; South African Medical Research Council Centre for Tuberculosis Research; Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.

In South Africa, the largest proportion of the African wild dog ( Lycaon pictus) population resides in regions where buffaloes have a high prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (bTB). Recent reports of deaths of wild dogs associated with bTB have raised concerns regarding the threat this disease might pose for this species. In order to understand the potential impact of the disease in wild dogs, diagnostic tools are required to identify infected individuals. Read More

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December 2018

Skin Integrity and Infection Prevention Las Vegas: transform uncertainty into quality wound healing.

Authors:

J Wound Care 2018 Dec;27(12):860-861

The 4th International Skin Integrity and Infection Prevention conference, in hosted by the Journal of Wound Care and the University of Huddersfield, was held in Las Vegas. The last in our series of reports, which describe the key points discussed at the sponsored symposia, looked at wound bed preparation, concentrating on debriding a wound using a surfactant gel when sharp debridement is not an option. Read More

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December 2018
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Skin Integrity and Infection Prevention Las Vegas: continuous delivery of oxygen enhances closure of diabetic foot ulcers.

Authors:

J Wound Care 2018 Dec;27(12):856-857

The 4th International Skin Integrity and Infection Prevention conference, hosted by the Journal of Wound Care and the University of Huddersfield in Las Vegas, included a series of sponsored symposia. This is the third in our series of reports on the key points of the symposia, which outlined the effects of hypoxia on wound healing, and how reduced oxygen levels can lead to chronic, non-healing wounds. The speaker, Mark Niederauer, explained what can be done to combat low oxygen levels using a new continuous diffusion of oxygen (CDO) device. Read More

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December 2018
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Surgical site infections after craniotomy: a matched health-care cost and length of stay study.

J Wound Care 2018 Dec;27(12):885-890

Clinical Nurse Instructor, Faculty of Nursing, Adult Health Nursing Department, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Jordan.

Objective:: To assess the extra health-care costs and length of stay resulting from surgical site infection (SSI), as well as to identify the most frequent aetiological microorganisms of SSIs among Jordanian craniotomy surgery patients.

Method:: A retrospective, descriptive, correlational and nested 1:1 matched case-control design was used. A computerised list of patients, who underwent surgery between May 2009 and March 2015, was generated in the targeted hospital. Read More

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December 2018

Greek nurses' knowledge on the prevention of surgical site infection: an investigation.

J Wound Care 2018 Dec;27(12):876-884

Professor, Department of Nursing, University of West Attica.

Objective:: The aim of the study was to investigate nurses' knowledge regarding the prevention of surgical site infection (SSI), and to examine the relationship between nurses' demographic characteristics and educational level and their level of knowledge in prevention of SSIs. A further aim was to examine the differences in nurses' knowledge with respect to selected variables and to identify the most significant predictors of nurses' knowledge regarding the prevention of SSIs, to support the provision of high-quality nursing care.

Method:: A prospective, observational study of a convenience sample of nurses and assistant nurses working in surgical departments, in a public general hospital for adults in Attica, during May to August 2016. Read More

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December 2018

An appraisal of the role of specific bacteria in the initial pathogenesis of periodontitis.

J Clin Periodontol 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Applied Oral Sciences, Center for Periodontology, The Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Historically, inflammatory periodontal diseases (gingivitis and periodontitis) have been recognized as being primarily of bacterial origin. Bacteria are necessary for disease development, but the presence of specific bacteria does not guarantee progression to periodontitis. Periodontitis is a multifactorial disease; specific bacteria are associated with disease, but may not be the target of treatment. Read More

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December 2018

Hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia as biochemical markers of disease in companion rabbits.

Vet Clin Pathol 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, University of California-Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, California.

Background: Inflammation has important effects on lipid metabolism, but the relationship between hyperlipidemia, inflammation, and disease remains unknown in rabbits. While rabbits are sensitive to dietary hypercholesterolemia, the etiology of hyperlipidemia when fed non-atherogenic diets is uncertain.

Objectives: This study aimed to determine the association between hypercholesterolemia and patient characteristics, diseases, and select CBC and biochemistry analytes in rabbits, and to measure plasma lipoprotein lipid fractions in rabbits with inflammatory and other diseases. Read More

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December 2018

Japanese Encephalitis Virus-induced let-7a/b interacted with the NOTCH-TLR7 pathway in microglia and facilitated neuronal death via caspase activation.

