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    Common Skin Conditions in Children: Skin Infections.
    FP Essent 2017 Feb;453:26-32
    University of North Carolina Chapel Hill School of Medicine Dermatology Residency Program, 410 Market St. Suite 400 CB#7715, Chapel Hill, NC 27516.
    Skin infections account for a significant subset of dermatologic conditions of childhood. Common cutaneous viral infections in children include warts, molluscum contagiosum, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, and herpes simplex. Although viral infections are self-limited and often only mildly symptomatic, they can cause anxiety, embarrassment, and health care use. Read More

    Common Skin Conditions in Children: Neonatal Skin Lesions.
    FP Essent 2017 Feb;453:11-17
    University of North Carolina Chapel Hill School of Medicine Dermatology Residency Program, 410 Market St. Suite 400 CB#7715, Chapel Hill, NC 27516.
    Skin findings during the initial month of life are ubiquitous. One study estimated that more than 95% of newborns have cutaneous findings, which often are distressing to parents but frequently are benign and self-limited. Among them are milia, cutis marmorata, congenital dermal melanocytosis, and the benign neonatal pustular eruptions (eg, benign cephalic pustulosis, erythema toxicum neonatorum, transient neonatal pustular melanosis). Read More

    Diagnosis and management of impetigo.
    Nurse Pract 2017 Mar;42(3):40-44
    Kathy VanRavenstein is an instructor at the Medical University of South Carolina, College of Nursing, Charleston, S.C. Whitney Smith is an instructor at the Medical University of South Carolina, College of Nursing, Charleston, S.C. Catherine O'Connor Durham is an assistant professor at the Medical University of South Carolina, College of Nursing, Charleston, S.C. Tiffany H. Williams is an assistant professor at the Medical University of South Carolina, College of Nursing, Charleston, S.C.
    Impetigo, a bacterial skin infection that involves the superficial layers of the skin, is one of the most common skin infections in children ages 2 to 5 but can occur in individuals across the lifespan. This article discusses the diagnosis and management of impetigo in primary care. Read More

    Bullous, pseudobullous, & pustular dermatoses.
    Semin Diagn Pathol 2016 Dec 14. Epub 2016 Dec 14.
    Section of Dermatopathology, Division of Surgical Pathology & Cytopathology, University of Virginia Medical Center, Charlottesville, VA, United States. Electronic address:
    Several dermatoses are typified by the formation of spaces (blisters; bullae) within or beneath the epidermis. These may be acellular or filled with particular species of inflammatory cells. Etiological categories include infectious, immune-mediated, genetic, drug-related, and idiopathic lesions. Read More

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis of the Eyelids: A Case Series with Molecular Identification and Literature Review.
    Korean J Parasitol 2016 Dec 31;54(6):787-792. Epub 2016 Dec 31.
    Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a protozoan disease which is endemic in Iran. It is transmitted by the Phlebotomus sand fly. The eyelid is rarely involved possibly because the movement of the lids impedes the sand fly from biting the skin in this region. Read More

    Amber necklaces: reasons for use and awareness of risk associated with bacterial colonisation.
    Eur J Dermatol 2016 Dec;26(6):580-585
    University François Rabelais Tours,, CHRU Tours, Department of Dermatology, Unit of Paediatric Dermatology.
    Parents are increasingly placing amber necklaces on their infants or toddlers to prevent teething pain. The use of the necklaces can pose a risk of death by strangulation, however, there are no data on the potential infectious risk linked to bacterial colonisation associated with the necklaces. We aimed to analyse bacterial colonisation of amber necklaces worn by children during hospital consultations. Read More

