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    Analysis of Post Earthquake Disease Pattern in a Camp at Gyampesal Gorkha.
    Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) 2016 Jul-Sept.;14(55):249-253
    Department of Pediatrics, Manipal College of Medical Science, Pokhara, Nepal.
    Background A major earthquake occurred in Nepal on 25th April 2015 with magnitude of 7.8 causing mass panic amongst people. Objective To analyze scenario, experience and disease pattern of Post Earthquake camp at Gyampesal, Gorkha. Read More

    Incremental Contributions of FbaA and Other Impetigo-Associated Surface Proteins to Fitness and Virulence of a Classical Group A Streptococcal Skin Strain.
    Infect Immun 2017 Aug 14. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, 10595, USA
    Group A streptococci (GAS) are highly prevalent human pathogens whose primary ecological niche is the superficial epithelial layers of the throat and/or skin. Many GAS strains having a strong tendency to cause pharyngitis are distinct from strains that tend to cause impetigo; thus, genetic differences between them may confer host tissue-specific virulence. In this study, the FbaA surface protein gene is found to be present in most skin specialist strains, but largely absent from a genetically-related subset of pharyngitis isolates. Read More

    A Red Blood Cell Membrane-Camouflaged Nanoparticle Counteracts Streptolysin O-Mediated Virulence Phenotypes of Invasive Group A Streptococcus.
    Front Pharmacol 2017 18;8:477. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program, University of California, San Diego, La JollaCA, United States.
    Group A Streptococcus (GAS), an important human-specific Gram-positive bacterial pathogen, is associated with a broad spectrum of disease, ranging from mild superficial infections such as pharyngitis and impetigo, to serious invasive infections including necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The GAS pore-forming streptolysin O (SLO) is a well characterized virulence factor produced by nearly all GAS clinical isolates. High level expression of SLO is epidemiologically linked to intercontinental dissemination of hypervirulent clonotypes and poor clinical outcomes. Read More

    The increasing relevance of biofilms in common dermatological conditions.
    J Dermatolog Treat 2017 Aug 9:1-6. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    b Department of Dermatologic Surgery and Laser Unit, St. Thomas' Hospital , St. John's Institute of Dermatology , London , UK.
    Background: Biofilms are diverse groups of microorganisms encased in a self-produced matrix that offers protection against unfavorable conditions and antibiotics.

    Methods: We performed a literature search using the MEDLINE electronic database. Only original articles published in English were considered for review. Read More

    Community-Based Prescribing for Impetigo in Remote Australia: An Opportunity for Antimicrobial Stewardship.
    Front Public Health 2017 12;5:158. Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Kimberley Population Health Unit, Western Australia Country Health Service (WACHS)-Kimberley, Broome, WA, Australia.
    Background: To support antibiotic prescribing for both hospital and community-based health professionals working in remote North Western Australia, a multidisciplinary Antimicrobial Stewardship (AMS) Committee was established in 2013. This Committee is usually focused on hospital-based prescribing. A troubling increase in sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim resistance in Staphylococcus aureus antibiograms from 9 to 18% over 1 year prompted a shift in gaze to community prescribing. Read More

    Skin and soft tissue infections, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2013-2016.
    MSMR 2017 Jul;24(7):2-11
    During the 4-year surveillance period, there were 282,571 incident cases of skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) among active component U.S. military members diagnosed in inpatient or outpatient settings, corresponding to an overall incidence of 558. Read More

    Infectious Complications of Circumcision and Their Prevention.
    Eur Urol Focus 2016 Oct 19;2(4):453-459. Epub 2016 Feb 19.
    Departments of Pediatrics and Medicine, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA. Electronic address:
    Context: A growing body of evidence supports the health benefits of circumcision, but the occurrence of infectious complications is of concern.

    Objective: To review literature presenting past data and studies of infectious complications of circumcision and their prevention.

