20,020 results match your criteria Immunobiology [Journal]
PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0209034. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Division of Experimental Hematology and Cancer Biology, Cancer and Blood Disease Institute, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America.
Genetic manipulation of NOD/SCID (NS) mice has yielded numerous sub-strains with specific traits useful for the study of human hematopoietic xenografts, each with unique characteristics. Here, we have compared the engraftment and output of umbilical cord blood (UCB) CD34+ cells in four immune-deficient strains: NS, NS with additional IL2RG knockout (NSG), NS with transgenic expression of human myeloid promoting cytokines SCF, GM-CSF, and IL-3 (NSS), and NS with both IL2RG knockout and transgenic cytokine expression (NSGS). Overall engraftment of human hematopoietic cells was highest in the IL2RG knockout strains (NSG and NSGS), while myeloid cell output was notably enhanced in the two strains with transgenic cytokine expression (NSS and NSGS). Read More
Nat Immunol 2019 Jan 10;20(1):86-96. Epub 2018 Dec 10.
Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology & Medical Oncology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA.
Germinal center (GC) B cells feature repression of many gene enhancers to establish their characteristic transcriptome. Here we show that conditional deletion of Lsd1 in GCs significantly impaired GC formation, associated with failure to repress immune synapse genes linked to GC exit, which are also direct targets of the transcriptional repressor BCL6. We found that BCL6 directly binds LSD1 and recruits it primarily to intergenic and intronic enhancers. Read More
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
Division of Immunology, Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115
Cancer Immunol Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francicsco
Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) is an effector of immune suppression and contributes to a permissive tumor microenvironment that compromises effective immunotherapy. We identified a correlation between TGFB1 and genes expressed by myeloid cells, but not granulocytes, in TCGA lung adenocarcinoma data, in which high TGFB1 expression was associated with poor survival. To determine whether TGFβ affected cell fate decisions and lineage commitment, we studied primary cultures of CD14+ monocytes isolated from peripheral blood of healthy donors. Read More
Innate Immun 2018 Dec 11:1753425918817611. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
1 Division of Critical Care Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, USA.
Neutrophils are the most abundant immune cell of the innate immune system and participate in essential immune functions. Heterogeneity within neutrophils has been documented, but it is difficult to distinguish if these are altered activation states of a single population or separate subpopulations of neutrophils determined at the time of differentiation. Several groups have identified a subset of human neutrophils that express olfactomedin 4 (OLFM4) and increased OLFM4+ neutrophils during sepsis is correlated with worse outcome, suggesting these neutrophils or the OLFM4 they secrete may be pathogenic. Read More
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.
Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH.
HLA haplotype mismatches have been associated with higher risk of acute graft versus host disease (aGVHD) in patients receiving HLA matched unrelated donor (URD) hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) unrelated donors. The Gamma block (GB) is located in the central MHC region between beta and delta blocks (encoding C & B and DR & DQ antigens, respectively). GB contains many inflammatory and immune regulatory genes such as Bf, C2 and C4 genes. Read More
Int Immunol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.
Department of Immunology and Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.
Hassall's corpuscles (HCs) are composed of cornifying, terminally differentiated medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) that are developed under the control of Aire. Here, we demonstrated that HC-mTECs show features of cellular senescence and produce inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including CXCL5, thereby recruiting and activating neutrophils to produce IL-23 in the thymic medulla. We further indicated that thymic plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) expressing IL-23 receptors constitutively produced Ifna, which plays a role in single positive (SP) cell maturation, in an Il23a-dependent manner. Read More
Commun Biol 2018 5;1:214. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology and Epigenetics, Stübeweg 51, 79108 Freiburg, Germany.
Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) is an invaluable tool for mapping chromatin-associated proteins. Current barcoding strategies aim to improve assay throughput and scalability but intense sample handling and lack of standardization over cell types, cell numbers and epitopes hinder wide-spread use in the field. Here, we present a barcoding method to enable high-throughput ChIP-seq using common molecular biology techniques. Read More
J Extracell Vesicles 2018 30;7(1):1548234. Epub 2018 Nov 30.
Department of Genetics, Cell- and Immunobiology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.
The past decade has witnessed an exponential development in the field of extracellular vesicles. Sporadic observations have reached a critical level and the scientific community increasingly recognizes the potential biomedical significance of these subcellular structures present in all body fluids as significant components of the cellular secretome. The Educational Committee of the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles prepared two posters ("Basic aspects of extracellular vesicles" and "Clinical aspects of extracellular vesicles") to provide essential pieces of information on extracellular vesicles at glance for anyone not familiar with the field. Read More
Bone Marrow Transplant 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.
