1,181,352 results match your criteria Infants & Young Children[Journal]


Cardiovascular and Metabolic Risk in Women in the First Year Postpartum: Allostatic Load as a Function of Race, Ethnicity, and Poverty Status.

Am J Perinatol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Internal Medicine, UCLA Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California.

Objective:  Allostatic load (AL) represents multisystem physiological "wear-and-tear" reflecting emerging chronic disease risk. We assessed AL during the first year postpartum in a diverse community sample with known health disparities.

Methods:  The Shriver National Institute for Child Health and Human Development Community Child Health Network enrolled 2,448 predominantly low-income African-American, Latina, and White women immediately after delivery of liveborn infants at ≥20 weeks' gestation, following them over time with interviews, clinical measures, and biomarkers. Read More

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December 2018

Associations between Maternal Exposure to Bisphenol A or Triclosan and Gestational Hypertension and Preeclampsia: The MIREC Study.

Am J Perinatol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Research Center, CHU Sainte-Justine, Mother and Child University Hospital Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Background:  Little is known about the association between bisphenol A (BPA) or triclosan (TCS) exposure and hypertension in pregnancy.

Objective:  To investigate potential associations between maternal urinary concentrations of BPA or TCS and gestational hypertension (GH) and preeclampsia.

Study Design:  Among 1,909 pregnant women participating in the maternal-infant research on environmental chemicals (MIREC) study, urinary concentrations of BPA and TCS were measured in the first trimester by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using isotope dilution. Read More

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December 2018

Distribution of Late-Onset Neonatal Sepsis Pathogens Differs in Inpatient and Outpatient Settings.

Am J Perinatol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Pediatrics, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York.

Objective:  We sought to examine pathogen distribution and clinical presentation of late-onset sepsis (LOS) at an urban tertiary care center.

Study Design:  We performed a retrospective review of all culture-confirmed cases of LOS presenting to our institution from 2013 to 2017. Medical records were evaluated for demographic information, sepsis risk factors, encounter location, and clinical outcome. Read More

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December 2018

Inhaled Epoprostenol for Pulmonary Hypertension Treatment in Neonates: A 12-Year Experience.

Am J Perinatol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Division of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, CHU de Québec, Université Laval, Québec City, Québec, Canada.

Background:  Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) occurs in 10% of neonatal respiratory insufficiency. To selectively reduce pulmonary vascular resistance, several treatments have been tried. Inhaled epoprostenol (iPGI) has been used for 12 years in our institution for the management of refractory PPHN despite the gaps in the literature to support this use. Read More

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December 2018

Sex-Specific Association between Prenatal Life Stress Exposure and Infant Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Levels during Acute Respiratory Infection.

Brain Behav Immun 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Medicine, Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, 37232-2650, USA.

Background: Prenatal life stress exposure is linked to dysregulated immune function and chronic inflammatory disease in offspring, but we know little about its effects on infant immune response during viral infection.

Method: To address this issue, we examined associations between prenatal life stress exposure and infant upper-airway inflammatory markers during acute respiratory infection (ARI) using data from a prospective, population-based birth-cohort study (N=180). Infant inflammation was measured as a continuous latent factor within a structural equation modeling framework using nasal wash concentrations of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Read More

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December 2018

Occurrence of virulence factors in Cronobacter sakazakii and Cronobacter malonaticus originated from clinical samples.

Microb Pathog 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Microbiology Department, Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, Sabha University, Sabha, Libya.

Background: Cronobacter spp. are Gram-negative, facultative-anaerobic, non-spore forming, enteric coliform bacteria, which belongs to the Enterobacteriaceae family. Cronobacter spp. Read More

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December 2018

Repair of Untreated Older Patients with Tetralogy of Fallot with Major Aortopulmonary Collaterals.

Ann Thorac Surg 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Pediatrics, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital Stanford, Clinical and Translational Research Program; Stanford University School of Medicine; Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital Stanford, Clinical and Translational Research Program; Stanford University School of Medicine.

Background: Our programmatic approach to tetralogy of Fallot with major aortopulmonary collaterals emphasizes single-stage unifocalization with complete intracardiac repair during infancy. Little is known about suitability for complete repair in patients beyond infancy. We sought to analyze outcomes of our approach in older patients with previously untreated tetralogy of Fallot with major aortopulmonary collaterals. Read More

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December 2018

Maternal vaccination with a novel chimeric glycoprotein formulated with a polymer-based adjuvant provides protection from human parainfluenza virus type 3 in newborn lambs.

