149,696 results match your criteria Immunosuppression


Doxorubicin-polyglycerol-nanodiamond composites stimulate glioblastoma cell immunogenicity through activation of autophagy.

Acta Biomater 2019 Jan 14. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Donghu Avenue No.185, Wuhan 430072, China; Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Disease, Wuhan 430071, China. Electronic address:

Immunosuppression is a salient feature of GBM associated with the disease's grim prognosis and the limited success of anti-GBM immunotherapy. Stimulating immunogenicity of the GBM cells (GC) is a promising approach to subverting the GBM-associated immunosuppression. We had previously devised a drug composite based on polyglycerol-functionalized nanodiamonds bearing doxorubicin (Nano-DOX) and demonstrated that Nano-DOX effectively modulated GBM's immunosuppressive microenvironment through stimulating the immunogenicity of GC and initiated anti-GBM immune responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2019.01.020DOI Listing
January 2019

Tumor-infiltrating T-cell Receptor-beta Repertoires are Linked to the Risk of Late Chemoradiation-induced Temporal Lobe Necrosis in Locally Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2019 Jan 14. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Koo Foundation Sun-Yat-Sen Cancer Center, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Purpose: Temporal lobe necrosis (TLN), a late complication of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) after concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT), causes permanent neurological deficits. We aimed to investigate the risk factors for the development of CCRT-induced TLN in locally advanced NPC patients.

Methods And Materials: The incidence of CCRT-induced TLN was assessed in consecutive NPC patients initially staged with TNM receiving curative intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and cisplatin-based chemotherapy with long-term follow-up. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03603016193003
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2019.01.002DOI Listing
January 2019
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The role of complement in liver injury, regeneration and transplantation.

Hepatology 2019 Jan 17. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Department of Immunology, Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet and University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

The liver is both an immunologically complex and privileged organ. The innate immune system is a central player, and the complement system emerges as a pivotal part of liver homeostasis, in immune responses, and cross-talk with other effector systems in both innate and adaptive immunity. The liver produces the majority of the complement proteins and is the home of important immune cells like the Kupffer cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.30508DOI Listing
January 2019

Managing Ulcers Associated with Pyoderma Gangrenosum with a Urinary Bladder Matrix and Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy.

Adv Skin Wound Care 2019 Feb;32(2):70-76

At the Wake Forest Baptist Medical University in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, Claire Sanger Dillingham, DO, is Associate Professor, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Department; and Joseph Jorizzo, MD, is Professor, Dermatology Department. The authors have disclosed no financial relationships related to this article. Submitted March 21, 2018; accepted in revised form June 12, 2018.

Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare disease that presents as painful ulcerations with inflammation and undermining at the borders. The ulcers can occur anywhere on the body but are most commonly seen on the lower extremities. The etiology of PG is unknown, and there are no definitive diagnostic criteria; PG is a diagnosis of exclusion, which can present serious delays in treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.ASW.0000546120.32681.bcDOI Listing
February 2019

The effect of everolimus and low-dose cyclophosphamide on immune cell subsets in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: results from a phase I clinical trial.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2019 Jan 17. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Department of Medical Oncology, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Cancer Center Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

For the treatment of metastatic renal cell cancer several strategies are used among which the mTOR inhibitor everolimus. As mTOR plays an important role in the immune system, e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00262-018-2288-8DOI Listing
January 2019

Malignant Hypertension Causing a Pulmonary-Renal Syndrome.

Case Rep Nephrol 2018 17;2018:3273695. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Nephrology, Austin Health, Studley Road, Heidelberg 3084, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Pulmonary-renal syndrome is characterised by acute kidney injury, haematuria, and haemoptysis and is a well-recognised presentation of diseases such as ANCA vasculitis that require urgent immunosuppression.

