1,195,448 results match your criteria Infants & Young Children[Journal]


The Department of Defense Birth and Infant Health Research Program: Assessing the Reproductive Health of U.S. Active-Duty Women.

Semin Reprod Med 2018 Nov 19;36(6):351-360. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

The Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Inc., Bethesda, Maryland.

As the percentage of women serving in the active-duty military continues to grow, and as their roles continue to expand, the importance of monitoring reproductive health in the military community increases. The Department of Defense Birth and Infant Health Research (BIHR) program conducts ongoing epidemiologic studies to assess potential increased risks for adverse reproductive and infant health outcomes in the military population. Military personnel endure unique physical and mental demands as a part of their occupational duties (e. Read More

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http://www.thieme-connect.de/DOI/DOI?10.1055/s-0039-1678751
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1678751DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Oxygen Saturation and Perfusion Index-Based Enhanced Critical Congenital Heart Disease Screening.

Am J Perinatol 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Pediatrics, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, California.

Objective:  To determine if addition of perfusion index (PIx) to oxygen saturation (SpO) screening improves detection of critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) with systemic outflow obstruction.

Study Design:  We determined screening thresholds for PIx and applied these to a cohort of newborns with and without congenital heart disease (CHD).

Results:  A total of 123 normal and 21 CHD newborns (including five with critical systemic outflow obstruction) were enrolled. Read More

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http://www.thieme-connect.de/DOI/DOI?10.1055/s-0039-1685445
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1685445DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Placental programming of neuropsychiatric disease.

Pediatr Res 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Children's Research Institute at Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA.

The placenta is vital for fetal growth, and compromised function is associated with abnormal development, especially of the brain. Linking placental function to brain development is a new field we have dubbed neuroplacentology. Approximately 380,000 infants in the United States each year abruptly lose placental support upon premature birth, and more than 10% of pregnancies are affected by more insidious placental dysfunction such as preeclampsia or infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41390-019-0405-9DOI Listing

Observed and calculated cerebral critical closing pressure are highly correlated in preterm infants.

Pediatr Res 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Pediatrics, Neonatology, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX, USA.

Introduction: Cerebrovascular critical closing pressure (CrCP) is the arterial blood pressure (ABP) at which cerebral blood flow ceases. Preterm ABP is low and close to CrCP. The diastolic closing margin (diastolic ABP minus CrCP) has been associated with intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41390-019-0403-yDOI Listing

Midgut volvulus is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction in adults: A case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2019 Apr 4;58:41-44. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Sina Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: The incidence of midgut vovulus is rare in adults. However, a significant number of cases were seen in infant and children.

Presentation Of Case: We report a case of a 34-year-old male who presented to the emergency room with persistent periumbilical abdominal pain without any other symptoms. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S22102612193014
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijscr.2019.03.029DOI Listing
April 2019
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Indigenous Doulas: A literature review exploring their role and practice in western maternity care.

Midwifery 2019 Apr 16;75:52-58. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Charles Darwin University, Australia.

Objective: The purpose of this article is to establish a body of literature exploring the emergent topic of Indigenous doulas, in relation to Indigenous communities in remote locations, where women are routinely evacuated and no longer supported to give birth. In doing so the article will synthesise and critique key concepts in the literature and identify gaps for prioritisation in future research.

Design: The methodology is influenced by Indigenous, decolonising and feminist theoretical standpoints. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S02666138193008
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2019.04.005DOI Listing
April 2019
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Mother-infant interactions with firstborns and secondborns: A within-family study of European Americans.

Infant Behav Dev 2019 Apr 16;55:100-111. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Institute for Fiscal Studies, London, UK.