Antiviral Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

VIDO-InterVac, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5E3, Canada; Microbiology & Immunology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5E3, Canada. Electronic address:

Human parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV3) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are major causative agents of serious respiratory tract illness in newborns and infants. Maternal vaccination could be a promising approach to provide immediate protection against severe PIV3 and RSV infection in young infants. Previously, we demonstrated that maternal immunization with a subunit vaccine consisting of the RSV fusion (F) protein formulated with TriAdj, an adjuvant consisting of poly(I:C), immune defense regulatory peptide and polyphosphazene, protects newborn lambs from RSV. Read More

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December 2018

Antiviral effects of selected nucleoside analogs against human parechoviruses A1 and A3.

Antiviral Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

KU Leuven, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Laboratory of Virology and Chemotherapy, Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:

Parechoviruses A (HPeV, Picornaviridae) are neglected human pathogens that cause sepsis-like illness and severe neurological complications in infants. There are no antivirals available for the treatment of HPeV infections. We here report on cell-based assays that allow for medium-throughput antiviral screening of compound libraries against HPeV. Read More

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December 2018

Multisensory Logic of Infant-Directed Aggression by Males.

Cell 2018 Dec;175(7):1827-1841.e17

Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Electronic address:

Newborn mice emit signals that promote parenting from mothers and fathers but trigger aggressive responses from virgin males. Although pup-directed attacks by males require vomeronasal function, the specific infant cues that elicit this behavior are unknown. We developed a behavioral paradigm based on reconstituted pup cues and showed that discrete infant morphological features combined with salivary chemosignals elicit robust male aggression. Read More

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December 2018

Prevalence, mortality and risk factors associated with very low birth weight preterm infants: an analysis of 33 years.

J Pediatr (Rio J) 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Hospital São Lucas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Pediatria e Saúde da Criança, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

Objective: To assess the prevalence, mortality and risk factors associated with the birth of very low birth weight preterm infants over a period of 33 years.

Methods: Four cross-sectional studies were analyzed, using data from perinatal interviews of birth cohorts in the city of Pelotas collected in 1982, 1993, 2004, and 2015. Based on perinatal questionnaires, anthropometric measurements of newborns and death certificates were analyzed to obtain the prevalence rate, neonatal mortality, and risk factors (maternal age, income and type of delivery) for very low birth weight. Read More

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December 2018
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Unwinding old habits: deimplementation of treatment regimens for patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants.

Authors:
William E Benitz

J Pediatr (Rio J) 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatal and Developmental Medicine, Palo Alto, United States. Electronic address:

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December 2018

Atypical Prenatal Ultrasound Presentation and Neuropathological Findings in a Neonate With Alpha Thalassemia Major: A Case Report.

Pediatr Dev Pathol 2018 Dec 14:1093526618817655. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

1 Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada.

Alpha thalassemia major is a hemoglobinopathy caused by the inactivation or deletion of all 4 α-globin alleles. We describe a case of α-thalassemia major with atypical ultrasound and neuropathological findings. The mother had her first prenatal visit at 27 4/7 gestational weeks. Read More

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December 2018

Polymorphisms in the myeloid differentiation primary response 88 pathway do not explain low expression levels in sudden infant death syndrome.

Acta Paediatr 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Forensic Sciences, Section of Paediatric Forensic Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate if a range of known rare and common genetic variants in the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) / myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) pathway were present or overrepresented in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) compared to controls.

Methods: Genetic variations in the genes encoding TLR4, MyD88 and Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 were analysed. The subjects investigated included 158 SIDS cases with a median age of 15. Read More

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December 2018

Optimal time of delivery to reduce the risk of infant mortality in small and normally grown fetuses: A national cohort study in Korea.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0209308. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: To examine the competing risks of stillbirth versus infant death and to evaluate the optimal time of delivery in the population of small for gestational age (SGA) and non-SGA late preterm and term fetuses.

Methods: This was a retrospective national cohort study of all singleton births between 34 0/7 and 42 6/7 weeks of gestation using the Korean vital statistics (n = 2,106,159). We compared the risk of infant mortality with a composite of fetal-infant mortality risk that would occur after expectant management for one additional week and evaluated the optimal time of delivery, in SGA and non-SGA pregnancies. Read More

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December 2018

Toll-like receptor chaperone HSP90B1 and the immune response to Mycobacteria.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0208940. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States of America.

