1,661,032 results match your criteria Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America[Journal]


A multimodal (FACILE) classification for optical diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease associated neoplasia.

Endoscopy 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Division of Gastroenterology, HSK Hospital, Wiesbaden, Germany.

Background:  Characterization of colonic lesions in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains challenging. We developed an endoscopic classification of visual characteristics to identify colitis-associated neoplasia using multimodal advanced endoscopic imaging (Frankfurt Advanced Chromoendoscopic IBD LEsions [FACILE] classification).

Methods:  The study was conducted in three phases: 1) development - an expert panel defined endoscopic signs and predictors of dysplasia in IBD and, using multivariable logistic regression created the FACILE classification; 2) validation - using 60 IBD lesions from an image library, two assessments of diagnostic accuracy for neoplasia were performed and interobserver agreement between experts using FACILE was determined; 3) reproducibility - the reproducibility of the FACILE classification was tested in gastroenterologists, trainees, and junior doctors after completion of a training module. Read More

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December 2018

Xenotransplantation: Progress Along Paths Uncertain from Models to Application.

ILAR J 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Translational Medicine and The Comparative Medicine Institute, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina.

For more than a century, transplantation of tissues and organs from animals into man, xenotransplantation, has been viewed as a potential way to treat disease. Ironically, interest in xenotransplantation was fueled especially by successful application of allotransplantation, that is, transplantation of human tissue and organs, as a treatment for a variety of diseases, especially organ failure because scarcity of human tissues limited allotransplantation to a fraction of those who could benefit. In principle, use of animals such as pigs as a source of transplants would allow transplantation to exert a vastly greater impact than allotransplantation on medicine and public health. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Diurnal distribution of carbohydrates and fat affects substrate oxidation and adipokine secretion in humans.

Am J Clin Nutr 2018 Dec;108(6):1209-1219

Departments of Clinical Nutrition.

Background: A diet in which fat is mainly eaten in the morning and carbohydrates mainly in the evening (compared with the reverse order) was recently shown to worsen glycemic control in people with prediabetes.

Objective: We investigated the effects of these dietary patterns on energy metabolism, and on the daily profiles of circulating lipids, adipokines, and inflammatory markers.

Design: In a randomized controlled crossover trial, 29 nonobese men (with normal glucose tolerance, n = 18; or impaired fasting glucose/glucose tolerance, n = 11) underwent 2 isocaloric 4-wk diets: 1) carbohydrate-rich meals until 1330 and fat-rich meals between 1630 and 2200 (HC/HF); or 2) the inverse sequence of meals (HF/HC). Read More

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December 2018

Maximum Time Between Tests: A Digital Biomarker to Detect Therapy Compliance and Assess Schedule Quality in Measurement-Based eHealth Systems for Alcohol Use Disorder.

Alcohol Alcohol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Aim: To evaluate, in a breathalyzer-based eHealth system, whether the time-based digital biomarker 'maximum time between tests' (MTBT) brings valuable information on alcohol consumption patterns as confirmed by correlation with blood phosphatidyl ethanol (PEth), serum carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) and timeline follow-back data.

Method: Data on 54 patients in follow-up for treatment of alcohol use disorder were analysed.

Results: The model of weekly averages of 24-log transformed MTBT adequately described timeline follow-back data (P  <  0. Read More

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December 2018

A robust pipeline with high replication rate for detection of somatic variants in the adaptive immune system as a source of common genetic variation in autoimmune disease.

Hum Mol Genet 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

KU Leuven - Department of Neurosciences, Laboratory for Neuroimmunology, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium.

The role of somatic variants in diseases beyond cancer is increasingly being recognized, with potential roles in autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases. However, as mutation rates and allele fractions are lower, studies in these diseases are substantially less tolerant of false positives and bio-informatics algorithms require high replication rates. We developed a pipeline combining two variant callers, MuTect2 and VarScan2, with technical filtering and prioritization. Read More

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December 2018

The Na+/H+ Exchanger Nhe1 Modulates Network Excitability via GABA Release.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Institute of Human Genetics, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany.

Brain functions are extremely sensitive to pH changes because of the pH-dependence of proteins involved in neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission. Here, we show that the Na+/H+ exchanger Nhe1, which uses the Na+ gradient to extrude H+, is expressed at both inhibitory and excitatory presynapses. We disrupted Nhe1 specifically in mice either in Emx1-positive glutamatergic neurons or in parvalbumin-positive cells, mainly GABAergic interneurons. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

1,25‑Dihydroxyvitamin D regulates macrophage polarization and ameliorates experimental inflammatory bowel disease by suppressing miR-125b.

