1,661,318 results match your criteria Immunology Endocrine & Metabolic Agents in Medicinal Chemistry [Journal]


Correction to: Evaluation of Prostate Needle Biopsies.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;1096:E1

Pathology Medical Director, HCA Midwest Division, Kansas City, MO, USA.

Author affiliations in chapter 4 was incorrect and it has now been corrected in this version. Read More

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January 2018

Imaging of Bronchial Pathology in Antibody Deficiency: Data from the European Chest CT Group.

J Clin Immunol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Paediatric Immunology Unit, Department of Paediatric Pulmonology, Allergology and Neonatology, Hanover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg Str. 1, 30625, Hannover, Germany.

Studies of chest computed tomography (CT) in patients with primary antibody deficiency syndromes (ADS) suggest a broad range of bronchial pathology. However, there are as yet no multicentre studies to assess the variety of bronchial pathology in this patient group. One of the underlying reasons is the lack of a consensus methodology, a prerequisite to jointly document chest CT findings. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Eotaxins and C-C chemokine receptor type 3 in Parkinson's disease.

Acta Neurol Belg 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Geriatric Care Research Center, Rafsanjan University of Medical Science, Rafsanjan, Iran.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neuroinflammatory disorders and inflammatory processes seem to play an important role in the pathogenesis of PD. Chemokines as inflammatory mediators, which are involved in the recruitment of leukocytes, can play a role in the pathogenesis of PD. The aim of this study was to examine the serum level of eotaxins (CCL11, CCL24, and CCL26) and the expression of C-C chemokine receptor type 3 (CCR3) in patients with PD compared with healthy subjects. Read More

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December 2018

A novel rare CUBN variant and three additional genes identified in Europeans with and without diabetes: results from an exome-wide association study of albuminuria.

Diabetologia 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Aims/hypothesis: Identifying rare coding variants associated with albuminuria may open new avenues for preventing chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease, which are highly prevalent in individuals with diabetes. Efforts to identify genetic susceptibility variants for albuminuria have so far been limited, with the majority of studies focusing on common variants.

Methods: We performed an exome-wide association study to identify coding variants in a two-stage (discovery and replication) approach. Read More

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December 2018

Enhanced anti-tumor efficacy of checkpoint inhibitors in combination with the histone deacetylase inhibitor Belinostat in a murine hepatocellular carcinoma model.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA), Program of Immunology and Immunotherapy, University of Navarra, Pío XII 55, 31008, Pamplona, Spain.

Immune checkpoint inhibitors are currently tested in different combinations in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Nivolumab, an anti-PD-1 agent, has gained approval in the second-line setting in the USA. Epigenetic drugs have immune-mediated antitumor effects that may improve the activity of immunotherapy agents. Read More

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December 2018

Inadvertent Intravitreous Ink Injection from Subconjunctival Tattooing Causing Intraocular Inflammation and Retinal Trauma.

Ophthalmol Retina 2018 Oct 7;2(10):1080-1082. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (USA).

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October 2018

Long segment detection of HTLV-1 genome based on the fluorescence quenching technique.

Heliyon 2018 Dec 5;4(12):e00996. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

Detecting fluorescence changes due to energy transfer between a quencher and fluorophore is a common method used for the fluorescence-based biosensors. In the present report, a new biosensor for long segment detection of the human T cell-lymphotropic virus 1 genome was constructed based on the fluorescence quenching of graphene oxide by gold nanoparticles. The fluorescence signal of unmodified graphene oxide was measured before and after hybridization of target and probes functionalized with gold nanoparticles. Read More

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December 2018

Quantification of Infectious Sendai Virus Using Plaque Assay.

Bio Protoc 2018 Nov;8(21)

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, USA.

Sendai virus (SeV) is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus of the family . SeV is a useful tool to study its infectious pathomechanism in immunology and the pathomechanism of a murine model of IgA nephropathy. Virus quantification is essential not only to determine the original viral titers for an appropriate application, but also to measure the viral titers in samples from the harvests from experiments. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Efficient Induction of T Cells against Conserved HIV-1 Regions by Mosaic Vaccines Delivered as Self-Amplifying mRNA.

Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev 2019 Mar 26;12:32-46. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

The Jenner Institute, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7DQ, UK.