Given the large numbers of families with more than one child, understanding similarities and differences in siblings' behaviors and in parents' interactions with their sibling infants is an important goal for advancing more representative developmental science. This study employed a within-family design to examine mean-level consistency and individual-order agreement in 5-month-old sibling behaviors and maternal parenting practices with their firstborns and secondborns (ns = 61 mothers and 122 infants). Each infant was seen independently with mother. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.infbeh.2019.03.009DOI Listing

Ca-PKCα-ERK1/2 signaling pathway is involved in the suppressive effect of propofol on proliferation of neural stem cells from the neonatal rat hippocampus.

Brain Res Bull 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Anesthesiology, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, PR China. Electronic address:

Neonatal exposure to propofol induces persistent behavioral abnormalities in adulthood. In addition to triggering the apoptosis of neurons in the developing brain, anesthetics may contribute to the development of cognitive deficits by interfering neurogenesis. Given the importance of neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation in neurogenesis, the effect of propofol on NSC proliferation and the mechanisms underlying this effect were investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2019.04.005DOI Listing

Determinants of Infant Feeding Practices Among HIV-Infected Mothers in Urban Kano, Nigeria.

J Hum Lact 2019 Apr 19:890334419835171. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

5 Department of Health Policy and Vanderbilt Institute for Global Health, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Tennessee, USA.

Background: Despite advances in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission, infants in Africa remain at risk of HIV acquisition from inappropriate feeding practices.

Research Aims: To assess maternal knowledge and predictors of appropriate infant feeding practices among HIV-infected mothers attending a tertiary facility in Kano, Nigeria.

Method: A cross section of 203 HIV-positive mothers were interviewed using structured, pretested survey questionnaires. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0890334419835171DOI Listing

Chemerin and Dermcidin in Human Milk and Their Alteration in Gestational Diabetes.

J Hum Lact 2019 Apr 19:890334419837523. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

5 Department of Medical Biochemistry and Clinical Biochemistry, Firat Hormones Research Group, Medical School, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey.

Background: Chemerin and dermcidin, which have antimicrobial properties, are molecules that are also related to insulin resistance and inflammation.

Research Aims: The aims were to determine the amounts of chemerin and dermcidin in the milk and blood of mothers with gestational diabetes, and to compare the amounts of chemerin and dermcidin in the milk and blood of mothers with and without diabetes.

Methods: This was a two-group nonrandomized longitudinal study with a convenience sampling of mothers without gestational diabetes ( n = 27) and mothers with gestational diabetes ( n = 26). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0890334419837523DOI Listing

International Board Certified Lactation Consultants' Practices Regarding Supplemental Feeding Methods for Breastfed Infants.

J Hum Lact 2019 Apr 19:890334419835744. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

5 University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, School of Nursing, San Antonio, TX, USA.

Background: According to the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative, when supplementary feeding occurs, mothers should be counseled on the use and risks of feeding bottles and teats. To help support this initiative it is important to understand the supplementation practices of Internationally Board Certified Lactation Consultants (IBCLC)®.

Research Aims: To determine (1) if the location of an IBCLC's practice has any impact on supplemental feeding methods; (2) the preferred methods of and the main reasons for supplementation; (3) the level of an IBCLC's confidence with supplemental feeding methods; (4) who is making supplemental feeding decisions; and (5) if there are geographical differences among supplementation choices and reasons for supplementation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0890334419835744DOI Listing

Effect of HIV-exposure and timing of anti-retroviral treatment on immunogenicity of trivalent live-attenuated polio vaccine in infants.

PLoS One 2019 19;14(4):e0215079. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

South African Medical Research Council, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Introduction: The prevalence of HIV infection in South African pregnant women has been approximately 30% over the past decade; however, there has been a steady decline in mother-to-child transmission of HIV from 8% in 2008 to <2% in 2015. We evaluated the immunogenicity of live-attenuated trivalent oral polio vaccine (OPV) following the primary vaccination series (doses at birth, 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age) in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU), HIV-infected infants initiated on early anti-retroviral treatment (HIV+/ART+), HIV-infected infants on deferred ART (HIV+/ART-) and HIV-unexposed infants (HU) as the referent group.