    Evidence Acquisition: A literature search was conducted of the Cochrane Library, Embase, Turning Research into Practice, PubMed, and Medline databases from their inception through June 25, 2015. Read More

    The Epidemiology of Scabies and Impetigo in Relation to Demographic and Residential Characteristics: Baseline Findings from the Skin Health Intervention Fiji Trial.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Jul 17. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia.
    Scabies and associated impetigo are under-recognised causes of morbidity in many developing countries. To strengthen the evidence base for scabies control we undertook a trial of mass treatment for scabies. We report on the occurrence and predictors of scabies and impetigo in participants at baseline. Read More

    Are scabies and impetigo "normalised"? A cross-sectional comparative study of hospitalised children in northern Australia assessing clinical recognition and treatment of skin infections.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jul 3;11(7):e0005726. Epub 2017 Jul 3.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Princess Margaret Hospital for Children, Perth, Western Australia.
    Background: Complications of scabies and impetigo such as glomerulonephritis and invasive bacterial infection in Australian Aboriginal children remain significant problems and the overall global burden of disease attributable to these skin infections remains high despite the availability of effective treatment. We hypothesised that one factor contributing to this high burden is that skin infection is under-recognised and hence under-treated, in settings where prevalence is high.

    Methods: We conducted a prospective, cross-sectional study to assess the burden of scabies, impetigo, tinea and pediculosis in children admitted to two regional Australian hospitals from October 2015 to January 2016. Read More

    A Screening Study on Dermatoses in Pregnancy.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2017 May 1;11(5):WC01-WC05. Epub 2017 May 1.
    Associate Professor, Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy, Villupuram Medical College, Villupuram, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Introduction: Pregnancy produces many cutaneous changes, some of which are specifically related to pregnancy (dermatoses of pregnancy), some are modifiable by pregnancy and others that are common are named physiologic. These physiologic skin changes, usually do not impair the health of the mother or the fetus but some of them can be cosmetically significant and of importance to the dermatologist.

    Aim: The present study was undertaken to find out the prevalence of the physiological and pathological skin changes in pregnancy, and to correlate the prevalence of the major cutaneous changes and diseases in relation to different trimesters of pregnancy and with gravidity. Read More

    Emergence of a Staphylococcus aureus Clone Resistant to Mupirocin and Fusidic Acid Carrying Exotoxin Genes and Causing Mainly Skin Infections.
    J Clin Microbiol 2017 Aug 7;55(8):2529-2537. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
    Second Department of Pediatrics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Medicine, P. & A. Kyriakou Children's Hospital, Athens, Greece.
    Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) caused by mupirocin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains have recently increased in number in our settings. We sought to evaluate the characteristics of these cases over a 43-month period. Data for all community-acquired staphylococcal infections caused by mupirocin-resistant strains were retrospectively reviewed. Read More

    Current and Emerging Topical Antibacterials and Antiseptics: Agents, Action, and Resistance Patterns.
    Clin Microbiol Rev 2017 Jul;30(3):827-860
    Microbiological Diagnostic Unit Public Health Laboratory, Department of Microbiology & Immunology, The University of Melbourne at The Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Bacterial skin infections represent some of the most common infectious diseases globally. Prevention and treatment of skin infections can involve application of a topical antimicrobial, which may be an antibiotic (such as mupirocin or fusidic acid) or an antiseptic (such as chlorhexidine or alcohol). However, there is limited evidence to support the widespread prophylactic or therapeutic use of topical agents. Read More

    Two highly divergent lineages of exfoliative toxin B-encoding plasmids revealed in impetigo strains of Staphylococcus aureus.
    Int J Med Microbiol 2017 May 29. Epub 2017 May 29.
    Department of Experimental Biology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno, Czech Republic.
    Exfoliative toxin B (ETB) encoded by some large plasmids plays a crucial role in epidermolytic diseases caused by Staphylococcus aureus. We have found as yet unknown types of etb gene-positive plasmids isolated from a set of impetigo strains implicated in outbreaks of pemphigus neonatorum in Czech maternity hospitals. Plasmids from the strains of clonal complex CC121 were related to archetypal plasmid pETBTY4. Read More

    Prevalence of skin infections caused by Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Japan, particularly in Ishigaki, Okinawa.
    J Infect Chemother 2017 May 25. Epub 2017 May 25.
    Department of Microbiology, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392, Japan. Electronic address:
    The prevalence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene (pvl)-positive community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 clone, which is designated as the ST8-staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) mec type IV (ST8-IV) lineage, is a major public health concern worldwide. Thus, to elucidate the prevalence and characteristics of pvl-positive community-onset MRSA in Japan, we conducted a molecular epidemiological analysis for 854 S. aureus isolates obtained from outpatients with skin infections during 2013 and 2014. Read More