Focusing T cell responses on the most vulnerable parts of HIV-1, the functionally conserved regions of HIV-1 proteins, is likely a key prerequisite for vaccine success. For a T cell vaccine to efficiently control HIV-1 replication, the vaccine-elicited individual CD8 T cells and as a population have to display a number of critical traits. If any one of these traits is suboptimal, the vaccine is likely to fail. Read More

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March 2019
1 Read

Barcoding of Macaque Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells: A Robust Platform to Assess Vector Genotoxicity.

Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev 2018 Dec 25;11:143-154. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Hematology Branch, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Gene therapies using integrating retrovirus vectors to modify hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells have shown great promise for the treatment of immune system and hematologic diseases. However, activation of proto-oncogenes via insertional mutagenesis has resulted in the development of leukemia. We have utilized cellular bar coding to investigate the impact of different vector designs on the clonal behavior of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) during expansion, as a quantitative surrogate assay for genotoxicity in a non-human primate model with high relevance for human biology. Read More

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December 2018

Alpha 1 Antitrypsin Gene Therapy Extends the Lifespan of Lupus-Prone Mice.

Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev 2018 Dec 18;11:131-142. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a heterogeneous autoimmune disease characterized by high levels of pathogenic autoantibodies and tissue damage. Multiple studies showed that dendritic cell (DC) activation plays a critical role in SLE pathogenesis. Human alpha 1 antitrypsin (hAAT) is a serine proteinase inhibitor with potent anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective properties. Read More

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December 2018

Alternative Splicing Regulator RBM20 and Cardiomyopathy.

Front Mol Biosci 2018 28;5:105. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Laboratory of Gene Expression, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU), Tokyo, Japan.

RBM20 is a vertebrate-specific RNA-binding protein with two zinc finger (ZnF) domains, one RNA-recognition motif (RRM)-type RNA-binding domain and an arginine/serine (RS)-rich region. has initially been identified as one of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)-linked genes. RBM20 is a regulator of heart-specific alternative splicing and mice lacking the RRM domain are defective in the splicing regulation. Read More

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November 2018

Biochemical Characterization of AroH, a Putative Aromatic Amino Acid Aminotransferase.

Front Mol Biosci 2018 28;5:104. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy.

The rise in the frequency of nosocomial infections is becoming a major problem for public health, in particular in immunocompromised patients. is an opportunistic fungus normally present in the environment directly responsible for lethal invasive infections. Recent results suggest that the metabolic pathways related to amino acid metabolism can regulate the fungus-host interaction and that an important role is played by enzymes involved in the catabolism of L-tryptophan. Read More

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November 2018

Virus-like particles (VLP) in prophylaxis and immunotherapy of allergic diseases.

Allergo J Int 2018 9;27(8):245-255. Epub 2018 Jul 9.

9Jenner Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Background: Apart from active allergen avoidance, immunotherapy is regarded as the most effective form of treatment available for type I allergies. Such treatments involve the administration of allergen preparations in various forms and by various routes. Virus-like particles (VLPs) offer a very effective platform for immunization with the allergen and are characterized by high immunogenicity, low allergenicity and high clinical efficacy. Read More

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Tumour devascularisation as a potential immunotherapeutic strategy.

Oncoimmunology 2019 11;8(1):e1526614. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Institute of Molecular Genetics of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic.

Complete tumour devascularisation (CTD) is a surgical technique which entails the complete disruption by ligation or cutting of afferent and efferent tumour vasculature which remains in situ. In some animal models, CTD induces immune responses that lead to regression of distant metastases and protective immunity. Read More

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October 2018

Clinical characterization of colitis arising from anti-PD-1 based therapy.

Oncoimmunology 2019 31;8(1):e1524695. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA.

Colitis is a frequent, clinically-significant immune-related adverse event caused by anti-programmed death-1 (PD-1). The clinical features, timing, and management of colitis with anti-PD-1-based regimens are not well-characterized. Patients with advanced melanoma that received either anti-PD-1 monotherapy ("monotherapy") or combined with ipilimumab ("combination therapy") were screened from 8 academic medical centers, to identify those with clinically-relevant colitis (colitis requiring systemic steroids). Read More

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October 2018

Priming anti-tumor immunity by radiotherapy: Dying tumor cell-derived DAMPs trigger endothelial cell activation and recruitment of myeloid cells.