    Staphylococcus aureus penetrate the interkeratinocyte spaces created by skin-infiltrating neutrophils in a mouse model of impetigo.
    Vet Dermatol 2017 Feb 13;28(1):126-e27. Epub 2016 Nov 13.
    Laboratory of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Division of Animal Life Science, Graduate School, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu, Tokyo, 183-8509, Japan.
    Background: Impetigo is a bacterial skin disease characterized by intraepidermal neutrophilic pustules. Previous studies have demonstrated that exfoliative toxin producing staphylococci are isolated in the cutaneous lesions of human and canine impetigo. However, the mechanisms of intraepidermal splitting in impetigo remain poorly understood. Read More

    Assessing pharmacists' readiness to prescribe oral antibiotics for limited infections using a case-vignette technique.
    Int J Clin Pharm 2017 Feb 15;39(1):61-69. Epub 2016 Nov 15.
    Curtin Health and Innovation Research Institute, School of Pharmacy, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Background Pharmacist's skills are underutilized whilst they are directly involved with antibiotic supply to the community. Addressing this issue could lead to better use of antibiotics and hence decreased resistance. Objective Explore how pharmacists can prescribe oral antibiotics to treat a limited range of infections whilst focusing on their confidence and appropriateness of prescribing. Read More

    MRSA infections among patients in the emergency department: a European multicentre study.
    J Antimicrob Chemother 2017 Feb 17;72(2):372-375. Epub 2016 Oct 17.
    National Reference Center for Staphylococci, 59 Bd Louis Pinel, 69677 Bron cedex, Lyon, France.
    Background: MRSA is a therapeutic concern worldwide, and a major agent of community-acquired skin and soft tissue infections (CA-SSTIs). While the US epidemiology of MRSA in CA-SSTIs is well described and reports the high prevalence of the USA300 clone, data on the European situation are lacking.

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence and clonal characteristics of MRSA in CA-SSTIs in seven European emergency departments. Read More

    Opportunities for Integrated Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases That Affect the Skin.
    Trends Parasitol 2016 Nov 13;32(11):843-854. Epub 2016 Sep 13.
    Centre for International Child Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia; Group A Streptococcal Research, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia.
    Many neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) affect the skin, causing considerable disability, stigma, and exacerbation of poverty. However, there has been relatively little investment into laboratory research, epidemiology, diagnostic tools or management strategies to control tropical skin disease. Integration may advance the control of skin disease across a range of domains, including mapping, diagnosis, clinical management, and community control measures such as mass drug administration. Read More

    Staphylococcus aureus-Associated Skin and Soft Tissue Infections: Anatomical Localization, Epidemiology, Therapy and Potential Prophylaxis.
    Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2016 Oct 16. Epub 2016 Oct 16.
    GSK Vaccines, Research Center, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100, Siena, Italy.
    Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are among the most common infections worldwide. They range in severity from minor, self-limiting, superficial infections to life-threatening diseases requiring all the resources of modern medicine. Community (CA) and healthcare (HA) acquired SSTIs are most commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus . Read More

    Topical Minocycline Foam for the Treatment of Impetigo in Children: Results of a Randomized, Double-Blind, Phase 2 Study.
    J Drugs Dermatol 2016 Oct;15(10):1238-1243
    Background: Currently available treatment options for impetigo are limited by either systemic side effects (for oral therapy) or lack of ease of use (for topical ointment). A novel foam formulation of minocycline for topical use may improve convenience and treatment utilization for pediatric patients with impetigo.

    Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of topically applied minocycline foam (FMX-102 1% and 4%) in the treatment of impetigo and to determine the optimal therapeutic active ingredient concentration. Read More

    Where to from here? The treatment of impetigo in children as resistance to fusidic acid emerges.
    N Z Med J 2016 Oct 14;129(1443):77-83. Epub 2016 Oct 14.
    Community Paediatrician, Starship Children's Health, Auckland.
    Admissions for skin and soft-tissue infections have been increasing steadily in children and in the general population. Concerns have been raised recently about the increasing widespread use of topical fusidic acid and concurrent increase of fusidic acid-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Fusidic acid resistance and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are both more prevalent in youngest age group (<5 year-olds) and particularly in the North island. Read More

    Anti-IL6-R Tocilizumab for Severe Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis-Associated Uveitis Refractory to anti-TNF therapy. A multicenter study of 25 patients.
    Arthritis Rheumatol 2016 Oct 1. Epub 2016 Oct 1.
    Rheumatology, Internal Medicine and Ophtalmology. Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, IDIVAL, University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain.
    Objective: To assess the efficacy of Tocilizumab (TCZ) for Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA)-associated uveitis.

