455,084 results match your criteria Immunity & Ageing [Journal]


Changes among TGF-β1 Breg cells and helper T cell subsets in a murine model of allergic rhinitis with prolonged OVA challenge.

Int Immunopharmacol 2019 Feb 15;69:347-357. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Otolaryngology of Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, No. 36 Sanhao Street, Heping District, Shenyang, Liaoning, China. Electronic address:

Background: Allergic rhinitis is a common allergic disease resulting from inappropriate Th2 cell-mediated immune responses to environmental antigens. As such, regulatory B cells and T helper cells play a critical role in the occurrence and development of allergic rhinitis.

Methods: Wild-type mice received ovalbumin (OVA) intranasal challenge for varied lengths of time, then the inflammatory state of their nasal mucosa was analyzed by histology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2019.01.009DOI Listing
February 2019

The changing treatment landscape for MDR/XDR-TB - can current clinical trials revolutionise and inform a brave new world?

Int J Infect Dis 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Centre for Clinical Microbiology, Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, Royal Free Hospital, London, UK. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2019.02.006DOI Listing
February 2019

The European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) Registry Working Definitions for the Clinical Diagnosis of Inborn Errors of Immunity.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Institute for Immunodeficiency, Center for Chronic Immunodeficiency (CCI), Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Germany; Center for Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Medical Center, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Patient registries are instrumental for clinical research in rare diseases. They help to achieve a sufficient sample size for epidemiological and clinical research and to assess the feasibility of clinical trials. The European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) registry currently comprises information on >25,000 patients with inborn errors of immunity (IEI). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2019.02.004DOI Listing
February 2019

Microglia - mediated immunity partly contributes to the genetic association between Alzheimer's disease and hippocampal volume.

Brain Behav Immun 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

UK Dementia Research Institute, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, United Kingdom; MRC Centre of Neuropsychiatric Genetics & Genomics, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, United Kingdom.

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) suggest that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is partly explained by a burden of risk alleles (single nucleotide polymorphisms; SNPs) with relatively small effects. However, the mechanisms by which these loci cumulatively confer susceptibility remain largely unknown. Accumulating evidence suggests an association between increased AD risk allele burden (measured via a polygenic risk profile score; AD-RPS) with reduced hippocampal volume (HV) across a number of independent cohorts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2019.02.011DOI Listing
February 2019

A prophylactic role of a secretory PLA of Spodoptera exigua against entomopathogens.

Dev Comp Immunol 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Plant Medicals, Andong National University, Andong, 36729, South Korea. Electronic address:

Phospholipase A (PLA) hydrolyses phospholipids at sn-2 position to release free fatty acids and lysophospholipids. Secretory type of PLA (sPLA) has been found in many different animals including insects. Insect sPLAs have been divided into venomous and nonvenomous PLAs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2019.02.008DOI Listing
February 2019

Teleost contributions to the understanding of mycobacterial diseases.

Dev Comp Immunol 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Electronic address:

Few pathogens have shaped human medicine as the mycobacteria. From understanding biological phenomena driving disease spread, to mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions and antibiotic resistance, the Mycobacterium genus continues to challenge and offer insights into the basis of health and disease. Teleost fish models of mycobacterial infections have progressed significantly over the past three decades, now supplying a range of unique tools and new opportunities to define the strategies employed by these Gram-positive bacteria to overcome host defenses, as well as those host antimicrobial pathways that can be used to limit its growth and spread. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2019.02.011DOI Listing
February 2019

Microplitis bicoloratus bracovirus modulates innate immune suppression through the eIF4E-eIF4A axis in Spodoptera litura.

Dev Comp Immunol 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

School of Life Sciences, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650500, PR China; Key Laboratory of the University in Yunnan Province for International Cooperation in Intercellular Communications and Regulations, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650500, PR China; Biocontrol Engineering Research Centre of Crop Disease & Pest in Yunnan Province, Kunming, 650500, PR China; Key Laboratory for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and School of Life Sciences, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650500, PR China; Animal Genetic Diversity and Evolution of High Education in Yunnan Province, School of Life Sciences, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650500, PR China. Electronic address:

Eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) is regulated during the innate immune response. However, its translational regulation under innate immune suppression remains largely unexplored. Microplitis bicoloratus bracovirus (MbBV), a symbiotic virus harbored by the parasitoid wasp, Microplitis bicoloratus, suppresses innate immunity in parasitized Spodoptera litura. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2019.02.010DOI Listing
February 2019

Ameliorating gut microenvironment through staphylococcal nuclease-mediated intestinal NETs degradation for prevention of type 1 diabetes in NOD mice.

