3,552 results match your criteria Immunological Reviews [Journal]


Introduction: Global positioning by chemokines and other mediators.

Authors:
Andrew D Luster

Immunol Rev 2019 May;289(1):5-8

Center for Immunology & Inflammatory Diseases, Division of Rheumatology, Allergy & Immunology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12763DOI Listing

Concepts of GPCR-controlled navigation in the immune system.

Immunol Rev 2019 May;289(1):205-231

Institute of Systems Immunology, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling is essential for the spatiotemporal control of leukocyte dynamics during immune responses. For efficient navigation through mammalian tissues, most leukocyte types express more than one GPCR on their surface and sense a wide range of chemokines and chemoattractants, leading to basic forms of leukocyte movement (chemokinesis, haptokinesis, chemotaxis, haptotaxis, and chemorepulsion). How leukocytes integrate multiple GPCR signals and make directional decisions in lymphoid and inflamed tissues is still subject of intense research. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/imr.12752
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12752DOI Listing
May 2019
5 Reads

Exploring the complex role of chemokines and chemoattractants in vivo on leukocyte dynamics.

Immunol Rev 2019 May;289(1):9-30

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Chemotaxis is fundamental for leukocyte migration in immunity and inflammation and contributes to the pathogenesis of many human diseases. Although chemokines and various other chemoattractants were initially appreciated as important mediators of acute inflammation, in the past years they have emerged as critical mediators of cell migration during immune surveillance, organ development, and cancer progression. Such advances in our knowledge in chemokine biology have paved the way for the development of specific pharmacological targets with great therapeutic potential. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12757DOI Listing

Chemokines and other mediators in the development and functional organization of lymph nodes.

Immunol Rev 2019 May;289(1):62-83

Institute of Immunology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Secondary lymphoid organs like lymph nodes (LNs) are the main inductive sites for adaptive immune responses. Lymphocytes are constantly entering LNs, scanning the environment for their cognate antigen and get replenished by incoming cells after a certain period of time. As only a minor percentage of lymphocytes recognizes cognate antigen, this mechanism of permanent recirculation ensures fast and effective immune responses when necessary. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12746DOI Listing

T cell and dendritic cell interactions in lymphoid organs: More than just being in the right place at the right time.

Immunol Rev 2019 May;289(1):115-128

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Melbourne, The Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

The initiation of T lymphocyte responses within secondary lymphoid organs involves interactions with different subsets of dendritic cells (DCs). Recent studies have revealed the complexity of microanatomical organization within lymphoid organs. Exactly how T cells and DCs locate each other and the type of cellular interactions required for optimal priming of effector and memory T cell responses are beginning to be unraveled. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12753DOI Listing

Regulators of T-cell fate: Integration of cell migration, differentiation and function.

Authors:
Joanna R Groom

Immunol Rev 2019 May;289(1):101-114

Division of Immunology, Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

A fundamental question in immunology is how cells decide between distinct T helper, effector or memory differentiation fates. These decisions are paramount to overcome infection and establish long-lasting protection. The impact of cell location for the determination of T-cell fate decisions is an emerging field. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/imr.12742
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12742DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read

Secrets and lyase: Control of sphingosine 1-phosphate distribution.

Immunol Rev 2019 May;289(1):173-185

Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York City, New York.

The signaling lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) plays key roles in many physiological processes. In the immune system, S1P's best-described function is to draw cells out of tissues into circulation. Here, we will review models of S1P distribution in the thymus, lymph nodes, spleen, and nonlymphoid tissues. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/imr.12760
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12760DOI Listing
May 2019
2 Reads

Compartmentalization of dendritic cell and T-cell interactions in the lymph node: Anatomy of T-cell fate decisions.

Immunol Rev 2019 May;289(1):84-100

Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.

Upon receiving cognate and co-stimulatory priming signals from antigen (Ag)-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) in secondary lymphoid tissues, naïve CD4 T cells differentiate into distinct effector and memory populations. These alternate cell fate decisions, which ultimately control the T-cell functional attributes, are dictated by programming signals provided by Ag-bearing DCs and by other cells that are present in the microenvironment in which T-cell priming occurs. We know that DCs can be subdivided into multiple populations and that the various DC subsets exhibit differential capacities to initiate development of the different CD4 T-helper populations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12758DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6464380PMC

G-protein coupled receptors and ligands that organize humoral immune responses.