    Methods: Multicenter study of patients with JIA-associated uveitis refractory to conventional immunosuppressive drugs and anti-TNFα agents.

    Results: We assessed 25 (21 women) patients (47 affected eyes); mean age 18. Read More

    Protocol for the systematic review of the prevention, treatment and public health management of impetigo, scabies and fungal skin infections in resource-limited settings.
    Syst Rev 2016 Sep 23;5(1):162. Epub 2016 Sep 23.
    Telethon Kids Institute, University of Western Australia, West Perth, Australia.
    Background: Impetigo, scabies, and fungal skin infections disproportionately affect populations in resource-limited settings. Evidence for standard treatment of skin infections predominantly stem from hospital-based studies in high-income countries. The evidence for treatment in resource-limited settings is less clear, as studies in these populations may lack randomisation and control groups for cultural, ethical or economic reasons. Read More

    Bullous impetigo and pregnancy: Case report and review of blistering conditions in pregnancy.
    Dermatol Online J 2016 Apr 18;22(4). Epub 2016 Apr 18.
    Department of Dermatology, University of California San Diego.
    Background:  Bullous impetigo results from Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) release of exfoliative toxins type A and type B thatresults in flaccid, easily ruptured, bullae in the upper layers of the epidermis.  Physiologic, gestation-associated, and incidental skin changes can occur in pregnancy. Read More

    An association between newly diagnosed cutaneous T cell lymphoma and prior impetigo: a nested case-control study.
    Arch Dermatol Res 2016 Nov 9;308(9):661-664. Epub 2016 Sep 9.
    Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Colonization with staphylococcus aureus (SA) is associated with disease activity and progression in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) secondary to T-cell activation by bacterial superantigens. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the possible role of SA as an etiologic factor affecting CTCL initiation. We conducted a nested case-control study in a large population-representative database from the UK. Read More

    Bullous Impetigo Rapid Diagnostic and Therapeutic Quiz: A Model for Assessing Basic Dermatology Knowledge of Primary Care Providers.
    Pediatr Dermatol 2016 Nov 7;33(6):627-631. Epub 2016 Sep 7.
    Division of Pediatric Dermatology, Department of Dermatology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD.
    Background/objectives: Bullous impetigo (BI) is a common dermatologic condition, particularly in children, yet confusion regarding its diagnosis and treatment persists. This study measured pediatricians' ability to diagnose and appropriately treat BI and explored factors that might influence pediatricians' accuracy in managing BI.

    Methods: We administered an expert-validated survey to 64 pediatrics house staff and faculty at three Johns Hopkins Medicine facilities. Read More

    A Case of Tinea Corporis due to Trichophyton tonsurans that Manifested as Impetigo.
    Med Mycol J 2016 ;57(3):E59-61
    Department of Dermatology, Teikyo University School of Medicine Mizonokuchi Hospital.
    A 41-year-old man visited our dermatology clinic because an eruption, which was resistant to steroid ointment treatment, had appeared on his right forearm. An oval, soybean-sized erythematous infiltrated lesion with scales and crusts was located in the central part of the extensor surface of the right forearm and showed partial erosion with attached yellow crusts. The lesion had an impetigo-like appearance. Read More

    Impetigo Herpetiformis Complicated with Intrauterine Growth Restriction Treated Successfully with Granulocyte and Monocyte Apheresis.
    Acta Derm Venereol 2016 Aug 30. Epub 2016 Aug 30.
    Department of Dermatology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahatanishi-ku, Kitakyushu , 807-8555, Japan.
    is missing (Short communication). Read More