Life Sci 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

China Pharmaceutical University, China. Electronic address:

Aims: Recent studies have revealed that neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) provide negative feedback in the progression to chronic inflammation and contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple autoimmune diseases including type 1 diabetes (T1D). In addition, accumulating evidences suggest that gut immunity play a key role in T1D pathogenesis. Our study aimed to evaluate whether staphylococcal nuclease (SNase) targeting intestinal NETs can ameliorate the intestinal inflammatory environment and protect against T1D development in non-obese diabetic(NOD) mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2019.02.034DOI Listing
February 2019

Cooling down the hot potato: Anti-interleukin 36 therapy prevents and treats experimental intestinal fibrosis.

Gastroenterology 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Inflammation and Immunity, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, USA; Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Digestive Diseases and Surgery Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2019.02.007DOI Listing
February 2019

[Influence of phosphogliv® hepatoprotector on phospholipid spectrum of peripheral blood mononuclears in patients with tuberculosis of lungs.]

Klin Lab Diagn 2018 ;63(11):686-690

Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Tver State Medical University" of the Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation, 170100, Tver, Russia.

The administration of the "Phosphogliv®" hepatoprotector in the comprehensive treatment of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis will allow determining its effect on the lipid composition of membranes of mononuclear cells under conditions of etiotropic chemotherapy according to 1 standard regimen. The determination of the ratios of the most important classes of phospholipids in membranes of peripheral blood mononuclear cells will give an idea of the structural-functional state violation of the most important representatives of the cellular immunity in patients with tuberculosis prior to treatment, against the backdrop of the intensive phase of the main course of chemotherapy as well as the change in these indices when the "Phosphogliv®" drug is administered in the comprehensive treatment therapy. The study included 356 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis of young and middle age, out of which 308 patients received etiotropic chemotherapy without the administration of phosphogliv, and 48 patients receiving comprehensive treatment used a combined scheme of oral-parenteral administration of phosphogliv. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18821/0869-2084-2018-63-11-686-690DOI Listing
January 2018

[Biological function of endoecology (cleanliness of intercellular environment) realize two biolocical reactions: excretion reaction and inflammation reaction - utilization in vivo, in situ catabolites of the large molecular mass.]

Authors:
V N Titov

Klin Lab Diagn 2018 ;63(11):668-676

National Medical Research Center of Cardiology, Ministry of Health, 121552, Moscow, Russia.

For the biological functions of trophology (nutrition) and homeostasis, we believe that the third place is occupied by the function of endoecology: in a single pool of intercellular environment in vivo it must be "pure". The biological function of endoecology, realizes two biological reactions: the reaction of excretion and the reaction of inflammation. The biological reaction of excretion is the filtration of phlogogens of a small mol. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18821/0869-2084-2018-63-11-668-676DOI Listing
January 2018

Breaking down chronic inflammatory diseases: the role of biglycan in promoting a switch between inflammation and autophagy.

FEBS J 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, Institut für Allgemeine Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

It is well established that biglycan, a small leucine-rich proteoglycan, acts as an extracellular matrix-derived danger signal in its soluble form. By binding to innate immunity Toll-like receptors (TLR) 2 and 4, biglycan initiates and perpetuates the inflammatory response. Previous work has conveyed that biglycan's role in inflammation extends far beyond its function as a canonical danger signal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/febs.14791DOI Listing
February 2019

Unraveling the host's immune response to infection: Seeing is believing.

J Leukoc Biol 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

University of Calgary Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

It has long been appreciated that understanding the interactions between the host and the pathogens that make us sick is critical for the prevention and treatment of disease. As antibiotics become increasingly ineffective, targeting the host and specific bacterial evasion mechanisms are becoming novel therapeutic approaches. The technology used to understand host-pathogen interactions has dramatically advanced over the last century. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/JLB.4RI1218-503RDOI Listing
February 2019

Monocyte heterogeneity and functions in cancer.