Int Immunopharmacol 2018 Dec 9;67:106-118. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Department of Immunology, Mudanjiang Medical University, Mudanjiang, Heilongjiang 157011, China; Key Laboratory of Tumor Prevention and Treatment of Heilongjiang Province, Mudanjiang Medical University, Mudanjiang, Heilongjiang 157011, China; Institute of Neural Tissue Engineering, Mudanjiang Medical University, Mudanjiang, Heilongjiang 157011, China. Electronic address:

Macrophages are highly plastic cells. Depending on stimulation, macrophages rapidly polarize to functionally distinct phenotypes that are involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). 1,25‑Dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)D) has immunomodulatory activity, and 1,25(OH)D deficiency is correlated with autoimmune diseases, especially IBD. Read More

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December 2018

Cryo-EM Structures of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Reveal Mechanisms of Virus Disassembly and Antibody Neutralization.

Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(11):3136-3147.e5

Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA. Electronic address:

Alphaviruses are enveloped pathogens that cause arthritis and encephalitis. Here, we report a 4.4-Å cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), an alphavirus that causes fatal encephalitis in humans. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Organ-Specific Fate, Recruitment, and Refilling Dynamics of Tissue-Resident Macrophages during Blood-Stage Malaria.

Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(11):3099-3109.e3

Nanyang Technological University, School of Biological Sciences, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551, Singapore. Electronic address:

Inflammation-induced disappearance of tissue-resident macrophages represents a key pathogen defense mechanism. Using a model of systemic blood-stage malaria, we studied the dynamics of tissue-resident macrophages in multiple organs to determine how they are depleted and refilled during the course of disease. We show that Plasmodium infection results in a transient loss of embryonically established resident macrophages prior to the parasitemia peak. Read More

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December 2018

Drp1 Controls Effective T Cell Immune-Surveillance by Regulating T Cell Migration, Proliferation, and cMyc-Dependent Metabolic Reprogramming.

Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(11):3059-3073.e10

Department of Biology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy; IRCCS, Fondazione Santa Lucia, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Mitochondria are key players in the regulation of T cell biology by dynamically responding to cell needs, but how these dynamics integrate in T cells is still poorly understood. We show here that the mitochondrial pro-fission protein Drp1 fosters migration and expansion of developing thymocytes both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we find that Drp1 sustains in vitro clonal expansion and cMyc-dependent metabolic reprogramming upon activation, also regulating effector T cell numbers in vivo. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells Produce IL-10 to Elicit DNMT3b-Dependent IRF8 Silencing to Promote Colitis-Associated Colon Tumorigenesis.

Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(11):3036-3046.e6

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912, USA; Georgia Cancer Center, Augusta University, Augusta, GA 30912, USA; Charlie Norwood VA Medical Center, Augusta, GA 30904, USA. Electronic address:

IL-10 functions as a suppressor of colitis and colitis-associated colon cancer, but it is also a risk locus associated with ulcerative colitis. The mechanism underlying the contrasting roles of IL-10 in inflammation and colon cancer is unknown. We report here that inflammation induces the accumulation of CD11bGr1 myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) that express high levels of IL-10 in colon tissue. Read More

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December 2018

PARP Inhibition Elicits STING-Dependent Antitumor Immunity in Brca1-Deficient Ovarian Cancer.

Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(11):2972-2980.e5

Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215, USA; Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Electronic address:

PARP inhibitors have shown promising clinical activities for patients with BRCA mutations and are changing the landscape of ovarian cancer treatment. However, the therapeutic mechanisms of action for PARP inhibition in the interaction of tumors with the tumor microenvironment and the host immune system remain unclear. We find that PARP inhibition by olaparib triggers robust local and systemic antitumor immunity involving both adaptive and innate immune responses through a STING-dependent antitumor immune response in mice bearing Brca1-deficient ovarian tumors. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Novel therapeutic approaches in primary hyperoxaluria.

Expert Opin Emerg Drugs 2018 Dec 12:1-9. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

a Division of Pediatric Nephrology , University Childrens Hospital, Universitatsklinikum Bonn , Bonn , Germany.