Case Presentation: A patient presented with a brief history of haemoptysis, acute renal failure, microscopic haematuria, and severe hypertension. The diagnosis was initially not clear so he was treated with antihypertensives, renal replacement therapy, and immunosuppression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/3273695DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6311832PMC
December 2018

Autoimmune hepatitis and complexities in management.

Frontline Gastroenterol 2019 Jan 12;10(1):77-87. Epub 2018 Aug 12.

Centre for Liver Research, NIHR Birmingham Biomedical Research Centre, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.

Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a rare heterogenous immune-mediated liver disease that for the majority has effective therapy, usually resulting in excellent prognosis. Treatment is based on immunosuppression using standard therapy with corticosteroids and azathioprine. Second-line therapeutic options exist for those who are non-responders ('difficult to treat AIH') or intolerant to standard therapy; however, their use is not standardised, and in addition, there is vast variation in practice and efficacy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/flgastro-2018-101015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6319158PMC
January 2019

CD39 regulatory T cells accumulate in colon adenocarcinomas and display markers of increased suppressive function.

Oncotarget 2018 Dec 11;9(97):36993-37007. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.

Increasing knowledge of the function and regulation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes has led to new insights in cancer immunotherapy. Regulatory T cells (Treg) accumulate in colon tumors, and we recently showed that CD39 Treg from cancer patients inhibit transendothelial migration of conventional T cells. CD39 mediates the hydrolysis of ATP to immunosuppressive adenosine and adds to the immunosuppressive effects of Treg. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.26435DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6319332PMC
December 2018

ATP released by intestinal bacteria limits the generation of protective IgA against enteropathogens.

Nat Commun 2019 Jan 16;10(1):250. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Università della Svizzera Italiana, Via Vincenzo Vela 6, 6500, Bellinzona, Switzerland.

T cell dependent secretory IgA (SIgA) generated in the Peyer's patches (PPs) of the small intestine shapes a broadly diverse microbiota that is crucial for host physiology. The mutualistic co-evolution of host and microbes led to the relative tolerance of host's immune system towards commensal microorganisms. The ATP-gated ionotropic P2X7 receptor limits T follicular helper (Tfh) cells expansion and germinal center (GC) reaction in the PPs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-08156-zDOI Listing
January 2019

Imaging Mass Spectrometry and Proteome Analysis of Marek's Disease Virus-Induced Tumors.

mSphere 2019 Jan 16;4(1). Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Institute of Virology, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany

The highly oncogenic alphaherpesvirus Marek's disease virus (MDV) causes immense economic losses in the poultry industry. MDV induces a variety of symptoms in infected chickens, including neurological disorders and immunosuppression. Most notably, MDV induces transformation of lymphocytes, leading to T cell lymphomas in visceral organs with a mortality of up to 100%. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.00569-18DOI Listing
January 2019

Taming autoimmunity: Translating antigen-specific approaches to induce immune tolerance.

J Exp Med 2019 Jan 16. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Julia McFarlane Diabetes Research Centre and Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Snyder Institute for Chronic Diseases and Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

José M. Carballido, Executive Director at Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, and Pere Santamaria, Professor of Immunology at the University of Calgary and Founder of Parvus Therapeutics Inc., discuss the opportunities and challenges of translating antigen-specific approaches for autoimmunity with an emphasis on the need for scientific rigor in the preclinical stage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20182287DOI Listing
January 2019

Antagonism of IAPs enhances CAR T cell efficacy.

Cancer Immunol Res 2019 Jan 16. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Cancer Immunology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has proven successful in the treatment of hematological malignancies, notably acute lymphoblastic leukemia and B-cell lymphoma. However, the efficacy of CAR T cells against solid tumors is poor, likely due to tumor-associated immunosuppression. Here, we demonstrated that antagonizing the Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins (IAPs) with the clinical smac-mimetic, birinapant, significantly enhanced the antitumor activity of CAR T cells in a TNF-dependent manner. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-18-0428DOI Listing
January 2019

Phylogenetic analysis of Infectious Bursal Disease viruses according to newly proposed model of classification into geno-groups.