J Leukoc Biol 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, California, USA.

Monocytes are innate immune cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system that have emerged as important regulators of cancer development and progression. Our understanding of monocytes has advanced from viewing these cells as a homogenous population to a heterogeneous system of cells that display diverse responses to different stimuli. During cancer, different monocyte subsets perform functions that contribute to both pro- and antitumoral immunity, including phagocytosis, secretion of tumoricidal mediators, promotion of angiogenesis, remodeling of the extracellular matrix, recruitment of lymphocytes, and differentiation into tumor-associated macrophages and dendritic cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/JLB.4RI0818-311RDOI Listing
February 2019

Autophagy and immunological aberrations in systemic lupus erythematosus.

Eur J Immunol 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Renal Division, Peking University First Hospital, Peking University Institute of Nephrology, Key Laboratory of Renal Disease, Ministry of Health of China, Key Laboratory of Chronic Kidney Disease Prevention and Treatment (Peking University), Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100034, People's Republic of China.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease, in which immune defects can occur at multiple points of the cascading auto-aggressive immune reactions, resulting in a striking heterogeneity of clinical presentations. The clinical manifestations of such autoimmune response can be severe:-common manifestations symptoms include rash and renal inflammation progressing to kidney failure. Autophagy, the cellular "self-digestion" process, is a key factor in the interplay between innate and adaptive immunity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eji.201847679DOI Listing
February 2019

A Clinical Prediction Rule to Identify Febrile Infants 60 Days and Younger at Low Risk for Serious Bacterial Infections.

JAMA Pediatr 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Michigan, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan.

Importance: In young febrile infants, serious bacterial infections (SBIs), including urinary tract infections, bacteremia, and meningitis, may lead to dangerous complications. However, lumbar punctures and hospitalizations involve risks and costs. Clinical prediction rules using biomarkers beyond the white blood cell count (WBC) may accurately identify febrile infants at low risk for SBIs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.5501DOI Listing
February 2019

Mucosal vaccine efficacy against intrarectal SHIV is independent of anti-Env antibody response.

J Clin Invest 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Vaccine Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute (NCI), Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

It is widely believed that protection against acquisition of HIV or SIV infection requires anti-envelope (anti-Env) antibodies, and that cellular immunity may affect viral loads but not acquisition, except in special cases. Here we provide evidence to the contrary. Mucosal immunization may enhance HIV vaccine efficacy by eliciting protective responses at portals of exposure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI122110DOI Listing
February 2019

Combined Laboratory Approach to Detection of Parvovirus B19 and Coxiella Burnetii in Patients with Fever of Unknown Origin.

Clin Lab 2019 Jan;65(1)

Background: Fever of unknown origin (FUO) is one of the greatest challenges for clinicians and patients. There are more than 200 etiological agents of FUO, among these the most common is the role of infection, neoplasms, and diseases of connective tissue. The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of the infectious agents parvovirus B19 (B19V) and Coxiella burnetii (C. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7754/Clin.Lab.2018.180617DOI Listing
January 2019

NDR2 promotes the antiviral immune response via facilitating TRIM25-mediated RIG-I activation in macrophages.

Sci Adv 2019 Feb 6;5(2):eaav0163. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Institute of Immunology, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, Zhejiang, China.

Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I), a pivotal cytosolic sensor, recognizes viral RNAs to initiate antiviral innate immunity. However, posttranslational regulation of RIG-I signaling is not well understood. We report here that nuclear Dbf2-related kinase 2 (NDR2) functions as a crucial positive regulator of the RIG-I-mediated antiviral immune response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aav0163DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6365120PMC
February 2019

Nucleoprotein vaccine induces cross-protective cytotoxic T lymphocytes against both lineages of influenza B virus.

Clin Exp Vaccine Res 2019 Jan 31;8(1):54-63. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: The influenza B virus diverges into two antigenically distinct lineages: B/Yamagata and B/Victoria. Influenza B is the dominant circulating virus during some influenza seasons, and recent data demonstrated that influenza A and B infection similarly cause severe clinical symptoms in hospitalized patients. Nucleoprotein (NP) is a good target for a universal influenza vaccine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7774/cevr.2019.8.1.54DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6369129PMC
January 2019

Vaccine containing G protein fragment and recombinant baculovirus expressing M2 protein induces protective immunity to respiratory syncytial virus.