Introduction: Currently, three types of primary hyperoxaluria (PH I-III) are known, all based on different gene-mutations affecting the glyoxylate metabolism in the liver. Disease hallmark is an increased endogenous oxalate production and thus massively elevated urinary excretion of oxalate and other type-specific metabolites. Hyperoxaluria induces the formation of calcium-oxalate kidney stones and/or nephrocalcinosis. Read More

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December 2018

Neutralization of Clostridium difficile toxin B with VHH-Fc fusions targeting the delivery and CROPs domains.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208978. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Human Health Therapeutics Research Centre, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

An increasing number of antibody-based therapies are being considered for controlling bacterial infections, including Clostridium difficile by targeting toxins A and B. In an effort to develop novel C. difficile immunotherapeutics, we previously isolated several single-domain antibodies (VHHs) capable of toxin A neutralization through recognition of the extreme C-terminal combined repetitive oligopeptides (CROPs) domain, but failed at identifying neutralizing VHHs that bound a similar region on toxin B. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Disruption of the microbiota affects physiological and evolutionary aspects of insecticide resistance in the German cockroach, an important urban pest.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0207985. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Apex Bait Technologies, Inc., Santa Clara, California, United States of America.

The German cockroach, Blatella germanica, is a common pest in urban environments and is among the most resilient insects in the world. The remarkable ability of the German cockroach to develop resistance when exposed to toxic insecticides is a prime example of adaptive evolution and makes control of this insect an ongoing struggle. Like many other organisms, the German cockroach is host to a diverse community of symbiotic microbes that play important roles in its physiology. Read More

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December 2018

Genome-wide functional analyses of plant coiled-coil NLR-type pathogen receptors reveal essential roles of their N-terminal domain in oligomerization, networking, and immunity.

PLoS Biol 2018 Dec 12;16(12):e2005821. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Molecular Plant Pathology, Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

The ability to induce a defense response after pathogen attack is a critical feature of the immune system of any organism. Nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat receptors (NLRs) are key players in this process and perceive the occurrence of nonself-activities or foreign molecules. In plants, coevolution with a variety of pests and pathogens has resulted in repertoires of several hundred diverse NLRs in single individuals and many more in populations as a whole. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Development of Onchocerca volvulus in humanized NSG mice and detection of parasite biomarkers in urine and serum.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Dec 12;12(12):e0006977. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia Pennsylvania, United States of America.

Background: The study of Onchocerca volvulus has been limited by its host range, with only humans and non-human primates shown to be susceptible to the full life cycle infection. Small animal models that support the development of adult parasites have not been identified.

Methodology/principal Findings: We hypothesized that highly immunodeficient NSG mice would support the survival and maturation of O. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Esophageal IgG4: Clinical, Endoscopic, and Histologic Correlations in Eosinophilic Esophagitis.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition.

Objective: Recent studies show increased serum and esophageal IgG4 in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), suggesting a possible IgG4-involved process. The role of IgG4 in pediatric EoE has not been extensively investigated. Our aim was to analyze IgG4 in esophageal tissue in children in parallel to that in adults with EoE. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Voluntary wheel running reveals sex specific nociceptive factors in murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

Pain 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Neuroscience and Mental Health Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, T6G 2E1.

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, neurodegenerative autoimmune disease associated with sensory and motor dysfunction. Although estimates vary, ∼50% of patients with MS experience pain during their disease. The mechanisms underlying the development of pain are not fully understood and no effective treatment for MS related pain is available. Read More

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December 2018

Postactivated B cells in systemic lupus erythematosus: update on translational aspects and therapeutic considerations.

Curr Opin Rheumatol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Medicine/Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology.

Purpose Of Review: This review summarizes recent insights and current understanding of the role of postactivated B cells in SLE and related pathogenic and potential therapeutic implications.

Recent Finding: B cells are considered key players in SLE and experience from various B-cell-targeted therapies underlines their clinical relevance. In the last years, new insights have been obtained on B-cell abnormality within the complex pathophysiology of SLE. Read More

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December 2018

Gene-function studies in SLE.

Curr Opin Rheumatol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Immunology and Rheumatology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán.

Purpose Of Review: The aim of this review is to discuss recent developments in our understanding of how systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-associated genes contribute to autoimmunity.

Recent Findings: Gene-function studies have revealed mechanisms through which SLE-associated alleles of IFIH1, TNFAIP3, IRF5, and PRDM1 likely contribute to the development of autoimmunity. Novel research has identified Mac-1 (encoded by ITGAM), CaMK4, and iRhom2 as plausible therapeutic targets in lupus nephritis. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

The Match: To Thine Own Self Be True.