Immunol Rev 2019 May;289(1):158-172

Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

B-cell responses are dynamic processes that depend on multiple types of interactions. Rare antigen-specific B cells must encounter antigen and specialized systems are needed-unique to each lymphoid tissue type-to ensure this happens efficiently. Lymphoid tissue barrier cells act to ensure that pathogens, while being permitted entry for B-cell recognition, are blocked from replication or dissemination. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/imr.12743
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12743DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6464390PMC
May 2019
2 Reads

Guidance factors orchestrating regulatory T cell positioning in tissues during development, homeostasis, and response.

Immunol Rev 2019 May;289(1):129-141

The Center for Immunology and Inflammatory Diseases at Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Over their lifetime, regulatory T cells (Treg) recalibrate their expression of trafficking receptors multiple times as they progress through development, respond to immune challenges, or adapt to the requirements of functioning in various non-lymphoid tissue environments. These trafficking receptors, which include chemokine receptors and other G-protein coupled receptors, integrins, as well as selectins and their ligands, enable Treg not only to enter appropriate tissues from the bloodstream via post-capillary venules, but also to navigate these tissues to locally execute their immune-regulatory functions, and finally to seek out the right antigen-presenting cells and interact with these, in part in order to receive the signals that sustain their survival, proliferation, and functional activity, in part in order to execute their immuno-regulatory function by altering antigen presenting cell function. Here, we will review our current knowledge of when and in what ways Treg alter their trafficking properties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12761DOI Listing

Remodeling of reactive lymph nodes: Dynamics of stromal cells and underlying chemokine signaling.

Immunol Rev 2019 May;289(1):42-61

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Centre d'Immunologie de Marseille-Luminy (CIML), Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France.

Lymph nodes (LNs) are secondary immune organs dispersed throughout the body. They are primarily composed of lymphocytes, "transient passengers" that are only present for a few hours. During this time, they extensively interact with a meshwork of stromal cells. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/imr.12750
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12750DOI Listing
May 2019
6 Reads

Regulation of global CD8 T-cell positioning by the actomyosin cytoskeleton.

Immunol Rev 2019 May;289(1):232-249

Department of Oncology, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland.

CD8 T cells have evolved as one of the most motile mammalian cell types, designed to continuously scan peptide-major histocompatibility complexes class I on the surfaces of other cells. Chemoattractants and adhesion molecules direct CD8 T-cell homing to and migration within secondary lymphoid organs, where these cells colocalize with antigen-presenting dendritic cells in confined tissue volumes. CD8 T-cell activation induces a switch to infiltration of non-lymphoid tissue (NLT), which differ in their topology and biophysical properties from lymphoid tissue. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/imr.12759
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12759DOI Listing
May 2019
2 Reads

Fibroblastic reticular cells at the nexus of innate and adaptive immune responses.

Immunol Rev 2019 May;289(1):31-41

Institute of Immunobiology, Kantonsspital St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland.

Lymphoid organs guarantee productive immune cell interactions through the establishment of distinct microenvironmental niches that are built by fibroblastic reticular cells (FRC). These specialized immune-interacting fibroblasts coordinate the migration and positioning of lymphoid and myeloid cells in lymphoid organs and provide essential survival and differentiation factors during homeostasis and immune activation. In this review, we will outline the current knowledge on FRC functions in secondary lymphoid organs such as lymph nodes, spleen and Peyer's patches and will discuss how FRCs contribute to the regulation of immune processes in fat-associated lymphoid clusters. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/imr.12748
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12748DOI Listing
May 2019
5 Reads

T-cell positioning by chemokines in autoimmune skin diseases.

Immunol Rev 2019 May;289(1):186-204

Department of Dermatology, UMass Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts.

Autoimmune skin diseases are complex processes in which autoreactive cells must navigate through the skin tissue to find their targets. Regulatory T cells in the skin help to mitigate autoimmune inflammation and may in fact be responsible for the patchy nature of these conditions. In this review, we will discuss chemokines that are important for global recruitment of T cell populations to the skin during disease, as well as signals that fine-tune their localization and function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12762DOI Listing

Cell circuits and niches controlling B cell development.

Immunol Rev 2019 May;289(1):142-157

Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.