Clin Exp Vaccine Res 2019 Jan 31;8(1):43-53. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can cause serious respiratory illnesses such as pneumonia, asthma, and bronchiolitis in infants and elderly or immunocompromised individuals. An RSV vaccine has yet to be developed; only prophylactic anti-RSV antibody is commercially available. So, we investigated whether our vaccine candidate is able to induce type 1 CD4 T helper (Th1), CD8 T-cell responses, and protective immunity without vaccine-enhanced disease (VED) against RSV. Read More

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https://synapse.koreamed.org/DOIx.php?id=10.7774/cevr.2019.8
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.7774/cevr.2019.8.1.43DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6369125PMC
January 2019
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Response of adult honey bees treated in larval stage with prochloraz to infection with .

PeerJ 2019 8;7:e6325. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Department of Animal Science, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Among numerous factors that contribute to honey bee colony losses and problems in beekeeping, pesticides and have been often reported. In contrast to insecticides, whose effects on bees have been widely studied, fungicides did not attract considerable attention. Prochloraz, an imidazole fungicide widely used in agriculture, was detected in honey and pollen stored inside hives and has been already proven to alter immune gene expression of honey bees at different developmental stages. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.6325DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6371917PMC
February 2019

Programmed death ligand 1 immunohistochemistry in non-small cell lung carcinoma.

J Thorac Dis 2019 Jan;11(Suppl 1):S89-S101

PATTERN: Group of French Thoracic Pathologists for Innovation and Translational Research, Synergie Lyon Cancer Foundation, Lyrican, France.

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide with low response rates to conventional chemotherapy. New promising therapies have emerged based on programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) immunity checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), including anti-PD-1, such as nivolumab and pembrolizumab, or programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors, such as atezolizumab, durvalumab, and avelumab. The prescription of pembrolizumab has been approved by FDA and EMA for advanced stages non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), restricted for first-line setting to patients whose tumor presents ≥50% of PD-L1 positive tumor cells (TC), and ≥1% for second-line and beyond, leading to consider PD-L1 assay as a companion diagnostic tool for pembrolizumab. Read More

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http://jtd.amegroups.com/article/view/26452/19783
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd.2018.12.103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6353738PMC
January 2019
1 Read

A recombinant vesicular stomatitis-based Lassa fever vaccine elicits rapid and long-term protection from lethal Lassa virus infection in guinea pigs.

NPJ Vaccines 2019 8;4. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

1Zoonotic Diseases and Special Pathogens, National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB Canada.

The World Health Organization has identified Lassa virus (LASV) as one of the top five pathogens to cause a severe outbreak in the near future. This study assesses the ability of a leading vaccine candidate, recombinant Vesicular stomatitis virus expressing LASV glycoprotein (VSVΔG/LASVGPC), and its ability to induce rapid and long-term immunity to lethal guinea pig-adapted LASV (GPA-LASV). Outbred guinea pigs were vaccinated with a single dose of VSVΔG/LASVGPC followed by a lethal challenge of GPA-LASV at 7, 14, 25, 189, and 355 days post-vaccination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41541-019-0104-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6368541PMC
February 2019

Immunonutritional consequences of different serine-type protease inhibitors in a C57BL/6 hepatocarcinoma model.

Oncotarget 2019 Jan 22;10(7):760-772. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (IATA), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Parque Científico, Paterna, 46980 Valencia, Spain.

Imbalances in innate immunity and the activity of innate immune cells are implicated in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Plant seeds are good sources of protease inhibitors, which can have a significant influence on human health disorders, especially in the field of cancer prevention. To elucidate the impact and preventive effects of immunonutritional serine-type protease inhibitors (STPIs) on HCC, it was used an established model of chemically induced liver injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.26605DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6366820PMC
January 2019

The Human Endolymphatic Sac and Inner Ear Immunity: Macrophage Interaction and Molecular Expression.

Front Immunol 2018 1;9:3181. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Section of Otolaryngology, Department of Surgical Sciences, Head and Neck Surgery, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.