Authors:
Charles G Prober

Acad Med 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

C.G. Prober is professor of pediatrics and of microbiology and immunology, and senior associate vice provost, Health Education, Stanford University, Stanford, California.

The residency match process, culminating with the Match Day celebration, plays out in medical schools across the United States and Canada every year. The process may seem strange and mysterious for observers outside of medicine. The notion that each graduating student's employer for the next several years is first revealed to thousands of people, all at the same moment, through the opening of an envelope is surreal. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Metformin induces weight loss associated with gut microbiota alteration in non-diabetic obese women: a randomized double-blind clinical trial.

Eur J Endocrinol 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

B Larijani, Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran (the Islamic Republic of).

Objective: The increasing prevalence of obesity over the past few decades constitutes a global health challenge. Pharmacological therapy is recommended to accompany life-style modification for obesity management. Here, we perform a clinical trial to investigate the effects of metformin on anthropometric indices and gut microbiota composition in non-diabetic, treatment-naive obese women with a low calorie diet (LCD). Read More

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December 2018

Histamine causes influx via T-type voltage-gated calcium channels in an enterochromaffin tumor cell line: potential therapeutic target in adverse food reactions.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Institute of Pathophysiology and Immunology, Medical University of Graz.

The P-STS human ileal neuroendocrine tumor cells, as a model for gut enterochromaffin cells, are strongly and synergistically activated by histamine plus acetylcholine (ACh), presumably via histamine 4 receptors, and weakly activated by histamine alone. Sensing these signals, enterochromaffin cells could participate in intestinal intolerance or allergic reactions to food constituents associated with elevated histamine levels. In this study we aimed to analyze the underlying molecular mechanisms. Read More

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December 2018

Lower Body Negative Pressure: Physiological Effects, Applications, and Implementation.

Physiol Rev 2019 Jan;99(1):807-851

Physiology Section, Otto Loewi Research Center for Vascular Biology, Immunology and Inflammation, Medical University of Graz , Graz , Austria ; Department of Biomedical Physiology and Kinesiology, Simon Fraser University , Burnaby, British Columbia , Canada ; Battlefield Health & Trauma Center for Human Integrative Physiology, Combat Casualty Care Research Program, US Army Institute of Surgical Research, JBSA Fort Sam Houston, Texas.

This review presents lower body negative pressure (LBNP) as a unique tool to investigate the physiology of integrated systemic compensatory responses to altered hemodynamic patterns during conditions of central hypovolemia in humans. An early review published in Physiological Reviews over 40 yr ago (Wolthuis et al. Physiol Rev 54: 566-595, 1974) focused on the use of LBNP as a tool to study effects of central hypovolemia, while more than a decade ago a review appeared that focused on LBNP as a model of hemorrhagic shock (Cooke et al. Read More

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January 2019
1 Read

Distinct Binding Characteristics of Pathogenic Anti-Platelet Factor-4/Polyanion Antibodies to Antigens Coated on Different Substrates: A Perspective on Clinical Application.

ACS Nano 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Institute for Immunology and Transfusion Medicine , University Medicine Greifswald , 17475 Greifswald , Germany.

The polyanion heparin, which is frequently used in patients, complexes with the platelet-derived cationic chemokine platelet factor (PF4, CXCL4). This results in the formation of anti-PF4/heparin antibodies (anti-PF4/H Abs). Anti-PF4/H Abs are classified into three groups: (i) nonpathogenic Abs (group 1) with no clinical relevance; (ii) pathogenic heparin-dependent Abs (group 2), which activate platelets and can cause the severe adverse drug effect heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT); and (iii) pathogenic autoimmune-HIT Abs (group 3), in which group 3 anti-PF4/H Abs causes a HIT-like autoimmune disease in the absence of heparin. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue in patients older than 45 years.

Braz Oral Res 2018 Dec 6;32:e123. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Hospital General de México "Eduardo Liceaga", Department of Pathology, México City, México.

This study aims to evaluate the clinicopathological features, TNM status, AJCC staging and behavior of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue (SCCT) in patients older than 45 years. The files of the Department of Pathology of the Hospital General de México were reviewed and all cases of SCCT in patients older than 45 years were selected. Clinicopathological features, treatment, follow-up, microscopic diagnosis, and IJCC and TNM staging were retrieved. Read More

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December 2018

rs2217560 was Associated with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2018 Dec;131(24):3020-3021

Department of Rheumatology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Key Laboratory of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100730, China.