Methods: Serum polio neutralization antibody titres were evaluated to serotype-1, serotype-2 and serotype-3 at 6, 10 and 18 weeks of age. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215079PLOS

Randomized Trial of Intravenous Versus Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy Plus Bevacizumab in Advanced Ovarian Carcinoma: An NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group Study.

J Clin Oncol 2019 Apr 19:JCO1801568. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

1 University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK.

Purpose: To evaluate the impact of two different intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy regimens on progression-free survival (PFS) among women with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian carcinoma.

Methods: Eligible patients were randomly assigned to six cycles of IV paclitaxel 80 mg/m once per week with intravenous (IV) carboplatin area under the curve 6 (IV carboplatin) versus IV paclitaxel 80 mg/m once per week with IP carboplatin area under the curve 6 (IP carboplatin) versus once every 3 weeks IV paclitaxel 135 mg/m over 3 hours day 1, IP cisplatin 75 mg/m day 2, and IP paclitaxel 60 mg/m day 8 (IP cisplatin). All participants received bevacizumab 15 mg/kg IV every 3 weeks in cycles 2 to 22. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.18.01568DOI Listing

Parental height modifies the association between linear growth and neurodevelopment in infancy.

Acta Paediatr 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Research, Innlandet Hospital Trust, Lillehammer, Norway.

Aim: To estimate the extent to which maternal and paternal height modify the association between length-for-age Z-score (LAZ) and neurodevelopmental outcomes assessed by the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd Edition (Bayley-III).

Methods: Baseline data from a clinical trial in 600 Nepalese infants aged 6-11 months with LAZ less than -1 were utilized. The primary exposure was the LAZ score, interaction variables were maternal and paternal height and the outcomes were Bayley-III cognitive, language and motor scaled scores. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/apa.14820
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apa.14820DOI Listing
April 2019
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Cohort study showed that growth rate increment has not been enough to prevent growth retardation of preterm infants and raised concerns about unbalanced growth.

Acta Paediatr 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Neonatology Department, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Hospital La Paz Institute for Health Research, Madrid, Spain.

Aim: We describe the postnatal weight gain, linear and head growth trends of surviving preterm infants from 2005 to 2017.

Methods: Multicentre cohort study, including surviving preterm infants < 32 weeks (n=21,084), from the Spanish Neonatal Network database, without major congenital malformations who were less than 50 weeks postmenstrual age at discharge. Outcomes were weight gain (g/kg/day), linear and head growth (cm/week) and changes in weight, length and head circumference z-scores from birth to discharge. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apa.14819DOI Listing

Association of Peritumoral Radiomics With Tumor Biology and Pathologic Response to Preoperative Targeted Therapy for HER2 (ERBB2)-Positive Breast Cancer.

JAMA Netw Open 2019 Apr 5;2(4):e192561. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio.

Importance: There has been significant recent interest in understanding the utility of quantitative imaging to delineate breast cancer intrinsic biological factors and therapeutic response. No clinically accepted biomarkers are as yet available for estimation of response to human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (currently known as ERBB2, but referred to as HER2 in this study)-targeted therapy in breast cancer.

Objective: To determine whether imaging signatures on clinical breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could noninvasively characterize HER2-positive tumor biological factors and estimate response to HER2-targeted neoadjuvant therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.2561DOI Listing

Association of Maternal Cigarette Smoking and Smoking Cessation With Preterm Birth.

JAMA Netw Open 2019 Apr 5;2(4):e192514. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Community Health Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles.

Importance: Cigarette smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of preterm birth, low birth weight, and infant mortality.

Objective: To assess the probability of preterm birth among expectant mothers who smoked cigarettes before pregnancy and quit smoking at the start or during pregnancy.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cross-sectional study analyzed information provided on live birth certificates from 2011 through 2017 that were obtained from US states that implemented the 2003 revision of the US live birth certificate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.2514DOI Listing

Home deaths of children under 5 years in rural South Africa: a population-based longitudinal study.