    Differences in SpeB protease activity among group A streptococci associated with superficial, invasive, and autoimmune disease.
    PLoS One 2017 17;12(5):e0177784. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York, United States of America.
    The secreted cysteine proteinase SpeB is an important virulence factor of group A streptococci (GAS), whereby SpeB activity varies widely among strains. To establish the degree to which SpeB activity correlates with disease, GAS organisms were recovered from patients with pharyngitis, impetigo, invasive disease or acute rheumatic fever (ARF), and selected for analysis using rigorous sampling criteria; >300 GAS isolates were tested for SpeB activity by casein digestion assays, and each GAS isolate was scored as a SpeB-producer or non-producer. Highly significant statistical differences (p < 0. Read More

    Transition Metal Homeostasis in Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae.
    Adv Microb Physiol 2017 20;70:123-191. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences and Australian Infectious Diseases Research Centre, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia. Electronic address:
    Trace metals such as Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu are essential for various biological functions including proper innate immune function. The host immune system has complicated and coordinated mechanisms in place to either starve and/or overload invading pathogens with various metals to combat the infection. Here, we discuss the roles of Fe, Mn and Zn in terms of nutritional immunity, and also the roles of Cu and Zn in metal overload in relation to the physiology and pathogenesis of two human streptococcal species, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes. Read More

    Whole genome sequencing of group A Streptococcus: development and evaluation of an automated pipeline for emmgene typing.
    PeerJ 2017 27;5:e3226. Epub 2017 Apr 27.
    Respiratory and Vaccine Preventable Bacterial Reference Unit, Public Health England, London, United Kingdom.
    Streptococcus pyogenes group A Streptococcus (GAS) is the most common cause of bacterial throat infections, and can cause mild to severe skin and soft tissue infections, including impetigo, erysipelas, necrotizing fasciitis, as well as systemic and fatal infections including septicaemia and meningitis. Estimated annual incidence for invasive group A streptococcal infection (iGAS) in industrialised countries is approximately three per 100,000 per year. Typing is currently used in England and Wales to monitor bacterial strains of S. Read More

    Advances in pharmacotherapeutic management of common skin diseases in neonates and infants.
    Expert Opin Pharmacother 2017 May 21;18(7):717-725. Epub 2017 Apr 21.
    a Dermatology, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine , Sant'Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna , Bologna , Italy.
    Introduction: neonatal and infantile skin diseases are frequently encountered in the clinical practice and represent worldwide a socioeconomic issue. They encompass a wide range of acquired or congenital conditions, including infections, vascular lesions and inflammatory diseases and can present with different degrees of severity, leading in some cases to dramatic complications. Areas covered: In this paper we report the most recent evidences on the management of some common skin diseases in neonates and infants. Read More

    [Evaluation of practices in the management of scabies in children].
    Ann Dermatol Venereol 2017 May 10;144(5):341-348. Epub 2017 Apr 10.
    UMR 911, Inserm CRO2, « centre de recherche en oncologie biologique et oncopharmacologie », service de dermatologie, hôpital Timone, Aix-Marseille université, Assistance publique des Hôpitaux de Marseille, 13005 Marseille, France.
    Background: Scabies has been on the rise in France in recent years and has posed therapeutic problems, mainly due to the withdrawal of benzyl benzoate. The objective of this study was to describe prescribing practices for scabies in children.

    Methods: A national survey was conducted by means of a standardized questionnaire covering various clinical situations of scabies and the drugs used preferentially according to age, which was sent out between December 2014 and March 2015 to members of the clinical research group of the French Society of Paediatric Dermatology. Read More

    Skin diseases of the vulva: Infectious diseases.
    J Obstet Gynaecol 2017 Apr 11:1-9. Epub 2017 Apr 11.
    a Department of Dermatology , Bispebjerg Hospital , Copenhagen , Denmark.
    A multitude of infectious diseases of viral (genital herpes, herpes zoster, genital warts and molluscum contagiosum), bacterial (syphilis, chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, donovanosis, erysipelas, cellulitis and necrotising fasciitis, folliculitis, impetigo, bartholin gland abscess, trichomycosis and erythrasma), fungal (candidiasis and dermatophytosis) and parasitic (pediculosis pubis) origin may affect the vulvar area. Herein, we review the infections and their skin manifestations in the vulvar area. Read More

    [An rare complication of scarlet fever : invasive group A streptococcal infection with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome].
    Rev Med Liege 2017 Mar;72(3):132-137
    Service de Pédiatrie, CHU de Liège, Site NDB, Liège, Belgique.
    Invasive Group A Streptococcus infections and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome are rare complications of common diseases in children such as scarlet fever or impetigo. These invasive diseases are particulary challenging because of their rapid progression and the lack of predisposing factors in most cases. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are mandatory to reduce the mortality associated with these severe diseases. Read More

    Immunization with a streptococcal multiple-epitope recombinant protein protects mice against invasive group A streptococcal infection.
    PLoS One 2017 29;12(3):e0174464. Epub 2017 Mar 29.
    Department of Biological Science and Technology, College of Medicine, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus; GAS) causes clinical diseases, including pharyngitis, scarlet fever, impetigo, necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. A number of group A streptococcus vaccine candidates have been developed, but only one 26-valent recombinant M protein vaccine has entered clinical trials. Differing from the design of a 26-valent recombinant M protein vaccine, we provide here a vaccination using the polyvalence epitope recombinant FSBM protein (rFSBM), which contains four different epitopes, including the fibronectin-binding repeats domain of streptococcal fibronectin binding protein Sfb1, the C-terminal immunogenic segment of streptolysin S, the C3-binding motif of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B, and the C-terminal conserved segment of M protein. Read More

    Concurrent pyogenic granuloma and bullous impetigo of a pregnant woman's finger.
    Dermatol Online J 2017 Mar 15;23(3). Epub 2017 Mar 15.
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California.
    Background: Bullous impetigo is a superficial skininfection caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus). Pyogenic granuloma is a common benigntumor frequently associated with prior trauma. Read More

    Clinical development strategy for a candidate group A streptococcal vaccine.
    Vaccine 2017 Apr 16;35(16):2007-2014. Epub 2017 Mar 16.
    Telethon Kids Institute, University of Western Australia and Perth Children's Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia. Electronic address:
    GroupA streptococci (GAS) cause a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from benign pharyngitis and skin infections to severe invasive disease and the immune sequelae rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. Pharyngitis, one of the most frequent diseases caused by GAS, is highly prevalent in school-age children in temperate climates and a major cause of antibiotic use. An efficacious vaccine would reduce disease burden associated with pharyngitis and the need of care for sick children. Read More

    Evaluation of the Potency, Neutralizing Antibody Response, and Stability of a Recombinant Fusion Protein Vaccine for Streptococcus pyogenes.
    AAPS J 2017 May 10;19(3):875-881. Epub 2017 Mar 10.
    VaxForm, LLC, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, USA.
    Streptococcus pyogenes or group A streptococcus (GAS) is a Gram-positive bacterium that can cause a wide range of diseases, including pharyngitis, impetigo, scarlet fever, necrotizing fasciitis, rheumatic fever, and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Despite the increasing burden on global health caused by GAS, there is currently no licensed vaccine available. In this study, we evaluated immunogenicity, induction of neutralizing antibodies, and stability of a new recombinant fusion protein vaccine that targets infections from GAS. Read More

    Antibiotic prescribing during office hours and out-of-hours: a comparison of quality and quantity in primary care in the Netherlands.
    Br J Gen Pract 2017 Mar;67(656):e178-e186
    University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.
    Background: Unnecessary and non-first-choice antibiotic prescribing is a significant problem in primary care. It is often argued that irrational prescribing is higher during out-of-hours (OOH) consultations.

    Aim: To obtain insight into the quantity and quality of OOH antibiotic prescribing for commonly presented infectious diseases. Read More

    Common Skin Conditions in Children: Skin Infections.
    FP Essent 2017 Feb;453:26-32
    University of North Carolina Chapel Hill School of Medicine Dermatology Residency Program, 410 Market St. Suite 400 CB#7715, Chapel Hill, NC 27516.
    Skin infections account for a significant subset of dermatologic conditions of childhood. Common cutaneous viral infections in children include warts, molluscum contagiosum, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, and herpes simplex. Although viral infections are self-limited and often only mildly symptomatic, they can cause anxiety, embarrassment, and health care use. Read More

    Common Skin Conditions in Children: Neonatal Skin Lesions.
    FP Essent 2017 Feb;453:11-17
    University of North Carolina Chapel Hill School of Medicine Dermatology Residency Program, 410 Market St. Suite 400 CB#7715, Chapel Hill, NC 27516.
    Skin findings during the initial month of life are ubiquitous. One study estimated that more than 95% of newborns have cutaneous findings, which often are distressing to parents but frequently are benign and self-limited. Among them are milia, cutis marmorata, congenital dermal melanocytosis, and the benign neonatal pustular eruptions (eg, benign cephalic pustulosis, erythema toxicum neonatorum, transient neonatal pustular melanosis). Read More

    Diagnosis and management of impetigo.
    Nurse Pract 2017 Mar;42(3):40-44
    Kathy VanRavenstein is an instructor at the Medical University of South Carolina, College of Nursing, Charleston, S.C. Whitney Smith is an instructor at the Medical University of South Carolina, College of Nursing, Charleston, S.C. Catherine O'Connor Durham is an assistant professor at the Medical University of South Carolina, College of Nursing, Charleston, S.C. Tiffany H. Williams is an assistant professor at the Medical University of South Carolina, College of Nursing, Charleston, S.C.
    Impetigo, a bacterial skin infection that involves the superficial layers of the skin, is one of the most common skin infections in children ages 2 to 5 but can occur in individuals across the lifespan. This article discusses the diagnosis and management of impetigo in primary care. Read More

    Bullous, pseudobullous, & pustular dermatoses.
    Semin Diagn Pathol 2017 May 14;34(3):250-260. Epub 2016 Dec 14.
    Section of Dermatopathology, Division of Surgical Pathology & Cytopathology, University of Virginia Medical Center, Charlottesville, VA, United States. Electronic address:
    Several dermatoses are typified by the formation of spaces (blisters; bullae) within or beneath the epidermis. These may be acellular or filled with particular species of inflammatory cells. Etiological categories include infectious, immune-mediated, genetic, drug-related, and idiopathic lesions. Read More

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis of the Eyelids: A Case Series with Molecular Identification and Literature Review.
    Korean J Parasitol 2016 Dec 31;54(6):787-792. Epub 2016 Dec 31.
    Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a protozoan disease which is endemic in Iran. It is transmitted by the Phlebotomus sand fly. The eyelid is rarely involved possibly because the movement of the lids impedes the sand fly from biting the skin in this region. Read More

    Amber necklaces: reasons for use and awareness of risk associated with bacterial colonisation.
    Eur J Dermatol 2016 Dec;26(6):580-585
    University François Rabelais Tours,, CHRU Tours, Department of Dermatology, Unit of Paediatric Dermatology.
    Parents are increasingly placing amber necklaces on their infants or toddlers to prevent teething pain. The use of the necklaces can pose a risk of death by strangulation, however, there are no data on the potential infectious risk linked to bacterial colonisation associated with the necklaces. We aimed to analyse bacterial colonisation of amber necklaces worn by children during hospital consultations. Read More

    Staphylococcus aureus penetrate the interkeratinocyte spaces created by skin-infiltrating neutrophils in a mouse model of impetigo.
    Vet Dermatol 2017 Feb 13;28(1):126-e27. Epub 2016 Nov 13.
    Laboratory of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Division of Animal Life Science, Graduate School, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu, Tokyo, 183-8509, Japan.
    Background: Impetigo is a bacterial skin disease characterized by intraepidermal neutrophilic pustules. Previous studies have demonstrated that exfoliative toxin producing staphylococci are isolated in the cutaneous lesions of human and canine impetigo. However, the mechanisms of intraepidermal splitting in impetigo remain poorly understood. Read More

    Assessing pharmacists' readiness to prescribe oral antibiotics for limited infections using a case-vignette technique.
    Int J Clin Pharm 2017 Feb 15;39(1):61-69. Epub 2016 Nov 15.
    Curtin Health and Innovation Research Institute, School of Pharmacy, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Background Pharmacist's skills are underutilized whilst they are directly involved with antibiotic supply to the community. Addressing this issue could lead to better use of antibiotics and hence decreased resistance. Objective Explore how pharmacists can prescribe oral antibiotics to treat a limited range of infections whilst focusing on their confidence and appropriateness of prescribing. Read More

    MRSA infections among patients in the emergency department: a European multicentre study.
    J Antimicrob Chemother 2017 Feb 17;72(2):372-375. Epub 2016 Oct 17.
    National Reference Center for Staphylococci, 59 Bd Louis Pinel, 69677 Bron cedex, Lyon, France.
    Background: MRSA is a therapeutic concern worldwide, and a major agent of community-acquired skin and soft tissue infections (CA-SSTIs). While the US epidemiology of MRSA in CA-SSTIs is well described and reports the high prevalence of the USA300 clone, data on the European situation are lacking.

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence and clonal characteristics of MRSA in CA-SSTIs in seven European emergency departments. Read More

    Opportunities for Integrated Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases That Affect the Skin.
    Trends Parasitol 2016 Nov 13;32(11):843-854. Epub 2016 Sep 13.
    Centre for International Child Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia; Group A Streptococcal Research, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia.
    Many neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) affect the skin, causing considerable disability, stigma, and exacerbation of poverty. However, there has been relatively little investment into laboratory research, epidemiology, diagnostic tools or management strategies to control tropical skin disease. Integration may advance the control of skin disease across a range of domains, including mapping, diagnosis, clinical management, and community control measures such as mass drug administration. Read More

    Staphylococcus aureus-Associated Skin and Soft Tissue Infections: Anatomical Localization, Epidemiology, Therapy and Potential Prophylaxis.
    Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2016 Oct 16. Epub 2016 Oct 16.
    GSK Vaccines, Research Center, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100, Siena, Italy.
    Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are among the most common infections worldwide. They range in severity from minor, self-limiting, superficial infections to life-threatening diseases requiring all the resources of modern medicine. Community (CA) and healthcare (HA) acquired SSTIs are most commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus . Read More

    Topical Minocycline Foam for the Treatment of Impetigo in Children: Results of a Randomized, Double-Blind, Phase 2 Study.
    J Drugs Dermatol 2016 Oct;15(10):1238-1243
    Background: Currently available treatment options for impetigo are limited by either systemic side effects (for oral therapy) or lack of ease of use (for topical ointment). A novel foam formulation of minocycline for topical use may improve convenience and treatment utilization for pediatric patients with impetigo.

    Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of topically applied minocycline foam (FMX-102 1% and 4%) in the treatment of impetigo and to determine the optimal therapeutic active ingredient concentration. Read More

    Where to from here? The treatment of impetigo in children as resistance to fusidic acid emerges.
    N Z Med J 2016 Oct 14;129(1443):77-83. Epub 2016 Oct 14.
    Community Paediatrician, Starship Children's Health, Auckland.
    Admissions for skin and soft-tissue infections have been increasing steadily in children and in the general population. Concerns have been raised recently about the increasing widespread use of topical fusidic acid and concurrent increase of fusidic acid-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Fusidic acid resistance and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are both more prevalent in youngest age group (<5 year-olds) and particularly in the North island. Read More

    Anti-Interleukin-6 Receptor Tocilizumab for Severe Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis-Associated Uveitis Refractory to Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Therapy: A Multicenter Study of Twenty-Five Patients.
    Arthritis Rheumatol 2017 Mar;69(3):668-675
    Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, Instituto de Investigación Marqués de Valdecilla (IDIVAL), and University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain.
    Objective: To assess the efficacy of tocilizumab (TCZ) for the treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-associated uveitis.

    Methods: We conducted a multicenter study of patients with JIA-associated uveitis that was refractory to conventional immunosuppressive drugs and anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) agents.

    Results: We assessed 25 patients (21 female; 47 affected eyes) with a mean ± SD age of 18. Read More

    Protocol for the systematic review of the prevention, treatment and public health management of impetigo, scabies and fungal skin infections in resource-limited settings.
    Syst Rev 2016 Sep 23;5(1):162. Epub 2016 Sep 23.
    Telethon Kids Institute, University of Western Australia, West Perth, Australia.
    Background: Impetigo, scabies, and fungal skin infections disproportionately affect populations in resource-limited settings. Evidence for standard treatment of skin infections predominantly stem from hospital-based studies in high-income countries. The evidence for treatment in resource-limited settings is less clear, as studies in these populations may lack randomisation and control groups for cultural, ethical or economic reasons. Read More

    Bullous impetigo and pregnancy: Case report and review of blistering conditions in pregnancy.
    Dermatol Online J 2016 Apr 18;22(4). Epub 2016 Apr 18.
    Department of Dermatology, University of California San Diego.
    Background:  Bullous impetigo results from Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) release of exfoliative toxins type A and type B thatresults in flaccid, easily ruptured, bullae in the upper layers of the epidermis.  Physiologic, gestation-associated, and incidental skin changes can occur in pregnancy. Read More

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