Perugia General Hospital and University, Perugia, Italy.
HLA-haploidentical haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) is increasingly offered to patients with high-risk acute leukaemia. Unfortunately, haplo-HSCT is followed by a delayed immunoreconstitution. The aim of this EBMT registry study was to explore the clinical impact of lymphocyte subset counts after haplo-HSCT. Read More
Curr Opin Organ Transplant 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Schuster Transplantation Research Center, Brigham & Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
Purpose Of Review: Vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) is a promising approach to restore the quality of life of carefully selected patients that suffered extensive injury. Although acute rejection occurs very frequently, still little is known about the specific characteristics of the VCA immune response. This review aims to highlight the current development in the field of VCA concerning the immunobiology and management of upper extremity and face transplant recipients. Read More
Sci Immunol 2018 Dec;3(30)
Molecular Medicine and Gene Therapy, Lund Stem Cell Center, Lund University, BMC A12, 221 84, Lund, Sweden.
Ectopic expression of transcription factors has been used to reprogram differentiated somatic cells toward pluripotency or to directly reprogram them to other somatic cell lineages. This concept has been explored in the context of regenerative medicine. Here, we set out to generate dendritic cells (DCs) capable of presenting antigens from mouse and human fibroblasts. Read More
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.
Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115;
T cell-mediated immune responses are compromised in aged individuals, leading to increased morbidity and reduced response to vaccination. While cellular metabolism tightly regulates T cell activation and function, metabolic reprogramming in aged T cells has not been thoroughly studied. Here, we report a systematic analysis of metabolism during young versus aged naïve T cell activation. Read More
Infect Immun 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.
Centre for Inflammation and Tissue Repair, UCL Respiratory, Division of Medicine, University College Medical School, Rayne Institute, London, United Kingdom
Current vaccination against uses vaccines based on capsular polysaccharides from selected serotypes, and has led to non-vaccine serotype replacement disease. We have investigated an alternative serotype-independent approach, using multiple-antigen vaccines (MAV) prepared from TIGR4 lysates enriched for surface proteins by a chromatography step after culture under conditions that induce expression of heat shock proteins (Hsp, thought to be immune adjuvants). Proteomics and immunoblots demonstrated that compared to standard bacterial lysates, MAV was enriched with Hsps and contained several recognised protective protein antigens, including pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) and pneumolysin (Ply). Read More
J Immunol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.
Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229;
Regulation of the intestinal mucus layer by goblet cells is important for preventing inflammation and controlling infection. IL-33, a cytokine upregulated in inflammatory bowel disease and helminth infection, induces intestinal goblet cells, but the mechanism remains unclear. Enteroids are three-dimensional structures of primary small intestinal epithelial cells that contain all differentiated intestinal epithelial cell types. Read More
Eur J Cancer 2018 Dec 6;107:8-14. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Zürich, CH-8091, Zürich, Switzerland; Institute of Immunobiology, Kantonsspital St.Gallen, CH-9007, St. Gallen, Switzerland; Department of Oncology and Hematology, Kantonsspital St. Gallen, CH-9007, St. Gallen, Switzerland; Department of Dermatology, Kantonsspital St. Gallen, CH-9007, St. Gallen, Switzerland. Electronic address:
Background: Checkpoint inhibitors (CIs) are highly effective but can induce severe immune-related adverse events (irAEs), which cannot be predicted. We investigated whether human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes predispose to developing of irAEs during therapy and thus hold a predictive role.
Methods: We established a prospective observational single-centre study and collected data from patients with either metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) or metastatic melanoma, who were treated with anti-PD-1 (programmed cell death receptor 1), anti-CTLA4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4) or both CIs combined. Read More
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
Biomedical Department of Internal Medicine and Specialties, University of Palermo, Italy.
Periodontitis is an infectious and inflammatory disease of the tooth-supporting tissues caused by the accumulation of subgingival plaque and the action of specific periodontopathogenic bacteria. Periodontitis has been associated with cardiovascular diseases and considered a cardiovascular risk factor. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain this association, such as the infection of atherosclerotic plaques by periodontal pathogens, the pro-atherogenic effect on the lipid profile, the systemic dissemination of pro-inflammatory mediators or the contribution to type 2 diabetes mellitus. Read More
Immunobiology 2018 Oct 21. Epub 2018 Oct 21.
Department of Immunology, University of Medical Sciences in Poznan, Poland .
Identification of the association between tissue biomarkers, their surrogates in blood and clinical features, could provide new diagnostic tools and facilitate adequate choices of therapeutic interventions for selected patients suffering from CRS. The aim of present study was the assessment of macrophages in the polyp tissue and monocytes in the peripheral blood in the course of CRSwNP, and their functional immunophenotype. We analyzed 31 patients with CRSwNP. Read More
Microbes Infect 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.
Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University, Fredrik Bajers Vej 3b, 9220 Aalborg Ø, Denmark.
Infections caused by the intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis are a global health burden affecting more than 100 million people annually causing damaging long-lasting infections. In this review, we will present and discuss important aspects of the interaction between C. trachomatis and monocytes/macrophages. Read More
EBioMedicine 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Singapore Immunology Network (SIgN), Agency for Science Technology and Research (A*STAR), Immunos Building, Singapore 138648, Singapore; School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore; Department of Microbiology, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore; Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University Tunis El Manar, Tunis, Tunisia. Electronic address:
Background: Immune adaptation with aging is a major of health outcomes. Studies in humans have mainly focus on αβ T cells while γδ T cells have been neglected despite their role in immunosurveillance. We investigated the impact of aging on γδ T cell subsets phenotypes, functions, senescence and their molecular response to stress. Read More
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2018 Oct 24. Epub 2018 Oct 24.
Peter Gorer Department of Immunobiology, Faculty of Life Sciences & Medicine, King's College London, London, UK; King's Health Partners Institute of Diabetes, Obesity and Endocrinology, London, UK. Electronic address:
Precision medicine has emerged as a mantra for therapeutic approaches to complex diseases. The defining concept relies on a detailed insight into disease pathogenesis and therapeutic mechanism. Although the type 1 diabetes field has gained new insights into disease endotypes and indications of efficacy for several therapies, none of these is yet licensed, partly because of immune suppressive side-effects beyond control of islet autoimmunity. Read More
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2018 Oct 24. Epub 2018 Oct 24.
Peter Gorer Department of Immunobiology, Faculty of Life Sciences & Medicine, King's College London, London, UK; King's Health Partners Institute of Diabetes, Obesity and Endocrinology, London, UK.
With the conceptual advance about four decades ago that type 1 diabetes represents an autoimmune disease, hope arose that immune-based therapies would soon emerge to prevent and reverse the disorder. However, despite dozens of clinical trials seeking to achieve these goals, the promise remains unfulfilled, at least in a pragmatic form. With the benefit of hindsight, several important reasons are likely to account for this disappointing outcome, including failure to appreciate disease heterogeneity, inappropriate use of rodent models of disease, inadequacies in addressing the immunological and metabolic contributions to the disease, suboptimal trial designs, and lack of a clear understanding of the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. Read More
Microbiome 2018 Dec 10;6(1):220. Epub 2018 Dec 10.
APC Microbiome Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
Background: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is used in the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Its success is typically attributed to the restoration of a diverse microbiota. Viruses (including bacteriophages) are the most numerically dominant and potentially the most diverse members of the microbiota, but their fate following FMT has not been well studied. Read More
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J 2018 Dec 7;16(1):77. Epub 2018 Dec 7.
Department of Paediatrics, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
The Paediatric Rheumatology European Society (PReS) has over many years, developed a portfolio of educational activities to address increasing educational needs of workforce and support young clinicians to acquire skills to develop new knowledge and deliver clinical care in the future. These educational activities aim to facilitate growth of paediatric rheumatology and ultimately improve the clinical care for children and families. This article describes the current portfolio of PReS educational activities and their relevance to the international paediatric rheumatology community. Read More
Cell Mol Immunol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Tsinghua-Peking Center for Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, 100084, Beijing, China.
The B7-family inducible costimulator (ICOS) activates phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) and augments calcium mobilization triggered by the T-cell receptor (TCR). We surprisingly found that the entire cytoplasmic domain of ICOS is dispensable for its costimulation of calcium mobilization. This costimulatory function relies on the unique transmembrane domain (TMD) of ICOS, which promotes association with the tyrosine kinase Lck. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208518. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Infectious Diseases Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.
Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen that causes serious antibiotic-resistant infections. Its population structure is marked by the appearance and dissemination of successful lineages across different settings. To begin understanding the population structure of S. Read More
Life Sci Alliance 2018 Dec 3;1(6):e201800093. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Erlangen, Kussmaul Campus, Erlangen, Germany.
During inflammation, murine and human monocytes can develop into dendritic cells (DC), but this process is not entirely understood. Here, we demonstrate that extracellular vesicles (EV) secreted by mature human DC (maDC) differentiate peripheral monocytes into immature DC, expressing a unique marker pattern, including 6-sulfo LacNAc (slan), Zbtb46, CD64, and CD14. While EV from both maDC and immature DC differentiated monocytes similar to GM-CSF/IL-4 stimulation, only maDC-EV produced precursors, which upon maturation stimulus developed into T-cell-activating and IL-12p70-secreting maDC. Read More
Front Immunol 2018 21;9:2701. Epub 2018 Nov 21.
Department of Bacteriology and Immunology, and Research Programs Unit, Immunobiology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
The alternative pathway (AP) of complement is constantly active in plasma and can easily be activated on self surfaces and trigger local inflammation. Host cells are protected from AP attack by Factor H (FH), the main AP regulator in plasma. Although complement is known to play a role in atherosclerosis, the mechanisms of its contribution are not fully understood. Read More
Cancer Manag Res 2018 8;10:5537-5544. Epub 2018 Nov 8.
Department of Oncology/Haematology, Kantonsspital St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland,
Background: Prognosis of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer significantly improved with the availability of checkpoint inhibitors (anti-PD-1/PD-L1). Unfortunately, reliable biomarkers to predict treatment benefit are lacking.
Patients And Methods: We prospectively collected clinical and laboratory data of 56 non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with a checkpoint inhibitor. Read More
Int J Obes (Lond) 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
Clinical Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
Energy dissipation through the promotion of brown adipose tissue (BAT) or browning of white adipose tissue has recently evolved as novel promising concept in the fight against metabolic disease. New evidence suggests that hormones can contribute to the thermogenic programming of adipocytes through paracrine or endocrine actions. Recent studies in rodents identified parathyroid hormone (PTH) and PTH-related peptide as mediators of energy wasting in cachexia models due to adipocyte browning. Read More
J Virol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
Emerging Infectious Diseases Program, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore
Distinct populations of hepatocytes infected with HBV or only harboring HBV-DNA integrations coexist within an HBV chronically infected liver. These hepatocytes express HBV antigens at different levels and with different intracellular localizations but it is not known whether this heterogeneity of viral antigen expression could result in an uneven hepatic presentation of distinct HBV epitopes/HLA class-I complexes triggering different level of activation of HBV-specific CD8+ T cells.Using antibodies specific to two distinct HLA-A*02:01/HBV epitope complexes of HBV nucleocapsid and envelope proteins, we mapped their topological distribution in liver biopsies of two anti-HBe+ chronic HBV (CHB) patients. Read More
J Vis Exp 2018 Nov 17(141). Epub 2018 Nov 17.
The Peter Gorer Department of Immunobiology, King's College London; The Francis Crick Institute;
The gut microbiota has a central influence on human health. Microbial dysbiosis is associated with many common immunopathologies such as inflammatory bowel disease, asthma and arthritis. Thus, understanding the mechanisms underlying microbiota-immune system crosstalk is of crucial importance. Read More
Nat Commun 2018 11 30;9(1):5110. Epub 2018 Nov 30.
Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA.
Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. The Tumor Suppressor Candidate 3 (TUSC3) at chromosome 8p22 known to be frequently deleted in cancer is often found to be deleted in advanced stage of solid tumors. However, the role of TUSC3 still remains controversial in lung cancer and context-dependent in several cancers. Read More
Nat Commun 2018 11 30;9(1):5103. Epub 2018 Nov 30.
Program in Integrative Cell Signaling and Neurobiology of Metabolism and Department of Comparative Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, 06520, USA.
Palatable foods (fat and sweet) induce hyperphagia, and facilitate the development of obesity. Whether and how overnutrition increases appetite through the adipose-to-brain axis is unclear. O-linked beta-D-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) couples nutrient cues to O-GlcNAcylation of intracellular proteins at serine/threonine residues. Read More
Immunobiology 2018 Nov 24. Epub 2018 Nov 24.
Department of Molecular Biology, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez, Mexico City, Mexico. Electronic address:
The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of rs1805193, rs5361, and rs5355 E-selectin gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with the risk of developing subclinical atherosclerosis (SA) in a group of Mexicans individuals. SNPs were determined by TaqMan genotyping assays in a group of 287 individuals with SA and 688 healthy controls. Under different models, the T allele of the 5'UTR G98 T (rs1805193) (OR = 1. Read More
Immunobiology 2018 Nov 24. Epub 2018 Nov 24.
Department of Infection Control, Fukushima Medical University, Hikarigaoka, Fukushima, 960-1295, Japan.
To investigate the role of IL-13 during a severe systemic Candida albicans infection, BALB/c control and IL-13 mice were examined for colony forming units (CFU) in the kidneys and survival days after intravenous infection. Proinflammatory mediators and cell recruitment into the tissue were measured by quantitative real-time PCR, a multiple ELISA system, and morphological cell differentiation. The IL-13 group exhibited a lower CFU number in the kidneys at 4 days and survived longer than the control mice, which was accompanied by significantly higher expression of C-X-C motif ligand 2 (CXCL2), IFN-γ, and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in the infected kidneys. Read More
BMC Genomics 2018 Dec 4;19(1):873. Epub 2018 Dec 4.
Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Szeged, Szeged, 6720, Hungary.
Background: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a human pathogenic alphaherpesvirus harboring a relatively large DNA molecule. The VZV transcriptome has already been analyzed by microarray and short-read sequencing analyses. However, both approaches have substantial limitations when used for structural characterization of transcript isoforms, even if supplemented with primer extension or other techniques. Read More
iScience 2018 Nov 20;10:98-113. Epub 2018 Nov 20.
Department of Pathology and Biology of Diseases, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan; Laboratory of Bioimaging and Cell Signaling, Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan.
Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) plays critical roles in T cell development in the thymus. Nevertheless, the dynamics of ERK activity and the role of ERK in regulating thymocyte motility remain largely unknown due to technical limitations. To visualize ERK activity in thymocytes, we here developed knockin reporter mice expressing a Förster/fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensor for ERK from the ROSA26 locus. Read More
NPJ Vaccines 2018 27;3:54. Epub 2018 Nov 27.
1Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Professor Egas Moniz, 1649-028 Lisboa, Portugal.
Whole-sporozoite vaccination/immunization induces high levels of protective immunity in both rodent models of malaria and in humans. Recently, we generated a transgenic line of the rodent malaria parasite () that expresses the () circumsporozoite protein (CS), and showed that this parasite line (Vac) was capable of (1) infecting and developing in human hepatocytes but not in human erythrocytes, and (2) inducing neutralizing antibodies against the human parasite. Here, we analyzed Vac in detail and developed tools necessary for its use in clinical studies. Read More
Nat Commun 2018 12 3;9(1):4832. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Division of Immunology, Transplantation and Infectious Diseases, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, 20132, Italy.
The gut microbiota has been causally linked to cancer, yet how intestinal microbes influence progression of extramucosal tumors is poorly understood. Here we provide evidence implying that Prevotella heparinolytica promotes the differentiation of Th17 cells colonizing the gut and migrating to the bone marrow (BM) of transgenic Vk*MYC mice, where they favor progression of multiple myeloma (MM). Lack of IL-17 in Vk*MYC mice, or disturbance of their microbiome delayed MM appearance. Read More
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115;
Glycoconjugate vaccines are among the most effective interventions for preventing several serious infectious diseases. Covalent linkage of the bacterial capsular polysaccharide to a carrier protein provides CD4 T cells with epitopes that facilitate a memory response to the polysaccharide. Classically, the mechanism responsible for antigen processing was thought to be similar to what was known for hapten-carrier conjugates: protease digestion of the carrier protein in the endosome and presentation of a resulting peptide to the T cell receptor on classical peptide-recognizing CD4 T cells. Read More
Immunobiology 2018 Nov 15. Epub 2018 Nov 15.
Food Toxicology Laboratory, Food, Drug and Chemical Toxicology Group, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR-IITR), Vishvigyan Bhawan, 31, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow, 226 001, Uttar Pradesh, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-IITR campus Lucknow, India. Electronic address:
In the course of analyzing amino acid sequence of an allergen (≈20 kDa), we found this protein has a homology with the amino acid sequence of putative α-Dioxygenase fragment (ADF). Allergy caused by many allergens having an enzymatic activity have been reported previously, but allergenicity to neither α-Dioxygenase enzyme nor to it's any constituents has been reported. We sought to purify an ADF (≈19. Read More
Immunobiology 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.
Section of Biochemical Pharmacology, Medical University of Innsbruck, A-6020, Innsbruck, Austria. Electronic address:
Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is currently investigated as a potential therapeutic target in diseases with underlying inflammation like sepsis and arthritis. We reported the discovery, by virtual screening and biological testing, of eight TLR2 antagonists (AT1-AT8) which showed TLR2-inhibitory activity in human cells (Murgueitio et al., 2014). Read More
J Autoimmun 2018 Dec 25;95:124-132. Epub 2018 Oct 25.
Division Gastroenterology and Center for Autoimmune Liver Diseases, San Gerardo Hospital, Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza, Italy. Electronic address:
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is an autoimmune liver disease with a striking female preponderance. The mechanisms behind this predominance are still to be elucidated, although multiple theories have been postulated and investigated. Among the proposed involved factors, sex hormones have been the first to be studied, but unfortunately data have been inconclusive or conflicting. Read More
J Crohns Colitis 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.
Division of Gastroenterology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan.
Background And Aims: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of European populations have identified numerous susceptibility loci for Crohn's disease (CD). Susceptibility genes differ by ethnicity, however, so GWASs specific for Asian populations are required. This study aimed to clarify the Japanese-specific genetic background for CD by a GWAS using the Japonica array (JPA) and subsequent imputation with the 1KJPN reference panel. Read More
J Leukoc Biol 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.
Laboratory of Clinical Immunology, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia.
The aromatic hydrocarbons receptor (AhR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that plays a role in mediating toxicity to xenobiotics. Its key role in immune regulation has been recently demonstrated. Recent data pointed to the efficacy of ITE (2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester), a nontoxic ligand of AhR, in experimental models of inflammatory diseases. Read More
Clin Oral Investig 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.
Centre for Oral Immunobiology and Regenerative Medicine & Centre for Oral Clinical Research, Institute of Dentistry, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London (QMUL), Turner Street, London, E1 2AD, UK.
Objectives: To describe changes in growth factor mediators in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients with aggressive periodontitis (AgP) undergoing regenerative (GTR) and access flap (AF) surgery.
Materials And Methods: This was a 12-month, single-blind, split-mouth RCT involving 18 AgP patients with a bilateral intrabony defect which was treated with GTR or AF. GCF was collected prior to surgery and at subsequent follow-up visits from 3 days to 12 months post-operatively, and the levels of angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), vascular-endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), osteoprotegerin (OPG), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) and platelet-derived growth factor-AB (PDGF-AB) were measured. Read More
Transfus Med Hemother 2018 Oct 17;45(5):300-309. Epub 2018 Aug 17.
Laboratory for Immunogenetics /HLA, DRK Blutspendedienst West, Bad Kreuznach, Germany.
Background And Objective: Antibodies to human neutrophil antigens (HNAs) have been implicated in transfusion-related acute lung injury and allo- and autoimmune neutropenia. To date, five HNA systems are assigned, and during the last decades enormous efforts have been undertaken to identify the underlying genes and to characterize the antigens. This review of the literature will provide the current genetic, molecular and functional information on HNAs. Read More
J Exp Med 2018 Dec;215(12):3151-3164
Infectious Disease Susceptibility Program, McGill University Health Centre and Research Institute-McGill University Health Centre, Montréal, Québec, Canada
Primary immunodeficiencies represent naturally occurring experimental models to decipher human immunobiology. We report a patient with combined immunodeficiency, marked by recurrent respiratory tract and DNA-based viral infections, hypogammaglobulinemia, and panlymphopenia. He also developed moderate neutropenia but without prototypical pyogenic infections. Read More
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.
Laboratory of Molecular Mechanisms of Immunity, Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119991 Moscow, Russia;
TNF is a multifunctional cytokine involved in autoimmune disease pathogenesis that exerts its effects through two distinct TNF receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2. While TNF- and TNFR1-deficient (but not TNFR2-deficient) mice show very similar phenotypes, the significance of TNFR2 signaling in health and disease remains incompletely understood. Recent studies implicated the importance of the TNF/TNFR2 axis in T regulatory (T) cell functions. Read More