Trop Med Int Health 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, UK.

Objectives: To determine the proportion of under-5 deaths that occurred at home in rural South Africa, whether care was sought prior to death, and determinants of home deaths amongst those who sought care.

Methods: Verbal autopsy data were used for all under-5 deaths, 2000-2015, in two health and demographic surveillance system sites. Trends in place of death and care-seeking were assessed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tmi.13239DOI Listing

A Newborn with Congenital Hyperinsulinism.

Fetal Pediatr Pathol 2019 Apr 19:1-6. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

a Chengdu Women's and Children's Central Hospital , Chengdu , Sichuan , PR China.

Objective: Our aim was to describe the molecular alterations in the ABCC8 gene in a child with congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI).

Methods: Genetic analysis of the ABCC8 gene of a newborn infant with congenial hyperinsulinism was obtained.

Results: There were two mutations in the ABCC8 gene, c. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15513815.2019.1603255DOI Listing

Evaluation of Propofol in Comparison with Other General Anesthetics for Surgery in Children Younger than 3 Years: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

J Korean Med Sci 2019 Apr 22;34(15):e124. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Despite well-known advantages, propofol remains off-label in many countries for general anesthesia in children under 3 years of age due to insufficient evidence regarding its use in this population. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of propofol compared with other general anesthetics in children under 3 years of age undergoing surgery through a systematic review and meta-analysis of existing randomized clinical trials.

Methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted of MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to find all randomized clinical trials comparing propofol with another general anesthetic that included children under 3 years of age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2019.34.e124DOI Listing

First use and limitations of Magmaris® bioresorbable stenting in a low birth weight infant with native aortic coarctation.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

We, herein, report the first use of a Magmaris® magnesium-based vascular scaffold for native aortic coarctation in a 1,980 g infant with multiple malformations. Due to the low body weight, complex illness, and clinical instability, it was decided to delay surgical correction. After insufficient results had been obtained by balloon angioplasty, Magmaris® implantation was chosen to bridge the patient to surgery by stabilizing left ventricular function and to allow for sufficient growth. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.28300DOI Listing

Case series of neck accessory tragus.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Dermatology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

We report three cases of neck accessory tragus, which is the largest number of cases with dermatologists reported in China. Neck accessory tragus belongs to special accessory auricular anomaly. Case 1: A 5-year-old girl presented with a skin-colored mass above her right clavicle since birth. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jocd.12912
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.12912DOI Listing
April 2019
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Free-breathing 3-D quantification of infant body composition and hepatic fat using a stack-of-radial magnetic resonance imaging technique.

Pediatr Radiol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California Los Angeles, 300 UCLA Medical Plaza, Ste. B119, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.

Background: Body composition and hepatic fat correlate with future risk for metabolic syndrome. In children, many conventional techniques for quantifying body composition and hepatic fat have limitations. MRI is a noninvasive research tool to study body composition and hepatic fat in infants; however, conventional Cartesian MRI is sensitive to motion, particularly in the abdomen because of respiration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00247-019-04384-7DOI Listing

Variables of interest to predict glomerular filtration rate in preterm newborns in the first days of life.

Pediatr Nephrol 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Pediatric Nephrology Unit, Children and Adolescent Department, Children's Hospital, Geneva University Hospitals, 6 rue Willy Donzé CH-1211, Geneva 14, Switzerland.

Background: Measurement of neonatal renal function is challenging, and accurate, easy-to-use markers to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) are lacking. This study aimed to evaluate principal determinants of GFR in neonates and develop a predictive equation.

Methods: GFR was measured, using single injection inulin clearance, at median day 3 of life in 48 newborns. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-019-04257-zDOI Listing

Respiratory morbidity, atopy and asthma at school age in preterm infants aged 32-35 weeks.

Eur J Pediatr 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Paediatric Pneumology Unit, University Clinic Hospital, University of Valencia, Av Blasco Ibáñez, 17, 46010, Valencia, Spain.