J Infect Public Health 2019 Jan 13. Epub 2019 Jan 13.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the causative agent of Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD), the disease causes immunosuppression which leads to secondary infections among rearing poultry flocks. Characterization of the virus is important for its control and eradication. The circulating IBDVs are classified on the basis of their antigenic and pathogenic properties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2018.12.012DOI Listing
January 2019

Evaluation of the Luminex ARIES® system for the detection and quantification of BK virus (BKV) DNA in plasma samples from kidney transplant recipients.

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Quantigen Genomics Services, Fishers, IN. Electronic address:

BK virus (BKV) nephropathy is a serious complication in renal transplant recipients due to the need for immunosuppression. Nearly 50% of renal transplant patients with BKV nephropathy experience a significant loss of function of the transplanted kidney. It is routine practice to screen renal transplant recipients regularly for BK viremia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2018.12.004DOI Listing
December 2018

Reactivation of resolved hepatitis B virus infection combined with nephrotic syndrome in a patient after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Jan 16;19(1):57. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Department of Hematology, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 600 Tianhe Road, Guangzhou, China.

Background: After allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), Hepatitis B virus reactivation (HBVr) can be observed in patients with previous resolved Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is the main clinical manifestation of HBsAg-positive glomerulonephritis. However, the development of HBVr combined with NS after allo-HSCT is uncommon. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3690-3DOI Listing
January 2019

mTOR Expression in Liver Transplant Candidates with Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Impact on Histological Features and Tumour Recurrence.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Jan 15;20(2). Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Department of Hepatology and Liver Transplantation, CIBERehd, Reina Sofía University Hospital, 14004 Córdoba, Spain.

(1) Background: The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway activation is critical for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression. We aimed to evaluate the mTOR tissue expression in liver transplant (LT) patients and to analyse its influence on post-LT outcomes. (2) Methods: Prospective study including a cohort of HCC patients who underwent LT (2012⁻2015). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20020336DOI Listing
January 2019

Coronin-1, King of Alloimmunity.

Authors:
Mandy L Ford

Immunity 2019 Jan;50(1):3-5

Emory Transplant Center and Department of Surgery, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA. Electronic address:

Defining pathways that differentially regulate graft-reactive versus anti-microbial T cell responses could facilitate more precise manipulation of immune responses in the context of organ and tissue transplantation. Here, Jayachandran et al. (2019) identify a coronin-1-PDE4-cAMP axis that, when perturbed, results in the induction of transplantation tolerance while maintaining anti-microbial immunity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2018.12.030DOI Listing
January 2019

Immune Tolerance and Rejection in Organ Transplantation.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1899:159-180

Transplantation Research Immunology Group, Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

In this chapter, we describe the history of transplantation, the multiple cell types, and mechanisms that are involved in rejection and tolerance of a transplanted organ, as well as summarize the common and promising new therapeutics used in transplant patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-8938-6_12DOI Listing
January 2019

Isolation of Highly Viable Thymic Epithelial Cells for Use in In Vitro and In Vivo Experiments.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1899:143-156

Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, MA, USA.

Thymic epithelial cells (TECs) play multiple essential roles in T-cell development and the establishment of immune tolerance, but their isolation can be challenging, and their low viability upon isolation complicates downstream experiments. A method that allows TECs to be isolated easily and to survive afterward will be useful for elucidating key questions in TEC biology. Here, we demonstrate a simple method to isolate highly viable TECs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-8938-6_11DOI Listing
January 2019

In Vitro Suppression of CD4 T-Cell Responses by Murine and Human Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1899:119-128

Laboratory of Cellular Immunology and Immune Tolerance, Division of Immunology and Transplantation, Biomedical Research Foundation Academy of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are myeloid precursors of macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils with a prominent role in the regulation of immune responses in cancer, infection, and autoimmunity. Herein, we describe a protocol for the isolation of murine and human MDSCs and the assessment of their ability to suppress CD4 T-cell responses in vitro. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-8938-6_9DOI Listing
January 2019

Alloanergization Method for Inducing Allospecific Hyporesponsiveness in PBMC Exposed to Allostimulation In Vitro in the Context of Costimulatory Molecule Blockade.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1899:103-118

Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA.