Studies over the last decade uncovered overlapping niches for hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), multipotent progenitor cells, common lymphoid progenitors, and early B cell progenitors. HSC and lymphoid niches are predominantly composed by mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) and by a small subset of endothelial cells. Niche cells create specialized microenvironments through the concomitant production of short-range acting cell-fate determining cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-7 and stem cell factor and the potent chemoattractant C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 12. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12749DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6464388PMC
May 2019
1 Read

T cells in bystander and cognate interactions with B cells.

Immunol Rev 2019 Mar;288(1):28-36

Department of Basic Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine, Laboratory of Dynamic Immunobiology, Tsinghua-Peking Center for Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

Follicular T-helper (T ) cells play a crucial role in three aspects of the germinal center (GC) response. They promote GC formation, arbitrate competition among GC B cells to determine the outcome of affinity maturation, and regulate GC output of memory and plasma cells to shape the long-lived humoral immune memory. Of fundamental importance are dynamic physical interactions between T and B cells, which are the main platform for T cells to deliver "help" factors to B cells and also for reciprocal signaling from B cells to maintain the helper state of T cells. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/imr.12747
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12747DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

T-bet memory B cells: Generation, function, and fate.

Immunol Rev 2019 Mar;288(1):149-160

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

B cells expressing the transcription factor T-bet have emerged as participants in a number of protective and pathogenic immune responses. T-bet B cells characteristically differentiate in response to combined Toll-like receptor and cytokine signaling, contribute to protective immunity against intracellular pathogens via IgG2 production and antibody-independent mechanisms, and are prone to produce autoantibodies. Despite recent advances, a number of questions remain regarding the basic biology of T-bet B cells and their functional niche within the immune system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12736DOI Listing

The continuing story of T-cell independent antibodies.

Immunol Rev 2019 Mar;288(1):128-135

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

The purpose of this article is to review the role of extrafollicular and T-cell independent antibody responses in humoral immunity. We consider two interrelated questions: (a) do T-cell independent antibody responses dominated by IgM and/or IgA play unique functions in immunity and homeostasis; and (b) is it typical for these responses to result in lifelong protection? In addressing these questions, we consider the established advantages of T-cell driven responses including the unique role played by germinal center reactions in these responses, and contrast the processes and outcomes of germinal center-centric responses with germinal center- and T-cell independent antibodies. We suggest that T-independent and other extrafollicular responses contribute substantially to highly stable antibody repertoires in both the serum and the intestine, providing relatively constitutive humoral barriers with the collective dual function of protecting against invading pathogens and regulating the composition of non-pathogenic microbial communities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12754DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Plasma cells: You are what you eat.

Immunol Rev 2019 Mar;288(1):161-177

Department of Immunobiology, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, Arizona.

Plasma cells are terminally differentiated B lymphocytes that constitutively secrete antibodies. These antibodies can provide protection against pathogens, and their quantity and quality are the best clinical correlates of vaccine efficacy. As such, plasma cell lifespan is the primary determinant of the duration of humoral immunity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12732DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6422051PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

T cell interactions with B cells during germinal center formation, a three-step model.

Immunol Rev 2019 Mar;288(1):37-48

Department of Immunology, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.

Establishment of effective immunity against invading microbes depends on continuous generation of antibodies that facilitate pathogen clearance. Long-lived plasma cells with the capacity to produce high affinity antibodies evolve in germinal centers (GCs), where B cells undergo somatic hypermutation and are subjected to affinity-based selection. Here, we focus on the cellular interactions that take place early in the antibody immune response during GC colonization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12737DOI Listing

Germinal center-derived lymphomas: The darkest side of humoral immunity.

Immunol Rev 2019 Mar;288(1):214-239

Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology & Medical Oncology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York City, New York.

One of the unusual features of germinal center (GC) B cells is that they manifest many hallmarks of cancer cells. Accordingly, most B-cell neoplasms originate from the GC reaction, and characteristically display abundant point mutations, structural genomic lesions, and clonal diversity from the genetic and epigenetic standpoints. The dominant biological theme of GC-derived lymphomas is mutation of genes involved in epigenetic regulation and immune receptor signaling, which come into play at critical transitional stages of the GC reaction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12755DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Linking signaling and selection in the germinal center.