Rationale: HSP90B1, also known as gp96, is a chaperone for multiple Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and is necessary for TLR-mediated inflammatory responses in murine myeloid cells. The molecule is also expressed in T-cells though its specific role is unknown. We hypothesized that human HSP90B1 regulates monocyte and T-cell responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and bacilli Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and that its variants are associated with susceptibility to TB disease. Read More

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December 2018

Overestimation of an outbreak of Enterobacter cloacae in a neonatal intensive care unit in Germany, 2015.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department for Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Robert Koch-Institute, Germany.

Background: In August 2015 seventeen neonates with Enterobacter (E.) cloacae colonisation were identified in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Germany. Two developed severe brain abscesses. Read More

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December 2018

Pathologic Prognostic Factors in Endometrial Carcinoma (Other Than Tumor Type and Grade).

Int J Gynecol Pathol 2019 Jan;38 Suppl 1:S93-S113

Department of Cellular Pathology, Barts Health NHS Trust, London (N.S.) Department of Cellular Pathology, Birmingham Women's NHS Trust, Birmingham (L.H.) Department of Pathology, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast (W.G.M.), UK Division of Anatomic Pathology, Hershey Medical Center, Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, Pennsylvania (R.Z.) Department of Pathology, Mexico City Hospital of Oncology, Mexico City, Mexico (I.A.-C.) Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada (M.A.D.) Department of Pathology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (R.A.-F.) Department of Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (E.E., A.M.) Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School (J.L.H.) Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School (M.N.) Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School (E.O.), Boston, Massachusetts Division of Gynecologic, Breast & Perinatal Pathology, University Hospital Leipzig, Leipzig (L.-C.H.) Institute of Pathology, University Hospital of Tübingen, Tübingen (A.S.), Germany Department of Anatomical Pathology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland (O.I.) Pathological Oncology Group and Pathology Department, University Hospital of Arnau de Vilanova, Lleida (X.M.-G.) Department of Pathology, Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, ISGlobal, Barcelona Center for International Health Research, University of Barcelona, Barcelona (J.O.), Spain Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Kumamoto University Hospital, Kumamoto, Japan (Y.M.) Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (V.P.) Department of Pathology, Women and Infants Hospital/Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island (M.R.Q.) Department of Pathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (C.M.Q.) Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (C.Z.).

Although endometrial carcinoma (EC) is generally considered to have a good prognosis, over 20% of women with EC die of their disease, with a projected increase in both incidence and mortality over the next few decades. The aim of accurate prognostication is to ensure that patients receive optimal treatment and are neither overtreated nor undertreated, thereby improving patient outcomes overall. Patients with EC can be categorized into prognostic risk groups based on clinicopathologic findings. Read More

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January 2019

Guidelines to Aid in the Distinction of Endometrial and Endocervical Carcinomas, and the Distinction of Independent Primary Carcinomas of the Endometrium and Adnexa From Metastatic Spread Between These and Other Sites.

Int J Gynecol Pathol 2019 Jan;38 Suppl 1:S75-S92

Department of Histopathology, King Edward Memorial Hospital and School for Women's and Infants' Health, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia (C.J.R.S.) Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital (C.P.C.) Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School (E.O.), Boston, Massachusetts Department of Pathology, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK (W.G.M.) Department of Pathology, Memorial-Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (K.J.P.) Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (J.K.R.) Department of Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (A.M.) Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (V.P.) Pathological Oncology Group and Pathology Department, Hospital Arnau de Vilanova, Lleida, Spain (X.M.-G.) Departments of Pathology and Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (B.M.R.).

In most cases of suspected endometrial neoplasia tumor origin can be correctly assigned according to a combination of clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features, even when the latter are based upon the examination of relatively small biopsy samples. However there are well-recognized exceptions to this rule which continue to create diagnostic difficulty, and sometimes difficulties persist even after the detailed examination of resection specimens. Among the most common problems encountered in practice are the distinction of primary endometrial and primary endocervical adenocarcinomas, and the determination of tumor origin when there is synchronous, multifocal involvement of gynecologic tract sites, for example the endometrium and the ovary. Read More

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January 2019

High-grade Endometrial Carcinomas: Morphologic and Immunohistochemical Features, Diagnostic Challenges and Recommendations.