Alloantigen-specific hyporesponsiveness can be induced in alloreactive T cells contained within the whole peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) population by stimulating these responder cells ex vivo with HLA-mismatched stimulator PBMC as the antigen presenting cell (APC) source, in the presence of a CD28 costimulation blocking agent. As a result of this approach, specific alloreactivity is markedly decreased (by 1-2 logs), but third-party alloresponses and in vitro responses relying on the activation of pathogen- and tumor-associated antigen T-cell functional activities are not globally impinged upon (Guinan et al. N Engl J Med 340(22):1704-1714, 1999, Davies et al. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-8938-6_8DOI Listing
January 2019

Measuring CTLA-4-Dependent Suppressive Function in Regulatory T Cells.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1899:87-101

UCL Institute of Immunity and Transplantation, University College London, London, UK.

Regulatory T cells (Treg) have a central role in controlling the activation of self-reactive T cells and maintaining peripheral tolerance in our body. Many effector mechanisms for Treg function have been described including a role for the protein CTLA-4 which is constitutively expressed by these cells. Despite its importance, there is currently little consensus in the methods and protocols for studying CTLA-4 function, which is partially due to debate over CTLA-4 function itself. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-8938-6_7DOI Listing
January 2019

Isolation of Murine Hematopoietic Stem Cells.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1899:15-23

European Cancer Stem Cell Research Institute, Cardiff University, School of Biosciences, Cardiff, UK.

Bone marrow resident hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are responsible for the lifetime generation of the wide profusion of blood and immune cell types found in the body. In addition, therapeutically, in the context of bone marrow transplantation, HSCs have been successfully deployed to restore normal blood-forming capacity in patients being treated with high-dose chemotherapy for hematologic malignancies. The known ability of bone marrow transplantation to either restore or reset the immune system and to engender immune tolerance has suggested that HSCs may be applied therapeutically for a wider range of clinical conditions, including immunological/autoimmune disorders and allogeneic organ transplantation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-8938-6_2DOI Listing
January 2019

Isolation and Characterisation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1899:3-13

Associate Professor in Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Research Department of Surgical Biotechnology Division of Surgery and Interventional Science University College London (UCL), Royal Free Hospital, London, UK.

Recently, adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), obtained from fresh human lipoaspirate, have shown promise as immunomodulatory agents having demonstrated immunosuppressive functionality both in vitro and in vivo. A number of researchers have described the isolation of ASCs through the enzymatic digestion of fat samples, followed by a number of purification steps, involving centrifugation and filtration. Here, we utilize a standard isolation technique, with the added purification of putative ASCs by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-8938-6_1DOI Listing
January 2019

Utility of Columbia classification in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis: renal prognosis and treatment response among the pathological variants.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2019 Jan 11. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Background: The utility of the Columbia classification (Col-class) for focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) has not yet been fully proven.

Methods: We extracted 201 FSGS patients from 10 nephrology centers in Japan and investigated the difference of a composite renal endpoint, defined as doubling of serum creatinine and/or development of end-stage renal disease, in pathological variants. Sensitivity analysis was used to prove the utility of the Col-class to predict renal outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfy374DOI Listing
January 2019

Differential Expression of Fas in Moderate/Severe and Mild Persistent Allergic Rhinitis and Its Correlation With Pathological Parameters.

