16,227 results match your criteria Immunology[Journal]


Correlation of Cell-Surface CD8 Levels with Function, Phenotype and Transcriptome of Naive CD8 T Cells.

Immunology 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi, India.

We have previously demonstrated co-receptor level-associated functional heterogeneity in apparently homogenous naive peripheral CD4 T cells, dependent on MHC-mediated tonic signals. Since maturation pathways can differ between naive CD4 and naive CD8 cells, we tested whether the latter showed similar co-receptor level-associated functional heterogeneity. We report that, when either polyclonal and TCR-transgenic monoclonal peripheral naive CD8 T cells from young mice were separated into CD8hi and CD8lo subsets, CD8lo cells responded poorly, but CD8hi and CD8lo subsets of CD8 single-positive (SP) thymocytes responded similarly. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Immunoregulatory role of ASM in allergic asthma.

Immunology 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Department of Molecular Pneumology, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität (FAU) Erlangen-Nürnberg, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, 91052, Erlangen, Germany.

Acid sphingomyelinase is one of the enzymes that catalyzes the breakdown of sphingomyelin to ceramide and phosphorylcholine. In this study, we aimed at elucidating the role of ASM in allergic asthma. We used an Ovalbumin-induced murine model of asthma where we compared wild type and ASM-deficient mice. Read More

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December 2018

Adipose Tissue Dendritic Cells in Steady-State.

Immunology 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.

Healthy white adipose tissue (WAT) participates in regulating systemic metabolism, whilst dysfunctional WAT plays a prominent role in the development of obesity-associated comorbidities. Tissue resident immune cells are important for maintaining WAT homeostasis, including conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) which are critical in the initiation and regulation of adaptive immune responses. Due to phenotypic overlap with other myeloid cells, the distinct contribution of WAT cDCs has been poorly understood. Read More

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December 2018

Developmental origins of murine γδ T cell subsets.

Immunology 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Blizard Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, London, E1 2AT.

Murine γδ T cells display diverse responses to pathogens and tumours through early provision of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-17A (IL-17) and interferon-γ (IFNγ). Although it is now clear that acquisition of these cytokine-secreting effector fates is to a great extent developmentally pre-programmed in the thymus, the stages through which γδ progenitor cells transition, and the underlying mechanistic processes that govern these commitment events, are still largely unclear. Here, we review recent progress in the field, with particular consideration to how TCRγδ signalling impacts on developmental programs initiated prior to TCRγδ expression. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Inflammatory response under zinc deficiency is exacerbated by dysfunction of the Th2 lymphocyte - M2 macrophage pathway.

Immunology 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Public Health and Environmental Medicine, The Jikei University School of Medicine.

Nutritional zinc deficiency leads to immune dysfunction and aggravates inflammation. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In this study, the relationship between macrophage subtypes (M1 and M2) or helper T lymphocytes (Th1 and Th2) were investigated using the spleen from rats fed zinc-deficient or standard diet. Read More

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December 2018

Cardioimmunology of arrhythmias: the role of autoimmune and inflammatory cardiac channelopathies.

Nat Rev Immunol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Medical Sciences, Surgery and Neurosciences, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.

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December 2018

Reply to 'Cardioimmunology of arrhythmias: the role of autoimmune and inflammatory cardiac channelopathies'.

Nat Rev Immunol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Center for Systems Biology and Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

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December 2018

Radiation promotes systemic responses.

Authors:
Jordan Hindson

Nat Rev Immunol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Nature Reviews Immunology, .

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December 2018
1 Read

Of bugs, bones and butyrate.

Nat Rev Immunol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Nature Reviews Immunology, .

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December 2018
1 Read

Taking the good without the bad in transplantation.

Authors:
Yvonne Bordon

Nat Rev Immunol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Nature Reviews Immunology, .

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December 2018

Fixing a hole.

Authors:
Yvonne Bordon

Nat Rev Immunol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Nature Reviews Immunology, .

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December 2018

Transporters help clear cell corpses.

Authors:
Lucy Bird

Nat Rev Immunol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Nature Reviews Immunology, .

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December 2018

Small-intestinal TG2-specific plasma cells at different stages of coeliac disease.

BMC Immunol 2018 Dec 6;19(1):36. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Celiac Disease Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Tampere, P.O. Box 100, 33014, Tampere, Finland.