Int J Gynecol Pathol 2019 Jan;38 Suppl 1:S40-S63

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (R.M., R.A.S.) New York University Medical Center and School of Medicine, Tisch Hospital (K.M.), New York Department of Pathology, University Hospital, Stony Brook School of Medicine, Stony Brook (C.T.), New York Department of Pathology, Oslo University Hospital, Norwegian Radium Hospital; Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway (B.D.) Department of Pathology, University of California San Diego, San Diego (O.F.) Department of Pathology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.K.L.R.), California Department of Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden (J.A.C.) Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School (C.P.C.) Department of Pathology, Massachussetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School (E.O.), Boston, Massachussetts Department of Pathology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (C.B.G., J.A.I.) Department of Laboratory Medicine, Pathology and Medical Genetics, Royal Jubilee Hospital, Victoria (J.A.I.), BC, Canada Department of Pathology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (A.M.) Department of Pathology, Hospital University Arnau de Vilanova; and Department of Pathology, Hospital University de Bellvitge, IRBLLEIDA, IDIBELL, University of Lleida, CIBERONC, Barcelona, Spain (X.M.-G.) Department of Pathology, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast, UK (W.G.M.) Department of Pathology and Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yale School of Medicine and Yale School of Publich Health, New Haven, Connecticut (V.P.) Department of Pathology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (P.N.S.) Department of Pathology, KEMH and School for Women's and Infants' Health, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia (C.J.R.S.).

This review of challenging diagnostic issues concerning high-grade endometrial carcinomas is derived from the authors' review of the literature followed by discussions at the Endometrial Cancer Workshop sponsored by the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists in 2016. Recommendations presented are evidence-based, insofar as this is possible, given that the levels of evidence are weak or moderate due to small sample sizes and nonuniform diagnostic criteria used in many studies. High-grade endometrioid carcinomas include FIGO grade 3 endometrioid carcinomas, serous carcinomas, clear cell carcinomas, undifferentiated carcinomas, and carcinosarcomas. Read More

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January 2019

Issues in the Differential Diagnosis of Uterine Low-grade Endometrioid Carcinoma, Including Mixed Endometrial Carcinomas: Recommendations from the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists.

Int J Gynecol Pathol 2019 Jan;38 Suppl 1:S25-S39

Pathology Department, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (J.T.R.) Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Vancouver General Hospital and University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada (C.B.G.) Department of Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (A.M.) Department of Pathology, University Hospital Arnau de Vilanova and Department of Pathology, University Hospital de Bellvitge, University of Lleida, IRBLLEIDA, IDIBELL, CIBERONC, Spain (X.M.G.) Department of Pathology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (K.M.) Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital (G.L.M.) Pathology Department, Massachusetts General Hospital (E.O.), Boston, Massachusetts Pathology Department, Yale New Haven Hospital, New Haven, Connecticut (V.P.) Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions (B.M.R.) Department of Pathology, University of Maryland School of Medicine (P.S.), Baltimore, Maryland Department of Histopathology, King Edward Memorial Hospital and School for Women's and Infants' Health, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia (C.J.R.S.) Department of Pathology, Royal Group of Hospitals Trust, Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK (W.G.M.).

This article provides practical recommendations developed from the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists Endometrial Carcinoma Project to address 4 issues that may arise in the diagnosis of uterine corpus low-grade endometrioid carcinoma: (1) The distinction between atypical hyperplasia and low-grade endometrioid carcinoma. (2) The distinction between low-grade endometrioid carcinoma and serous carcinoma. (3) The distinction between corded and hyalinized or spindle cell variants of low-grade endometrioid carcinoma and carcinosarcoma. Read More

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January 2019

Endometrial Carcinoma, Grossing and Processing Issues: Recommendations of the International Society of Gynecologic Pathologists.