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December 2018

Research Trends of Macrophage Polarization: A Bibliometric Analysis.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2018 Dec;131(24):2968-2975

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250012, China.

Background: Macrophage polarization is involved in the development of many diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and cancer. This study aimed to understand the trends and hotspots of macrophage polarization research.

Methods: We searched through the Web of Science Core Collection database to obtain original articles in this research domain. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Expression and localization of absent in melanoma 2 in the injured spinal cord.

Neural Regen Res 2019 Mar;14(3):542-552

Clinical Laboratory, the First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College; Anhui Key Laboratory of Tissue Transplantation, the First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College; Department of Immunology, Bengbu Medical College, and Anhui Key Laboratory of Infection and Immunity at Bengbu Medical College, Bengbu, Anhui Province, China.

In traumatic brain injury, absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) has been demonstrated to be involved in pyroptotic neuronal cell death. Although the pathophysiological mechanism of spinal cord injury is similar to that of brain injury, the expression and cellular localization of AIM2 after spinal cord injury is still not very clear. In the present study, we used a rat model of T9 spinal cord contusive injury, produced using the weight drop method. Read More

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March 2019
1 Read

The 2018 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine: An exemplar of bench to bedside in immunology.

Authors:
Zuhair K Ballas

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2018 Dec 26;142(6):1752-1753. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

University of Iowa Hospitals & Clinics and the Iowa City VA Medical Center, Iowa City, Iowa. Electronic address:

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December 2018

Advances in food allergy in 2017.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2018 Dec 25;142(6):1719-1729. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia; Department of Pediatrics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia; Department of Allergy and Immunology, Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia.

This review highlights research and policy advances in food allergy that were published in 2017 in the Journal and beyond. In 2017, many important studies on the treatment of food allergy were published, bringing us ever closer to a standardized treatment for food allergy. Other important advancements included research into other management strategies, including thresholds for avoidance, management of food allergies in schools, and development of new guidelines for prevention of food allergy. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

The Inhibitory Role of M2000 (β-D-Mannuronic Acid) on Expression of Toll-like Receptor 2 and 4 in HT29 Cell Line.

Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Immunology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran. Iran.

Background/objectives: Anti-inflammatory agents play a crucial role in controlling inflammatory diseases such as Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) but their use is restricted due to their vast side effects. M2000 (β-D-mannuronic Acid) is a new immunomodulatory drug. According to the capacity of M2000 in suppressing some molecules involved in Toll Like Receptors (TLRs) signaling and reducing oxidative stress we hypothesize that, this molecule may have a potential role in decreasing inflammatory responses in IBD. Read More

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December 2018

Sialic acid as a target for the development of novel antiangiogenic strategies.

Future Med Chem 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Section of Experimental Oncology & Immunology, Department of Molecular & Translational Medicine (DMTM), University of Brescia, Brescia 25123, Italy.

Sialic acid is associated with glycoproteins and gangliosides of eukaryotic cells. It regulates various molecular interactions, being implicated in inflammation and cancer, where its expression is regulated by sialyltransferases and sialidases. Angiogenesis, the formation of new capillaries, takes place during inflammation and cancer, and represents the outcome of several interactions occurring at the endothelial surface among angiogenic growth factors, inhibitors, receptors, gangliosides and cell-adhesion molecules. Read More

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December 2018

Histone Protein Epitope Mapping for Autoantibody Recognition in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1901:221-228

Laboratory of Peptide and Protein Chemistry and Biology, Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Nutraceutics, Department of Neurofarba, University of Florence, Sesto Fiorentino, Italy.

Deiminated proteins are the target of diagnostic anti-citrullinated peptide/protein autoantibodies (ACPA) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Deiminated histone H4 contained in the neutrophil extracellular traps reacts with ACPA, becoming an interesting diagnostic antigen for RA. The identification of the ACPA binding site in histone H4 was performed experimentally by mapping the complete sequence. Read More

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January 2019

Analysis of Anti-C1q Autoantibodies by Western Blot.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1901:183-189

Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine, Region Skåne, Sweden.

Anti-C1q autoantibodies may be found in many conditions, most commonly in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome (HUVS), and are diagnostic markers as well as disease activity markers in lupus nephritis. Sera from patients with SLE and HUVS show partly distinct autoantibody reactivities to separated protein chains B and C of the first component of complement, C1q. These different binding specificities can be detected by Western blot analysis of the autoantibodies under reducing conditions. Read More

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January 2019

Analysis of C3 Nephritic Factors by ELISA.