Am J Rhinol Allergy 2019 Jan 16:1945892418824246. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

4 Department of Biostatistics, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran.

Background And Aims: The roles of Fas in immune system are multifaceted, and the interaction between Fas receptor and Fas ligand is essential for maintaining the immune tolerance. We aimed to assess the level of the expression of Fas receptor on nasal inferior turbinate mucosa in patients with mild persistent allergic rhinitis (M PAR) and moderate to severe (M/S) PAR and determined the relationship between disease severity and production of Fas.

Methods: A total of 70 patients with M/S PAR, 70 patients with M PAR, and 70 healthy individuals were enrolled in this study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1945892418824246DOI Listing
January 2019

Antibody Responses in HIV-Infected Patients With Advanced Immunosuppression and Asymptomatic Cryptococcal Antigenemia.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2019 Jan 11;6(1):ofy333. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York.

Background: There are no host biomarkers of risk for HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis (CM) except CD4+ T-cell deficiency. At present, serum cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) screening of those with CD4 <100 cells/µL is used to identify persons at risk for HIV-associated CM. We determined if plasma antibody profiles could discriminate CrAg+ from CrAg- patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofy333DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6329905PMC
January 2019

Kidney Transplantation from a Hepatitis C Virus-positive Donor to a Hepatitis C Virus-negative Recipient.

Indian J Nephrol 2018 Nov-Dec;28(6):488-489

Department of Nephrology, Century Hospital, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Kidney transplantation from a hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive donor to an HCV-negative recipient till recently has been a contraindication. In view of the excellent sustained virological response (SVR) rates with directly acting antiviral agents, HCV-positive donors are being considered for the HCV-negative recipients in a few centers. We report the successful transplantation of an HCV-negative recipient transplanted with an HCV-positive donor kidney. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijn.IJN_267_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6309394PMC
January 2019

Hepatitis C Virus-associated Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis Treated with Directly Acting Antiviral Therapy.

Indian J Nephrol 2018 Nov-Dec;28(6):462-464

Department of Nephrology, Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been shown to affect kidneys with various histopathological pattern on the kidney biopsy. These commonly include a membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) pattern with mixed cryoglobulinemia (CG), thrombotic microangiopathy, membranous nephropathy, and vasculitis affecting medium and small vessels of the kidneys causing polyarteritis nodosa. It has been rarely associated with MPGN without detectable CG. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijn.IJN_235_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6309397PMC
January 2019

Acute Pyelonephritis: A Single-center Experience.

Indian J Nephrol 2018 Nov-Dec;28(6):454-461

Department of Nephrology, Institute of Nephro Urology, Victoria Hospital Campus, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Acute pyelonephritis (APN), although a common clinical entity, still not much is known about the clinical profile in the Indian scenario. We prospectively collected clinical, biochemical, and radiological data of patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of APN from March 2014 to June 2016. A total of 296 cases were included in the study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijn.IJN_219_16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6309380PMC
January 2019

Immunotherapy of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Immune checkpoint blockade.

Otolaryngol Pol 2018 Sep;72(6):10-16

Uniwersytet Medyczny im. Karola Marcinkowskiego w Poznaniu Wydział Lekarski II Katedra i Klinika Chirurgii Głowy, Szyi i Onkologii Laryngologicznej.

Treating patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck is a significant problem. There is an increase in the incidence of malignant neoplasms in this region. Surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy are often not sufficient methods of treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5604/01.3001.0012.4367DOI Listing
September 2018

The neurosteroid, pregnenolone promotes degradation of key proteins in the innate immune signalling to suppress inflammation.

J Biol Chem 2019 Jan 15. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Immunology and Microbiology, National Institute of Animal Biotechnology, India.

Pregnenolone is a steroid hormone precursor, which is synthesized in various steroidogenic tissues and also in the brain and in lymphocytes. In addition to serving as the precursor for other steroid hormones, pregnenolone exerts its own effect as anti-inflammatory molecule to maintain immune homeostasis in various inflammatory conditions. Pregnenolone and its metabolic derivatives have shown to exhibit beneficial effects in the brain, including enhancing memory and learning, reversing depressive disorders and modulating cognitive functions of the brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA118.005543DOI Listing
January 2019

Role of the tumor microenvironment in PD-L1/PD-1-mediated tumor immune escape.