Background: In coeliac disease, ingestion of gluten induces the production of transglutaminase 2 (TG2)-targeted autoantibodies by TG2-specific plasma cells present at high frequency in the small intestinal mucosa in untreated disease. During treatment with a gluten-free diet (GFD), the number of these cells decreases considerably. It has not been previously investigated whether the cells are also present prior to development of villous atrophy, or in non-responsive patients and those with dietary lapses. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Autophagy in the renewal, differentiation and homeostasis of immune cells.

Nat Rev Immunol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, University of Oxford, Headington, Oxford, UK.

Across all branches of the immune system, the process of autophagy is fundamentally important in cellular development, function and homeostasis. Strikingly, this evolutionarily ancient pathway for intracellular recycling has been adapted to enable a high degree of functional complexity and specialization. However, although the requirement for autophagy in normal immune cell function is clear, the mechanisms involved are much less so and encompass control of metabolism, selective degradation of substrates and organelles and participation in cell survival decisions. Read More

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December 2018

T-cell immunology of the lung: maintaining the balance between host defence and immune pathology.

Authors:
Daniel M Altmann

Immunology 2019 Jan;156(1):1-2

Department of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK.

Respiratory immunology poses the dual questions of how to grapple with lung infection as one of the greatest unmet global health needs of our time, while also dealing with the growing challenge posed by chronic diseases of excessive or inappropriate lung inflammation and immunity, such as chronic obstructive lung disease and asthma. These separate branches of pulmonary research are linked by the clear observation that, in a tissue as fragile as the lung, protection from microbial attack may come at the cost of chronic inflammatory damage. A number of recent studies have considered specific aspects of this double-edged sword, including the diversity of responses to fungal exposure, sources and consequences of interleukin-17 immunity, and the role of tertiary lymphoid follicles in the lung. Read More

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January 2019
15 Reads

A novel approach for rapid high-throughput selection of recombinant functional rat monoclonal antibodies.

BMC Immunol 2018 Dec 4;19(1):35. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361102, China.

Background: Most monoclonal antibodies against mouse antigens have been derived from rat spleen-mouse myeloma fusions, which are valuable tools for purposes ranging from general laboratory reagents to therapeutic drugs, and yet selecting and expressing them remains a time-consuming and inefficient process. Here, we report a novel approach for the rapid high-throughput selection and expression of recombinant functional rat monoclonal antibodies with different isotypes.

Results: We have developed a robust system for generating rat monoclonal antibodies through several processes involving simultaneously immunizing rats with three different antigens expressing in a mixed cell pools, preparing hybridoma cell pools, in vitro screening and subsequent cloning of the rearranged light and heavy chains into a single expression plasmid using a highly efficient assembly method, which can decrease the time and effort required by multiple immunizations and fusions, traditional clonal selection and expression methods. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Camouflage and interception: How pathogens evade detection by intracellular nucleic acid sensors.

Immunology 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Division of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medicine, Lancaster University, LA1 4YQ, UK.

Intracellular DNA and RNA sensors play a vital part in the innate immune response to viruses and other intracellular pathogens, causing the secretion of type I interferons, cytokines and chemokines from infected cells. Pathogen RNA can be detected by RIG-I-like receptors in the cytosol, while cytosolic DNA is recognised by DNA sensors such as cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS). The resulting local immune response, which is initiated within hours of infection, is able to eliminate many pathogens before they are able to establish an infection in the host. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Basics of memory B-cell responses: lessons from and for the real world.

Immunology 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Immunobiology, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ, USA.

The production of pathogen-specific B cells and antibodies underlies protective immunity elicited by most vaccines and many infections. Humoral immunity follows a regulated process by which high-affinity antibody-secreting plasma cells and memory B cells are generated. Yet for certain pathogens, protective immunity is inefficiently generated and/or maintained. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Targeting trained immunity.

Authors:
Lucy Bird

Nat Rev Immunol 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Nature Reviews Immunology, .

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November 2018

Statins: a viable candidate for host-directed therapy against infectious diseases.

Nat Rev Immunol 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB), Cape Town-Component, Cape Town, South Africa.

