16,332 results match your criteria Immunology[Journal]


T cells and the skin: from protective immunity to inflammatory skin disorders.

Nat Rev Immunol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Dermatology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Skin is our primary interface with the environment, and T cells are crucial for orchestrating host immune responses against pathogenic microorganisms at this site. Effective skin immune responses require the generation of antigen-specific effector T cells, which home to cutaneous sites of injury or infection. Long-lasting immunity against future immune challenges is mediated by memory T cells. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41577-019-0162-3
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41577-019-0162-3DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Immune mechanisms of hypertension.

Nat Rev Immunol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Centre for Cardiovascular Biology and Disease Research, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Microbiology, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Hypertension affects 30% of adults and is the leading risk factor for heart attack and stroke. Traditionally, hypertension has been regarded as a disorder of two systems that are involved in the regulation of salt-water balance and cardiovascular function: the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). However, current treatments that aim to limit the influence of the RAAS or SNS on blood pressure fail in ~40% of cases, which suggests that other mechanisms must be involved. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41577-019-0160-5DOI Listing

ILC3s take control in small intestine.

Authors:
Kirsty Minton

Nat Rev Immunol 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Nature Reviews Immunology, .

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41577-019-0166-zDOI Listing

Corrigendum.

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Immunology 2019 May 27;157(1):92. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imm.13050DOI Listing

Knowns and unknowns of tissue-resident memory T cells.

Authors:
Daniel M Altmann

Immunology 2019 May;157(1):1-2

Department of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK.

Advances in transcriptomics and other approaches are shedding considerable light on tissue-resident immune cells as distinct from recirculating cells. The advances encompass antigen-presenting cell subsets, Tregs and importantly, tissue-resident memory cells (TRM). What are the transcriptional programmes and functional properties that distinguish the requirements for an effective tissue resident cell in brain relative to lung, skin, adipose tissue or the genital tract? Another important conundrum has been the extent to which TRM cells are specialized either as a 'sense and alarm' population or as a local, primed, effector cell population in themselves. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imm.13062DOI Listing

Stromal support from IL-17.

Authors:
Yvonne Bordon

Nat Rev Immunol 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Nature Reviews Immunology, .

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41577-019-0163-2DOI Listing

Non-inflammatory effects of liver macrophages.

Authors:
Kirsty Minton

Nat Rev Immunol 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Nature Reviews Immunology, .

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41577-019-0164-1DOI Listing

Pro-tumour programming at the macrophage membrane.

Authors:
Yvonne Bordon

Nat Rev Immunol 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Nature Reviews Immunology, .

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41577-019-0161-4DOI Listing

Getting enough energy for immunity.

Authors:
Lucy Bird

Nat Rev Immunol 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Nature Reviews Immunology, .

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41577-019-0159-yDOI Listing

T cell-mediated immunity to malaria.

Nat Rev Immunol 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.

Immunity to malaria has been linked to the availability and function of helper CD4 T cells, cytotoxic CD8 T cells and γδ T cells that can respond to both the asymptomatic liver stage and the symptomatic blood stage of Plasmodium sp. infection. These T cell responses are also thought to be modulated by regulatory T cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41577-019-0158-zDOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

Move to metabolism.

Nat Rev Immunol 2019 Mar 29. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

University of Dundee, Dundee, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41577-019-0157-0DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Genome organization in immune cells: unique challenges.

Nat Rev Immunol 2019 Mar 29. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

Each type of cell in the immune system performs critical functions to protect the body and maintain health. In order to fulfil these roles some immune cells rely on unique processes, including antigen receptor loci recombination, clonal expansion or the contortion of their nuclei. In turn, each of these processes relies on, or poses unique challenges to, a genome organized in three dimensions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41577-019-0155-2DOI Listing

cAIMP administration in humanized mice induces a chimerization-level-dependent STING response.

Immunology 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

It is well conceived that the STING signalling pathway is critical for generating a robust innate immune response to pathogens. Human and mouse STING signaling pathways are not identical, however. For example, mice lack IFI16 which has been proven important for the human STING pathway. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imm.13061DOI Listing

Regulatory T Cells Promote Pulmonary Repair by Modulating T Helper Cell Immune Responses in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

Immunology 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100730, China.

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) induces a strong local infiltration of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the lungs. However, at present, there remains a lack of adequate evidence showing the direct effect of Tregs on pulmonary repair and the related mechanisms of ARDS. Therefore, in this project, we studied the impact of Tregs on Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ARDS and pulmonary inflammation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imm.13060DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Epigenetic regulation of the innate immune response to infection.

