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    Antibiotic Susceptibility and Treatment Response in Bacterial Skin Infection.
    Ann Dermatol 2018 Apr 21;30(2):186-191. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Department of Dermatology, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.
    Background: Bacterial skin infections occur secondarily in conditions involving a vulnerable skin barrier such as atopic eczema, as well as primarily such as impetigo. They are mainly caused by and . Recently, the prevalence of methicillin-resistant has been increasing. Read More

    Generalized pustular psoriasis: a review and update on treatment.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2018 Mar 24. Epub 2018 Mar 24.
    Department of Dermatology, Rutgers-New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA.
    Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is a subtype of pustular psoriasis characterized by painful and occasionally disfiguring cutaneous manifestations with sepsis-like systemic symptoms. Affecting any age and race, GPP can occur with other forms of psoriasis or by itself. Stimuli for flares include medications, infections and environmental triggers. Read More

    Cutaneous infections in the mature patient.
    Clin Dermatol 2018 Mar - Apr;36(2):188-196. Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    Sector of Dermatology and Post-Graduation Course in Dermatology, University Hospital and School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Dermatologists must be familiar with the peculiarities of the micro-organisms that may affect the elderly, in order to optimize the diagnosis and treatment of infections, which may affect their skin, especially because the world population is rapidly aging. It is estimated that there will be 434 million individuals over 80 years of age in 2050. Since the elderly population is rapidly increasing and their infections are usually more severe and different from those observed in younger adults, it leads to a statistical increase of the rates regarding hospitalization and mortality caused by infectious diseases among people over 85 years. Read More

    Pustular psoriasis of pregnancy: current perspectives.
    Int J Womens Health 2018 26;10:109-115. Epub 2018 Feb 26.
    Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.
    Pustular psoriasis of pregnancy (PPP) is a life-threatening condition for both the pregnant mother and fetus, and must be efficiently and accurately diagnosed and treated. This condition has historically been classified as a unique, separate dermatosis of pregnancy. However, current opinion and data suggest that it may be a variant of generalized pustular psoriasis. Read More

    WHO/IVI global stakeholder consultation on group A Streptococcus vaccine development: Report from a meeting held on 12-13 December 2016.
    Vaccine 2018 Feb 26. Epub 2018 Feb 26.
    Group A Streptococcal Research Group, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne 3052, Australia.
    While progress towards a Group A Streptococcus (GAS) vaccine has been stalled by a combination of scientific, regulatory, and commercial barriers, the problem persists. The high and globally-distributed burden of disease attributable to GAS makes vaccination an imperative global public health goal. Advances across a range of scientific disciplines in understanding GAS diseases have made the goal a realistic one and focused attention on the need for coordinated global action. Read More

    Defining the appropriateness and inappropriateness of antibiotic prescribing in primary care.
    J Antimicrob Chemother 2018 Feb;73(suppl_2):ii11-ii18
    Modelling and Economics Unit, National Infection Service, Public Health England, London NW9 5EQ, UK.
    Objectives: To assess the appropriateness of prescribing systemic antibiotics for different clinical conditions in primary care, and to quantify 'ideal' antibiotic prescribing proportions in conditions for which antibiotic treatment is sometimes but not always indicated.

    Methods: Prescribing guidelines were consulted to define the appropriateness of antibiotic therapy for the conditions that resulted in antibiotic prescriptions between 2013 and 2015 in The Health Improvement Network (THIN) primary care database. The opinions of subject experts were then formally elicited to quantify ideal antibiotic prescribing proportions for 10 common conditions. Read More

    Actual versus 'ideal' antibiotic prescribing for common conditions in English primary care.
    J Antimicrob Chemother 2018 Feb;73(suppl_2):19-26
    Modelling and Economics Unit, National Infection Service, Public Health England, London, UK.
    Objectives: Previous work based on guidelines and expert opinion identified 'ideal' prescribing proportions-the overall proportion of consultations that should result in an antibiotic prescription-for common infectious conditions. Here, actual condition-specific prescribing proportions in primary care in England were compared with ideal prescribing proportions identified by experts.