Immunol Rev 2019 Mar;288(1):49-63

Department of Immunology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Germinal centers (GC) are sites of rapid B-cell proliferation in response to certain types of immunization. They arise in about 1 week and can persist for several months. In GCs, B cells differentiate in a unique way and begin to undergo somatic mutation of the Ig V regions at a high rate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12744DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6422174PMC
March 2019
2 Reads
10.120 Impact Factor

Epigenetic regulation of B cell fate and function during an immune response.

Immunol Rev 2019 Mar;288(1):75-84

Infection and Immunity Program and The Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

The humoral immune response requires coordination of molecular programs to mediate differentiation into unique B cell subsets that help clear the infection and form immune memory. Epigenetic modifications are crucial for ensuring that the appropriate genes are transcribed or repressed during B cell differentiation. Recent studies have illuminated the changes in DNA methylation and histone post-translational modifications that accompany the formation of germinal center and antibody-secreting cells during an immune response. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/imr.12733
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12733DOI Listing
March 2019
10 Reads

Plasma cell differentiation during the germinal center reaction.

Immunol Rev 2019 Mar;288(1):64-74

Laboratory of Lymphocyte Differentiation, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan.

Germinal centers (GCs) are formed in secondary lymphoid tissues upon immunization with T-dependent antigens. In GCs, somatic hypermutation generates B cells with increased antibody affinity and these high-affinity B cells preferentially differentiate into plasma cells, which home to bone marrow and confer long-lived humoral immunity. Recent studies have shed new light on the cellular and molecular basis for initiating the transition from a GC B cell to a plasma cell. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/imr.12751
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12751DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

T follicular helper cell heterogeneity: Time, space, and function.

Immunol Rev 2019 Mar;288(1):85-96

Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT.

T follicular helper (Tfh) cells play a crucial role in orchestrating the humoral arm of adaptive immune responses. Mature Tfh cells localize to follicles in secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) where they provide help to B cells in germinal centers (GCs) to facilitate immunoglobulin affinity maturation, class-switch recombination, and generation of long-lived plasma cells and memory B cells. Beyond the canonical GC Tfh cells, it has been increasingly appreciated that the Tfh phenotype is highly diverse and dynamic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12740DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6422039PMC
March 2019
3 Reads

The B-cell receptor in control of tumor B-cell fitness: Biology and clinical relevance.

Immunol Rev 2019 Mar;288(1):198-213

Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Section of Pathology, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.

Surface expression of a functional B cell antigen receptor (BCR) is essential for the survival and proliferation of mature B cells. Most types of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders retain surface BCR expression, including B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (B-NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Targeting BCR effectors in B-NHL cell lines in vitro has indicated that this signaling axis is crucial for malignant B cell growth. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12738DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

B cell primary immune responses.

Immunol Rev 2019 Mar;288(1):5-9

Immunology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/imr.12756
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12756DOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads

Molecular pathogenesis of germinal center-derived B cell lymphomas.

Immunol Rev 2019 Mar;288(1):240-261

Pathology and Cell Biology, Institute for Cancer Genetics, Columbia University, New York City, New York.

B cell lymphomas comprise a heterogeneous group of genetically, biologically, and clinically distinct neoplasms that, in most cases, originate from the clonal expansion of B cells in the germinal center (GC). In recent years, the advent of novel genomics technologies has revolutionized our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of lymphoid malignancies as a multistep process that requires the progressive accumulation of multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations. A common theme that emerged from these studies is the ability of lymphoma cells to co-opt the same biological programs and signal transduction networks that operate during the normal GC reaction, and misuse them for their own survival advantage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12745DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

MYC in Germinal Center-derived lymphomas: Mechanisms and therapeutic opportunities.

Immunol Rev 2019 Mar;288(1):178-197

Department of Experimental Oncology, IEO, European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

The rearrangement of immunoglobulin loci during the germinal center reaction is associated with an increased risk of chromosomal translocations that activate oncogenes such as MYC, BCL2 or BCL6, thus contributing to the development of B-cell lymphomas. MYC and BCL2 activation are initiating events in Burkitt's (BL) and Follicular Lymphoma (FL), respectively, but can occur at later stages in other subtypes such as Diffuse Large-B Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL). MYC can also be activated during the progression of FL to the transformed stage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12734DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Extrafollicular responses in humans and SLE.