Statins were first identified over 40 years ago as lipid-lowering drugs and have been remarkably effective in treating cardiovascular diseases. As research advanced, the protective effects of statins were additionally attributed to their anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, anti-thrombotic and immunomodulatory functions rather than lipid-lowering abilities alone. By promoting host defence mechanisms and inhibiting pathological inflammation, statins increase survival in human infectious diseases. Read More

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November 2018

B1 B cells link gut dysbiosis and insulin resistance.

Authors:
Kirsty Minton

Nat Rev Immunol 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Nature Reviews Immunology, .

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November 2018
3 Reads

Models of immune selection for multi-locus antigenic diversity of pathogens.

Nat Rev Immunol 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Center for Communicable Disease Dynamics, Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

It is well accepted that pathogens can evade recognition and elimination by the host immune system by varying their antigenic targets. Thus, it has become a truism that host immunity is a major driver and determinant of the antigenic diversity of pathogens. However, it remains puzzling how host immunity selects for antigenic diversity at the level of the pathogen population, given that hosts have acquired immune responses to multiple antigens of most pathogens - sometimes through multiple effectors of both humoral and cellular immunity. Read More

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November 2018

Neutrophils mitigate the systemic host response during endotoxemia in mice.

Immunology 2018 Nov 25. Epub 2018 Nov 25.

Center of Experimental & Molecular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Recent studies have suggested that neutrophils can exert anti-inflammatory effects. To determine the role of neutrophils in the acute response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), component of the gram-negative bacterial cell wall, we challenged neutrophil depleted and control mice with LPS and analyzed the plasma concentrations of biomarkers indicative of the cytokine and chemokine network, activation of coagulation and the vascular endothelium, and cellular injury. We here show that neutrophils serve an anti-inflammatory role upon LPS administration, as reflected by sustained elevations in multiple cytokines and chemokines, and enhanced release of nucleosomes in mice depleted of neutrophils, compared to control mice. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

IL-17/IL-17R axis elicits intestinal neutrophil migration, restrains gut dysbiosis and LPS translocation in high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome model.

Immunology 2018 Nov 25. Epub 2018 Nov 25.

Departments of Biochemistry and Immunology.

Sound evidence supports a role for interleukin-17 (IL-17)-producing delta-gamma (γδ) T cells and IL-17-producing helper T cells (Th17) in intestinal homeostasis, especially in intestinal barrier integrity. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the role of IL-17 cytokine in the regulation of intestinal immunity and obesity-induced metabolic syndrome (MetS) in an experimental murine model. C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice and mice lacking the IL-17 cytokine receptor (IL-17RA ) were fed either a control diet (CD) or a high-fat diet (HFD) for nine weeks. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

B cell specific-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ deficiency augments contact hypersensitivity with impaired regulatory B cells.

Immunology 2018 Nov 24. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Laboratory of Anti-inflammatory and Immunomodulatory Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515.

Nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) activation can prevent immunoinflammatory disorders and diabetes. B cells play protective roles during inflammation as well. However, the roles of endogenous PPAR-γ on the regulatory property of B cells to relieve inflammations remain unknown. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

CARD-BCL-10-MALT1 signalling in protective and pathological immunity.

Nat Rev Immunol 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, School of Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany.

CARD protein-BCL-10-MALT1 (CBM) signalosomes are multiprotein signalling platforms that control immune and inflammatory pathways in most tissues. After exposure to distinct immune triggers, these molecules form self-organizing filaments with MALT1 protease activity to regulate canonical nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathways and the degradation of mRNA-binding proteins, which provides two layers of control of inflammatory gene expression. These CBM-regulated mechanisms are essential for host defence and tissue homeostasis, and numerous genetic alterations in CBM signalling components have been implicated in inherited and acquired immune-mediated diseases. Read More

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November 2018
8 Reads

Dendritic cell subsets in T cell programming: location dictates function.

Authors:
S C Eisenbarth

Nat Rev Immunol 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Immunobiology, Section of Allergy & Immunology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Dendritic cells (DCs) can be viewed as translators between innate and adaptive immunity. They integrate signals derived from tissue infection or damage and present processed antigen from these sites to naive T cells in secondary lymphoid organs while also providing multiple soluble and surface-bound signals that help to guide T cell differentiation. DC-mediated tailoring of the appropriate T cell programme ensures a proper cascade of immune responses that adequately targets the insult. Read More

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November 2018
12 Reads

A sequence conserved between CD5 and CD6 binds an FERM domain and exerts a restraint on T-cell activation.