    Methods: All recorded consultations for common infectious conditions (cough, bronchitis, exacerbations of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sore throat, rhinosinusitis, otitis media, lower respiratory tract infection, upper respiratory tract infection, influenza-like illness, urinary tract infection, impetigo, acne, gastroenteritis) for 2013-15 were extracted from The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database. Read More

    Understanding the gender gap in antibiotic prescribing: a cross-sectional analysis of English primary care.
    BMJ Open 2018 02 22;8(2):e020203. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Modelling and Economics Unit, National Infection Service, Public Health England, London, UK.
    Objectives: To explore the causes of the gender gap in antibiotic prescribing, and to determine whether women are more likely than men to receive an antibiotic prescription per consultation.

    Design: Cross-sectional analysis of routinely collected electronic medical records from The Health Improvement Network (THIN).

    Setting: English primary care. Read More

    Autoinflammatory keratinization diseases: An emerging concept encompassing various inflammatory keratinization disorders of the skin.
    J Dermatol Sci 2018 Feb 1. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    Department of Dermatology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Japan.
    Classifying inflammatory skin diseases is challenging, especially for the expanding group of disorders triggered by genetic factors resulting in hyperactivated innate immunity that result in overlapping patterns of dermal and epidermal inflammation with hyperkeratosis. For such conditions, the umbrella term "autoinflammatory keratinization diseases" (AIKD) has been proposed. AIKD encompasses diseases with mixed pathomechanisms of autoinflammation and autoimmunity, and includes IL-36 receptor antagonist (IL-36Ra)-related pustulosis, CARD14-mediated pustular psoriasis, pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) type V, and familial keratosis lichenoides chronica (KLC). Read More

    Streptococcal Cysteine Protease-Mediated Cleavage of Desmogleins Is Involved in the Pathogenesis of Cutaneous Infection.
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2018 24;8:10. Epub 2018 Jan 24.
    Department of Oral and Molecular Microbiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka, Japan.
    is responsible for a wide variety of cutaneous infections ranging from superficial impetigo to fulminant invasive necrotizing fasciitis. Dysfunction of desmosomes is associated with the pathogenesis of cutaneous diseases. We identified streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SpeB) as a proteolytic factor that cleaves the extracellular domains of desmoglein 1 and 3. Read More

    Impact of climate change on dermatological conditions related to flooding: update from the International Society of Dermatology Climate Change Committee.
    Int J Dermatol 2018 Jan 29. Epub 2018 Jan 29.
    Department of Dermatology, Mayo Clinic in Minnesota, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.
    Climate change contributes to the increase in severity and frequency of flooding, which is the most frequent and deadly disaster worldwide. Flood-related damage can be very severe and include health effects. Among those health impacts, dermatological diseases are one of the most frequently encountered. Read More

    Building capacity in primary care: the implementation of a novel 'Pharmacy First' scheme for the management of UTI, impetigo and COPD exacerbation.
    Prim Health Care Res Dev 2018 Jan 24:1-11. Epub 2018 Jan 24.
    5Professor,Postgraduate Pharmacy Dean, NHS Education for Scotland,Scotland.
    Aim This service aimed to improve patient access to treatment for urinary tract infections (UTI), impetigo and exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and relieve pressure on general practice and out of hours services.

    Background: In 2016, a service (Pharmacy First) was introduced in Forth Valley for the management of UTI, impetigo and exacerbation of COPD using patient group directions in community pharmacies. Trained pharmacists supplied a limited range of prescription medicines. Read More

    Unraveling the Metabolic Routes of Retapamulin: Insights into Drug Development of Pleuromutilins.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2018 Apr 27;62(4). Epub 2018 Mar 27.
    Institute of Apicultural Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Bee Products for Quality and Safety Control, Laboratory of Risk Assessment for Quality and Safety of Bee Products, Bee Product Quality Supervision and Testing Center, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, People's Republic of China
    Retapamulin, a semisynthetic pleuromutilin derivative, is exclusively used for the topical short-term medication of impetigo and staphylococcal infections. In the present study, we report that retapamulin is adequately and rapidly metabolized via various metabolic pathways, such as hydroxylation, including mono-, di-, and trihydroxylation, and demethylation. Like tiamulin and valnemulin, the major metabolic routes of retapamulin were hydroxylation at the 2β and 8α positions of the mutilin moiety. Read More