Immunol Rev 2019 Mar;288(1):136-148

Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, Lowance Center for Human Immunology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.

Chronic autoimmune diseases, and in particular Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), are endowed with a long-standing autoreactive B-cell compartment that is presumed to reactivate periodically leading to the generation of new bursts of pathogenic antibody-secreting cells (ASC). Moreover, pathogenic autoantibodies are typically characterized by a high load of somatic hypermutation and in some cases are highly stable even in the context of prolonged B-cell depletion. Long-lived, highly mutated antibodies are typically generated through T-cell-dependent germinal center (GC) reactions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12741DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6422038PMC
March 2019
1 Read

T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cells: Dissecting the complexity of Tfr-cell compartments.

Immunol Rev 2019 Mar;288(1):112-127

Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.

Germinal centers (GC) have been known as key anatomic structures in humoral immunity, where isotype switching and affinity maturation occur. As a consequence, elucidation of GC regulation has potential implications for the understanding of autoantibody-mediated diseases. It is now accepted that different regulatory mechanisms coexist, including the action of a specialized population of Foxp3 regulatory T cells with unique access to the B-cell follicle: the T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12739DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

MicroRNA-mediated regulation of T follicular helper and T follicular regulatory cell identity.

Immunol Rev 2019 Mar;288(1):97-111

Institute for Immunology, Biomedical Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Planegg-Martinsried, Germany.

T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are critical mediators of germinal center (GC) formation and essential for potent humoral immunity. In contrast, T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cells, which share characteristics of both stimulatory Tfh cells and suppressive regulatory T (Treg) cells, restrain excessive GC responses. Tfh cell differentiation is a multistep process that involves continuous interaction with antigen-presenting cells, co-stimulatory signals, an appropriate cytokine milieu, and directed migration toward distinct microanatomical structures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12735DOI Listing

Germinal center B cell initiation, GC maturation, and the coevolution of its stromal cell niches.

Immunol Rev 2019 Mar;288(1):10-27

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Western University, London, ON, Canada.

Throughout the developing GC response, B cell survival and fate choices made at the single cell level are dependent on signals received largely through interactions with other cells, often with cognate T cells. The type of signals that a given B cell can encounter is dictated by its location within tissue microarchitecture. The focus of this review is on the initiation and evolution of the GC response at the earliest time points. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/imr.12731
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12731DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads
10.120 Impact Factor

The clinical and mechanistic intersection of primary atopic disorders and inborn errors of growth and metabolism.

Immunol Rev 2019 Jan;287(1):135-144

Laboratory of Allergic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Dynamic changes in metabolism have long been understood as critical for both the initiation and maintenance of innate and adaptive immune responses. A number of recent advances have clarified details of how metabolic pathways can specifically affect cellular function in immune cells. Critical to this understanding is ongoing study of the congenital disorders of glycosylation and other genetic disorders of metabolism that lead to altered immune function in humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12727DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Primary immunodeficiencies caused by mutations in actin regulatory proteins.

Immunol Rev 2019 Jan;287(1):121-134

Division of Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

The identification of patients with monogenic gene defects have illuminated the function of different proteins in the immune system, including proteins that regulate the actin cytoskeleton. Many of these actin regulatory proteins are exclusively expressed in leukocytes and regulate the formation and branching of actin filaments. Their absence or abnormal function leads to defects in immune cell shape, cellular projections, migration, and signaling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12716DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Insights into immunity from clinical and basic science studies of DOCK8 immunodeficiency syndrome.

Immunol Rev 2019 Jan;287(1):9-19

Laboratory of Clinical Immunology and Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

DOCK8 immunodeficiency syndrome (DIDS) is a progressive combined immunodeficiency that can be distinguished from other combined immunodeficiencies or hyperimmunoglobulinemia E syndromes in featuring (a) profound susceptibility to virus infections of the skin, with associated skin cancers, and (b) severe food allergies. The DOCK8 locus has many repetitive sequence elements that predispose to the generation of large germline deletions as well as recombination-mediated somatic DNA repair. Residual DOCK8 protein contributes to the variable disease phenotype. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12723DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6350515PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and DiGeorge syndrome.

Immunol Rev 2019 Jan;287(1):186-201

The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, The University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is the most common microdeletion syndrome in humans. The effects are protean and highly variable, making a unified approach difficult. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12701DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Introduction: Continuing insights into the healthy and diseased immune system through human genetic investigation.