The endolymphatic sac (ES) is endowed with a multitude of white blood cells that may trap and process antigens that reach the inner ear from nearby infection-prone areas, it thus serves as an immunologic defense organ. The human ES, and unexpectedly the rest of the inner ear, has been recently shown to contain numerous resident macrophages. In this paper, we describe ES macrophages using super-resolution structured fluorescence microscopy (SR-SIM) and speculate on these macrophages' roles in human inner ear defense. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.03181DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367985PMC
February 2019

Induction of Plasmodium-Specific Immune Responses Using Liposome-Based Vaccines.

Front Immunol 2019 1;10:135. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University, Southport, QLD, Australia.

In the development of vaccines, the ability to initiate both innate and subsequent adaptive immune responses need to be considered. Live attenuated vaccines achieve this naturally, while inactivated and sub-unit vaccines generally require additional help provided through delivery systems and/or adjuvants. Liposomes present an attractive adjuvant/delivery system for antigens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00135DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367261PMC
February 2019

Galanin and Adrenomedullin Plasma Responses During Artificial Gravity on a Human Short-Arm Centrifuge.

Front Physiol 2018 1;9:1956. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Gravitational Physiology and Medical Research Unit, Physiology Division, Otto Loewi Center for Research in Vascular Biology, Immunity, and Inflammation, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.

Galanin and adrenomedullin plasma responses to head-up tilt and lower body negative pressure have been studied previously. However, to what extent short-arm human centrifugation (SAHC) affects these responses is not known. In this study, we assessed how the application of variable gradients of accelerations ( ) via shifting of the rotation axis during centrifugation affects selected hormonal responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.01956DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367687PMC
February 2019

Bacteriocin production and adhesion properties as mechanisms for the anti-listerial activity of Lactobacillus plantarum 423 and Enterococcus mundtii ST4SA.

Benef Microbes 2019 Feb 18:1-22. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

1 Department of Microbiology, University of Stellenbosch, Matieland, Stellenbosch 7600, South Africa.

Probiotics play an important role in maintaining a healthy and stable intestinal microbiota, primarily by preventing infection. Probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are known to be inhibitory to many bacterial enteric pathogens, including antibiotic-resistant strains. Whilst the positive role that probiotics have on human physiology, specifically in the treatment or prevention of specific infectious diseases of the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) is known, the precise mechanistic basis of these effects remains a major research goal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3920/BM2018.0141DOI Listing
February 2019

Prebiotic oligosaccharides in early life alter gut microbiome development in male mice while supporting influenza vaccination responses.

Benef Microbes 2019 Feb 18:1-14. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

2 Danone Nutricia Research, Department of Immunology / Microbiology, Uppsalalaan 12, 3584 CT Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Beneficial modulation of the gut microbiota is an attractive therapeutic approach to improve the efficacy of vaccine-induced immunity. In this study, mice were supplemented with the prebiotic milk oligosaccharide 2'-fucosyllactose (2'FL) as well as a complex mixture of immune modulatory prebiotic short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scGOS/lcFOS) from different stages in early life. Adult mice were vaccinated with trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) and both development of the gut microbiota and antibody-mediated vaccine responses were followed over time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3920/BM2018.0098DOI Listing
February 2019

A novel approach to investigate hypoxic microenvironment during rice colonization by Magnaporthe oryzae.

Environ Microbiol 2019 Feb 17. Epub 2019 Feb 17.

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

Because molecular oxygen functions as the final acceptor of electrons during aerobic respiration and a substrate for diverse enzymatic reactions, eukaryotes employ various mechanisms to maintain cellular homeostasis under varying oxygen concentration. Human fungal pathogens change the expression of genes involved in virulence and oxygen-required metabolisms such as ergosterol (EGR) synthesis when they encounter oxygen limitation (hypoxia) during infection. The oxygen level in plant tissues also fluctuates, potentially creating hypoxic stress to pathogens during infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.14563DOI Listing
February 2019

Variation and inheritance of the Xanthomonas raxX-raxSTAB gene cluster required for activation of XA21-mediated immunity.

Mol Plant Pathol 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Plant Pathology and the Genome Center, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616, USA.

The rice XA21-mediated immune response is activated on recognition of the RaxX peptide produced by the bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). The 60-residue RaxX precursor is post-translationally modified to form a sulfated tyrosine peptide that shares sequence and functional similarity with the plant sulfated tyrosine (PSY) peptide hormones. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mpp.12783DOI Listing
February 2019

Nanoengineered Immune Niches for Reprogramming the Immunosuppressive Tumor Microenvironment and Enhancing Cancer Immunotherapy.