    Clinical Guidelines for the Antibiotic Treatment for Community-Acquired Skin and Soft Tissue Infection.
    Infect Chemother 2017 Dec;49(4):301-325
    Department of Internal Medicine, Inje University Ilsan Paik Hospital, Goyang, Korea.
    Skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) is common and important infectious disease. This work represents an update to 2012 Korean guideline for SSTI. The present guideline was developed by the adaptation method. Read More

    Sulfamethoxazole-Trimethoprim (Cotrimoxazole) for Skin and Soft Tissue Infections Including Impetigo, Cellulitis, and Abscess.
    Open Forum Infect Dis 2017 2;4(4):ofx232. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    Menzies School of Health Research, Charles Darwin University, North Territory, Australia.
    Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) affect millions of people globally, which represents a significant burden on ambulatory care and hospital settings. The role of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SXT) in SSTI treatment, particularly when group A (GAS) is involved, is controversial. We conducted a systematic review of clinical trials and observational studies that address the utility of SXT for SSTI treatment, caused by either GAS or , including methicillin-resistant (MRSA). Read More

    What's eating you? scabies in the developing world.
    Cutis 2017 Nov;100(5):287-289
    Department of Dermatology and Dermatologic Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, USA.
    Scabies infestation is a major cause of impetigo and subsequent renal failure in the developing world, and efforts to eradicate widespread infestation are underway. Ivermectin, topical sulfur, and topical benzyl benzoate often are used to treat widespread outbreaks. Read More

    Hospital admissions for skin infections among Western Australian children and adolescents from 1996 to 2012.
    PLoS One 2017 30;12(11):e0188803. Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    Wesfarmers Centre for Vaccines and Infectious Diseases, Telethon Kids Institute, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    The objective of this study was to describe the occurrence of skin infection associated hospitalizations in children born in Western Australia (WA). We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all children born in WA between 1996 and 2012 (n = 469,589). Of these, 31,348 (6. Read More

    The Selective Interaction of Oil vs. Human Streptococci, an Old Functional Food Revisited with New Tools.
    Front Microbiol 2017 24;8:2067. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    National Research Council of Italy, Sassari, Italy.
    berry oil (LBO) represents a typical vegetal product of the Mediterranean basin that has been formally used in traditional cuisine for 100s of years. In addition to its interesting alimentary properties, this product could represent an interesting candidate in the field of research on the study of new anti-infective agents. In fact, in Mediterranean countries, lentisk oil still continues to be widely used in folk medicine for oral and skin affections, in particular, acute gingivitis, pediatric skin infections such as impetigo and foot plaques, and biofilm related infections often associated with spp. Read More

    Erythematous plaques and papules on a premature infant.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2017 Apr;76(4):e111-e112
    Department of Medicine (Dermatology), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN.
    A 2240 gram boy was born at 33.2 weeks gestation with nonblanching, deeply erythematous plaques and papules on the back, flanks, and scalp (Figure 1). His mother was GBS positive and on antibiotic suppression for prior cutaneous MRSA and urinary tract infections. Read More

    Impetigo: A need for new therapies in a world of increasing antimicrobial resistance.
    J Clin Pharm Ther 2018 Feb 23;43(1):150-153. Epub 2017 Oct 23.
    Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Bruce, ACT, Australia.
    What Is Known And Objective: Impetigo is a highly contagious bacterial skin infection and is one of the most common skin infections in children. Antibiotics are the first-line treatment when multiple lesions exist, but with an increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria the successful management of impetigo in the future is an area of concern.

    Comment: Current treatment options that favour the use of oral antibiotic therapy are increasingly problematic. Read More

    Immune Cross-Opsonization Within emm Clusters Following Group A Streptococcus Skin Infection: Broadening the Scope of Type-Specific Immunity.
    Clin Infect Dis 2017 Oct;65(9):1523-1531
    Group A Streptococcus Research Group, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia.
    Background: Group A Streptococcus (GAS) skin infections are particularly prevalent in developing nations. The GAS M protein, by which strains are differentiated into >220 different emm types, is immunogenic and elicits protective antibodies. A major obstacle for vaccine development has been the traditional understanding that immunity following infection is restricted to a single emm type. Read More

    Efficacy and tolerability of liposomal polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine hydrogel for the localized treatment of chronic infective, inflammatory, dermatoses: an uncontrolled pilot study.
    Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol 2017 22;10:373-384. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Mundipharma Research GmbH & Co.KG, Limburg (Lahn), Germany.
    Infection is common in many chronic, inflammatory skin conditions but is often difficult to treat, in part due to growing bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Liposomal polyvinyl-pyrrolidone (PVP)-iodine hydrogel has a unique mode of action, combining the antiseptic and anti-inflammatory actions of PVP-iodine with the drug delivery and moisturizing properties of liposomes. We investigated the utility of liposomal PVP-iodine to treat infective dermatoses. Read More

    Recurrent impetigo herpetiformis: case report.
    Pan Afr Med J 2017 24;27:219. Epub 2017 Jul 24.
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Egerton University, Njoro, Kenya.
    Impetigo herpetiformis (pustular psoriasis of pregnancy) is a rare dermatosis of pregnancy that typically starts in the 2 half of pregnancy and resolves postpartum. It may recur in subsequent pregnancies. I present a case of 23 year old female gravida 4 para 3 with recurrent impetigo herpetiformis at 26 weeks gestation. Read More

    Assessment of Cpa, Scl1 and Scl2 in clinical group A streptococcus isolates and patients from north India: an evaluation of the host pathogen interaction.
    Res Microbiol 2018 Jan 30;169(1):11-19. Epub 2017 Sep 30.
    Department of Experimental Medicine and Biotechnology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012, India. Electronic address:
    Group A streptococcus (GAS) infection remains a major concern due to multiple diseases including pharyngitis, impetigo, acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD). It uses different adhesins and virulence factors like Cpa (collagen binding protein) and Scl (collagen-like protein) in its pathogenicity. Scl having similarities with human collagen may contribute to inducing autoimmunity in the host. Read More

    [Acute skin infections and their imitators in children : A photo quiz].
    Hautarzt 2017 Oct;68(10):774-783
    Abteilung pädiatrische Dermatologie, Universitäts-Kinderspital Zürich, Steinwiesstrasse 75, 8032, Zürich, Schweiz.
    Background: Skin infections account for 40% of emergency visits in pediatric dermatology. It is important to promptly recognize skin infections with potential complications and initiate treatment. However some characteristic skin findings may imitate skin infections and are often misdiagnosed. Read More

    A 5-year randomized trial on the safety and efficacy of pimecrolimus in atopic dermatitis: a critical appraisal.
    Br J Dermatol 2017 Oct 4;177(4):999-1003. Epub 2017 Sep 4.
    Center for Evidence-based Healthcare, Medizinische Fakultät Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, Dresden, Germany.
    Aim: The PETITE study (Sigurgeirsson et al.) aimed to compare safety and efficacy of pimecrolimus 1% cream (PIM) and low-to-medium-potency topical corticosteroids (TCS) in children with mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis (AD).

    Setting And Design: Participants of this 5-year drug-company sponsored multicentre, open-label, parallel-group trial were recruited between April 2004 and October 2005. Read More

    Acanthamoeba castellanii interactions with Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes.
    Exp Parasitol 2017 Dec 17;183:128-132. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    Department of Biological Sciences, School of Science and Technology, Sunway University, Malaysia.
    Among the genus Streptococcus, S. pyogenes and S. pneumoniae are the major causes of pharyngitis, impetigo, pneumonia and meningitis in humans. Read More

    Analysis of Post Earthquake Disease Pattern in a Camp at Gyampesal Gorkha.
    Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) 2016 Jul-Sept.;14(55):249-253
    Department of Pediatrics, Manipal College of Medical Science, Pokhara, Nepal.
    Background A major earthquake occurred in Nepal on 25th April 2015 with magnitude of 7.8 causing mass panic amongst people. Objective To analyze scenario, experience and disease pattern of Post Earthquake camp at Gyampesal, Gorkha. Read More