Immunol Rev 2019 Jan;287(1):5-8

Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12730DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Common variable immune deficiency: Dissection of the variable.

Immunol Rev 2019 Jan;287(1):145-161

Division of Clinical Immunology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.

Starting about 60 years ago, a number of reports appeared that outlined the severe clinical course of a few adult subjects with profound hypogammaglobinemia. Puzzled by the lack of family history and adult onset of symptoms in most, the name "acquired" hypogammaglobinemia was given, but later altered to the current name common variable immune deficiency. Pathology reports remarked on the loss of lymph node architecture and paucity of plasma cells in lymphoid tissues in these subjects. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/imr.12728
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12728DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6435035PMC
January 2019
16 Reads

Zero tolerance! A perspective on monogenic disorders with defective regulatory T cells and IBD-like disease.

Immunol Rev 2019 Jan;287(1):236-240

Division of Translational Medicine, Research Branch, Sidra Medicine, Doha, Qatar.

Recently, several studies have investigated a number of rare monogenic autoimmune disorders, in which the causative genetic defects were identified and found to affect the development or function of regulatory T cells (Tregs). The studies of these disorders have facilitated a deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved in immune regulation and tolerance. Furthermore, these studies have highlighted the importance of Tregs in maintaining homeostasis at the mucosal interface between the host and microbiome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12717DOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads

Primary immunodeficiencies reveal the essential role of tissue neutrophils in periodontitis.

Immunol Rev 2019 Jan;287(1):226-235

Oral Immunity and Inflammation Unit, NIDCR, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland.

Periodontitis is a common human inflammatory disease. In this condition, microbiota trigger excessive inflammation in oral mucosal tissues surrounding the dentition, resulting in destruction of tooth-supporting structures (connective tissue and bone). While susceptibility factors for common forms of periodontitis are not clearly understood, studies in patients with single genetic defects reveal a critical role for tissue neutrophils in disease susceptibility. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12724DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

RAG gene defects at the verge of immunodeficiency and immune dysregulation.

Immunol Rev 2019 Jan;287(1):73-90

Laboratory of Clinical Immunology and Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Mutations of the recombinase activating genes (RAG) in humans underlie a broad spectrum of clinical and immunological phenotypes that reflect different degrees of impairment of T- and B-cell development and alterations of mechanisms of central and peripheral tolerance. Recent studies have shown that this phenotypic heterogeneity correlates, albeit imperfectly, with different levels of recombination activity of the mutant RAG proteins. Furthermore, studies in patients and in newly developed animal models carrying hypomorphic RAG mutations have disclosed various mechanisms underlying immune dysregulation in this condition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12713DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6309314PMC
January 2019
1 Read

FAS and RAS related Apoptosis defects: From autoimmunity to leukemia.

Immunol Rev 2019 Jan;287(1):50-61

Laboratory of Immunogenetics of Pediatric Autoimmune Diseases, INSERM UMR 1163, Paris, France.

The human adaptive immune system recognizes almost all the pathogens that we encounter and all the tumor antigens that may arise during our lifetime. Primary immunodeficiencies affecting lymphocyte development or function therefore lead to severe infections and tumor susceptibility. Furthermore, the fact that autoimmunity is a frequent feature of primary immunodeficiencies reveals a third function of the adaptive immune system: its self-regulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12720DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency and T-cell lymphopenia.

Authors:
Jennifer M Puck

Immunol Rev 2019 Jan;287(1):241-252

Division of Allergy, Immunology and Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Department of Pediatrics, UCSF, San Francisco, California.

The development of a T cell receptor excision circle (TREC) assay utilizing dried blood spots (DBS) made possible universal newborn screening (NBS) for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) as a public health measure. Upon being flagged by an abnormal screening test in a SCID screening program, an infant can receive further diagnostic testing for SCID in the neonatal period, prior to onset of infectious complications, to permit immediate institution of protective measures and definitive, life-saving treatment to establish a functional immune system. SCID screening is now the accepted standard of care in state public health departments across the United States, and it is being adopted in many countries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12729DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6324582PMC
January 2019
4 Reads

Emerging insights into human health and NK cell biology from the study of NK cell deficiencies.