Int J Gynecol Pathol 2019 Jan;38 Suppl 1:S9-S24

Department of Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (A.M., E.D.E.) Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School (J.L.H.) Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School (E.O.), Boston, Massachusetts Department of Pathology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (R.A.F.) Department of Pathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (C.M.Q.) Department of Cellular Pathology, Barts Health NHS Trust, London (N.S.) Department of Cellular Pathology, Birmingham Women's NHS Trust, Birmingham (L.H.), UK Division of Gynecologic, Breast and Perinatal Pathology, University Hospital, Leipzig (L.C.H.) Institute of Pathology, University Hospital of Tübingen, Tübingen (A.S.), Germany Department of Pathology, Hospital de Oncología Siglo XXI, Mexico City, Mexico City, Mexico (I.A.C.) Department of Pathology, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge and Hospital Universitari de Arnau de Vilanova, Idibell, Irblleida, and Universitat de Lleida, Ciberonc (X.M.G.) Department of Pathology, Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (J.O.), Spain Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada (M.D.) Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (V.P.) Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Kumamoto University Hospital, Kumamoto, Japan (Y.M.) Department of Pathology, Women and Infants Hospital and The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island (M.R.Q.) Division of Anatomic Pathology, Hershey Medical Center, Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, Pennsylvania (R.Z.) Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (C.Z.) Department of Pathology, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast, UK (W.G.M.).

Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic neoplasm in developed countries; however, updated universal guidelines are currently not available to handle specimens obtained during the surgical treatment of patients affected by this disease. This article presents recommendations on how to gross and submit sections for microscopic examination of hysterectomy specimens and other tissues removed during the surgical management of endometrial cancer such as salpingo-oophorectomy, omentectomy, and lymph node dissection-including sentinel lymph nodes. In addition, the intraoperative assessment of some of these specimens is addressed. Read More

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January 2019

Obstetric and Pediatric Provider Perspectives on Mandatory Reporting of Prenatal Substance Use.

J Addict Med 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Health Policy and Management, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health (MJ); University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine (SM, CH); Magee-Womens Research Institute, University of Pittsburgh (JCC); Departments of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences and Internal Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (JCC).

Objective: In many states, health care providers are legally required to report pregnant women who use substances, or infants affected by prenatal substance use, to child welfare authorities. The objective of this study was to characterize obstetric and pediatric providers' perceptions of and experiences with policies requiring mandatory reporting of prenatal substance use to child welfare authorities.

Methods: We conducted a qualitative interview study among 20 obstetric and pediatric providers to elicit participants' perspectives about and experience with current policy requiring mandatory reporting of prenatal substance use. Read More

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December 2018

Catastrophic individuation failures in infancy: A new model and predictions.

Psychol Rev 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Psychology.

Comparison of infant findings from the physical-reasoning and object-individuation literatures reveals a contradictory picture. On the one hand, physical-reasoning results indicate that young infants can use featural information to guide their actions on objects and to detect interaction violations (when objects interact in ways that are not physically possible) as well as change violations (when objects spontaneously undergo featural changes that are not physically possible). On the other hand, object-individuation results indicate that young infants typically cannot use featural information to detect individuation violations (when the number of objects revealed at the end of an event is less than the number of objects introduced during the event). Read More

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December 2018

Developmental psychologies in the Roman world: Change and continuity.

Authors:
Jacob L Mackey

Hist Psychol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Occidental College.

A common view among ancient historians about Roman attentiveness to children's psychological development needs reconsideration. The view holds that Romans ignored children's cognitive ontogeny, perceiving early childhood as a largely undifferentiated life stage. A separate but related issue is the problematic claim that Roman childhood was entirely a matter of social construction. Read More

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December 2018

Preference for attractive faces is species-specific.

J Comp Psychol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Universite Grenoble Alpes.

Studies on facial attractiveness in human adults, infants, and newborns have consistently reported a visual preference for faces rated as attractive compared with faces rated as unattractive. Biological accounts of facial attractiveness have typically presented such preferences as arising from adaptations for mate choice or as by-products of general sensory bias. In this cross-species study, we examined whether explicit ratings of attractiveness made by human judges would predict implicit visual preferences in other humans and also in rhesus macaques and, if they do, whether such preferences would extend beyond conspecific faces. Read More

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December 2018

[Reconstruction of scarring pharyngeal stenosis with forearm free flap:a case report].

Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2018 Sep;32(18):1434-1435

A 33-year-old man presented with recurrent oral ulcers for more than 10 years,accompanying dyspnea and dysphagia for 1 year and aggravate for 1 month.Physical examination:pharyngeal cavity stenosis,mucous retention, epiglottis was extruded into the infant type. Electronic laryngoscope:Epiglottis curl,bilateral pyriform sinus disappeared. Read More

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September 2018
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[Analysis of infants with moderate to severe laryngomalacia].

Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2018 Sep;32(18):1406-1409

Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361003, China.

To investigate the clinical features and the treatment of moderate-severe laryngeallacia, and the application of CO₂laser supraglotation in laryngeallacia.Collecting the clinical data of 18 infants with moderate-to-severe laryngeallacia diagnosed in our hospital,10 cases were moderate. Eight cases were severe children; according to the classification of laryngeallacia, most of them were mixed type, including 2 cases of type Ⅱ, 3 cases of type Ⅲ, 5 cases of typeⅠ + type Ⅱ, 7 cases of typeⅡ+ type Ⅲ, and 1 case of typeⅠ+ typeⅡ + type Ⅲ. Read More

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September 2018

[Research progress on auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder and cochlear implantation in infants and young children].

Authors:
J Y Chen Y X Li

Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2018 Jul;32(14):1120-1124

Auditory neuropathy is a disorder characterized by absent or severely abnormal auditory brainstem response (ABR) with intact outer hair cell function, as evidenced by the presence of evoked otoacoustic emissions and/or cochlear microphonics. Unlike patients with sensory hearing loss who show clinical evidence of impaired outer hair cell function. For ANSD patients, clinical rehabilitation is mainly limited to hearing aid wearing and cochlear implantation. Read More

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Correction: Principles of suctioning in infants, children and young people.

Authors:
Earlroy Edwards

Nurs Child Young People 2018 Jun 18;30(4). Epub 2018 Jun 18.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.7748/ncyp.2018. Read More

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Anti-vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Treatment of Retinopathy of Prematurity: Efficacy, Safety, and Anatomical Outcomes.

Korean J Ophthalmol 2018 Dec;32(6):451-458

Department of Ophthalmology, Institute of Vision Research, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: To investigate the efficacy, safety, and anatomical outcomes associated with intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP).

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of intravitreal anti-VEGF (bevacizumab or ranibizumab) treatment of 153 eyes (83 infants) diagnosed with ROP at two tertiary hospitals from June 2011 to January 2017. The primary outcome was the rate of recurrence requiring additional treatment; secondary outcomes included incidence of major complications and final refractive error. Read More

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December 2018

Prospective study of pulmonary hypertension in preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatology, Cumming School of Medicine, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Objective: To evaluate the prevalence, risk factors, and optimal timing of echocardiogram for pulmonary hypertension (PH) in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD).

Design: In this prospective study, infants with gestational age (GA) <30 weeks admitted to a tertiary NICU between July 2015 and June 2017 who required positive pressure ventilation or oxygen therapy at ≥28 days of life were evaluated with serial echocardiograms at study enrollment (4-6 weeks of age), 32 weeks (only for ≤25 weeks), 36, and 40 weeks post-menstrual age (PMA) for PH.

Results: Of 126 infants (mean birth weight 858 ± 221 g; mean GA 26. Read More

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December 2018
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Brief resolved unexplained events: Retrospective validation of diagnostic criteria and risk stratification.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Jan;54(1):61-65

University of Insubria, Varese, Italy.

Background And Objectives: This study retrospectively evaluated the AAP guidelines for diagnosis and risk stratification of Brief Resolved Unexplained Events (BRUE) in a well-characterized cohort of infants admitted with an Apparent Life Threatening Event (ALTE). Further, using prospective follow-up, we endeavored to determine the safety of implementing ambulatory care for the lower risk BRUE population (LR-BRUE) and estimate the cost-savings of this practice.

Methods: Retrospective application of the BRUE criteria on infants younger than 12 months of age who had been admitted with an ALTE from 2006 to 2016 at a single tertiary care center in Lombardy, Italy. Read More

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January 2019

Effect of high frequency oscillatory high flow nasal cannula on carbon dioxide clearance in a premature infant lung model: A bench study.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

CHOP Newborn Care at Pennsylvania Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Objective: This study compared CO clearance in a premature infant lung model connected to a high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) system supplied with oscillatory versus non-oscillatory flow.

Design/methods: The lung model was set to compliance 1.0 mL/cmH O, RR 60 breaths/min, and 6 mL tidal volume. Read More

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December 2018
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High risk of spontaneous preterm birth among infants with gastroschisis.