    Incremental Contributions of FbaA and Other Impetigo-Associated Surface Proteins to Fitness and Virulence of a Classical Group A Streptococcal Skin Strain.
    Infect Immun 2017 11 18;85(11). Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York, USA
    Group A streptococci (GAS) are highly prevalent human pathogens whose primary ecological niche is the superficial epithelial layers of the throat and/or skin. Many GAS strains with a strong tendency to cause pharyngitis are distinct from strains that tend to cause impetigo; thus, genetic differences between them may confer host tissue-specific virulence. In this study, the FbaA surface protein gene was found to be present in most skin specialist strains but largely absent from a genetically related subset of pharyngitis isolates. Read More

    A Red Blood Cell Membrane-Camouflaged Nanoparticle Counteracts Streptolysin -Mediated Virulence Phenotypes of Invasive Group A .
    Front Pharmacol 2017 18;8:477. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program, University of California, San Diego, La JollaCA, United States.
    Group A (GAS), an important human-specific Gram-positive bacterial pathogen, is associated with a broad spectrum of disease, ranging from mild superficial infections such as pharyngitis and impetigo, to serious invasive infections including necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The GAS pore-forming streptolysin O (SLO) is a well characterized virulence factor produced by nearly all GAS clinical isolates. High level expression of SLO is epidemiologically linked to intercontinental dissemination of hypervirulent clonotypes and poor clinical outcomes. Read More

    The increasing relevance of biofilms in common dermatological conditions.
    J Dermatolog Treat 2018 Mar 9;29(2):202-207. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    b Department of Dermatologic Surgery and Laser Unit, St. Thomas' Hospital , St. John's Institute of Dermatology , London , UK.
    Background: Biofilms are diverse groups of microorganisms encased in a self-produced matrix that offers protection against unfavorable conditions and antibiotics.

    Methods: We performed a literature search using the MEDLINE electronic database. Only original articles published in English were considered for review. Read More

    Community-Based Prescribing for Impetigo in Remote Australia: An Opportunity for Antimicrobial Stewardship.
    Front Public Health 2017 12;5:158. Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Kimberley Population Health Unit, Western Australia Country Health Service (WACHS)-Kimberley, Broome, WA, Australia.
    Background: To support antibiotic prescribing for both hospital and community-based health professionals working in remote North Western Australia, a multidisciplinary Antimicrobial Stewardship (AMS) Committee was established in 2013. This Committee is usually focused on hospital-based prescribing. A troubling increase in sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim resistance in antibiograms from 9 to 18% over 1 year prompted a shift in gaze to community prescribing. Read More

    Skin and soft tissue infections, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2013-2016.
    MSMR 2017 Jul;24(7):2-11
    During the 4-year surveillance period, there were 282,571 incident cases of skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) among active component U.S. military members diagnosed in inpatient or outpatient settings, corresponding to an overall incidence of 558. Read More

    Infectious Complications of Circumcision and Their Prevention.
    Eur Urol Focus 2016 Oct 19;2(4):453-459. Epub 2016 Feb 19.
    Departments of Pediatrics and Medicine, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA. Electronic address:
    Context: A growing body of evidence supports the health benefits of circumcision, but the occurrence of infectious complications is of concern.

    Objective: To review literature presenting past data and studies of infectious complications of circumcision and their prevention.

    Evidence Acquisition: A literature search was conducted of the Cochrane Library, Embase, Turning Research into Practice, PubMed, and Medline databases from their inception through June 25, 2015. Read More

    The Epidemiology of Scabies and Impetigo in Relation to Demographic and Residential Characteristics: Baseline Findings from the Skin Health Intervention Fiji Trial.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Sep 19;97(3):845-850. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia.
    Scabies and associated impetigo are under-recognized causes of morbidity in many developing countries. To strengthen the evidence base for scabies control we undertook a trial of mass treatment for scabies. We report on the occurrence and predictors of scabies and impetigo in participants at baseline. Read More

    Are scabies and impetigo "normalised"? A cross-sectional comparative study of hospitalised children in northern Australia assessing clinical recognition and treatment of skin infections.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jul 3;11(7):e0005726. Epub 2017 Jul 3.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Princess Margaret Hospital for Children, Perth, Western Australia.
    Background: Complications of scabies and impetigo such as glomerulonephritis and invasive bacterial infection in Australian Aboriginal children remain significant problems and the overall global burden of disease attributable to these skin infections remains high despite the availability of effective treatment. We hypothesised that one factor contributing to this high burden is that skin infection is under-recognised and hence under-treated, in settings where prevalence is high.