J Neurochem 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute, Faridabad, India.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) released from the activated microglia upon neurotropic virus infection may exacerbate the neuronal damage. Here, we identified let-7a and let-7b (let-7a/b) as one of the essential miRNAs overexpressed upon Japanese Encephalitis virus (JEV) infection and released in the culture supernatant of the JEV-infected microglial cells through extracellular vesicles. The let-7a/b were previously reported to modulate inflammation in microglial cells through Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) pathways; though their role in accelerating JEV pathogenesis remain unexplored. Read More

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December 2018

NLRP12 promotes host resistance against Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis inflammatory responses through the negative regulation of NF-κB signaling.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2018 Dec;22(23):8063-8075

Department of Laboratory, Longhua District Central Hospital, Longhua District, Shenzhen, China.

Objective: To investigate the role of NLRP12 in regulating Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) keratitis.

Materials And Methods: Real-Time-PCR and Western blot were performed to measure the NLRP12 level in corneas and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) of C57BL/6 (B6) mice. Read More

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December 2018

Tropolone natural products.

Nat Prod Rep 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology - Hans Knöll Institute, Beutenbergstraße 11a, 07745 Jena, Germany.

Covering: 2008 to 2018This review provides a comprehensive overview of newly discovered natural products containing a tropolonoid motif covering 2008 up to 2018 and depicts the ecological context in which they have been isolated. This review has a strong focus on describing the different analytical tools and molecular biological approaches used to identify the underlying biosynthetic pathways. Read More

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December 2018

Minimum Information about an Uncultivated Virus Genome (MIUViG).

Nat Biotechnol 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California, USA.

We present an extension of the Minimum Information about any (x) Sequence (MIxS) standard for reporting sequences of uncultivated virus genomes. Minimum Information about an Uncultivated Virus Genome (MIUViG) standards were developed within the Genomic Standards Consortium framework and include virus origin, genome quality, genome annotation, taxonomic classification, biogeographic distribution and in silico host prediction. Community-wide adoption of MIUViG standards, which complement the Minimum Information about a Single Amplified Genome (MISAG) and Metagenome-Assembled Genome (MIMAG) standards for uncultivated bacteria and archaea, will improve the reporting of uncultivated virus genomes in public databases. Read More

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December 2018
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Subinhibitory concentrations of tedizolid potently inhibit extracellular toxin production by methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

J Med Microbiol 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

2​Idaho Veterans Research and Education Foundation, Boise, ID, USA.

Purpose: Potent extracellular toxins including alpha-haemolysin, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and toxic-shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) significantly contribute to Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis, thus, toxin suppression is a primary focus in treatment of staphylococcal disease. S. aureus maintains complex strategies to regulate toxin expression and previous data have demonstrated that subinhibitory concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotics can adversely increase S. Read More

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December 2018

CotL, a new morphogenetic spore coat protein of Clostridium difficile.

Environ Microbiol 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Laboratoire Pathogenèse des Bactéries Anaérobies, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.

The strict anaerobe Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. The oxygen-resistant C. difficile spores play a central role in the infectious cycle, contributing to transmission, infection and recurrence. Read More

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December 2018

Systematic review of ganciclovir pharmacodynamics during the prevention of cytomegalovirus infection in adult solid organ transplant recipients.

Rev Med Virol 2018 Dec 17:e2023. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Serology and Virology Division, NSW Health Pathology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) represents the most common infection among recipients of solid organ transplants (SOTs). Previous meta-analysis showed 0.8% of SOT recipients developed CMV disease whilst receiving valganciclovir (ValGCV) prophylaxis. Read More

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December 2018

Mammillary fistula revisited: Implications for immediate breast reconstruction.

Breast J 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

We present two patients with inverted nipples who underwent bilateral nipple-sparing mastectomies (NSM) with immediate placement of tissue expanders with acellular dermal matrix (ADM). Both were complicated by postoperative infection and developed mammillary fistulae from the nipple into the breast capsule, and eroding through the ADM. For the first time, we report inverted nipples as a risk for the iatrogenic formation of mammillary fistulae and their infectious implications after NSM. Read More

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December 2018

Validation of the Bluebelle Wound Healing Questionnaire for assessment of surgical-site infection in closed primary wounds after hospital discharge.

Authors:

Br J Surg 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Background: Accurate assessment of surgical-site infection (SSI) is crucial for surveillance and research. Self-reporting patient measures are needed because current SSI tools are limited for assessing patients after leaving hospital. The Bluebelle Wound Healing Questionnaire (WHQ) was developed for patient or observer completion; this study tested its acceptability, scale structure, reliability and validity in patients with closed primary wounds after abdominal surgery. Read More

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December 2018
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