176,686 results match your criteria Immunosuppression


Aptamer-conjugated nano-liposome for immunogenic chemotherapy with reversal of immunosuppression.

J Control Release 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Cancer cells have various immune evasion mechanisms that resist the immune cells by reprogramming the tumor microenvironment (TME), such as programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO1) overexpression. One of the approaches to restore antitumor immune response by T-cells is through induction of immunogenic cell death (ICD). Thus, drug carrier containing IDO1 siRNA and ICD inducer would be effective anticancer regimen to modulate the immunosuppressive TME by reversing the IDO1-mediated immunosuppression in a synergistic combination with ICD induction. Read More

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Exosomal Transfer of DNA Methyl-Transferase mRNA Induces an Immunosuppressive Phenotype in Human Monocytes.

Shock 2022 Jun;57(6):218-227

Indiana Center for Regenerative Medicine & Engineering, Department of Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana.

Introduction: Survivors of sepsis exhibit persistent immunosuppression. Epigenetic events may be responsible for some of these immunosuppressive changes. During sepsis circulating exosomes contain large quantities of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) mRNAs. Read More

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The injuries of spleen and intestinal immune system induced by 2-Gy Co γ-ray whole-body irradiation.

Int J Radiat Biol 2022 Jun 27:1-15. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese medicine, Beijing 100029, China.

The aim of the present study was to investigate the injuries of spleen and intestinal immune system induced by 2 Gy Co γ ray in mice. A total of 120 Balb/c mice were randomly divided into two groups: blank control (Ctrl) and model (IR). The IR mice were exposed to a single dose of total body irradiation (2 Gy, dose rate: 1 Gy/min) and sacrificed on 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 day after irradiation. Read More

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Procurement and Decellularization of Rat Hindlimbs using an Ex Vivo Perfusion-based Bioreactor for Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation.

J Vis Exp 2022 Jun 9(184). Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Latner Thoracic Research Surgical Laboratories, University Health Network, Toronto General Hospital; Institute of Medical Science, Temerty Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto; Division of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto;

Patients with severe traumatic injuries and tissue loss require complex surgical reconstruction. Vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) is an evolving reconstructive avenue for transferring multiple tissues as a composite subunit. Despite the promising nature of VCA, the long-term immunosuppressive requirements are a significant limitation due to the increased risk of malignancies, end-organ toxicity, and opportunistic infections. Read More

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Standardized In vitro Assays to Visualize and Quantify Interactions between Human Neutrophils and Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms.

J Vis Exp 2022 Jun 8(184). Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Department of Microbiology, The Ohio State University; Department of Microbial Infection and Immunity, The Ohio State University;

Neutrophils are the first line of defense deployed by the immune system during microbial infection. In vivo, neutrophils are recruited to the site of infection where they use processes such as phagocytosis, production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS, RNS, respectively), NETosis (neutrophil extracellular trap), and degranulation to kill microbes and resolve the infection. Interactions between neutrophils and planktonic microbes have been extensively studied. Read More

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Post-Transplant Mortality and Graft Failure after Induction Immunosuppression Among Black Heart Transplant Recipients in the United States.

Am J Transplant 2022 Jun 27. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

Black heart transplant recipients are more likely to receive induction immunosuppression compared to other races because of higher rates of acute rejection, graft failure, and mortality. However, it is not known whether contemporary induction immunosuppression improves their post-transplant outcomes. To evaluate whether Black patients who were prescribed induction immunosuppression therapy have lower all-cause mortality or graft-failure rates compared to those who were not, we studied Black U. Read More

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FIRST BILATERAL LUNG TRANSPLANTATION VIA ANTEROLATERAL THORACOTOMY IN UKRAINE.

Wiad Lek 2022 ;75(5 pt 2):1403-1407

LVIV TERRITORIAL MEDICAL GROUP "MULTIDISCIPLINARY CLINICAL HOSPITAL OF INTENSIVE CARE AND EMERGENCY", LVIV, UKRAINE.

Objective: The aim: The aim of this work is to describe the clinical case of the first lung transplant in Ukraine through anterolateral access and to analyze management of patient in the postoperative period, followed by assessment of his general condition and quality of life.

Patients And Methods: Materials and methods: Analysis of the clinical case of the patient who underwent the first lung transplantation in Ukraine, including a description of surgery, anesthesia, and postoperative recovery.

Conclusion: Conclusions: Thus, based on the data of the world literature, as well as on the results of treatment on the basis of Municipal Non-Profit Enterprise " Lviv Emergency Clinical Hospital" we can conclude that lung transplantation is one of the most effective methods of treatment of patients with end-stage lung disease. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 infection in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients - a single center observation.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2022 Jun 27. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Medstar Georgetown Transplant Institute, Medstar Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC.

Background: This is a descriptive study to characterize rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pediatric solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients during the early days of the pandemic. We hypothesized that asymptomatic infection may represent a large proportion of SARS-CoV-2 infection in ped SOT recipients.

Methods: We queried OTTR for all pediatric SOT recipients followed at our center and reviewed medical records to identify patients tested for SARS-CoV-2 between March 15, 2020 through June 30, 2021. Read More

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Biocompatibility of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Retinal Progenitor Cell Grafts in Immunocompromised Rats.

Cell Transplant 2022 Jan-Dec;31:9636897221104451

Institute for Vision Research, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.

Loss of photoreceptor cells is a primary feature of inherited retinal degenerative disorders including age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. To restore vision in affected patients, photoreceptor cell replacement will be required. The ideal donor cells for this application are induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) because they can be derived from and transplanted into the same patient obviating the need for long-term immunosuppression. Read More

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Immune Deviation in the Decidua During Term and Preterm Labor.

Front Immunol 2022 10;13:877314. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

The maternal-fetal immune disorder is considered to be an important factor of preterm birth (PTB); however, the underlying mechanism is still not fully understood. This study was designed to explore the innate and adaptive immune features in the decidua during term and preterm labor. Women delivered at term or preterm were classified into four groups: term not in labor (TNL, N=19), term in labor (TL, N=17), preterm not in labor (PNL, N=10), and preterm in labor (PIL, N=10). Read More

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Harnessing the B Cell Response in Kidney Transplantation - Current State and Future Directions.

Front Immunol 2022 9;13:903068. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Duke Transplant Center, Department of Surgery, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, United States.

Despite dramatic improvement in kidney transplantation outcomes over the last decades due to advent of modern immunosuppressive agents, long-term outcomes remain poor. Antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR), a B cell driven process, accounts for the majority of chronic graft failures. There are currently no FDA-approved regimens for ABMR; however, several clinical trials are currently on-going. Read More

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Case Report: Azathioprine: An Old and Wronged Immunosuppressant.

Front Immunol 2022 10;13:903012. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

School of Pharmacy, The University of Queensland, Woolloongabba, QLD, Australia.

Mycophenolate rapidly substituted azathioprine (AZA) in transplant immunosuppression regimens since the 1990s, when early clinical trials indicated better outcomes, although opposite results were also observed. However, none of these trials used the well-established optimization methods for AZA dosing, namely, thiopurine methyltransferase pharmacogenetics combined with monitoring of the thiopurine metabolites 6-thioguanine nucleotides (6-TGN) and 6-methylmercaptopurine (6-MMP). Resistance to optimize AZA therapy remains today in transplant therapy, despite the fact that thiopurine metabolite testing is being used by other medical disciplines with evident improvement in clinical results. Read More

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Increased Level of Tim-3PD-1CD4T Cells With Altered Function Might Be Associated With Lower Extremity Arteriosclerosis Obliterans.

Front Immunol 2022 10;13:871362. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Laboratory for Reproductive Immunology, Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fudan University Shanghai Medical College, Shanghai, China.

Lower extremity arteriosclerosis obliterans (LEASO) is a vascular disease that may result in adult limb loss worldwide. CD4T cell-mediated immunity plays a significant role in LEASO. The T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (Tim-3) and inhibitory receptor programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) are well-known immune checkpoints that play crucial roles in regulating CD4T cell activation or tolerance. Read More

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Intestinal Uptake and Tolerance to Food Antigens.

Front Immunol 2022 10;13:906122. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Department of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China.

Food allergy is a growing concern due to its increasing world-wide incidence. Strict avoidance of allergens is a passive treatment strategy. Since the mechanisms responsible for the occurrence and development of food allergy have not yet been fully elucidated, effective individualized treatment options are lacking. Read More

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Vitamin D: A Potential Mitigation Tool for the Endemic Stage of the COVID-19 Pandemic?

Front Public Health 2022 10;10:888168. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Cell Biology and Immunology Group, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, Netherlands.

The impact of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic and associated development of clinical symptoms of COVID-19 have presented an enormous global impact on our health care systems, public health and economy. To date several observational epidemiological studies consistently found that vitamin D deficiency, measured as low levels of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D, is associated with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, certain cancers, autoimmune diseases and many infectious diseases, including acute respiratory infections. Since vitamin D is not merely immunosuppressive but also acts as an immunomodulator in tolerance and homeostasis, many experts have considered a role of vitamin D in the prevalence and severity of immune mediated inflammatory diseases, such as SARS-CoV-2, adding to the evidence of the importance of vitamin D in the immune response against viral respiratory infections and reinforcing the need for targeted vitamin D supplementation, with a focus on high-risk populations and a high-dose supplementation treatment for COVID-19 hospitalized patients. Read More

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New Developments in T Cell Immunometabolism and Therapeutic Implications for Type 1 Diabetes.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 10;13:914136. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

National Clinical Research Center for Metabolic Diseases, Key Laboratory of Diabetes Immunology, Ministry of Education, and Department of Metabolism and Endocrinology, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, China.

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease mediated by T cells and is becoming a serious public health threat. Despite the increasing incidence rate of T1D worldwide, our understanding of why T1D develops and how T cells lose their self-tolerance in this process remain limited. Recent advances in immunometabolism have shown that cellular metabolism plays a fundamental role in shaping T cell responses. Read More

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Lactate: The Mediator of Metabolism and Immunosuppression.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 9;13:901495. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

The First Affiliated Hospital of Gannan Medical University, Ganzhou, China.

The Warburg effect, one of the hallmarks of tumors, produces large amounts of lactate and generates an acidic tumor microenvironment using glucose for glycolysis. As a metabolite, lactate not only serves as a substrate to provide energy for supporting cell growth and development but also acts as an important signal molecule to affect the biochemical functions of intracellular proteins and regulate the biological functions of different kinds of cells. Notably, histone lysine lactylation (Kla) is identified as a novel post-modification and carcinogenic signal, which provides the promising and potential therapeutic targets for tumors. Read More

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Immune checkpoints in thymic epithelial tumors: challenges and opportunities.

Authors:
Nicolas Girard

Immunooncol Technol 2019 Oct 16;3:8-14. Epub 2019 Sep 16.

Head of the Thoracic Oncology Program, Institut du Thorax Curie-Montsouris, Institut Curie, Paris, France.

Thymic malignancies are rare mediastinal cancers, classified according to the World Health Organization's histopathologic classification which distinguishes thymomas from thymic carcinomas. One key consideration when discussing immunotherapy for thymic epithelial tumors is that one-third of patients diagnosed with thymomas present at the time of diagnosis with autoimmune disorders, the most common being myasthenia gravis. The first step in the understanding of autoimmunity in thymic epithelial tumors is to distinguish true autoimmune disorders from paraneoplastic syndromes; besides pathophysiology, clinical correlates, impact on oncological management and survival may differ strongly. Read More

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October 2019

Hyperammonemia in lung transplant patients and its management: a review.

Indian J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2022 Jul 14;38(Suppl 2):335-346. Epub 2022 Mar 14.

Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY USA.

Objective: To synthesize the evidence for incidence, pathophysiology, etiology, and protocol-based management of hyperammonemia in lung transplant patients.

Background: Elevated ammonia levels are toxic to the brain, and hyperammonemia results in a potentially fatal complication for lung transplant recipients. The hallmark of this condition is ammonia production being way out of proportion to the degree of liver derangement. Read More

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Induction and maintenance immunosuppression in lung transplantation.

Indian J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2022 Jul 17;38(Suppl 2):300-317. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Pulmonary, Critical Care of Sleep, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 985910 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5910 USA.

Immunosuppression for lung transplant recipients is a critical part of post-transplant care, to prevent acute and chronic rejection. Treatment protocols consist of induction and maintenance immunotherapy. Induction agents provide an immediate state of immunosuppression following transplantation and over time, and their use has become more commonplace. Read More

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Detecting, preventing and treating non-adherence to immunosuppression after kidney transplantation.

Clin Kidney J 2022 Jul 14;15(7):1253-1274. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, Parma, Italy.

Medication non-adherence (MNA) is a major issue in kidney transplantation and it is associated with increased risk of rejection, allograft loss, patients' death and higher healthcare costs. Despite its crucial importance, it is still unclear what are the best strategies to diagnose, prevent and treat MNA. MNA can be intentional (deliberate refusal to take the medication as prescribed) or unintentional (non-deliberate missing the prescribed medication). Read More

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Ethanol Exposure Up-Regulates PD-L1/PD-1 Immune Checkpoint Pathway and Promotes Mammary Tumor Development.

Front Oncol 2022 8;12:874156. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Department Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY, United States.

Alcohol consumption in women enhances breast cancer incidence and ethanol is the main causal factor. Compromised host immunity through immunosuppression facilitates the development of many types of cancer, including breast cancer. Immune cells in breast tissues, particularly tumor-infiltrating CD8 cytotoxic T cells, play a critical role in the host anti-tumor immunity against breast tumorigenesis. Read More

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Inhibition of miR-let-7i Induces DC Immature Cells and Improves Skin Graft Tolerance.

Dis Markers 2022 15;2022:8605621. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Hepatopancreatobiliary Surgery Department 1, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, 650101 Kunming, China.

Dendritic cells (DC) initiate the immune response in the body. They can stimulate T cell activation, proliferation, and differentiation and ultimately participate in the immune response and the immune tolerance response. The purpose of this study was to coculture DCs and T cells and subcutaneously inject DCs transfected with miR-let-7i into rhesus monkey transplantations to verify the role of miR-let-7i in allograft immune tolerance. Read More

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Uterine natural killer cell biology and role in early pregnancy establishment and outcomes.

F S Rev 2021 Oct 23;2(4):265-286. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Objective: While immune cells were originally thought to only play a role in maternal tolerance of the semiallogenic fetus, an active role in pregnancy establishment is becoming increasingly apparent. Uterine natural killer (uNK) cells are of specific interest because of their cyclic increase in number during the window of implantation. As a distinct entity from their peripheral blood counterparts, understanding the biology and function of uNK cells will provide the framework for understanding their role in early pregnancy establishment and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Read More

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October 2021

Validation of a Simple, Rapid, and Cost-Effective Method for Acute Rejection Monitoring in Lung Transplant Recipients.

Transpl Int 2022 9;35:10546. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.

Despite advances in immunosuppression therapy, acute rejection remains the leading cause of graft dysfunction in lung transplant recipients. Donor-derived cell-free DNA is increasingly being considered as a valuable biomarker of acute rejection in several solid organ transplants. We present a technically improved molecular method based on digital PCR that targets the mismatch between the recipient and donor at the locus. Read More

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Disseminated Coccidioidomycosis in an Immunocompetent Male Who Lived in an Endemic Region in the Remote Past: A Case Report.

Cureus 2022 May 23;14(5):e25249. Epub 2022 May 23.

Internal Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, USA.

Coccidioidomycosis is an endemic illness suspected in patients who live in or have recently traveled to an endemic area. Disseminated disease is less frequent and is almost always seen in the presence of risk factors such as immunosuppression. We present a case of disseminated coccidioidomycosis with a delayed presentation in a young immunocompetent male. Read More

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YPD-30, a prodrug of YPD-29B, is an oral small-molecule inhibitor targeting PD-L1 for the treatment of human cancer.

Acta Pharm Sin B 2022 Jun 4;12(6):2845-2858. Epub 2022 Mar 4.

Department of Pharmacology, State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Functions of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, China.

PD-1 and PD-L1 antibodies have brought about extraordinary clinical benefits for cancer patients, and their indications are expanding incessantly. Currently, most PD-1/PD-L1 agents are administered intravenously, which may be uncomfortable for some cancer patients. Herein, we develop a novel oral-delivered small molecular, YPD-29B, which specifically targets human PD-L1. Read More

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Stopping of Mycophenolic Acid in Kidney Transplant Recipients for 2 Weeks Peri-Vaccination Does Not Increase Response to SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination-A Non-randomized, Controlled Pilot Study.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2022 10;9:914424. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Division of Nephrology and Dialysis, Department of Internal Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Introduction: Kidney transplant recipients (KTR) are at high risk of developing severe COVID-19. However, vaccine response in this population is severely impaired with humoral response rates of 36-54 and 55-69% after two or three doses of SARS-COV-2 vaccines, respectively. Triple immunosuppression and specifically the use of anti-proliferative agents such as mycophenolic acid (MPA) or azathioprine (AZA) have been identified as risk factors for vaccine hypo-responsiveness. Read More

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Unmet Medical Needs in Chronic, Non-communicable Inflammatory Skin Diseases.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2022 9;9:875492. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Department of Dermatology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.

An estimated 20-25% of the population is affected by chronic, non-communicable inflammatory skin diseases. Chronic skin inflammation has many causes. Among the most frequent chronic inflammatory skin diseases are atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, urticaria, lichen planus, and hidradenitis suppurativa, driven by a complex interplay of genetics and environmental factors. Read More

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Altered Tim-1 and IL-10 Expression in Regulatory B Cell Subsets in Type 1 Diabetes.

Front Immunol 2021 21;12:773896. Epub 2021 Dec 21.

National Clinical Research Center for Metabolic Diseases, Key Laboratory of Diabetes Immunology, Ministry of Education, and Department of Metabolism and Endocrinology, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, China.

Background: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease with a complex aetiology. B cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of T1D. Regulatory B cells (Bregs) are a subset of B cells that produce and secrete the inhibitory factor interleukin-10 (IL-10), thereby exerting an anti-inflammatory effect. Read More

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December 2021