    Activation of band 3 mediates group A Streptococcus streptolysin S-based beta-haemolysis.
    Nat Microbiol 2016 Jan 18;1:15004. Epub 2016 Jan 18.
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 100 Galvin Life Sciences Center, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556, USA.
    Streptococcus pyogenes, or group A Streptococcus (GAS), is a human bacterial pathogen that can manifest as a range of diseases from pharyngitis and impetigo to severe outcomes such as necrotizing fasciitis and toxic shock syndrome. GAS disease remains a global health burden with cases estimated at over 700 million annually and over half a million deaths due to severe infections(1). For over 100 years, a clinical hallmark of diagnosis has been the appearance of complete (beta) haemolysis when grown in the presence of blood. Read More

    Accelerating the development of a group A Streptococcus vaccine: an urgent public health need.
    Clin Exp Vaccine Res 2016 Jul 29;5(2):101-7. Epub 2016 Jul 29.
    International Vaccine Institute, Seoul, Korea.
    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections cause substantial worldwide morbidity and mortality, mostly associated with suppurative complications such as pharyngitis, impetigo, and non-suppurative immune syndromes such as acute rheumatic fever, rheumatic heart disease, and acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Deaths occur mostly in children, adolescents, and young adults in particular pregnant women in low- and middle-income countries. GAS strains are highly variable, and a GAS vaccine would need to overcome the issue of multiple strains. Read More

    Staphylococcal bullous impetigo in a neonate.
    World J Clin Cases 2016 Jul;4(7):191-4
    Shalini Dewan Duggal, Tanisha Bharara, Pragnya Paramita Jena, Avinash Kumar, Abha Sharma, Renu Gur, Department of Microbiology, Dr Baba Saheb Ambedkar Hospital, Rohini, Delhi 110085, India.
    An otherwise healthy, full-term neonate presented at day 15 of life to the pediatric emergency with generalized papulo-pustular rash for 2 d. This was finally diagnosed as bullous impetigo caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Read More

    Clinical, microscopic and microbial characterization of exfoliative superficial pyoderma-associated epidermal collarettes in dogs.
    Vet Dermatol 2017 Feb 18;28(1):107-e23. Epub 2016 Jul 18.
    Comparative Medicine Institute, NC State University, 1060 William Moore Drive, Raleigh, NC, 27607, USA.
    Background: The microscopic and microbial features of the spreading epidermal collarettes of canine exfoliative superficial pyodermas are poorly characterized.

    Objectives: To characterize the clinical, cytological, microbial and histopathological features of epidermal collarettes in five dogs.

    Results: Cytology from the margins of collarettes identified neutrophils, extracellular and intracellular cocci within neutrophils but no acantholytic keratinocytes. Read More

    Mimics of Host Defense Proteins; Strategies for Translation to Therapeutic Applications.
    Curr Top Med Chem 2017 ;17(5):576-589
    Fox Chase Chemical Diversity Center, 3805 Old Easton Road, Doylestown, PA 18902, USA.
    New infection treatments are urgently needed to combat the rising threat of multi-drug resistant bacteria. Despite early clinical set-backs attention has re-focused on host defense proteins (HDPs), as potential sources for new and effective antimicrobial treatments. HDPs appear to act at multiple targets and their repertoire includes disruptive membrane and intracellular activities against numerous types of pathogens as well as immune modulatory functions in the host. Read More

    [Clinical analysis of cutaneous manifestations and related factors in patients with ulcerative colitis].
    Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi 2016 Jul;55(7):505-9
    Department of Gastroenterology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034, China.
    Objective: To investigate the cutaneous manifestations in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and related factors.