Adv Mater 2019 Feb 18:e1803322. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Department of Nano Engineering, and School of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 2066 Seobu-ro, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do, 16419, Republic of Korea.

Cancer immunotherapies that harness the body's immune system to combat tumors have received extensive attention and become mainstream strategies for treating cancer. Despite promising results, some problems remain, such as the limited patient response rate and the emergence of severe immune-related adverse effects. For most patients, the therapeutic efficacy of cancer immunotherapy is mainly limited by the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.201803322DOI Listing
February 2019

Daily Variation in Macrophage Phagocytosis is Clock-independent and Dispensable for Cytokine Production.

Immunology 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Immunoregulation Section, Autoimmunity Branch, NIAMS, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.

Innate immune responses vary in a circadian manner, and more recent investigations aim to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms. Cytokine production varies significantly over the course of a day depending on the time of stimulation by pathogens or Toll-Like Receptor ligands, and multiple signalling pathways linked to the cell-autonomous circadian clock modulate innate immunity. Recognition of foreign material, especially by innate immune cells, engages a myriad of receptors which trigger inflammatory responses, as well as endocytosis and degradation and/or processing for antigen presentation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imm.13053DOI Listing
February 2019

Genetic and Environmental Determinants of Immune Response to Cutaneous Melanoma.

Cancer Res 2019 Feb 17. Epub 2019 Feb 17.

Leeds Institute of Medical Research at St James's, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.

The immune response to melanoma improves the survival in untreated patients and predicts the response to immune checkpoint blockade. Here, we report genetic and environmental predictors of the immune response in a large primary cutaneous melanoma cohort. Bioinformatic analysis of 703 tumor transcriptomes was used to infer immune cell infiltration and to categorize tumors into immune subgroups, which were then investigated for association with biological pathways, clinicopathologic factors, and copy number alterations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-18-2864DOI Listing
February 2019

Hepatitis B virus-like particles expressing Plasmodium falciparum epitopes induce complement-fixing antibodies against the circumsporozoite protein.

Vaccine 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory (VIDRL), Melbourne Health, The Peter Doherty Institute, Melbourne, Victoria 3000, Australia; Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) University, School of Science, Melbourne, Victoria 3001, Australia. Electronic address:

The repetitive structure of compact virus-like particles (VLPs) provides high density displays of antigenic sequences, which trigger key parts of the immune system. The hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccines exploit the assembly competence of structural proteins, which are the effective immunogenic components of the prophylactic HBV and HPV vaccines, respectively. To optimize vaccine designs and to promote immune responses against protective epitopes, the "Asp-Ala-Asp-Pro" (NANP)-repeat from the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (CSP) was expressed within the exposed, main antigenic site of the small HBV envelope protein (HBsAgS); this differs from the RTS,S vaccine, in which CSP epitopes are fused to the N-terminus of HBsAgS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.01.056DOI Listing
February 2019

Aberrant IGF1-PI3K/AKT/MTOR signaling pathway regulates the local immunity of oral lichen planus.

Immunobiology 2019 Feb 10. Epub 2019 Feb 10.

The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430079, PR China; Department of Oral Medicine, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, PR China. Electronic address:

Objectives: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a T cell-mediated immune-related chronic disease, featured by accumulation of T cells and apoptosis of keratinocytes. Insulin-like growth factors 1 (IGF1) signaling, in combination with its downstream PI3K/AKT/MTOR cascade, plays pivotal roles in the regulation of inflammation and immune response. Meanwhile, TRB3 acts as a connective protein in the pathway. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imbio.2019.01.004DOI Listing
February 2019

The molecular immunology of human susceptibility to fungal diseases: lessons from single gene defects of immunity.

Authors:
Donald C Vinh

Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

a Director, Infectious Disease Susceptibility Program, Associate Professor, FRQS Clinician-Scientist, Dept of Medicine (Division of Infect ious Diseases; Division of Allergy & Clinical Immunology), Dept of Medical Microbiology; Dept of Human Genetics , McGill University Health Centre - Research Institute , 1001 Decarie Blvd; Block E; Rm EM3-3230 (Mail Drop: EM3-3211), Montreal , Quebec , Canada H4A 3J1 , Ph (office); x42811 (admin assist); Fax. Email:

Introduction: Fungal diseases are a threat to human health. Therapies targeting the fungus continue to lead to disappointing results. Strategies targeting the host response represent unexplored opportunities for innovative treatments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1744666X.2019.1584038DOI Listing
February 2019

The antagonistic effect of Se on the Pb-weakening formation of neutrophil extracellular traps in chicken neutrophils.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2019 Feb 14;173:225-234. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, PR China; Key Laboratory of the Provincial Education Department of Heilongjiang for Common Animal Disease Prevention and Treatment, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, PR China. Electronic address:

Neutrophils represent an important part of the body's innate immunity and can resist the invasion of pathogenic microorganisms by releasing neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). In this study, we investigated the toxic effects of lead (Pb) on the release of NETs, the antagonism of selenium (Se) on Pb toxicity and the potential molecular mechanisms. Our model was an in vitro exposure model for the addition of Se, Pb or both in the culture medium and was based on the separation of neutrophils from the peripheral blood of healthy chickens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.02.033DOI Listing
February 2019

STING-associated lung disease in mice relies on T cells but not type I interferon.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Pathology and Immunology, Saint Louis, MO, USA 63110; Molecular Microbiology, Saint Louis, MO, USA 63110; Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO, USA 63110. Electronic address:

Background: Monogenic interferonopathies are thought to be mediated by type I interferon (IFN). For example, a gain-of-function mutation in STING (STING N153S) up-regulates type I IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) and causes perivascular inflammatory lung disease in mice. The equivalent mutation in humans also causes lung disease, which is thought to require signaling through the cGAS-STING pathway and subsequent activation of IFN regulatory factors (IRF) 3/7, type I IFN, and ISGs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2019.01.044DOI Listing
February 2019

Control and regulation of the pyrophosphate-dependent glucose metabolism in Entamoeba histolytica.

Mol Biochem Parasitol 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez, Ciudad de México, 14080, Mexico.

Entamoeba histolytica has neither Krebs cycle nor oxidative phosphorylation activities; therefore, glycolysis is the main pathway for ATP supply and provision of carbon skeleton precursors for the synthesis of macromolecules. Glucose is metabolized through fermentative glycolysis, producing ethanol as its main end-product as well as some acetate. Amoebal glycolysis markedly differs from the typical Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway present in human cells: (i) by the use of inorganic pyrophosphate, instead of ATP, as the high-energy phospho group donor; (ii) with one exception, the pathway enzymes can catalyze reversible reactions under physiological conditions; (iii) there is no allosteric regulation and sigmoidal kinetic behavior of key enzymes; and (iv) the presence of some glycolytic and fermentation enzymes similar to those of anaerobic bacteria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molbiopara.2019.02.002DOI Listing
February 2019

Single-Cell Analysis of Diverse Pathogen Responses Defines a Molecular Roadmap for Generating Antigen-Specific Immunity.

Cell Syst 2019 Feb 1. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Department of Immunology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel. Electronic address:

The immune system generates pathogen-tailored responses. The precise innate immune cell types and pathways that direct robust adaptive immune responses have not been fully characterized. By using fluorescent pathogens combined with massively parallel single-cell RNA-seq, we comprehensively characterized the initial 48 h of the innate immune response to diverse pathogens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cels.2019.01.001DOI Listing
February 2019

Immune Signaling Pathway during Terminal Bacteroid Differentiation in Nodules.

Trends Plant Sci 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology and College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China. Electronic address:

Plant innate immunity plays an important role in regulating symbiotic associations with rhizobia, including during rhizobial infection, rhizobial colonization, and bacteroid differentiation in leguminous plants. Here we propose that an immune signaling pathway similar to plant pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) is required for the regulation of bacteroid differentiation in Medicago truncatula nodules. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tplants.2019.01.010DOI Listing
February 2019

The CCR6-CCL20 axis in humoral immunity and T-B cell immunobiology.

Immunobiology 2019 Feb 8. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia; Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Anhui Medical University, Key Laboratory of Anti-inflammatory and Immunopharmacology, Ministry of Education, Engineering Technology Research Center of Anti-inflammatory and Immunodrugs in Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui Province, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Traditionally, chemokine immunobiology has focused on chemotaxis and the positioning of cells at sites of inflammation and within lymphoid organs. More recently, however, regulation of intricate immune responses has emerged as a function attributed to chemokines and their receptors. One such pair, CCR6 and its chemokine ligand CCL20, has been receiving interest for its potential role in the coordination and regulation of humoral immune responses and in particular, memory responses, at the cellular level. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imbio.2019.01.005DOI Listing
February 2019

Diagnostic performance of direct and indirect methods for assessing failure of transfer of passive immunity in dairy calves using latent class analysis.

Prev Vet Med 2019 Mar 5;164:72-77. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Department of Health Management, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada.

Accurate diagnosis of failure of transfer of passive immunity (FTPI) in newborn calves is an essential component of dairy farm management plan. Several methods (direct and indirect) are available for diagnosis of FTPI in dairy calves. However, the indirect methods offer an advantage over the direct methods in not requiring an experienced veterinarian, rapid, cost efficient and can be performed under field-setting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2019.02.003DOI Listing

MHC I chaperone complexes shaping immunity.

Curr Opin Immunol 2019 Feb 13;58:9-15. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Institute of Biochemistry, Biocenter, Goethe University Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt/Main, Germany. Electronic address:

Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) molecules present peptides on the surface of most nucleated cells and allow the immune system to detect and eliminate infected or malignantly transformed cells. The peptides are derived from endogenous proteins by proteasomal degradation or aberrant translation, and are translocated from the cytosol into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP), a central component of the peptide-loading complex (PLC). The peptides are subsequently processed by ER-resident aminopeptidases (ERAP1/2) and loaded onto MHC I. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2019.01.001DOI Listing
February 2019

Regulatory T lymphocytes are associated with increased nasopharyngeal colonization in children.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2019 Feb 5;120:51-57. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Office of Senior DVC and Provost, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia. Electronic address:

Objectives: Regulatory T lymphocytes (T) have been linked to survival of commensal bacteria at mucosal sites, but their presence and role in chronic otitis media (COM) and their response to otopathogens has not been evaluated previously. We investigated the association between T lymphocytes and otopathogens in COM prone and non-COM prone children.

Methods: Forty children, 2-7 years of age, scheduled for adenoidectomy were enrolled into COM (n = 20) or non-COM (n = 20) groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2019.02.011DOI Listing
February 2019

Diverse immune responses to HBV surface epitope variants after vaccine booster in adolescents immunized in infancy.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Hepato-gastroenterology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou Branch, Taiwan; Liver Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou Branch, Taiwan; Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Objectives: We aimed to investigate immunity against hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) mutants before and after boosters in adolescents who lost antibodies against HBsAg (anti-HBs) despite neonatal vaccination.

Methods: We recruited 142 participants from 15 to 21 years old, who had received complete vaccination in infancy but became anti-HBs-negative. Cellular immunity to HBsAg and T-cell epitope variants was assessed before and after boosters. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2019.02.003DOI Listing
February 2019

BCG-induced formation of neutrophil extracellular traps play an important role in bladder cancer treatment.

Clin Immunol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Tianjin Institute of Urology, Department of Urology, The Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300211, PR China.

Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is one of the most effective treatments for bladder cancer. Little attention has been paid to the possible role of neutrophils in BCG immunotherapy. In this study, we examined neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation induced by BCG stimulation, and found that BCG-induced NETs exerted cytotoxicity, induced apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest, and inhibited migration in bladder tumor cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clim.2019.02.005DOI Listing
February 2019

Production of neutralizing antibodies against the secreted Clostridium chauvoei toxin A (CctA) upon blackleg vaccination.

Anaerobe 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Vetuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Clostridium chauvoei is the etiologic agent of blackleg in cattle, inducing fever, severe myonecrosis, oedemic lesions and ultimately death of infected animals. The pathogen often results in such rapid death that antibiotic therapy is futile and thus vaccination is the only efficient strategy in order to control the disease. The β-barrel pore forming leucocidin Clostridium chauvoei toxin A (CctA) is one of the best characterised toxins of C. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anaerobe.2019.02.011DOI Listing
February 2019