Oncoimmunology 2019 2;8(1):e1523097. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Munich, Germany.

The major goal of radiotherapy is the induction of tumor cell death. Additionally, radiotherapy can function as cancer vaccination by exposing tumor antigens and providing adjuvants for anti-tumor immune priming. In this regard, the mode of tumor cell death and the repertoire of released damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are crucial. Read More

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November 2018

TGF-β enhances the cytotoxic activity of Vδ2 T cells.

Oncoimmunology 2019 26;8(1):e1522471. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Institute of Immunology, Christian-Albrechts University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany.

TGF-β is a pleiotropic cytokine with multiple roles in immunity. Apart from its suppressive activity, TGF-β is a driving cytokine in the differentiation of induced regulatory T cells (iTreg) but also in the polarization of interleukin-9 (IL-9) producing T helper 9 (Th9) T cells. Human Vδ2 expressing γδ T cells exert potent cytotoxicity towards a variety of solid tumor and leukemia/lymphoma target cells and thus are in the focus of current strategies to develop cell-based immunotherapies. Read More

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September 2018

lncRNA MALAT1 binds chromatin remodeling subunit BRG1 to epigenetically promote inflammation-related hepatocellular carcinoma progression.

Oncoimmunology 2019 16;8(1):e1518628. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

National Key Laboratory of Medical Immunology & Institute of Immunology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai China.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one type of cancers whose carcinogenesis and progression are closely related to chronic inflammation. Identifying the molecular mechanisms for inflammation-related HCC progression will contribute to improve the efficacy of current therapeutics for HCC patients. Many kinds of epigenetic factors, including long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), have been discovered to be important in HCC growth and metastasis. Read More

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October 2018

IL-33 delays metastatic peritoneal cancer progression inducing an allergic microenvironment.

Oncoimmunology 2019 6;8(1):e1515058. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

Vaccine and Immunotherapy Center, The Wistar Institute, Philadlephia, PA, USA.

Ovarian cancer is frequently diagnosed as peritoneal carcinomatosis. Unlike other tumor locations, the peritoneal cavity is commonly exposed to gut-breaching and ascending genital microorganisms and has a unique immune environment. IL-33 is a local cytokine that can activate innate and adaptive immunity. Read More

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September 2018

A B cell-derived gene expression signature associates with an immunologically active tumor microenvironment and response to immune checkpoint blockade therapy.

Oncoimmunology 2019 19;8(1):e1513440. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Department of Molecular and Systems Biology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH, USA.

Immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown great potential in treating solid tumors, inducing durable remission and prolonged survival time in responders. Despite their promise, a large fraction of patients remains unresponsive to these treatments highlighting the need for biomarkers that can predict patient sensitivity. Pre-treatment gene expression profiles for patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors have recently become available, establishing a new medium by which to discover biomarkers that predict therapy response. Read More

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September 2018

Identification of PD-L2, B7-H3 and CTLA-4 immune checkpoint proteins in genetic subtypes of meningioma.

Oncoimmunology 2019 5;8(1):e1512943. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Project neuroArm, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Meningioma is the most common brain tumor in adults. Surgical resection remains the primary treatment. No chemotherapy exists. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Ibrutinib significantly inhibited Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) phosphorylation, proliferation and enhanced overall survival in a preclinical Burkitt lymphoma (BL) model.

Oncoimmunology 2019 11;8(1):e1512455. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Department of Pediatrics, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA.

Pediatric and adult patients with recurrent/refractory Burkitt lymphoma (BL) continue to have poor outcomes, emphasizing the need for newer therapeutic agents. Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is activated following B-cell receptor stimulation and in part regulates normal B-cell development. Ibrutinib, a selective and irreversible BTK inhibitor, has been efficacious in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, and marginal zone lymphoma. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Preclinical evaluation of a MAGE-A3 vaccination utilizing the oncolytic Maraba virus currently in first-in-human trials.

Oncoimmunology 2019 19;8(1):e1512329. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Multiple immunotherapeutics have been approved for cancer patients, however advanced solid tumors are frequently refractory to treatment. We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a vaccination approach with multimodal oncolytic potential in non-human primates (NHP) (). Primates received a replication-deficient adenoviral prime, boosted by the oncolytic Maraba MG1 rhabdovirus. Read More

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September 2018

Warming up the tumor microenvironment in order to enhance immunogenicity.

Oncoimmunology 2019 1;8(1):e1510710. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, University of Geneva Medical School, Gemeva, Switzerland.

We have recently demonstrated that intratumoral CpG-B vaccination enhances anti-tumor immunity and tumor regression in mice. We further show that the local delivery of TLR9 agonists converts the tolerogenic tumor microenvironment into an immunopermissive one, which may benefit current immunotherapeutic anticancer strategies by enhancing innate and adaptive tumor-associated immune cell responses. Read More

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October 2018

Combination PD-1 blockade and irradiation of brain metastasis induces an effective abscopal effect in melanoma.

Oncoimmunology 2019 11;8(1):e1507669. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Department of Immunology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Nearly half of melanoma patients develop brain metastases during the course of their disease. Despite advances in both localized radiation and systemic immunotherapy, brain metastases remain difficult to treat, with most patients surviving less than 5 months from the time of diagnosis. While both treatment regimens have individually shown considerable promise in treating metastatic melanoma, there is interest in combining these strategies to take advantage of potential synergy. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Not All Rashes Are Allergic: Keratoderma Blennorrhagicum-Like Rash Masquerading as Contact Dermatitis.

Allergy Rhinol (Providence) 2018 Jan-Dec;9:2152656718811566. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado.

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December 2018

Analysis of serum macrophage migration inhibitory factor and D-dopachrome tautomerase in systemic sclerosis.

Clin Transl Immunology 2018 6;7(12):e1042. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Centre for Inflammatory Diseases School of Clinical Sciences at Monash Health Monash University Clayton VIC Australia.

Objectives: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and D-dopachrome tautomerase (DDT), members of the same cytokine superfamily, are linked to the pathogenesis of a number of inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate their clinical relevance in systemic sclerosis (SSc).

Methods: Serum MIF and DDT were quantified in 105 SSc patients by ELISA and levels compared to healthy controls (HC) (47) and patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (184). Read More

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December 2018

Canagliflozin improves obesity and insulin resistance in a diabetic patient with Cushings disease undergoing postoperative steroid therapy: A case report.

Biomed Rep 2018 Dec 1;9(6):497-502. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Department of Immunology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, Mie 514-8507, Japan.

A 47-year-old woman with diabetes treated with high-dose insulin was admitted to Mie University Hospital, Tsu, Japan, for screening of secondary diabetes mellitus and obesity. Laboratory tests and imaging studies were consistent with Cushing's disease (CD). The patient underwent trans-sphenoidal pituitary surgery. Read More

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December 2018

Correction: Serine 207 phosphorylated lysyl-tRNA synthetase predicts disease-free survival of non-small-cell lung carcinoma.

Oncotarget 2018 Nov 16;9(90):36250. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute for Medical Research Israel-Canada, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.18632/oncotarget.18053. Read More

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November 2018

Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate the enteropathy of food allergies in mice.

Exp Ther Med 2018 Dec 19;16(6):4445-4456. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013, P.R. China.

Food allergy prevalence has steadily increased worldwide over the past decades and immunotherapeutic treatment strategies are gaining attention. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) exhibit similar immune regulatory properties to bone marrow-derived MSCs. hUC-MCSs can be prepared with fewer ethical constraints and are potential candidates for allergic disorder therapies. Read More

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December 2018

Injectable Biomimetic Hydrogels as Tools for Efficient T Cell Expansion and Delivery.

Front Immunol 2018 28;9:2798. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Tumor Immunology, Oncode Institute, Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, Netherlands.

Biomaterial-based scaffolds are promising tools for controlled immunomodulation. They can be applied as three dimensional (3D) culture systems , whereas they may be used to dictate cellular localization and exert spatiotemporal control over cues presented to the immune system. As such, scaffolds can be exploited to enhance the efficacy of cancer immunotherapies such as adoptive T cell transfer, in which localization and persistence of tumor-specific T cells dictates treatment outcome. Read More

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November 2018

Host Regulators of Liver Fibrosis During Human Schistosomiasis.

Front Immunol 2018 28;9:2781. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Cape Town Component, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Cape Town, South Africa.

Liver fibrosis is a wound-healing process purposely aimed at restoring organ integrity after severe injury caused by autoimmune reactions, mechanical stress or infections. The uncontrolled solicitation of this process is pathogenic and a pathognomonic feature of diseases like hepatosplenic schistosomiasis where exacerbated liver fibrosis is centrally positioned among the drivers of the disease morbidity and mortality. Intriguingly, however, liver fibrosis occurs and progresses dissimilarly in schistosomiasis-diseased individuals with the same egg burden and biosocial features including age, duration of residence in the endemic site and gender. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

CD38: A Target for Immunotherapeutic Approaches in Multiple Myeloma.

Front Immunol 2018 28;9:2722. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Laboratory of Immunogenetics, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Torino, Torino, Italy.

Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a hematological cancer characterized by proliferation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow (BM). MM represents the second most frequent hematological malignancy, accounting 1% of all cancer and 13% of hematological tumors, with ~9,000 new cases per year. Patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and asymptomatic smoldering MM (SMM) usually evolve to active MM in the presence of increased tumor burden, symptoms and organ damage. Read More

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November 2018

TLR9 Signaling Suppresses the Canonical Plasma Cell Differentiation Program in Follicular B Cells.

Front Immunol 2018 28;9:2281. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

The relative potency and quality of mouse B cell response to Toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling varies significantly depending on the B cell subset and on the TLR member being engaged. Although it has been shown that marginal zone cells respond faster than follicular (FO) splenic B cells to TLR4 stimulus, FO B cells retain full capacity to proliferate and generate plasmablasts and plasma cells (PBs/PCs) with 2-3 days delayed kinetics. It is not clear whether this scenario could be extended to other members of the TLR family. Read More

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November 2018

Radiation promotes systemic responses.

Authors:
Jordan Hindson

Nat Rev Immunol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Nature Reviews Immunology, .

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December 2018

Of bugs, bones and butyrate.

Nat Rev Immunol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Nature Reviews Immunology, .

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December 2018

Tracking virus outbreaks in the twenty-first century.

Nat Microbiol 2019 Jan 13;4(1):10-19. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Immunology and Microbiology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Emerging viruses have the potential to impose substantial mortality, morbidity and economic burdens on human populations. Tracking the spread of infectious diseases to assist in their control has traditionally relied on the analysis of case data gathered as the outbreak proceeds. Here, we describe how many of the key questions in infectious disease epidemiology, from the initial detection and characterization of outbreak viruses, to transmission chain tracking and outbreak mapping, can now be much more accurately addressed using recent advances in virus sequencing and phylogenetics. Read More

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January 2019
1 Read

APOBEC restriction goes nuclear.

Nat Microbiol 2019 Jan;4(1):6-7

Department of Infectious Diseases, School of Immunology and Microbial Sciences, King's College London, London, UK.

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January 2019

CRISPR-Cas impedes archaeal mating.

Authors:
Peter C Fineran

Nat Microbiol 2019 Jan;4(1):2-3

Department of Microbiology & Immunology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

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January 2019

The role of the microbiota in infectious diseases.

Nat Microbiol 2019 Jan 13;4(1):35-45. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Internal Medicine, Infectious Diseases Division, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

The human body is colonized by a diverse community of microorganisms collectively referred to as the microbiota. Here, we describe how the human microbiota influences susceptibility to infectious diseases using examples from the respiratory, gastrointestinal and female reproductive tract. We will discuss how interactions between the host, the indigenous microbiota and non-native microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses and fungi, can alter the outcome of infections. Read More

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January 2019

Type I interferon/IRF7 axis instigates chemotherapy-induced immunological dormancy in breast cancer.

Oncogene 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Pathology Unit, Department of Oncology, Microbiology and Immunology (OMI), Faculty of Science and Medicine, University of Fribourg, 1700, Fribourg, Switzerland.

Neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapies provide survival benefits to breast cancer patients, in particular in estrogen receptor negative (ER) cancers, by reducing rates of recurrences. It is assumed that the benefits of (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy are due to the killing of disseminated, residual cancer cells, however, there is no formal evidence for it. Here, we provide experimental evidence that ER breast cancer cells that survived high-dose Doxorubicin and Methotrexate based chemotherapies elicit a state of immunological dormancy. Read More

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December 2018

Global long terminal repeat activation participates in establishing the unique gene expression programme of classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

Leukemia 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Institute for Cancer and Genomic Sciences, University of Birmingham, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, Birmingham, B152TT, UK.