    Methods: Patients admitted to Department of Gastroenterology Peking University First Hospital from January 1994 to December 2014 and diagnosed as UC were retrospectively enrolled in this study. Skin disorders were confirmed by the dermatologists. Read More

    Spinal epidural abscess with a rapid course in young healthy infantry recruits with multiple skin lacerations.
    J Clin Neurosci 2016 Sep 28;31:127-32. Epub 2016 Jun 28.
    Department of Radiology, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, POB 12000, Jerusalem 91120, Israel. Electronic address:
    In recent years, there has been high prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infection among soldiers in the Israeli military, with devastating sequelae in several cases. Emergency department physicians have developed a high level of suspicion for spinal epidural abscess (SEA) in patients presenting known risk factors; however, SEA is a particularly elusive diagnosis in young healthy adults with no history of drug abuse. Read More

    The Prevalence of Scabies and Impetigo in the Solomon Islands: A Population-Based Survey.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Jun 27;10(6):e0004803. Epub 2016 Jun 27.
    Centre for International Child Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.
    Background: Scabies and impetigo are common, important and treatable skin conditions. Reports from several Pacific island countries show extremely high prevalence of these two conditions, but for many countries, including the Solomon Islands, there is a paucity of epidemiological data.

    Methodology: Ten rural villages in the Western Province of the Solomon Islands were included in the study, chosen so that data collection could be integrated with an existing project investigating clinical and serological markers of yaws. Read More

    Mupirocin reduces ciliary beat frequency of human nasal epithelial cells.
    Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2016 Dec 24;273(12):4335-4341. Epub 2016 Jun 24.
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital Mannheim, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167, Mannheim, Germany.
    Mupirocin is used worldwide for topical treatment of infected skin lesions, impetigo, and especially for nasal decolonization of patients with carriage of Staphylococci, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Nevertheless, data regarding the effects of mupirocin on the nasal mucosa, in particular on ciliary beat frequency (CBF), is lacking to date. We tested the CBF of ciliated nasal epithelial cells under the influence of Mupirocin-calcium dissolved in tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) containing media in different concentrations comparable to clinical use. Read More

    Streptococcus pyogenes adhesion and colonization.
    FEBS Lett 2016 Nov 1;590(21):3739-3757. Epub 2016 Jul 1.
    Australian Infectious Diseases Research Centre, School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia.
    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus, GAS) is a human-adapted pathogen responsible for a wide spectrum of disease. GAS can cause relatively mild illnesses, such as strep throat or impetigo, and less frequent but severe life-threatening diseases such as necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. GAS is an important public health problem causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Read More

    Oral and vulvovaginal changes in pregnancy.
    Clin Dermatol 2016 May-Jun;34(3):353-8. Epub 2016 Mar 2.
    Department of Dermatology, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.
    Physiologic alterations of the oral and vulvovaginal mucosal surfaces result from the profound hormonal and immunologic changes of gestation. High estrogen levels are responsible for the vascular changes noted on mucosal surfaces. Gingival hyperemia and edema, gingivitis and pyogenic granuloma are the most common alterations of the oral mucosa during gestation. Read More

    Inflammatory and glandular skin disease in pregnancy.
    Clin Dermatol 2016 May-Jun;34(3):335-43. Epub 2016 Feb 11.
    Department of Dermatology, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island; Department of Dermatology, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island.
    A switch from cell-mediated to humoral immunity (helper T 1 [Th1] to helper T 2 [Th2] shift) during gestation plays a key role in placental immune tolerance. As a result, skin diseases that are Th2 mediated often worsen, whereas skin diseases that are Th1 mediated often improve during gestation. Also, due to fluctuations in glandular activity, skin diseases involving sebaceous and eccrine glands may flare, whereas those involving apocrine glands may improve during pregnancy. Read More