Am J Med Genet A 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

California Preterm Birth Initiative, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

We examined the association between gastroschisis and preterm birth (PTB, <37 weeks) by subtype. The sample was drawn from singleton live births in California from 2007 to 2012 contained in a birth cohort file maintained by the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (n = 2,891,965; 1,421 with gastroschisis). Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for PTB by gestational age (<34, 34-36, and any <37 weeks) and by type (spontaneous labor with intact membranes, preterm premature rupture of the membranes [PPROM], provider initiated) and were adjusted for maternal characteristics. Read More

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December 2018

Communicative Hand-Waving Gestures Facilitate Object Learning in Preverbal Infants.

Dev Sci 2018 Dec 14:e12787. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Psychology, Otemon Gakuin University, 2-1-15 Nishiai, Ibaraki, Osaka, 567-8502, JAPAN.

The theory of natural pedagogy has proposed that infants can use ostensive signals, including eye contact, infant-directed speech, and contingency to learn from others. However, the role of bodily gestures, such as hand-waving, in social learning has been largely ignored. To address this gap in the literature, this study sought to determine whether 4-month-old infants exhibited a preference for horizontal or vertical (control) hand-waving gestures. Read More

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December 2018
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Prevalence and descriptive epidemiology of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in the United States: A multistate, population-based retrospective study, 1999-2010.

Birth Defects Res 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa.

Background: Antecedents for infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) vary across studies; therefore, we conducted a multistate, population-based retrospective study of the prevalence and descriptive epidemiology of IHPS in the United States (US).

Methods: Data for IHPS cases (n = 29,554) delivered from 1999-2010 and enumerated from 11 US population-based birth defect surveillance programs, along with data for live births (n = 14,707,418) delivered within the same birth period and jurisdictions, were analyzed using Poisson regression to estimate IHPS prevalence per 10,000 live births. Additional data on deliveries from 1999-2005 from seven of these programs were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression to estimate adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR)s and 95% confidence intervals (CI)s for selected infant and parental characteristics. Read More

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December 2018

Assessing the adoption of lopinavir/ritonavir oral pellets for HIV-positive children in Zimbabwe.

J Int AIDS Soc 2018 Dec;21(12):e25214

AIDS and TB Unit, The Ministry of Health and Child Care, Harare, Zimbabwe.

Introduction: Heat-stable lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) oral pellets were developed to overcome challenges with administration and storage experienced with previously available tablet and syrup forms of LPV/r prescribed to paediatric HIV patients. We report on the adoption of LPV/r pellets for infants living with HIV in the public sector antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme in Zimbabwe.

Methods: Infants aged three months to three years who had been prescribed a LPV/r-based regimen (including ART-naïve patients) in fourteen facilities across the country were eligible to receive the pellets. Read More

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December 2018

History-indicated cervical cerclage in the management of twin pregnancy.

Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.

Objectives: Cervical cerclage when performed in twin gestation has been reported to be associated with poor outcome. However, the role of first-trimester history-indicated cerclage among women with twin pregnancy and a prior history of preterm birth has not been studied. We aimed to assess pregnancy outcomes among women with twin pregnancy who underwent first-trimester history-indicated cervical cerclage compared to expectant management. Read More

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December 2018
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Weight control before and during pregnancy for patients with gestational diabetes mellitus.

J Diabetes Investig 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Saitama Medical University, Iruma-gun, Saitama, 350-0495, Japan.

Aims/introduction: To examine the associations of pregestational body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight change with birthweight for gestational age in Japanese mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively examined the clinical and laboratory characteristics of 101 mothers with GDM (pregestational BMI, mean ± SD: 24.7 ± 5. Read More

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December 2018

Shared and distinct neural circuitry for nonsymbolic and symbolic double-digit addition.

Hum Brain Mapp 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Psychology Department, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Symbolic arithmetic is a complex, uniquely human ability that is acquired through direct instruction. In contrast, the capacity to mentally add and subtract nonsymbolic quantities such as dot arrays emerges without instruction and can be seen in human infants and nonhuman animals. One possibility is that the mental manipulation of nonsymbolic arrays provides a critical scaffold for developing symbolic arithmetic abilities. Read More

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December 2018

Sonographic Documentation of Dislodged Paravertebral Catheter into the Epidural Space in a Young Infant.