Long terminal repeat (LTR) elements are wide-spread in the human genome and have the potential to act as promoters and enhancers. Their expression is therefore under tight epigenetic control. We previously reported in classical Hodgkin Lymphoma (cHL) that a member of the THE1B class of LTR elements acted as a promoter for the proto-oncogene and growth factor receptor gene CSF1R and that expression of this gene is required for cHL tumour survival. Read More

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December 2018

Bacterial blood stream infections (BSIs), particularly post-engraftment BSIs, are associated with increased mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Division of Hematology/Oncology, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

We analyzed CIBMTR data to evaluate the incidence of non-relapse mortality (NRM) and association with overall survival (OS) for bacterial blood stream infections (BSIs) occurring within 100 days of alloHCT in 2 different phases: pre-/peri-engraftment (BSI very early phase, BSI-VEP) and BSI post-engraftment (BSI occurring between 2 weeks after engraftment and day 100, late early phase, BSI-LEP). Of the 7128 alloHCT patients, 2656 (37%) had ≥1 BSI by day 100. BSI-VEP, BSI-LEP, and BSI-Both constituted 56% (n = 1492), 31% (n = 824), and 13% (n = 340) of total BSI, respectively. Read More

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December 2018

A retrospective analysis of haplo-identical HLA-mismatch hematopoietic transplantation without posttransplantation cyclophosphamide for GVHD prophylaxis in patients with adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Science, Fukuoka, Japan.

Currently, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is the only available curative modality for patients with adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL). When used in conjunction with posttransplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCY) for graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis, allo-HCT from an HLA haplo-identical donor yields promising outcomes for many diseases other than ATL. However, appropriate comparisons with other donor sources, especially cord blood and conventional HLA haplo-identical donors, are needed to validate the safety and efficacy of this modality. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Analysis of expression of the PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint system and its prognostic impact in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 13;8(1):17812. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Services of Endocrinology, Immunology and Molecular Biology Unit, Hospital Universitario de la Princesa, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Instituto Princesa, 28006, Madrid, Spain.

The immune checkpoint based therapy targeting the programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor and its PD-L1 ligand has recently been approved for the therapy of different malignant conditions, but not yet for gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs). In this context, we evaluated the expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 in GEP-NETs and its potential correlations with clinical outcomes. Expression of PD-1/PD-L1 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 116 GEP-NETs and 48 samples of peritumoral tissue. Read More

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December 2018

Integrative system biology analyses of CRISPR-edited iPSC-derived neurons and human brains reveal deficiencies of presynaptic signaling in FTLD and PSP.

Transl Psychiatry 2018 Dec 13;8(1):265. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, 660S. Euclid Ave. Campus Box 8134, St. Louis, MO, 63110, USA.

Mutations in the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) gene cause autosomal dominant frontotemporal lobar degeneration with tau inclusions (FTLD-tau). MAPT p.R406W carriers present clinically with progressive memory loss and neuropathologically with neuronal and glial tauopathy. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Allosteres to Regulate Neurotransmitter Sulfonation.

J Biol Chem 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Microbiology & Immunology, The Albert Einstein College of Medicine, United States.

Catecholamine neurotransmitter levels in the synapses of the brain shape human disposition - cognitive flexibility, aggression, depression, reward seeking… - and manipulating these levels is a major objective of the pharmaceutical industry. Certain neurotransmitters are extensively sulfonated and inactivated by human sulfotransferase 1A3 (SULT1A3). To our knowledge, sulfonation as therapeutic means of regulating transmitter activity has not been explored. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Macrophage-derived IL-1β and TNF-α regulate arginine metabolism in neuroblastoma.

Cancer Res 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy, University of Birmingham

Neuroblastoma is the most common childhood solid tumor, yet the prognosis for high-risk disease remains poor. We demonstrate here that arginase 2 (ARG2) drives neuroblastoma cell proliferation via regulation of arginine metabolism. Targeting arginine metabolism, either by blocking cationic amino acid transporter 1 (CAT-1)-dependent arginine uptake in vitro or therapeutic depletion of arginine by pegylated-recombinant arginase BCT-100, significantly delayed tumor development and prolonged murine survival. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read
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