Nat Rev Immunol 2019 Mar 27. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

College of Life Science, Nankai University, Tianjin, China.

Innate immune cells have complex signalling pathways for sensing pathogens and initiating innate immune responses against infection. These pathways are tightly regulated at different levels, including by epigenetic regulators. In this Review, we discuss studies revealing the epigenetic mechanisms, as well as the post-transcriptional and post-translational modifications by chromatin modifiers, that underlie the establishment of these signalling networks and the rapid induction of innate immune molecules during infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41577-019-0151-6DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

The Western lifestyle has lasting effects on metaflammation.

Nat Rev Immunol 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Institute of Innate Immunity, University Hospitals, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41577-019-0156-1DOI Listing

Origins of CD4 circulating and tissue-resident memory T-cells.

Immunology 2019 May;157(1):3-12

Division of Biological Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

In response to infection, naive CD4 T-cells proliferate and differentiate into several possible effector subsets, including conventional T helper effector cells (T 1, T 2, T 17), T regulatory cells (T ) and T follicular helper cells (T ). Once infection is cleared, a small population of long-lived memory cells remains that mediate immune defenses against reinfection. Memory T lymphocytes have classically been categorized into central memory cell (T ) and effector memory cell (T ) subsets, both of which circulate between blood, secondary lymphoid organs and in some cases non-lymphoid tissues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imm.13059DOI Listing
May 2019
3.795 Impact Factor

Metabolic gatekeepers to safeguard against autoimmunity and oncogenic B cell transformation.

Authors:
Markus Müschen

Nat Rev Immunol 2019 Mar 19. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Systems Biology, City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, Monrovia, CA, USA.

B cells face multiple restrictions on glucose and energy metabolism. Their lineage-determining transcription factors repress glucose uptake and pentose phosphate pathway activity, while their low numbers of mitochondria and small cytoplasmic volume set narrow limits for mitochondrial ATP production and autophagy as alternative energy sources. During activation, B cells can balance temporary increases of energy expenditure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41577-019-0154-3DOI Listing

Pain and immunity: implications for host defence.

Nat Rev Immunol 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Immunology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Pain is a hallmark of tissue injury, inflammatory diseases, pathogen invasion and neuropathy. It is mediated by nociceptor sensory neurons that innervate the skin, joints, bones, muscles and mucosal tissues and protects organisms from noxious stimuli. Nociceptors are sensitized by inflammatory mediators produced by the immune system, including cytokines, lipid mediators and growth factors, and can also directly detect pathogens and their secreted products to produce pain during infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41577-019-0147-2DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Corrigendum.

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Immunology 2019 Apr 18;156(4):422. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imm.13031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6418455PMC

'Just 17 if you know what I mean' … but what do we really mean to say about Th17 immunity?

Authors:
Daniel M Altmann

Immunology 2019 Apr;156(4):297-298

Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Th17-derived IL-17 might be considered the archetypal pro-inflammatory cytokine of adaptive immunity, to be targeted by new therapeutics for alleviation of autoimmune and inflammatory disease. However, the IL-17 family of cytokines is produced by diverse innate and adaptive cells, including Th17, Tc17, ILC3, NK cells and γδ T-cells. These responses are appreciated to underpin diverse aspects of protective, physiological immunity, from dialogue with the gut microbiota to bacterial and fungal immunity in the lung. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imm.13055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6418453PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Erratum.

Authors:

Immunology 2019 Apr 9;156(4):423-424. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imm.13038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6418454PMC

Immune- and non-immune-mediated roles of regulatory T-cells during wound healing.

Immunology 2019 Mar 13. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Institute of Immunology and Infection Research, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

The immune system has a well-established contribution to tissue homeostasis and wound healing. However, in many cases immune responses themselves can cause severe tissue damage. Thus, the question arose to which extent cells of the immune system directly contribute to the process of wound healing and to which extent the resolution of excessive immune responses may indirectly contribute to wound healing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imm.13057DOI Listing

Treg programming and therapeutic reprogramming in cancer.

Immunology 2019 Mar 13. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Division of Immunology and Pathogenesis, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA.

Overcoming the immunosuppressive TME is the major challenge impeding cancer immunotherapy today. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are prevalent in nearly all cancers and as immunosuppressive regulators of immune responses, they are the principal opponents of cancer immunotherapy. However, disabling Tregs systemically causes severe autoimmune toxicity, hastening the need for more selective methods to target intratumoral Tregs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imm.13058DOI Listing

Author Correction: Histone deacetylase function in CD4 T cells.

Nat Rev Immunol 2019 Apr;19(4):266

Division of Cell and Developmental Biology, Center for Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

In Table 1 in the originally published version of this article, the phenotype of Hdac1-cKO CD8+ T cells (3rd row) was incorrectly described. This has been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the manuscript. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41577-019-0153-4DOI Listing

What's driving T cell dysfunction?

Nat Rev Immunol 2019 Apr;19(4):199

Nature Reviews Immunology, .

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41577-019-0152-5DOI Listing

Mining the microbiota for microbial and metabolite-based immunotherapies.

Nat Rev Immunol 2019 Mar 11. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Trillions of microorganisms transit through and reside in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract each day, collectively producing thousands of small molecules and metabolites with local and systemic effects on host physiology. Identifying effector microorganisms that causally affect host phenotype and deciphering the underlying mechanisms have become foci of microbiome research and have begun to enable the development of microbiota-based therapeutics. Two complementary, reductionist approaches have commonly been used: the first starts with an immune phenotype and narrows down the microbiota to identify responsible effector bacteria, while the second starts with bacteria-derived molecules and metabolites and seeks to understand their effects on the host immune system. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41577-019-0144-5
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41577-019-0144-5DOI Listing
March 2019
21 Reads

Metabolic regulation of inflammasomes in inflammation.

Immunology 2019 Mar 9. Epub 2019 Mar 9.

Key Laboratory of Cell Proliferation and Regulation Biology of Ministry of Education, Institute of Cell Biology, College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China.

Inflammasome activation and subsequent inflammatory cytokine secretion are essential for innate immune defence against multiple stimuli and are regarded as a link to adaptive immune responses. Dysfunction of inflammasome activation has been discovered at the onset or progression of infectious diseases, autoimmune diseases and cancer, all of which are also associated with metabolic factors. Furthermore, many studies concerning the metabolic regulation of inflammasome activation have emerged in recent years, especially regarding the activity of the NLRP3 inflammasome under metabolic reprogramming. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imm.13056DOI Listing

CD8 T cells cure without killing.

Authors:
Mala K Maini

Nat Rev Immunol 2019 Apr;19(4):201

Division of Infection and Immunity, UCL, London, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41577-019-0150-7DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The evolving role of T-bet in resistance to infection.

Nat Rev Immunol 2019 Mar 7. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

The identification of T-bet as a key transcription factor associated with the development of IFNγ-producing CD4 T cells predicted a crucial role for T-bet in cell-mediated immunity and in resistance to many intracellular infections. This idea was reinforced by initial reports showing that T-bet-deficient mice were more susceptible to pathogens that survived within the lysosomal system of macrophages. However, subsequent studies revealed IFNγ-dependent, T-bet-independent pathways of resistance to diverse classes of microorganisms that occupy other intracellular niches. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41577-019-0145-4DOI Listing

The human antibody response to influenza A virus infection and vaccination.

Authors:
Florian Krammer

Nat Rev Immunol 2019 Mar 5. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

The adaptive immune response to influenza virus infection is multifaceted and complex, involving antibody and cellular responses at both systemic and mucosal levels. Immune responses to natural infection with influenza virus in humans are relatively broad and long-lived, but influenza viruses can escape from these responses over time owing to their high mutation rates and antigenic flexibility. Vaccines are the best available countermeasure against infection, but vaccine effectiveness is low compared with other viral vaccines, and the induced immune response is narrow and short-lived. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41577-019-0143-6DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Microbiota supports air attack.

Authors:
Yvonne Bordon

Nat Rev Immunol 2019 Apr;19(4):203

Nature Reviews Immunology, .

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41577-019-0149-0DOI Listing

Macrophages throw tumour cells a lifeline.

Authors:
Yvonne Bordon

Nat Rev Immunol 2019 Apr;19(4):202-203

Nature Reviews Immunology, .

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41577-019-0148-1DOI Listing

ABCs of sepsis control.

Authors:
Lucy Bird

Nat Rev Immunol 2019 Apr;19(4):200-201

Nature Reviews Immunology, .

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41577-019-0146-3DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Patients with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage have abnormally high TGFß+ blood NK, NKT and T cells in the presence of abnormally low TGFß plasma levels.

BMC Immunol 2019 03 4;20(1):10. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Transplantation Immunology, Institute of Immunology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 305, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: Previously, we demonstrated up-regulated activated CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes as well as up-regulated cytotoxic NK cells in the blood of patients with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage. In the present study, we tried to identify deficiencies in counter-regulating immune mechanisms of these patients.

Method: Cytokines were determined in NK cells and in plasma samples of 35 healthy controls, 33 patients with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage, 34 patients with end stage renal disease, 10 transplant patients early and 37 transplant patients late post-transplant using flow-cytometry and luminex. Read More

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https://bmcimmunol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12865
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12865-019-0290-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6399890PMC
March 2019
6 Reads

Metabolic interventions in the immune response to cancer.

Nat Rev Immunol 2019 Feb 28. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology and Epigenetics, Freiburg, Germany.

At the centre of the therapeutic dilemma posed by cancer is the question of how to develop more effective treatments that discriminate between normal and cancerous tissues. Decades of research have shown us that universally applicable principles are rare, but two well-accepted concepts have emerged: first, that malignant transformation goes hand in hand with distinct changes in cellular metabolism; second, that the immune system is critical for tumour control and clearance. Unifying our understanding of tumour metabolism with immune cell function may prove to be a powerful approach in the development of more effective cancer therapies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41577-019-0140-9DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Heterogeneity of neutrophils.

Nat Rev Immunol 2019 Apr;19(4):255-265

Area of Cell and Developmental Biology, Fundación Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares Carlos III (CNIC), Madrid, Spain.

Structured models of ontogenic, phenotypic and functional diversity have been instrumental for a renewed understanding of the biology of immune cells, such as macrophages and lymphoid cells. However, there are no established models that can be used to define the diversity of neutrophils, the most abundant myeloid cells. This lack of an established model is largely due to the uniquely short lives of neutrophils, a consequence of their inability to divide once terminally differentiated, which has been perceived as a roadblock to functional diversity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41577-019-0141-8DOI Listing

Immunometabolism and natural killer cell responses.

Nat Rev Immunol 2019 Feb 26. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes with important roles in innate and adaptive immune responses to tumours and viral infection. However, in certain chronic diseases, including obesity and cancer, NK cell functional responses are impaired. Recently, research has highlighted the importance of NK cell metabolism in facilitating robust NK cell effector functions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41577-019-0139-2DOI Listing
February 2019

IL-33 induces production of autoantibody against autologous respiratory epithelial cells: a potential mechanism for the pathogenesis of COPD.

Immunology 2019 Feb 23. Epub 2019 Feb 23.

Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

The mechanisms underlying the chronic, progressive airways inflammation, remodelling and alveolar structural damage characteristic of human chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remain unclear. In the present study, we address the hypothesis that these changes are at least in part mediated by respiratory epithelial alarmin (IL-33)-induced production of autoantibodies against airways epithelial cells. Mice immunized with homologous, syngeneic lung tissue lysate along with IL-33 administered directly to the respiratory tract or systemically produced IgG autoantibodies binding predominantly to their own alveolar type II epithelial cells, along with increased percentages of Tfh cells and B2 B-cells in their local, mediastinal lymph nodes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imm.13054DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read
3.795 Impact Factor

Enhancing antitumour eosinophils.

Authors:
Kirsty Minton

Nat Rev Immunol 2019 Apr;19(4):202-203

Nature Reviews Immunology, .

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41577-019-0142-7DOI Listing

Intestinal overexpression of IL-18 promotes eosinophils-mediated allergic disorders.

Immunology 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Medicine, Section of Pulmonary Diseases, Tulane Eosinophilic Disorder Center, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA.

Baseline eosinophils reside in the gastrointestinal tract; however, in several allergic disorders, excessive eosinophils accumulate in the blood as well in the tissues. Recently, we showed in vitro that interleukin (IL)-18 matures and transforms IL-5-generated eosinophils into the pathogenic eosinophils that are detected in human allergic diseases. To examine the role of local induction of IL-18 in promoting eosinophil-associated intestinal disorders, we generated enterocyte IL-18-overexpressing mice using the rat intestinal fatty acid-binding promoter (Fabpi) and analysed tissue IL-18 overexpression and eosinophilia by performing real-time polymerase chain reaction, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and anti-major basic protein immunostaining. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imm.13051DOI Listing
February 2019
3.795 Impact Factor

T17 cells thirsty for calcium.

Authors:
Kirsty Minton

Nat Rev Immunol 2019 Apr;19(4):200-201

Nature Reviews Immunology, .

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41577-019-0138-3DOI Listing

At the intersection of DNA damage and immune responses.

Nat Rev Immunol 2019 Apr;19(4):231-242

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

DNA damage occurs on exposure to genotoxic agents and during physiological DNA transactions. DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are particularly dangerous lesions that activate DNA damage response (DDR) kinases, leading to initiation of a canonical DDR (cDDR). This response includes activation of cell cycle checkpoints and engagement of pathways that repair the DNA DSBs to maintain genomic integrity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41577-019-0135-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6438741PMC

Daily variation in macrophage phagocytosis is clock-independent and dispensable for cytokine production.

Immunology 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Immunoregulation Section, Autoimmunity Branch, NIAMS, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Innate immune responses vary in a circadian manner, and more recent investigations aim to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms. Cytokine production varies significantly over the course of a day depending on the time of stimulation by pathogens or Toll-like receptor ligands, and multiple signaling pathways linked to the cell-autonomous circadian clock modulate innate immunity. Recognition of foreign material, especially by innate immune cells, engages a myriad of receptors, which trigger inflammatory responses, as well as endocytosis and degradation and/or processing for antigen presentation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imm.13053DOI Listing
February 2019

Cytokine-mediated communication: a quantitative appraisal of immune complexity.

Nat Rev Immunol 2019 Apr;19(4):205-217

Immunodynamics Section, Cancer and Inflammation Program, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Intercellular communication mediated by cytokines is the main mechanism by which cells of the immune system talk to each other. Many aspects of cytokine signalling in the immune system have been explored in great detail at the structural, biophysical, biochemical and cellular levels. However, a systematic understanding of the quantitative rules that govern cytokine-mediated cell-to-cell communication is still lacking. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41577-019-0131-xDOI Listing

Higher levels of B-cell mutation in the early germinal centres of an inefficient secondary antibody response to a variant influenza haemagglutinin.

Immunology 2019 May 11;157(1):86-91. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Department of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.

Designing improved vaccines against mutable viruses such as dengue and influenza would be helped by a better understanding of how the B-cell memory compartment responds to variant antigens. Towards this we have recently shown, after secondary immunization of mice with a widely variant dengue virus envelope protein with only 63% amino acid identity, that IgM memory B cells with few mutations supported an efficient secondary germinal centre (GC) and serum response, superior to a primary response to the same protein. Here, further investigation of memory responses to variant proteins, using more closely related influenza virus haemagglutinins (HA) that were 82% identical, produced a variant-induced boost response in the GC dominated by highly mutated B cells that failed, not efficiently improving serum avidity even in the presence of extra adjuvant, and that was worse than a primary response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imm.13052DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read

The immune regulatory role of neutrophils.

Authors:
Daniel M Altmann

Immunology 2019 Mar;156(3):215-216

Department of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK.

Neutrophils are appreciated to perform a wide range of pro- and anti-inflammatory effector functions in diverse settings. These go far beyond the response to acute infection, encompassing sterile injury, autoimmunity, allergy and tumours. There is growing appreciation of the nuances of their modes of action, especially elucidation of the nature and consequences of NETosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imm.13049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6376264PMC

Active immunization with norovirus P particle-based amyloid-β chimeric protein vaccine induces high titers of anti-Aβ antibodies in mice.

BMC Immunol 2019 02 12;20(1). Epub 2019 Feb 12.

National Engineering Laboratory for AIDS Vaccine, School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012, China.

Background: Active immunotherapy targeting amyloid-β (Aβ) is a promising treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Numerous preclinical studies and clinical trials demonstrated that a safe and effective AD vaccine should induce high titers of anti-Aβ antibodies while avoiding the activation of T cells specific to Aβ.

Results: An untagged Aβ1-6 chimeric protein vaccine against AD based on norovirus (NoV) P particle was expressed in Escherichia coli and obtained by sequential chromatography. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12865-019-0289-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6373079PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Pain killers.

Authors:
Yvonne Bordon

Nat Rev Immunol 2019 Mar;19(3):136-137

Nature Reviews Immunology, .

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41577-019-0137-4DOI Listing

T cells feel the heat.

Authors:
Lucy Bird

Nat Rev Immunol 2019 Mar;19(3):139

Nature Immunology, .

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41577-019-0134-7DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read