Authors:
Lillemor Skattum

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1901:177-182

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Section of Microbiology, Immunology and Glycobiology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Autoantibodies to the C3 convertase of the alternative pathway of complement, called C3 nephritic factors (C3NeF), cause persistently low C3 in the circulation and production of C3 degradation fragments due to prolonged stabilization of the C3 convertase. C3NeF are associated with glomerulopathy, acquired partial lipodystrophy, and less frequently with increased susceptibility to meningococcal infection. Analysis of C3NeF is an important part of the diagnostic workup of C3 glomerulopathy, but their identification is difficult presumably due to considerable heterogeneity. Read More

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January 2019

Determination of Subset-Restricted Anti-neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies (ANCA) by Immunofluorescence Cytochemistry.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1901:63-77

Oral Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Odontology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Neutrophils have long been considered a homogeneous cell type where all circulating cells of a particular individual express the same proteins. Lately, however, this view is changing and distinct neutrophil subsets, defined by the presence or absence of different proteins, are being increasingly recognized. At least two separate protein markers, CD177 and Olfactomedin-4 (OLFM4) are known to be expressed by some, but not all, circulating neutrophils of a given individual. Read More

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January 2019

Detection of Autoantibodies by Indirect Immunofluorescence Cytochemistry on Hep-2 Cells.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1901:19-46

Rheumatology Division, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) has been used for detection of autoantibodies against cellular antigens for more than 50 years. Originally using rodent tissue as substrate, the method was optimized by using the human immortal HEp-2 cell line derived from a larynx epidermal carcinoma. The HEp-2/IFA platform allows for optimal visualization of several cellular domains recognized by autoantibodies in the samples being tested. Read More

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January 2019

High-Resolution Mapping of N -Methyladenosine Using mA Crosslinking Immunoprecipitation Sequencing (mA-CLIP-Seq).

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1870:69-79

Department of Chemistry and Institute for Biophysical Dynamics; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

N -Methyladenosine, an abundant chemical modification in mRNA, plays crucial roles in regulating gene expression and biological processes. Research on mA and its functions has progressed rapidly in the past few years, aided substantially by advances in high-throughput sequencing-based methods to profile mA along the transcriptome. We present here a protocol for mA crosslinking immunoprecipitation sequencing (mA-CLIP-seq), which profiles mA on mRNA at high resolution from as little as 1 μg of poly(A)-selected mRNA. Read More

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January 2019

Overview of Basic Immunology and Translational Relevance for Clinical Investigators.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;995:1-41

Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX, USA.

Tumor exists as a complex network of structures with an ability to evolve and evade the host immune surveillance mechanism. The immune milieu which includes macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, neutrophils, mast cells, B cells, and T cells are found in the core, the invasive margin, or the adjacent stromal or lymphoid component of the tumor. The immune infiltrate is heterogeneous and varies within a patient and between patients of the same tumor histology. Read More

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January 2018

Basic Procedures for Detection and Cytotoxicity of Chimeric Antigen Receptors.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1904:299-306

Department of Cardiac Research, Cumballa Hill Hospital and Heart Institute, Mumbai, India.

Chimeric antigen receptors against CD19 (anti-CD19-CAR) are widely recognized and used by not only researchers associated with immunology, molecular biology, and cell biology but also physicians to treat B-cell malignancies. Anti-CD19-CAR is currently clinically available as one of the therapeutic modalities for refractory acute B-cell-typed lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) patients. However, to detect CAR on the cell surface and investigate the efficacy of CAR-T cells, there are numerous experimental modalities including flow cytometry, the Cr-releasing assay, immunoblot, and immunostaining. Read More

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January 2019

Antigen-Specific Human Monoclonal Antibodies from Transgenic Mice.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1904:253-291

Immunology, Centro de Investigaciones Biomédicas (CINBIO), Centro de Investigación Singular de Galicia, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Galicia Sur, Universidad de Vigo, Vigo, Spain.

Due to the difficulties found when generating fully human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) by the traditional method, several efforts have attempted to overcome these problems, with varying levels of success. One approach has been the development of transgenic mice carrying immunoglobulin (Ig) genes in germline configuration. The engineered mouse genome can undergo productive rearrangement in the B-cell population, with the generation of mouse B lymphocytes expressing human Ig (hIg) chains. Read More

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January 2019

Isolation of Antigen-Specific, Antibody-Secreting Cells Using a Chip-Based Immunospot Array.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1904:147-162

Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan.

Antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies are useful tools to detect very small amounts of antigenic materials and are applicable for antibody therapeutics. To produce mouse monoclonal antibodies, a hybridoma between B lymphocytes and myeloma cells is used to produce antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies. However, a good hybridoma system is not available to obtain human monoclonal antibodies. Read More

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January 2019

An Efficient Method to Generate Monoclonal Antibodies from Human B Cells.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1904:109-145

Department of Medicine, Section of Rheumatology, The Knapp Center for Lupus and Immunology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

In the age of personalized medicine, an efficient method to generate monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is essential for biomedical and immunotherapeutic research. Numerous aspects of basic B-cell biology can be studied at the monoclonal level, including B-cell development, antibody responses to infection or vaccination, and autoimmune responses. Single-cell B-cell receptor cloning allows for the rapid generation of antigen-specific mAbs in a matter of several weeks. Read More

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January 2019

Lanadelumab for the Prophylactic Treatment of Hereditary Angioedema with C1 Inhibitor Deficiency: A Review of Preclinical and Phase I Studies.

BioDrugs 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Immunology, University of California, San Diego, 8899 University Center Lane, Suite 230, San Diego, CA, 92122, USA.

Hereditary angioedema (HAE) with C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) is a rare disease characterized by diminished levels or dysfunctional activity of C1-INH, leading to dysregulated plasma kallikrein activity within the kallikrein-kinin pathway. Symptoms manifest as painful, potentially life-threatening swelling of subcutaneous tissues throughout the body and/or submucosal edema in the upper airway or gastrointestinal tract. Attacks recur with unpredictable frequency, intensity, and duration, placing a heavy burden on patients' daily lives. Read More

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December 2018

Isolation and Identification of Murine Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages and Osteomacs from Neonatal and Adult Mice.

Methods Mol Biol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are regulated by multiple components of the hematopoietic niche, including bone marrow-derived macrophages and osteomacs. However, both macrophages and osteomacs are phenotypically similar. Thus, specific phenotypic markers are required to differentially identify the effects of osteomacs and bone marrow macrophages on different physiological processes, including hematopoiesis and bone remodeling. Read More

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December 2018

T-cell receptor-α CDR3 domain chemical features correlate with survival rates in bladder cancer.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Molecular Medicine, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, USA.

Purpose: In certain cancer settings, a T-cell response to cancer represents a relatively favorable outcome. Thus, the near-future challenges include a better understanding of exactly which T-cell features contribute to a response to which cancer antigen-groups, to maximize the opportunities for tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL)-based therapies and other immunotherapies.

Methods: The immune receptor complementarity determining region-3 (CDR3) is considered to be important for antigen binding, hence, in this report, we evaluated the chemical features of the CDR3 of 846 T-cell receptor-α (TCR-α) coding regions associated with bladder tumor tissue, using bioinformatics databases. Read More

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December 2018

Whole-body low-dose CT recognizes two distinct patterns of lytic lesions in multiple myeloma patients with different disease metabolism at PET/MRI.

Ann Hematol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Medicine, Institute of Radiology, Padua University School of Medicine, Padua, Italy.

We evaluated differences in density and F-FDG PET/MRI features of lytic bone lesions (LBLs) identified by whole-body low-dose CT (WB-LDCT) in patients affected by newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM). In 18 MM patients, 135 unequivocal LBLs identified by WB-LDCT were characterized for inner density (negative or positive Hounsfield unit (HU)), where negative density (HU < 0) characterizes normal yellow marrow whereas positive HU correlates with tissue-like infiltrative pattern. The same LBLs were analyzed by F-FDG PET/DWI-MRI, registering DWI signal with ADC and SUV max values. Read More

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December 2018

Predictive Factors for Vitamin D Concentrations in Swiss Athletes: A Cross-sectional Study.

Sports Med Int Open 2018 Sep 25;2(5):E148-E156. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.

Vitamin D concentrations corresponding to 75 nmol/L 25(OH)D have been associated with maintained muscle function, growth and regeneration, optimal bone health and immunology in athletes. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and predictors of insufficient 25(OH)D concentrations in athletes. Six hundred three Swiss athletes were assessed. Read More

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September 2018
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