166,899 results match your criteria Immunosuppression

Porcine circovirus type 2 infection attenuates the K63-linked ubiquitination of STING to inhibit IFN-β induction via p38-MAPK pathway.

Vet Microbiol 2021 May 4;258:109098. Epub 2021 May 4.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, China. Electronic address:

Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) has been proved to increase the risk of other pathogens infection via immunosuppression. Although the co-infection of PCV2 and porcine parvovirus (PPV) is commonly observed in worldwide, the relative immune mechanisms promoting PPV infection in PCV2-infected piglets are currently unknown. Herein, we found that PCV2 infection suppressed IFN-β expression and promoted PPV infection in the piglets. Read More

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Dual mitigation of immunosuppression combined with photothermal inhibition for highly effective primary tumor and metastases therapy.

Biomaterials 2021 May 7;274:120856. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Ultrasound, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400010, PR China. Electronic address:

T-cell based immune response can attack cancer cells formidably when certain immune checkpoint (e.g., PD-1/PD-L1) is blocked. Read More

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Canine mast cell tumour cells regulate tryptophan catabolism via the expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase.

Res Vet Sci 2021 Apr 30;137:159-162. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Laboratory of Comparative Animal Medicine, Division of Animal Life Science, Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan.

Indoleamine 2,3-deoxygenase (IDO) produced by cancer cells catabolizes tryptophan (TRP) to kynurenine (KYN) in the environment, resulting induction of cancer immune escape through induction of T cell anergy and enhancement of regulatory T cells. Recently, inhibition of IDO has been recognized as one of therapeutic strategies for human neoplastic diseases. However, there have been few reports about IDO-expressing cancers in dogs. Read More

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A recommended paradigm for vaccination of rheumatic disease patients with the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.

J Autoimmun 2021 May 1;121:102649. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens and Academy of Athens, Athens, Greece. Electronic address:

Autoimmune and autoinflammatory rheumatic disorders (ARD) are treated with antimetabolites, calcineurin inhibitors and biologic agents either neutralizing cytokines [Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF), Interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-17, B-cell activating factor] or being directed against B-cells (anti-CD-20), costimulatory molecules or JAK kinases. Similarly for the influenza or pneumococcal vaccines, there is limited data on the effectiveness of vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 prevention for this susceptible patient population. Moreover, preliminary data from vaccinated organ transplanted, inflammatory bowel and connective tissue disease patients suggests only limited immunogenicity after the first vaccine dose, particularly in patients on immunosuppressive regimens. Read More

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The diverse roles of myeloid derived suppressor cells in mucosal immunity.

Cell Immunol 2021 Apr 9;365:104361. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

The Concern Foundation Laboratories at The Lautenberg Center for Immunology and Cancer Research, Israel-Canada Medical Research Institute, Faculty of Medicine, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel. Electronic address:

The mucosal immune system plays a vital role in protecting the host from the external environment. Its major challenge is to balance immune responses against harmful and harmless agents and serve as a 'homeostatic gate keeper'. Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of undifferentiated cells that are characterized by an immunoregulatory and immunosuppressive phenotype. Read More

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PTTG1 knockdown enhances radiation-induced antitumour immunity in lung adenocarcinoma.

Life Sci 2021 May 10:119594. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Radiation Oncology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University/Yunnan Cancer Hospital, PR China. Electronic address:

Aim: Ionizing radiation (IR) can induce local and systemic antitumour immune responses to some degree and augment immunotherapeutic efficacy. IR may also increase residual tumour cell invasion and elicit immunosuppression in the tumour microenvironment (TME). It remains poorly understand, whether IR leads to immune negative response or invasive capacity increases in lung adenocarcinoma (LAC). Read More

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A COVID-19 Case Complicated by and -Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

J Med Cases 2020 Dec 21;11(12):403-406. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Department of Medicine, Richmond University Medical Center, Staten Island, NY 10310, USA.

There has been increasing evidence of co-infections with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia, which increases the severity of the disease. Organisms such as and have been previously isolated. We present a case of a COVID-19 patient treated with baricitinib and dexamethasone who later developed -carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and bloodstream infections, treated with meropenem/vaborbactam and micafungin, respectively. Read More

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December 2020

Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia in a 24-Year-Old Patient With COVID-19 Complicated by Secondary Cryptococcemia and Acute Necrotizing Encephalitis: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

J Med Cases 2020 Nov 23;11(11):362-365. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Windsor Regional Hospital, Windsor, ON, Canada.

Since the initial reported outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many unique case reports have been published in the medical literature. Here we report a complicated clinical course of a young patient with COVID-19 who presented initially with recurrent autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). He subsequently developed bilateral pulmonary emboli, and ultimately succumbed to encephalitis and cryptococcemia in the context of being treated with high dose immunosuppression for the AIHA. Read More

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November 2020

Trained Innate Immunity in Hematopoietic Stem Cell and Solid Organ Transplantation.

Transplantation 2021 Feb 8. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

1 Immune Regulation Research Group, School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland.

While significant progress has been made to improve short-term survival of transplant patients, long-term acceptance of allografts in solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation is still a significant challenge. Current therapeutics for preventing or treating allograft rejection rely on potent immunosuppressive drugs that primarily target T cells of the adaptive immune response. Promising advances in transplant immunology have highlighted the importance of innate immune responses in allograft acceptance and rejection. Read More

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February 2021

RANKL and RANK in extracellular vesicles: surprising new players in bone remodeling.

Extracell Vesicles Circ Nucl Acids 2021 30;2:18-28. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry, Stony Brook School of Dental Medicine, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA.

Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B-ligand (RANKL), its receptor RANK, and osteoprotegerin which binds RANKL and acts as a soluble decoy receptor, are essential controllers of bone remodeling. They also play important roles in establishing immune tolerance and in the development of the lymphatic system and mammary glands. In bone, RANKL stimulates osteoclast formation by binding RANK on osteoclast precursors and osteoclasts. Read More

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Trends in the Epidemiology of Leishmaniasis in the City of Barcelona (1996-2019).

Front Vet Sci 2021 26;8:653999. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona (ASPB), Barcelona, Spain.

Leishmaniasis is a neglected zoonosis produced by 20 different flagellated parasites of the genus, a protozoan transmitted to humans and other vertebrates by the bite of dipteran insects of the subfamily. It is endemic in Mediterranean countries and the number of cases is expected to increase due to climate change and migration. Prioritizing public health interventions for prevention and control is essential. Read More

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Secretory Mevalonate Kinase Regulates Host Immune Response and Facilitates Phagocytosis.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 26;11:641985. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Molecular Biology, ICMR-Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, India.

secretes over 151 proteins during cultivation. Cellular functions of one such novel protein: mevalonate kinase is discussed here; signifying its importance in infection. Visceral Leishmaniasis is a persistent infection, caused by in Indian subcontinent. Read More

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Comparisons Between Frontline Therapy and a Combination of Eltrombopag Plus Immunosuppression Therapy and Human Leukocyte Antigen-Haploidentical Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients With Severe Aplastic Anemia: A Systematic Review.

Front Oncol 2021 26;11:614965. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Hematology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

This study aimed at comparing the efficacy and safety of eltrombopag (EPAG) plus immunosuppressive therapies (ISTs) and haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) in the frontline treatment for severe aplastic anemia (SAA) patients. Four electronic databases and Clinicaltrials.gov were comprehensively searched from January 2010 to August 2020. Read More

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Tr1 Cells as a Key Regulator for Maintaining Immune Homeostasis in Transplantation.

Front Immunol 2021 26;12:671579. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Immunology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

The immune system is composed of effectors and regulators. Type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells are classified as a distinct subset of T cells, and they secret high levels of IL-10 but lack the expression of the forkhead box P3 (Foxp3). Tr1 cells act as key regulators in the immune network, and play a central role in maintaining immune homeostasis. Read More

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The Role of Sirtuin-1 in Immune Response and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

Front Immunol 2021 26;12:632383. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Dermatology, Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a potentially fatal multisystem inflammatory chronic disorder, the etiology and pathogenesis of which remain unclear. The loss of immune tolerance in SLE patients contributes to the production of autoantibodies that attack multiple organs and tissues, such as the skin, joints, and kidneys. Immune cells play important roles in the occurrence and progression of SLE through amplified immune responses. Read More

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Ruxolitinib, a JAK1/2 Inhibitor, Ameliorates Cytokine Storm in Experimental Models of Hyperinflammation Syndrome.

Front Pharmacol 2021 22;12:650295. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Incyte Research Institute, Wilmington, DE, United States.

Hyperinflammatory syndromes comprise a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by severe inflammation, multiple organ dysfunction, and potentially death. In response to antigenic stimulus (e.g. Read More

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DNGR-1 limits Flt3L-mediated antitumor immunity by restraining tumor-infiltrating type I conventional dendritic cells.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 May;9(5)

Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares Carlos III (CNIC), Madrid, Spain

Background: Conventional type 1 dendritic cells (cDC1s) are central to antitumor immunity and their presence in the tumor microenvironment associates with improved outcomes in patients with cancer. DNGR-1 (CLEC9A) is a dead cell-sensing receptor highly restricted to cDC1s. DNGR-1 has been involved in both cross-presentation of dead cell-associated antigens and processes of disease tolerance, but its role in antitumor immunity has not been clarified yet. Read More

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Immunotherapies targeting stimulatory pathways and beyond.

J Hematol Oncol 2021 May 12;14(1):78. Epub 2021 May 12.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Mayo Clinic, 4500 San Pablo Road S., Jacksonville, FL, 32224, USA.

Co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory molecules play a critical role in T cell function. Tumor cells escape immune surveillance by promoting immunosuppression. Immunotherapy targeting inhibitory molecules like anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1/PD-L1 were developed to overcome these immunosuppressive effects. Read More

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Chromatin accessibility governs the differential response of cancer and T cells to arginine starvation.

Cell Rep 2021 May;35(6):109101

MRC Human Immunology Unit, MRC Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DS, UK.

Depleting the microenvironment of important nutrients such as arginine is a key strategy for immune evasion by cancer cells. Many tumors overexpress arginase, but it is unclear how these cancers, but not T cells, tolerate arginine depletion. In this study, we show that tumor cells synthesize arginine from citrulline by upregulating argininosuccinate synthetase 1 (ASS1). Read More

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Nanomaterial-based delivery vehicles for therapeutic cancer vaccine development.

Jie Liang Xiao Zhao

Cancer Biol Med 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety & CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology of China, Beijing 100190, China.

Nanomaterial-based delivery vehicles such as lipid-based, polymer-based, inorganics-based, and bio-inspired vehicles often carry distinct and attractive advantages in the development of therapeutic cancer vaccines. Based on various delivery vehicles, specifically designed nanomaterials-based vaccines are highly advantageous in boosting therapeutic and prophylactic antitumor immunities. Specifically, therapeutic vaccines featuring unique properties have made major contributions to the enhancement of antigen immunogenicity, encapsulation efficiency, biocompatibility, and stability, as well as promoting antigen cross-presentation and specific CD8 T cell responses. Read More

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Malnutrition is associated with hyperinflammation and immunosuppression in COVID-19 patients: A prospective observational study.

Nutr Clin Pract 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Emergency Department, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, PR, China.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading globally and has caused many deaths. This study investigated, for the first time, COVID-19 patients' nutrition status and its effects on their inflammatory and immune responses.

Methods: Forty-seven COVID-19 patients were recruited for this prospective study. Read More

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Reduced microglia activity in patients with long-term immunosuppressive therapy after liver transplantation.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Neurology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625, Hannover, Germany.

Purpose: Calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) can cause long-term impairment of brain function. Possible pathomechanisms include alterations of the cerebral immune system. This study used positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with the translocator protein (TSPO) ligand F-GE-180 to evaluate microglial activation in liver-transplanted patients under different regimens of immunosuppression. Read More

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Advances in Rejection Management: Prevention and Treatment.

Clin Liver Dis 2021 Feb 26;25(1):53-72. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 676 North St. Clair Street, Suite 1400, Chicago, IL 60611, USA; Comprehensive Transplant Center, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 676 North St. Clair Street, Suite 1900, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. Electronic address:

Extended survival of liver transplant recipients has brought rejection management to the forefront of liver transplant research. This article discusses T-cell-mediated rejection, antibody-mediated rejection, and chronic rejection. We focus on the prevention and then discuss treatment options. Read More

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February 2021

An eight-year experience of Nocardia infection in Italy: does immunosuppression matter?

New Microbiol 2021 May 1;44(2). Epub 2021 May 1.

Infectious Diseases Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy.

Nocardia has always been considered a pathogen of the immunocompromised host, but recent evidence has also highlighted its role as a pathogen in the immunocompetent. We aim to assess the role of immunosuppression in the disease. We reviewed all the cases of infections due to Nocardia spp. Read More

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Changes in haemolymph parameters and insect ability to respond to immune challenge during overwintering.

Ecol Evol 2021 May 11;11(9):4267-4275. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Ecology Faculty of Environmental Sciences Czech University of Life Sciences Prague Prague - Suchdol Czech Republic.

Overwintering is a challenging period in the life of temperate insects. A limited energy budget characteristic of this period can result in reduced investment in immune system. Here, we investigated selected physiological and immunological parameters in laboratory-reared and field-collected harlequin ladybirds (). Read More

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Effects of Systemic Lidocaine on Postoperative Recovery Quality and Immune Function in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Radical Gastrectomy.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2021 3;15:1861-1872. Epub 2021 May 3.

Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Anesthesiology, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

Objective: This study aimed to explore the effects of lidocaine on postoperative quality of recovery (QoR) and immune function in patients undergoing laparoscopic radical gastrectomy.

Methods: In total, 135 patients were enrolled and were equally randomized to receive low-dose lidocaine (Group LL: 1.5 mg/kg bolus followed by an infusion at 1. Read More

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Giant cell arteritis presenting as a stroke in the internal carotid artery territory: a case-based review.

Reumatologia 2021 27;59(2):121-125. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Medicine, Surgery and Neurosciences, Rheumatology Unit, University of Siena, Italy.

Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a large-vessel vasculitis, typically affecting the aorta and its branches. The involvement of vertebral and internal carotid arteries occurs in a limited number of cases, and stroke as a presenting symptom of GCA is extremely unusual: this subset of the disease has a poor prognosis and rarely responds to immunosuppression. We report the case of a 70-year-old woman, who presented to the Emergency Department for ischemic stroke, which appeared to be the first and only symptom of GCA. Read More

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Presentation and outcome of COVID-19 in HIV patients with high viral loads and opportunistic infections: a case series.

Ghana Med J 2020 Dec;54(4 Suppl):121-124

Ashanti Regional Health Directorate, Ghana Health Service, Kumasi, Ghana.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is especially severe in patients with underlying chronic conditions, with increased risk of mortality. There is concern that people living with HIV (PLWH), especially those with severe immunosuppression, and COVID-19 may have severe disease and a negative clinical outcome. Most studies on COVID-19 in PLWH are from Asia, Europe and America where population dynamics, antiretroviral treatment coverage and coexisting opportunistic infections may differ from that in sub-Saharan Africa. Read More

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December 2020

FUT8-mediated aberrant N-glycosylation of B7H3 suppresses the immune response in triple-negative breast cancer.

Nat Commun 2021 May 11;12(1):2672. Epub 2021 May 11.

State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Diagnosis and Therapy, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China.

Most patients with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) do not respond to anti-PD1/PDL1 immunotherapy, indicating the necessity to explore immune checkpoint targets. B7H3 is a highly glycosylated protein. However, the mechanisms of B7H3 glycosylation regulation and whether the sugar moiety contributes to immunosuppression are unclear. Read More

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