Mol Cancer 2019 Jan 15;18(1):10. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

NHC Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis (Central South University) and Hunan Key Laboratory of Translational Radiation Oncology, Hunan Cancer Hospital and the Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, 410013, Hunan, China.

Tumor immune escape is an important strategy of tumor survival. There are many mechanisms of tumor immune escape, including immunosuppression, which has become a research hotspot in recent years. The programmed death ligand-1/programmed death-1 (PD-L1/PD-1) signaling pathway is an important component of tumor immunosuppression, which can inhibit the activation of T lymphocytes and enhance the immune tolerance of tumor cells, thereby achieving tumor immune escape. Read More

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https://molecular-cancer.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12943-018-0928-4DOI Listing
January 2019
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Aorto-iliac endarterectomy: Old-fashioned or re-newed method?

Rozhl Chir 2018 ;97(11):493-498

Introduction: Aorto-iliac occlusive disease is best treated with endovascular angioplasty/stenting or surgical bypass, depending on disease severity. Aorto-iliac endarterectomy was frequently used until the 1980s. However, it can still be performed in cases of previous failure or contraindication of standard methods. Read More

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January 2018
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Thrombopoietin Receptor Agonist Use for Immune Thrombocytopaenia.

Authors:
Cindy E Neunert

Hamostaseologie 2019 Jan 15. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, United States.

Management of patients with corticosteroid-refractory immune thrombocytopaenia (ITP) possesses a significant challenge to practitioners. Until recently, options included splenectomy and immunosuppression. With improved knowledge of both thrombopoiesis and the pathophysiology of ITP, novel drug development with thrombopoietin-receptor agonists (TPO-RAs) was undertaken. Read More

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http://www.thieme-connect.de/DOI/DOI?10.1055/s-0038-1676129
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0038-1676129DOI Listing
January 2019
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Genetic Versus Non-genetic Drivers of SLE: Implications of IRF5 Dysregulation in Both Roads Leading to SLE.

Authors:
Betsy J Barnes

Curr Rheumatol Rep 2019 Jan 15;21(1). Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Center for Autoimmune Musculoskeletal and Hematopoietic Diseases, Northwell Health, Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Hofstra-Northwell School of Medicine, 350 Community Dr, Hempstead, NY, 11030, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by a breakdown of immune tolerance, resulting in inflammation and tissue destruction. While the primary causes of SLE are still obscure, the disorder is highly heritable. Genetic risk variants, on their own, are rarely causal or fully explain disease pathogenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11926-019-0803-3DOI Listing
January 2019

Alemtuzumab induction combined with reduced maintenance immunosuppression is associated with improved outcomes after lung transplantation: A single centre experience.

PLoS One 2019 15;14(1):e0210443. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Question Addressed By The Study: The value of induction therapy in lung transplantation is controversial. According to the ISHLT, only about 50% of patients transplanted within the last 10 years received induction therapy. We reviewed our institutional experience to investigate the impact of induction therapy on short- and long-term outcomes. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0210443PLOS
January 2019

Breakdown of adaptive immunotolerance induces hepatocellular carcinoma in HBsAg-tg mice.

Nat Commun 2019 Jan 15;10(1):221. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Division of Molecular Medicine, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, the CAS Key Laboratory of Innate Immunity and Chronic Disease, School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, 230027, Hefei, Anhui, China.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) can induce chronic inflammation, cirrhosis, and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Despite evidence suggesting a link between adaptive immunity and HBV-related diseases in humans, the immunopathogenic mechanisms involved are seldom described. Here we show that expression of TIGIT, a promising immune checkpoint in tumor immunotherapy, increases with age on hepatic CD8 T cells in HBsAg-transgenic (HBs-tg) mice whose adaptive immune system is tolerant to HBsAg. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-08096-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6333806PMC
January 2019

Potential roles of neutrophils in maintaining the health and productivity of dairy cows during various physiological and physiopathological conditions: a review.