Immunology 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

CD5 and CD6 are related surface receptors that limit and promote T-cell responses. Co-stimulatory effects of CD6 depend on binding a cell surface ligand, CD166, and recruitment of the intracellular adaptor proteins GADS and SLP-76 by C-terminal phosphotyrosines. We have continued to identify interactions of CD5 and CD6 to understand their roles in T-cell activation. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Characterization of anti-EBA175RIII-V in asymptomatic adults and children living in communities in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana with varying malaria transmission intensities.

BMC Immunol 2018 Nov 19;19(1):34. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana.

Background: Antibodies against Region III-V of the erythrocyte binding antigen (EBA) 175 (EBA175RIII-V) have been suggested to provide protection from malaria in a natural infection. However, the quality and quantity of naturally induced antibodies to EBA175RIII-V has not been fully characterized in different cohorts of Ghanaians. This study sought to determine the characteristics of antibodies against EBA175RIII-V in asymptomatic adults and children living in two communities of varying P. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Frequency and immunophenotype of IL10 producing regulatory B cells in Optic Neuritis.

Immunology 2018 Nov 19. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

MS Clinic, Department of Neurology, University of Copenhagen, Rigshospitalet Glostrup, Glostrup, Denmark.

Mouse models of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) have shown the importance of interleukin-10 (IL10) producing regulatory B-cells (Bregs) in dampening disease activity and inhibiting disease initiation and progression. In MS and other autoimmune diseases decreased frequency and functionality of Bregs correlate with disease activity and the percentage of IL10 producing Bregs decrease during relapse and normalizes in remission. Optic Neuritis (ON) is a common first clinical manifestation of MS and IL10 producing Bregs may be crucial in the transition from ON to MS, we therefore investigate the frequency and function of Bregs in ON as a clinical model of early demyelinating disease. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Translational target for checkpoint inhibitors.

Authors:
Katie Kingwell

Nat Rev Immunol 2018 Dec;18(12):728-729

Associate editor, Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, .

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December 2018

Transcriptional control of natural killer cell differentiation.

Immunology 2018 Nov 18. Epub 2018 Nov 18.

Center for Immunity and Inflammation, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences, Rutgers - The State University of New Jersey, Newark, NJ, USA.

Natural killer (NK) cells are highly specialized cytotoxic lymphocytes that provide protection against pathogens and malignant cells. They develop from common lymphoid progenitors via a multi-stage lineage commitment and differentiation process that gives rise to mature NK cells with potent cytotoxic functionality. Although generally considered cells of the innate immune system, recent studies have demonstrated that NK cells have the capacity to mount immune responses with features of adaptive immunity, including robust antigen-specific clonal-like expansion and the generation of long-lived memory cells that mediate enhanced recall responses. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

The immunological anatomy of the skin.

Nat Rev Immunol 2018 Nov 14. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

The skin is the outermost organ of the body and is continuously exposed to external pathogens. Upon inflammation, various immune cells pass through, reside in or are recruited to the skin to orchestrate diverse cutaneous immune responses. To achieve this, immune cells interact with each other and even communicate with non-immune cells, including peripheral nerves and the microbiota. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Elevated circulating levels of monocyte activation markers among tuberculosis patients with diabetes co-morbidity.

Immunology 2018 Nov 14. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

National Institutes of Health-NIRT-International Center for Excellence in Research, Chennai, India.

Alteration in the frequency of monocyte subsets is a hallmark of tuberculosis-diabetes co-morbidity (TB-DM). To study this association, we examined the plasma levels of sCD14, sCD163, C-reactive protein (CRP) and soluble tissue factor (sTF) in individuals with TB-DM, TB or diabetes mellitus (DM), and in healthy controls (HC). Circulating levels of sCD14, sCD163 and sTF were significantly increased in TB-DM and DM compared with TB and HC; however, CRP was significantly increased in TB-DM and TB compared with DM and HC. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads
3.800 Impact Factor

Tame or inflame: gut reactions to pro- and antibiotics.

Nat Rev Immunol 2018 Dec;18(12):728-729

Nature Reviews Immunology, .

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December 2018
2 Reads

Central CD4 T cell tolerance: deletion versus regulatory T cell differentiation.

Nat Rev Immunol 2018 Nov 12. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

The diversion of MHC class II-restricted thymocytes into the regulatory T (T) cell lineage is driven by intrathymic encounter of agonist self-antigens in a similar manner to the clonal deletion of thymocytes. Somewhat paradoxically, it thus seems that the expression of an autoreactive T cell receptor is a shared characteristic of T cells that are subject to clonal deletion and T cells that are diverted into the T cell lineage. Here, we discuss how thymocyte-intrinsic and thymocyte-extrinsic determinants may specify the choice between these two fundamentally different T cell fates. Read More

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November 2018
7 Reads

Immune response by touch.

Authors:
Kirsty Minton

Nat Rev Immunol 2018 Dec;18(12):730-731

Nature Reviews Immunology, .

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December 2018
6 Reads

T cell help to stem cells.

Authors:
Lucy Bird

Nat Rev Immunol 2018 Dec;18(12):730-731

Nature Reviews Immunology, .

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December 2018

Interleukin-1 beta influences functional regeneration following nerve injury in mice through NF-kappa B signaling pathway.

Immunology 2018 Nov 12. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, 200233, China.

Objective: This study focuses on investigating the role of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) in functional regeneration following nerve injury in mice.

Methods: A microarray-based mRNA profiling study was used to analyze the expression level of IL-1β in peripheral nerve regeneration. QRT-PCR and western blot were applied to assess the IL-1β expressions of C57BL/6J-crush and C57BL/6J-crush+IL-1β mice at different post-injury time points after the standard sciatic nerve crush injury. Read More

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November 2018

Jagged1-expressing adenovirus-infected dendritic cells induce expansion of Foxp3 regulatory T cells and alleviate T helper type 2-mediated allergic asthma in mice.

Immunology 2018 Nov 12. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells that play a key role in directing T-cell responses. Regulatory T (Treg) cells possess an immunosuppressive ability to inhibit effector T-cell responses, and Notch ligand Jagged1 (Jag1) is implicated in Treg cell differentiation. In this study, we evaluated whether bone marrow-derived DCs genetically engineered to express Jag1 (Jag1-DCs) would affect the maturation and function of DCs in vitro and further investigated the immunoregulatory ability of Jag1-DCs to manipulate T helper type 2 (Th2) -mediated allergic asthma in mice. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Functions of adipose-resident immune subsets and the impact on metabolic syndrome.

Authors:
Daniel M Altmann

Immunology 2018 Dec;155(4):405-406

Department of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK.

There is a growing appreciation of the role in the aetiology of metabolic syndrome that is played by the interplay of diet, microbiota and the interactions of immune cells and adipose cells in visceral adipose tissue. Recent studies have highlighted the programmes, properties and roles of the specialized, resident immune subsets that are abundant in adipose tissue, which may be considered a newly identified lymphoid compartment for immunology research. The findings indicate important roles for resident T effector and regulatory cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and macrophages, among others. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Functional cure of HIV: the scale of the challenge.

Nat Rev Immunol 2018 Nov 8. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

The Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, The University of Melbourne and Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

A variety of interventions to induce a functional cure of HIV are being explored, with the aim being to allow patients to cease antiretroviral therapy (ART) for prolonged periods of time or for life. These interventions share the goal of inducing ART-free remission from HIV pathogenesis and disease progression but achieve this in quite different ways, by reducing the size of the latent reservoir (for example, small-molecule stimulation of latently infected cells), reducing the number of target cells available for the virus (for example, gene therapy) or improving immune responses (for example, active or passive immunotherapy). Here, we consider a number of these alternative strategies for inducing post-treatment control of HIV and use mathematical modelling to predict the scale of the challenge inherent in these different approaches. Read More

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November 2018
9 Reads

Lung-infiltrating T helper 17 cells as the major source of interleukin-17A production during pulmonary Cryptococcus neoformans infection.

BMC Immunol 2018 Nov 8;19(1):32. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

School of Bioscience, Taylor's University, Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: IL-17A has emerged as a key player in the pathologies of inflammation, autoimmune disease, and immunity to microbes since its discovery two decades ago. In this study, we aim to elucidate the activity of IL-17A in the protection against Cryptococcus neoformans, an opportunistic fungus that causes fatal meningoencephalitis among AIDS patients. For this purpose, we examined if C. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads
2.480 Impact Factor

Immune activation and regulatory T cells in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infected lymph nodes.

BMC Immunol 2018 Nov 8;19(1):33. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Laboratory of Cellular Immunology, National Institute of Hygiene, 27, Avenue Ibn Batouta, PB 769, 11400, Rabat, Morocco.

Background: Lymph node tuberculosis (LNTB) is the most frequent extrapulmonary form of tuberculosis (TB). Studies of human tuberculosis at sites of disease are limited. LNTB provides a unique opportunity to compare local in situ and peripheral blood immune response in active Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) disease. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

PRBAM: a new tool to analyze the MHC class I and HLA-DR anchor motifs.

Immunology 2018 Nov 8. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Immunology Unit, Department of Cell Biology, Physiology and Immunology. Institut de Biotecnologia i Biomedicina, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193, Bellaterra, Spain.

MHC genes are highly polymorphic, what makes each MHC molecule different regarding the peptide repertoire they can bind and present to T lymphocytes. The increasing importance of immunopeptidomics and its use in personalized medicine in different fields as oncology or autoimmunity demands the correct analysis of the peptide repertoires bound to HLA-I and -II molecules. Purification of the peptide pool by affinity chromatography and individual peptide sequencing using mass spectrometry techniques is the standard protocol to define the binding motifs of the different MHC-I and MHC-II molecules. Read More

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November 2018

HLA-DR Class II expression on myeloid and lymphoid cells in relation to HLA-DRB1 as a genetic risk factor for visceral leishmaniasis.

Immunology 2018 Nov 7. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Department of Pathology, The University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Genetic variation at HLA-DRB1 is a risk factor for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania donovani. The single nucleotide polymorphism rs9271252 upstream of the DRB1 gene provides a perfect tag for protective versus risk HLA-DRB1 four-digit alleles. In addition to the traditional role of the membrane-distal region of HLA class II molecules in antigen presentation and CD4 T-cell activation, the membrane-proximal region mediates 'non-traditional' multi-functional activation, differentiation, or death signals, including in DR-expressing T cells. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Mapping innate variation.

Authors:
Yvonne Bordon

Nat Rev Immunol 2018 Dec;18(12):727

Nature Reviews Immunology, .

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December 2018
4 Reads

Altered endotoxin responsiveness in healthy children with Down syndrome.

BMC Immunol 2018 Nov 3;19(1):31. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

Paediatrics, Trinity College, the University of Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Background: Down syndrome (DS) is the most common syndromic immunodeficiency with an increased risk of infection, mortality from sepsis, and autoinflammation. Innate immune function is altered in DS and therefore we examined responses in CD11b and Toll like receptor 4 (TLR-4), which are important immune cell surface markers upregulated in response to Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin, and the immunomodulator melatonin. Neutrophil and monocyte responses to LPS and melatonin in children with Down syndrome (DS) who were clinically stable were compared to age-matched controls. Read More

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November 2018
8 Reads

Aldehyde dehydrogenase in regulatory T-cell development, immunity and cancer.

Immunology 2019 Jan 22;156(1):47-55. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

The Penn State Melanoma and Skin Cancer Center, The Pennsylvania State University Medical Center, Hershey, PA, USA.

The role of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in carcinogenesis and resistance to cancer therapies is well known. Mounting evidence also suggests a potentially important role for ALDH in the induction and function of regulatory T (Treg) cells. Treg cells are important cells of the immune system involved in promoting immune tolerance and preventing aberrant immune responses to beneficial or non-harmful antigens. Read More

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January 2019
5 Reads

Blood handling and leukocyte isolation methods impact the global transcriptome of immune cells.

BMC Immunol 2018 Oct 30;19(1):30. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Department of Biological Engineering, Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA.

Background: Transcriptional profiling with ultra-low input methods can yield valuable insights into disease, particularly when applied to the study of immune cells using RNA-sequencing. The advent of these methods has allowed for their use in profiling cells collected in clinical trials and other studies that involve the coordination of human-derived material. To date, few studies have sought to quantify what effects that collection and handling of this material can have on resulting data. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read