Little is known about respiratory morbidity and asthma risk in preterm infants (PTIs) with a gestational age (GA) over 32 weeks. This was a prospective study carried out from birth to 7-8 years, comparing two groups: (a) PTIs (GAs 32 weeks + 1 day to 35 weeks + 0 days, without comorbidities) and (b) full-term infants (FTIs; GA ≥ 37 weeks). Risk and protective factors for bronchiolitis and asthma were identified. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00431-019-03372-1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00431-019-03372-1DOI Listing
April 2019
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A Predictive Model of Postnatal Surgical Intervention in Children With Prenatally Detected Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract.

Front Pediatr 2019 2;7:120. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Public Health, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

The aim of this study was to identify predictive factors and develop a model to assess individualized risk of postnatal surgical intervention in patients with antenatal hydronephrosis. This is a retrospective cohort study of 694 infants with prenatally detected congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract with a median follow-up time of 37 months. The main event of interest was postnatal surgical intervention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2019.00120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454042PMC

The Preterm Gut Microbiota: An Inconspicuous Challenge in Nutritional Neonatal Care.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2019 2;9:85. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, Netherlands.

The nutritional requirements of preterm infants are unique and challenging to meet in neonatal care, yet crucial for their growth, development and health. Normally, the gut microbiota has distinct metabolic capacities, making their role in metabolism of dietary components indispensable. In preterm infants, variation in microbiota composition is introduced while facing a unique set of environmental conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2019.00085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454191PMC

Perinatal Exposure Is Associated With Increased Risk of Late Onset Sepsis and Imbalanced Inflammation in Preterm Infants and May Add to Lung Injury.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2019 2;9:68. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

University Children's Hospital, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg, Germany.

Controversy remains concerning the impact of on preterm neonatal morbidity. Prospective single-center study in very low birth weight infants <30 weeks' gestation. Cord blood and initial nasopharyngeal swabs were screened for and using culture technique and polymerase chain reaction. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fcimb.2019.00068
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2019.00068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454044PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Fulminant early-onset neonatal sepsis due to : Case report and review of the literature.

Pediatr Rep 2019 Feb 27;11(1):7953. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Department of Neonatology.

is a rare cause of neonatal sepsis, and it is associated with significant morbidity and a very high fatality rate. The infection is usually acquired intrapartum, from the colonization of the maternal genital tract. Most affected neonates have an early-onset presentation of symptoms, usually within the first 48 hours after birth, which is similar to other causes of neonatal sepsis such as or . Read More

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https://www.pagepress.org/journals/index.php/pr/article/view
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/pr.2019.7953DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6452222PMC
February 2019
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Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Inhibit Endometrial Cancer Cell Proliferation and Migration through Delivery of Exogenous miR-302a.

Stem Cells Int 2019 14;2019:8108576. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Key laboratory of Follicular Development and Reproductive Health of Liaoning Province, Jinzhou Medical University, Jinzhou, Liaoning 121001, China.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are potential therapeutic targets in endometrial cancer, but the difficulties associated with their delivery to tumor target cells have hampered their applications. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) have a well-recognized tumor-homing ability, emphasizing the capacity of tumor-targeted delivery of extracellular vesicles. hUCMSCs release extracellular vesicles rich in miRNAs, which play a vital role in intercellular communication. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/8108576DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6437733PMC

Fecal Colonization With Multidrug-Resistant Among Healthy Infants in Rural Bangladesh.

Front Microbiol 2019 2;10:640. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland.

Third generation cephalosporins (3GC) are one of the main choices for treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria. Due to their overuse, an increasing trend of resistance to 3GC has been observed in developing countries. Here, we describe fecal colonization of 3GC-resistant (3GCr) in healthy infants (1-12 months old) living in rural areas of Bangladesh. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00640DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454046PMC

Language Origins Viewed in Spontaneous and Interactive Vocal Rates of Human and Bonobo Infants.

Front Psychol 2019 2;10:729. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

School of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, United Kingdom.

From the first months of life, human infants produce "protophones," speech-like, non-cry sounds, presumed absent, or only minimally present in other apes. But there have been no direct quantitative comparisons to support this presumption. In addition, by 2 months, human infants show sustained face-to-face interaction using protophones, a pattern thought also absent or very limited in other apes, but again, without quantitative comparison. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00729DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6455048PMC

Pain, Parental Involvement, and Oxytocin in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

Front Psychol 2019 2;10:715. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institute for Cellular and Integrative Neurosciences, University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Preterm infants (PTI) typically experience many painful and stressful procedures or events during their first weeks of life in a neonatal intensive care unit, and these can profoundly impact subsequent brain development and function. Several protective interventions during this sensitive period stimulate the oxytocin system, reduce pain and stress, and improve brain development. This review provides an overview of the environmental risk factors experienced by PTI during hospitalization, with a focus on the effects of pain, and early maternal separation. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00715
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00715DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454868PMC

Cognitive Development Trajectories in Preterm Children With Very Low Birth Weight Longitudinally Followed Until 11 Years of Age.

Front Physiol 2019 2;10:307. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

There is a high prevalence of cognitive dysfunction in very low birthweight (500-1250 g) infants (VLBW). Understanding long-term risk factors associated with cognitive development in preterm children requires longitudinal characterization. Thus, follow-up evaluations, including identification of risks and resilience influences-are important to promote health and cognitive abilities of children born preterm. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.00307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454032PMC

Ultrasonography and X-Ray guided drain placement to evacuate a pneumopericardium/pneumomediastinum in a 1-day-old infant.

Indian J Radiol Imaging 2019 Jan-Mar;29(1):94-97

Children's Hospital Cardiology Center, Women's and Children's Hospital, University of Missouri Health Care, Columbia, USA.

Ultrasonographic (US) guided procedures have wide range of application in the abdomen and pelvis, however their role is somewhat limited in the chest due to complete reflection of the ultrasound beam by the air in the lungs, preventing the direct imaging of the tissues deep to the air-sound interface. Most of the chest procedures, other than the exception of thoracentesis, rely on the use of CT (computed tomography) scan. The disadvantages of using CT scan is the cost, lack of portability, and most importantly the radiation involved, particularly in case of infants and children, whose tissues are more radiosensitive than the adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijri.IJRI_447_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6467035PMC

Massive bilateral renomegaly with maintained renal morphology in an infant.

Indian J Urol 2019 Apr-Jun;35(2):170-171

Department of Urology, Lourdes Hospital, Kochi, Kerala, India.

Massive bilateral renomegaly with maintained renal morphology in infants is a rare entity. We present the images of a A 9-month-old female child who presented with massive bilateral renomegaly with maintained renal morphology due to acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/iju.IJU_80_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458813PMC

Anaesthetic management of an infant with tracheomalacia scheduled for computed tomography angiography: A challenge.

Indian J Anaesth 2019 Apr;63(4):312-315

Department of Anaesthesiology, Pain Medicine and Critical Care, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Tracheomalacia is characterised by collapse of the tracheal wall with respiration. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) can be utilised for evaluation of airway abnormalities but providing sedation/anaesthesia for CTA in such a case carries the risk of airway catastrophe. We describe the anaesthetic management of an infant who had tracheomalacia with >90% collapse in lower two third of the intrathoracic trachea as diagnosed on videobronchoscpy and was scheduled for CTA. Read More

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http://www.ijaweb.org/text.asp?2019/63/4/312/255468
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ija.IJA_874_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6460980PMC
April 2019
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Evaluation of performance of C-MAC video laryngoscope Miller blade size zero for endotracheal intubation in preterm and ex-preterm infants: A retrospective analysis.

Indian J Anaesth 2019 Apr;63(4):284-288

Department of Anaesthesiology, Pain Medicine and Critical Care, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Background And Aims: The preterm and ex-preterm babies form a separate group among the paediatric population with unique airway anatomy. The utility of C-MAC Video laryngoscope (VL) for routine intubation of preterm babies has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study is to report the performance of C-MAC VL Miller blade size-0 for endotracheal intubation in preterm babies at our institute. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ija.IJA_753_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6460968PMC

The effects of childhood maltreatment on epigenetic regulation of stress-response associated genes: an intergenerational approach.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 18;9(1):983. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Clinical & Biological Psychology, Institute of Psychology and Education, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 47, Ulm, 89081, Germany.

While biological alterations associated with childhood maltreatment (CM) have been found in affected individuals, it remains unknown to what degree these alterations are biologically transmitted to the next generation. We investigated intergenerational effects of maternal CM on DNA methylation and gene expression in N = 113 mother-infant dyads shortly after parturition, additionally accounting for the role of the FKBP5 rs1360780 genotype. Using mass array spectrometry, we assessed the DNA methylation of selected stress-response-associated genes (FK506 binding protein 51 [FKBP5], glucocorticoid receptor [NR3C1], corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 [CRHR1]) in isolated immune cells from maternal blood and neonatal umbilical cord blood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-36689-2DOI Listing

Machine learning accurately classifies age of toddlers based on eye tracking.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 18;9(1):6255. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Institute of Child Development, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA.

How people extract visual information from complex scenes provides important information about cognitive processes. Eye tracking studies that have used naturalistic, rather than highly controlled experimental stimuli, reveal that variability in looking behavior is determined by bottom-up image properties such as intensity, color, and orientation, top-down factors such as task instructions and semantic information, and individual differences in genetics, cognitive function and social functioning. These differences are often revealed using areas of interest that are chosen by the experimenter or other human observers. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-42764-z
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42764-zDOI Listing
April 2019
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Lidocaine and phenylephrine versus saline placebo nasal spray for the pain and distress of nasogastric tube insertion in young children and infants: a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial.

Lancet Child Adolesc Health 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Medicine, School of Clinical Sciences at Monash Health, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; Paediatric Emergency Department, Monash Medical Centre, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Background: Nasogastric tube insertion is a common but distressing procedure in young children. We aimed to compare the efficacy of topical local anaesthetic and vasoconstrictor nasal spray with placebo for distress related to nasogastric tube insertion.

Methods: We did a prospective, randomised, controlled, double-blind, superiority trial in a single tertiary paediatric emergency department in Australia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(19)30058-6DOI Listing

Effect of ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on invasive pneumococcal disease and nasopharyngeal carriage in Kenya: a longitudinal surveillance study.

Lancet 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Epidemiology and Demography Department, KEMRI-Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Centre for Geographic Medicine-Coast, Kilifi, Kenya; Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.

Background: Ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10), delivered at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age was introduced in Kenya in January, 2011, accompanied by a catch-up campaign in Kilifi County for children aged younger than 5 years. Coverage with at least two PCV10 doses in children aged 2-11 months was 80% in 2011 and 84% in 2016; coverage with at least one dose in children aged 12-59 months was 66% in 2011 and 87% in 2016. We aimed to assess PCV10 effect against nasopharyngeal carriage and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children and adults in Kilifi County. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)33005-8DOI Listing

The incidence, aetiology, and adverse clinical consequences of less severe diarrhoeal episodes among infants and children residing in low-income and middle-income countries: a 12-month case-control study as a follow-on to the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS).

Lancet Glob Health 2019 May;7(5):e568-e584

University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Diarrheal diseases remain a leading cause of illness and death among children younger than 5 years in low-income and middle-income countries. The Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) has described the incidence, aetiology, and sequelae of medically attended moderate-to-severe diarrhoea (MSD) among children aged 0-59 months residing in censused populations in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia, where most child deaths occur. To further characterise this disease burden and guide interventions, we extended this study to include children with episodes of less-severe diarrhoea (LSD) seeking care at health centres serving six GEMS sites. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(19)30076-2DOI Listing

Nationwide survey of neonatal transportation practices in Italy.

Ital J Pediatr 2019 Apr 18;45(1):51. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Neonatal Emergency Transport Service, Department Mother&Child, IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Largo G. Gaslini, 5, 16147, Genoa, Italy.

Background: Despite regionalization of perinatal care provides for the "in utero" transfer of high-risk pregnancies, there will always be a number of neonates who undergo acute inter-facility transport. The presence of a well-organized Neonatal Emergency Transport Service (NETS) can prevent and reduce risks of transportation, especially for very preterm infants, and is therefore mandatory for any program of regionalization of perinatal care. Italian National Health System is highly decentralized and Regions are autonomous to structure, plan and delivery their regional health services. Read More

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https://ijponline.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13052-
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13052-019-0640-zDOI Listing
April 2019
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Epigenetic alteration of Rho guanine nucleotide exchange Factor 11 (ARHGEF11) in cord blood samples in macrosomia exposed to intrauterine hyperglycaemia.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2019 Apr 18:1-261. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

a Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology , Peking University First Hospital , Beijing , China.

Background: Macrosomia at birth is associated with maternal hyperglycaemia and leads to subsequent susceptibility to obesity, abnormal glucose metabolism, hypertension and dyslipidaemia in offspring. Epigenetic reprogramming has been reported to be involved in the development of human diseases caused by suboptimal environmental or nutritional factors. The study was aiming to explore epigenetic mechanism influences on macrosomic infants exposed to intrauterine hyperglycaemia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2019.1609929DOI Listing

Rural Latino health and the built environment: a systematic review.

Ethn Health 2019 Apr 19:1-26. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

b Department of Public Health Sciences , Clemson University , Clemson , USA.

Objective: This study systematically reviewed literature examining the influence of the rural built environment on Latinos' health outcomes and behaviour in the United States. A secondary aim of the study was to identify strategies developed to address challenges in the rural built environment affecting Latinos' health.

Design: This study followed the reporting guidelines set forth by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13557858.2019.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13557858.2019.1606899DOI Listing
April 2019
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Validity of the Korean Developmental Screening Test for Very Low Birth Weight Infants.

Korean J Pediatr 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Asan Medical Center Children's Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: The importance of neurodevelopmental outcomes of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants has been emphasized as their mortality rate has dramatically improved. This study wanted to assess the validity of the Korean Developmental Screening Test (K-DST), a developmental screening tool acknowledged by Korean Society of Pediatrics, for timely diagnosis of neurodevelopmental delay in VLBW infants.

Methods: Subjects included VLBW infants enrolled in Korean Neonatal Network database from January 2012 to December 2014. Read More

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http://kjp.or.kr/journal/view.php?doi=10.3345/kjp.2018.07381
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3345/kjp.2018.07381DOI Listing

Practice for Preterm Patent Ductus Arteriosus; Focusing on the Hemodynamic Significance and the Impact on the Neonatal Outcomes.

Authors:
Jin A Lee

Korean J Pediatr 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Hemodynamically significant preterm patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) has been known to affect mortality, morbidities such as necrotizing enterocolitis, intra-ventricular hemorrhage, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and adverse long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants, especially in very low birth weight infants. However, recent researches indicate that there is no consensus about the causal relationship between the PDA and neonatal outcomes, the benefit or lack of treatment, the factors guiding the need to treat, and about the optimal treatment strategies. Such uncertainty made the practice about preterm PDA vary between units, regions, and nations widely. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3345/kjp.2018.07213DOI Listing

The Association of vitamin D status at birth and respiratory outcomes in preterm infants.

Authors:
Sook-Hyun Park

Korean J Pediatr 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3345/kjp.2018.07311DOI Listing
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