Immunol Res 2019 Jan 14. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Lactation and Immuno-Physiology Laboratory, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana, 132 001, India.

Neutrophils represent the first line of innate immunity and are the most prominent line of cellular defence against invading microorganisms. On stimulation, they can quickly move through the walls of veins and into the tissues of the body to immediately attack or monitor the foreign antigens. Neutrophils are highly versatile and sophisticated cells which are endowed with highly sensitive receptor-based perception systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12026-019-9064-5DOI Listing
January 2019

Practical guidance for the management of inflammatory bowel disease in patients with cancer. Which treatment?

Therap Adv Gastroenterol 2019 4;12:1756284818817293. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

IBD Unit, Department of Gastroenterology Hull York Medical School,Faculty of health Science, University of Hull and York, Hull, UK.

Clinicians involved in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) increasingly come across patients with current or previous history of malignancies. With increasing and earlier use of immunosuppression and biologics in IBD patients, the question arises whether these treatments further increase the risk of new or recurrent cancers. A number of population-based observational studies have now reported the odds of development of new or recurrent cancers with thiopurines and antitumour necrosis factors (anti-TNFs). Read More

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http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1756284818817293
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1756284818817293DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6322094PMC
January 2019
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Secretory High-Mobility Group Box 1 Protein Affects Regulatory T Cell Differentiation in Neuroblastoma Microenvironment .

J Oncol 2018 16;2018:7946021. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Hematology and Oncology Division, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand.

Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial tumor of childhood with poor prognosis in a high-risk group. An obstacle in the development of treatment for solid tumors is the immunosuppressive nature of the tumor microenvironment (TME). Regulatory T cells (Tregs) represent a T cell subset with specialized function in immune suppression and maintaining self-tolerance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/7946021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6311239PMC
December 2018

MiR-6991-3p is identified as a novel suppressor in the expansion and activation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in hepatoma-bearing mice.

Onco Targets Ther 2019 28;12:309-317. Epub 2018 Dec 28.

Department of Gastroenterology, Huaihe Hospital of Henan University, Kaifeng 475000, China,

Objective: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous group of cells derived from bone marrow, which has a significant ability in inhibition of immune cell response. In this study, the role of miR-6991-3p in regulating function of MDSCs was investigated.

Methods: MDSCs were isolated from different tissues of the control and hepatoma-bearing mice, and then expression of miR-6991-3p was detected with qPCR. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S185422DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6314317PMC
December 2018

Binding to nanopatterned antigens is dominated by the spatial tolerance of antibodies.

Nat Nanotechnol 2019 Jan 14. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Although repetitive patterns of antigens are crucial for certain immune responses, an understanding of how antibodies bind and dynamically interact with various spatial arrangements of molecules is lacking. Hence, we introduced a new method in which molecularly precise nanoscale patterns of antigens are displayed using DNA origami and immobilized in a surface plasmon resonance set-up. Using antibodies with identical antigen-binding domains, we found that all the subclasses and isotypes studied bind bivalently to two antigens separated at distances that range from 3 to 17 nm. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41565-018-0336-3DOI Listing
January 2019

TCR Retrogenic Mice as a Model To Map Self-Tolerance Mechanisms to the Cancer Mucosa Antigen GUCY2C.