    Methods: We conducted a prospective, cross-sectional study to assess the burden of scabies, impetigo, tinea and pediculosis in children admitted to two regional Australian hospitals from October 2015 to January 2016. Read More

    A Screening Study on Dermatoses in Pregnancy.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2017 May 1;11(5):WC01-WC05. Epub 2017 May 1.
    Associate Professor, Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy, Villupuram Medical College, Villupuram, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Introduction: Pregnancy produces many cutaneous changes, some of which are specifically related to pregnancy (dermatoses of pregnancy), some are modifiable by pregnancy and others that are common are named physiologic. These physiologic skin changes, usually do not impair the health of the mother or the fetus but some of them can be cosmetically significant and of importance to the dermatologist.

    Aim: The present study was undertaken to find out the prevalence of the physiological and pathological skin changes in pregnancy, and to correlate the prevalence of the major cutaneous changes and diseases in relation to different trimesters of pregnancy and with gravidity. Read More

    Emergence of a Staphylococcus aureus Clone Resistant to Mupirocin and Fusidic Acid Carrying Exotoxin Genes and Causing Mainly Skin Infections.
    J Clin Microbiol 2017 Aug 7;55(8):2529-2537. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
    Second Department of Pediatrics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Medicine, P. & A. Kyriakou Children's Hospital, Athens, Greece.
    Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) caused by mupirocin-resistant strains have recently increased in number in our settings. We sought to evaluate the characteristics of these cases over a 43-month period. Data for all community-acquired staphylococcal infections caused by mupirocin-resistant strains were retrospectively reviewed. Read More

    Current and Emerging Topical Antibacterials and Antiseptics: Agents, Action, and Resistance Patterns.
    Clin Microbiol Rev 2017 Jul;30(3):827-860
    Microbiological Diagnostic Unit Public Health Laboratory, Department of Microbiology & Immunology, The University of Melbourne at The Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Bacterial skin infections represent some of the most common infectious diseases globally. Prevention and treatment of skin infections can involve application of a topical antimicrobial, which may be an antibiotic (such as mupirocin or fusidic acid) or an antiseptic (such as chlorhexidine or alcohol). However, there is limited evidence to support the widespread prophylactic or therapeutic use of topical agents. Read More

    Two highly divergent lineages of exfoliative toxin B-encoding plasmids revealed in impetigo strains of Staphylococcus aureus.
    Int J Med Microbiol 2017 Sep 29;307(6):291-296. Epub 2017 May 29.
    Department of Experimental Biology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno, Czech Republic.
    Exfoliative toxin B (ETB) encoded by some large plasmids plays a crucial role in epidermolytic diseases caused by Staphylococcus aureus. We have found as yet unknown types of etb gene-positive plasmids isolated from a set of impetigo strains implicated in outbreaks of pemphigus neonatorum in Czech maternity hospitals. Plasmids from the strains of clonal complex CC121 were related to archetypal plasmid pETB. Read More

    Prevalence of skin infections caused by Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Japan, particularly in Ishigaki, Okinawa.
    J Infect Chemother 2017 Nov 25;23(11):800-803. Epub 2017 May 25.
    Department of Microbiology, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392, Japan. Electronic address:
    The prevalence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene (pvl)-positive community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 clone, which is designated as the ST8-staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) mec type IV (ST8-IV) lineage, is a major public health concern worldwide. Thus, to elucidate the prevalence and characteristics of pvl-positive community-onset MRSA in Japan, we conducted a molecular epidemiological analysis for 854 S. aureus isolates obtained from outpatients with skin infections during 2013 and 2014. Read More

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