    Skin disease in pregnancy: The approach of the obstetric medicine physician.
    Clin Dermatol 2016 May-Jun;34(3):320-6. Epub 2016 Feb 10.
    Department of Dermatology, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. Electronic address:
    This review presents the approach of the obstetric medicine physician to skin disease in pregnancy. It elaborates on common skin-related problems during gestation, such as pruritus, with or without eruption, and drug eruptions. An algorithmic approach to the differential diagnosis of pruritus in pregnancy is outlined. Read More

    General health, otitis media, nasopharyngeal carriage and middle ear microbiology in Northern Territory Aboriginal children vaccinated during consecutive periods of 10-valent or 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines.
    Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2016 Jul 11;86:224-32. Epub 2016 May 11.
    Menzies School of Health Research, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia.
    Objectives: This study aims to monitor the prevalence of suppurative otitis media in remote Indigenous communities after introduction of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in October 2011. We previously reported a decline in suppurative OM following replacement of PCV7 by 10-valent pneumococcal Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV10) in October 2009.

    Methods: We continued regular surveillance in remote Indigenous communities between February 2010 and August 2013. Read More

    [Pustular psoriasis].
    Hautarzt 2016 Jun;67(6):445-53
    Klinik für Dermatologie, Venerologie und Allergologie, Universitätsmedizin Göttingen, Robert-Koch-Str. 40, UMG, 37075, Göttingen, Deutschland.
    A number of pustular skin diseases share clinical, pathogenetic, and epidemiological aspects with plaque-type psoriasis, and their classification as a separate clinical entity or as a subtype of psoriasis remains controversial, which is also reflected in the multitude of their names. They include generalized pustular psoriasis with its subtypes, acrodermatitis continua suppurativa (Hallopeau), acute pustulosis palmopantaris, palmoplantar pustular psoriasis, and pustular variants of a mostly TNF-blocker triggered paradoxical psoriasiform dermatitis. In this article, the epidemiology, clinical picture, pathogenesis, genetics, and therapy of these pustular skin diseases are described. Read More

    Impetigo and scabies - Disease burden and modern treatment strategies.
    J Infect 2016 Jul 11;72 Suppl:S61-7. Epub 2016 May 11.
    Princess Margaret Hospital for Children, Perth, Western Australia, Australia; Telethon Kids Institute, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia. Electronic address:
    Impetigo and scabies both present different challenges in resource-limited compared with industrialised settings. Severe complications of these skin infections are common in resource-limited settings, where the burden of disease is highest. The microbiology, risk factors for disease, diagnostic approaches and availability and suitability of therapies also vary according to setting. Read More

    Severe case of staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome in a 5-year-old child - case report.
    Clin Case Rep 2016 Apr 12;4(4):416-9. Epub 2016 Mar 12.
    Department of Plastic Surgery, Breast Surgery and Burns Treatment Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen Copenhagen Denmark.
    Benign impetigo can progress into a potential fatal staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) if prompt diagnosis and correct therapy is not established rapidly. Local and systematic antibiotics as well as Lactulose are crucial in order to stop SSSS from progressing. Burns units should be involved when skin lesions are extensive. Read More

    Understanding flucloxacillin prescribing trends and treatment non-response in UK primary care: a Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) study.
    J Antimicrob Chemother 2016 Jul 18;71(7):2037-46. Epub 2016 Apr 18.
    Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, New Radcliffe House, Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Woodstock Road, Oxford OX2 6NW, UK.
    Objectives: The volume of prescribed antibiotics is associated with antimicrobial resistance and, unlike most other antibiotic classes, flucloxacillin prescribing has increased. We aimed to describe UK primary care flucloxacillin prescribing and factors associated with subsequent antibiotic prescribing as a proxy for non-response.

    Patients And Methods: Clinical Practice Research Datalink patients with acute prescriptions for oral flucloxacillin between January 2004 and December 2013, prescription details, associated Read codes and patient demographics were identified. Read More

    Complete genome of Staphylococcus aureus Tager 104 provides evidence of its relation to modern systemic hospital-acquired strains.
    BMC Genomics 2016 Mar 3;17:179. Epub 2016 Mar 3.
    Department of Drug Discovery and Development, Harrison School of Pharmacy, Auburn University, 4306 Walker Building, Auburn, AL, 36849, USA.
    Background: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infections range in severity due to expression of certain virulence factors encoded on mobile genetic elements (MGE). As such, characterization of these MGE, as well as single nucleotide polymorphisms, is of high clinical and microbiological importance. Read More

    Mass Spectrometry-Based Bacterial Proteomics: Focus on Dermatologic Microbial Pathogens.
    Front Microbiol 2016 19;7:181. Epub 2016 Feb 19.
    Independent Academic Scholar Magdeburg, Germany.
    The composition of human skin acts as a natural habitat for various bacterial species that function in a commensal and symbiotic fashion. In a healthy individual, bacterial flora serves to protect the host. Under certain conditions such as minor trauma, impaired host immunity, or environmental factors, the risk of developing skin infections is increased. Read More

    Structure and Interactions of a Dimeric Variant of sHIP, a Novel Virulence Determinant of Streptococcus pyogenes.
    Front Microbiol 2016 5;7:95. Epub 2016 Feb 5.
    Protein Function and Interactions Group, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Protein Research, University of Copenhagen Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Streptococcus pyogenes is one of the most significant bacterial pathogens in the human population mostly causing superficial and uncomplicated infections (pharyngitis and impetigo) but also invasive and life-threatening disease. We have previously identified a virulence determinant, protein sHIP, which is secreted at higher levels by an invasive compared to a non-invasive strain of S. pyogenes. Read More

    Childhood skin and soft tissue infections: new discoveries and guidelines regarding the management of bacterial soft tissue infections, molluscum contagiosum, and warts.
    Curr Opin Pediatr 2016 Apr;28(2):250-7
    aDartmouth Medical School bGeisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, New Hampshire cUniversity of Connecticut, Farmington, Connecticut, USA.
    Purpose Of Review: Pediatric skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) constitute a significant number of office-based pediatric visits. With SSTIs on the rise, it is not only important to effectively treat the individual, but to do so appropriately and cost-consciously. In this article, we highlight new research related to the treatment of bacterial skin infections, molluscum contagiosum, and cutaneous warts, with the goal of guiding pediatricians in their practice against these common skin conditions. Read More

    Tissue tropisms in group A Streptococcus: what virulence factors distinguish pharyngitis from impetigo strains?
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 2016 Jun;29(3):295-303
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, New York Medical College, New York, USA.
    Purpose Of Review: Group A streptococci (GAS) are a common cause of pharyngitis and impetigo, and distinct throat strains and skin strains have been long recognized. This review aims to describe recent advances in molecular differences between throat and skin strains, and the pathogenic mechanisms used by virulence factors that may distinguish between these two groups.

    Recent Findings: Recent findings include a new typing scheme for GAS strains based on sequence clusters of genes encoding the entire surface-exposed portion of M protein; correlations between emm-based typing schemes, clinical disease and surface adhesins; covalent bond formation mediated by GAS pili and other adhesins in binding to host ligands; a key role for superantigens in oropharyngeal infection via binding major histocompatibility complex class II antigen; and migration of GAS-specific Th17 cells from the upper respiratory tract to the brain, which may be relevant to autoimmune sequelae. Read More

    [Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome in a Very Low Birth Weight Premature Infant].
    Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol 2016 Feb 11;220(1):35-8. Epub 2016 Feb 11.
    Neonatologie, Kinderklinik und Poliklinik, Würzburg.
    Introduction: Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) was often endemic in the past but is nowadays rare. The hematogeneous spread of exfoliative toxins A (ETA) or B (ETB) produced by specific Staphylococcus aureus strains causes a scald-like eruption with disseminated bullous lesions.

    Case Report: A perioral impetigo lesion occurred on day 14 of life in a preterm male infant (1,065 g, 30 weeks of gestational age). Read More

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