J Immunol 2019 Jan 14. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107

Characterizing self-tolerance mechanisms and their failure is critical to understand immune homeostasis, cancer immunity, and autoimmunity. However, examination of self-tolerance mechanisms has relied primarily on transgenic mice expressing TCRs targeting well-characterized, but nonphysiologic, model Ags, such as OVA and hemagglutinin. Identifying TCRs directed against bona fide self-antigens is made difficult by the extraordinary diversity of TCRs and the low prevalence of Ag-specific clones (<10-100 naive cells per organism), limiting dissection of tolerance mechanisms restricting immunity to self-proteins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1801206DOI Listing
January 2019

Neuromyelitis optica: an elusive cause of dysphagia.

BMJ Case Rep 2019 Jan 14;12(1). Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Department of Neurology, East Kent Hospitals University NHS Foundation Trust, Canterbury, UK.

Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a rare neurological condition infrequently associated with dysphagia on initial presentation. We describe the case of a 54-year-old woman who presented multiple times to healthcare professionals with severe vomiting, followed by sudden profound dysphagia. Her diagnosis was elusive, initially attributed to achalasia cardia and subsequently to stroke. Read More

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http://casereports.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/bcr-2018-22704
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2018-227041DOI Listing
January 2019
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Fulminant Guillain-Barré syndrome in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

BMJ Case Rep 2019 Jan 14;12(1). Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Interdepartmental Division of Critical Care Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

A 45-year-old man with a history of systemic lupus erythematosus presented with progressive weakness and areflexia. Electromyogram revealed reduced motor and sensory amplitudes without demyelinating features. He was clinically diagnosed with the acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2018-226634DOI Listing
January 2019

Recent Advances on Microbiota Involvement in the Pathogenesis of Autoimmunity.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Jan 11;20(2). Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Infectivology and Clinical Trials Research Department, Children's Hospital Bambino Gesù, Viale San Paolo 15, 00146 Rome, Italy.

Autoimmune disorders derive from genetic, stochastic, and environmental factors that all together interact in genetically predisposed individuals. The impact of an imbalanced gut microbiome in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity has been suggested by an increasing amount of experimental evidence, both in animal models and humans. Several physiological mechanisms, including the establishment of immune homeostasis, are influenced by commensal microbiota in the gut. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/20/2/283
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20020283DOI Listing
January 2019
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[Effects of Yiqi Bushen Experimental Recipe on mRNA Expressions of foxp3, STAT5, and NF-KB in Decidua Tissue of Natural Abortion Model Mice].

Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 2016 08;36(8):946-952

Objective To observe the effects of Yiqi Bushen Experimental Recipe (YBER, a rec- ipe for benefiting qi and Shen supplementing) on mRNA expression of foxp3 in splenic CD4 + CD25 Treg cells and mRNA expressions of foxp3, STAT5, and NF-κB in decidua tissue of natural abortion (NA) model mice. Methods Female CBA/J mice were caged and mated to male DBA/2 mice or male BALB/c mice in 2:1 for NA model. Pregnant CBA/J mice were randomly divided into 5 groups, i. Read More

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August 2016
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Are we aiming to miss in translational autoimmunity treatments?

F1000Res 2018 6;7:1754. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Webb-Waring Center, University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, 80045, USA.

Autoimmunity treatments, fruitfully pioneered in mouse models, can be disappointing or result in immunosuppression and opportunistic infections in translational trials. Many possible reasons exist, but one major, overlooked reason may be the treatment timing in relation to circadian oscillations of the immune system. Mice and humans both have immunological circadian clocks and experience the same circulatory oscillations of immune cells with regards to their sleep/wake phases, but have opposite sleep/wake phases with regard to the daylight cycle. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.16894.2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6259590.2PMC
November 2018

Thoracoscopy: Advances and Increasing Role for Interventional Pulmonologists.

Authors:
Pyng Lee Erik Folch

Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2018 Dec 14;39(6):693-703. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Thoracoscopy is an increasingly common procedure that provides significant clinical information and therapeutic applications. The procedure allows the physician to biopsy the parietal pleura under direct visualization with high accuracy. In addition, one can drain pleural fluid, place a chest tube in a precise location, and perform poudrage pleurodesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0038-1676978DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read