Paediatr Anaesth 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Pediatric Surgery, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.

The paravertebral space is thought to be continuous with the epidural space raising concern for inadvertent spread of medication or dislodgment of the paravertebral catheter into the epidural space, which has been observed in cadavers . In clinical practice, misplacement of the paravertebral catheter is difficult to conclusively confirm. In infants, the diminished ossification of the immature spine offers the unique opportunity to visualize potential epidural medication spread under ultrasound guidance. Read More

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December 2018

Hospitalised burns in children up to 16 years old: A 10-year population-based study in Australia.

J Paediatr Child Health 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Australian Institute of Health Innovation, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Aim: Globally, burns remain a significant public health issue that disproportionately affect young children. The current study examines the 10-year epidemiological profile of burn hospitalisations, hospital treatment cost and health outcomes by age group for children ≤16 years in Australia.

Methods: National, population-based, linked hospital and mortality data from 1 July 2002 to 30 June 2012 were used to identify burn-related hospitalisations. Read More

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December 2018

Rotavirus vaccine for neonates.

Acta Paediatr 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

The Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia.

Rotavirus is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for neonates and children. Worldwide, over 200,000 children die from rotavirus gastroenteritis each year and more than 90 million infants still lack access to a rotavirus vaccine. Traditional vaccine schedules administer doses at 8 weeks, 14 weeks and 18 weeks of age. Read More

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December 2018

Early assessment of lateralization and sex influences on the microstructure of the white matter corticospinal tract in healthy term neonates.

J Neurosci Res 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

MRI Research, CHU Amiens-Picardie, Amiens, France.

We assessed the sex and the lateralization differences in the corticospinal tract (CST) during the early postnatal period. Twenty-five healthy term neonates (13 girls, aged 39.2 ± 1. Read More

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December 2018

Cirrhotic Cardiomyopathy in children with BA: A new objective parameter to predict morbidity and mortality on the waitlist - and beyond!

Authors:
Elizabeth B Rand

Hepatology 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Pediatrics, The Perelman School of Medicine of the University of Pennsylvania.

Pediatric waitlist morbidity and mortality is high overall but unpredictable in individual cases resulting in poor stratification and general dissatisfaction with our current system of liver allocation in infants and children. The scope of this problem is broad but has harshest impact on our youngest candidates who disproportionately suffer from biliary atresia (BA). This article is protected by copyright. Read More

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December 2018

Evidence-based skin care in preterm infants.

Pediatr Dermatol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, San Diego, California.

Most guidelines on neonatal skin care emphasize issues pertaining to healthy, term infants. Few address the complex task of skin barrier maintenance in preterm, very preterm, and extremely preterm infants. Here, we provide an evidence-based review of the literature on skin care of preterm neonates. Read More

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December 2018
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The association between subjective maternal stress during pregnancy and offspring clinically diagnosed psychiatric disorders.

Acta Psychiatr Scand 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Psychology, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin.

Objective: Exposure to prenatal stress is a ubiquitous and non-specific risk factor for adverse outcomes in adulthood. In this study, we examined associations between exposure to subjective maternal stress during pregnancy and subsequent diagnosis of psychiatric disorders in offspring.

Method: This study used the Helsinki Longitudinal Temperament Cohort, a prospective birth cohort of individuals born between July 1st, 1975 and June 30th, 1976 in Helsinki, Finland. Read More

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December 2018

Maternal probiotic supplementation for prevention of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 12;12:CD012519. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

University of Vermont Medical Center, Burlington VT, USA.

Background: Inflammation may contribute to preterm birth and to morbidity of preterm infants. Preterm infants are at risk for alterations in the normal protective microbiome. Oral probiotics administered directly to preterm infants have been shown to decrease the risk for severe necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) as well as the risk of death, but there are safety concerns about administration of probiotics directly to preterm infants. Read More

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December 2018

What is a hemodynamically significant PDA in preterm infants?

Congenit Heart Dis 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Fetal and Neonatal Institute, Division of Neonatology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Pediatrics, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.

Objective: There is no consensus on the definition of a hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA). In this review article, our objective is to discuss the main variables that one should consider when determining the hemodynamic significance of a PDA.

Results: We describe the various approaches that have been utilized over time to define an hsPDA and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each echocardiographic index. Read More

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December 2018
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