Immunol Rev 2019 Jan;287(1):202-225

Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, New York.

Human NK cells are innate immune effectors that play a critical roles in the control of viral infection and malignancy. The importance of their homeostasis and function can be demonstrated by the study of patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs), which are part of the family of diseases known as inborn defects of immunity. While NK cells are affected in many PIDs in ways that may contribute to a patient's clinical phenotype, a small number of PIDs have an NK cell abnormality as their major immunological defect. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12725DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6310041PMC
January 2019
5 Reads

Lessons from primary immunodeficiencies: Autoimmune regulator and autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy.

Immunol Rev 2019 Jan;287(1):103-120

Fungal Pathogenesis Section, Laboratory of Clinical Immunology and Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

The discovery of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) protein and the delineation of its critical contributions in the establishment of central immune tolerance has significantly expanded our understanding of the immunological mechanisms that protect from the development of autoimmune disease. The parallel identification and characterization of patient cohorts with the monogenic disorder autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), which is typically caused by biallelic AIRE mutations, has underscored the critical contribution of AIRE in fungal immune surveillance at mucosal surfaces and in prevention of multiorgan autoimmunity in humans. In this review, we synthesize the current clinical, genetic, molecular and immunological knowledge derived from basic studies in Aire-deficient animals and from APECED patient cohorts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12714DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6309421PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

What did we learn from CTLA-4 insufficiency on the human immune system?

Immunol Rev 2019 Jan;287(1):33-49

Center for Chronic Immunodeficiency (CCI), Medical Center-University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte-antigen-4 (CTLA-4) is a negative immune regulator constitutively expressed on regulatory T (Treg) cells and upregulated on activated T cells. CTLA-4 inhibits T cell activation by various suppressive functions including competition with CD28, regulation of the inhibitory function of Treg cells, such as transendocytosis, and the control of adhesion and motility. Intrinsic CTLA-4 signaling has been controversially discussed, but so far no distinct signaling pathway has been identified. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/imr.12721
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12721DOI Listing
January 2019
17 Reads

WHIM syndrome: Immunopathogenesis, treatment and cure strategies.

Immunol Rev 2019 Jan;287(1):91-102

Molecular Signaling Section, Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

WHIM syndrome is a rare, autosomal dominant immunodeficiency which is named for the four key manifestations: Warts, Hypogammaglobulinemia, Infections, and Myelokathexis. It results from heterozygous gain-of-function mutations in the chemokine receptor CXCR4 which is widely expressed on leukocytes and has profound influences on immune system homeostasis and organogenesis. New treatments for the disease using drugs to reduce CXCR4 function are excellent examples of precision medicine. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/imr.12719
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12719DOI Listing
January 2019
15 Reads

Early-onset inflammatory bowel disease as a model disease to identify key regulators of immune homeostasis mechanisms.

Immunol Rev 2019 Jan;287(1):162-185

Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Rare and Undiagnosed Diseases, Vienna, Austria.

Rare, monogenetic diseases present unique models to dissect gene functions and biological pathways, concomitantly enhancing our understanding of the etiology of complex (and often more common) traits. Although inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a generally prototypic complex disease, it can also manifest in an early-onset, monogenic fashion, often following Mendelian modes of inheritance. Recent advances in genomic technologies have spurred the identification of genetic defects underlying rare, very early-onset IBD (VEO-IBD) as a disease subgroup driven by strong genetic influence, pinpointing key players in the delicate homeostasis of the immune system in the gut and illustrating the intimate relationships between bowel inflammation, systemic immune dysregulation, and primary immunodeficiency with increased susceptibility to infections. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/imr.12726
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12726DOI Listing
January 2019
14 Reads

CHAPLE syndrome uncovers the primary role of complement in a familial form of Waldmann's disease.

Authors:
Ahmet Ozen

Immunol Rev 2019 Jan;287(1):20-32

Division of Allergy and Immunology, Marmara University School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.

Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL) or Waldmann's disease was described in 1961 as an important cause of protein-losing enteropathy (PLE). PIL can be the sole finding in rare individuals or occur as part of a multisystemic genetic syndrome. Although genetic etiologies of many lymphatic dysplasia syndromes associated with PIL have been identified, the pathogenesis of isolated PIL (with no associated syndromic features) remains unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12715DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads