450,804 results match your criteria Immunity & Ageing [Journal]


First-episode schizophrenia is associated with a reduction of HERV-K methylation in peripheral blood.

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 3;271:459-463. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Genetics, Wroclaw Medical University, Marcinkowskiego 1 Street, 50-368 Wroclaw, Poland. Electronic address:

Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) have been widely associated with schizophrenia etiology. Aberrant epigenetic processes may play a role in the etiology of schizophrenia. In this study, we tested whether schizophrenia patients at different stages of illness might present alterations in the levels of HERV-K methylation. Read More

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December 2018

Allicin enhances antimicrobial activity of macrophages during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

J Ethnopharmacol 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Special Centre for Molecular Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: The emergence of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) strains has severely hampered global efforts towards tuberculosis (TB) eradication. The internationally accepted therapy "Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS)" is lengthy, and incorporates risks for the generation of drug-resistant M. Read More

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December 2018
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cDNA cloning and expression analysis of glutaredoxin (Grx) 2 in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Hainan Provincial Key Laboratory for Functional Components Research and Utilization of Marine Bio-resources, Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Haikou, 571101, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Glutaredoxin (Grx) is a class molecule oxidoreductase, which can regulate the redox state of proteins and plays a key role in antioxidant defense. However, the informations of Grx cDNA sequences and their functions are lack in decapod crustacea. In the present study, the cDNA of LvGrx 2 was cloned from the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Read More

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December 2018

Genetic loss of proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide (PAMP) in mice is compatible with survival.

Peptides 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 111 Mason Farm Road, CB 7545, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599, USA. Electronic address:

Adrenomedullin (AM) and proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide (PAMP) are small peptides derived from a common precursor, pre-proadrenomedullin. Although AM and PAMP share hypotensive effects in the cardiovascular system, the peptides also exert diverse and distinct effects on endocrine physiology, innate immunity, cytoskeletal biology and receptor signaling pathways. Tremendous knowledge has been gleaned from the study of several genetic animal models of AM deletion or overexpression, some of which also simultaneously delete the coding region for PAMP peptide. Read More

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December 2018

Multiple receptors converge on H2-Q10 to regulate NK & γδT cell development.

Immunol Cell Biol 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Department of Immunology and Pathology, Central Clinical School, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

Class Ib MHC are an extended family of molecules which demonstrate tissue-specific expression and presentation of monomorphic antigens. These characteristics tend to imbue class Ib MHC with unique functions. H2-Q10 is potentially one such molecule in that it is overexpressed in the liver but its immunological function is not known. Read More

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December 2018

Towards the molecular deciphering of Pomacea canaliculata immunity: first proteomic analysis of circulating hemocytes.

Proteomics 2018 Dec 10:e1800314. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Life Sciences, 41125, Modena, Italy.

Pomacea canaliculata is a freshwater snail with interesting biological features that include invasiveness, human parasite hosting and adult regeneration. Its immune system may represent the target for strategies aimed at controlling the spread of the snail population and its hosting of the human parasite Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Moreover, immune functions likely have a role in the snail's ability to wound heal and regenerate. Read More

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December 2018

Activation of immune receptor Rx1 triggers distinct immune-responses culminating in cell death after four hours.

Mol Plant Pathol 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

University of Amsterdam, Molecular Plant Pathology, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Intracellular NLR (nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat)-type immune receptors are a fundamental aspect of plant immune systems. As infection occurs at foci, activation of immune responses is typically non-uniform and non-synchronized, hampering the systematic dissection of their cellular effects and determining their phasing. We investigated the Potato NLR Rx1 using the CESSNA (Controlled Expression of effectors for Synchronized and Systemic NLR Activation) platform. Read More

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December 2018

Tilorone activates NK cells and cytotoxic lymphocytes that kill HLA-negative tumor cells.

IUBMB Life 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Molecular Immunogenetics of cancer laboratory, Institute of gene biology, RAS, Moscow, 119334, Russia.

Tilorone hydrochloride, a low-molecular-weight synthetic compound, induces interferon production and has been reported to have both antiviral and antitumor activities. Here, we have demonstrated the ability of tilorone to activate NK cells and specific subpopulations of cytotoxic CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes that recognize immune-evasive tumor cells and kill them via the FasL-Fas interaction. We have also performed a comparative analysis of characteristics between lymphocytes activated in the fraction of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) upon treatment with different stimulants of the immune response: tilorone, innate immunity protein Tag7, and cytokine IL-2, a regulator of adaptive immunity. Read More

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December 2018
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A Photoresponsive Hyaluronan Hydrogel Nanocomposite for Dynamic Macrophage Immunomodulation.

Adv Healthc Mater 2018 Dec 7:e1801234. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, New York University, Brooklyn, NY, 11201, USA.

Macrophages are a predominant immune cell population that drive inflammatory responses and exhibit transitions in phenotype and function during tissue remodeling in disease and repair. Thus, engineering an immunomodulatory biomaterial has significant implications for resolving inflammation. Here, a biomimetic and photoresponsive hyaluronan (HA) hydrogel nanocomposite with tunable 3D extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion sites for dynamic macrophage immunomodulation is engineered. Read More

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December 2018

A small cysteine-rich protein from two kingdoms of microbes is recognized as a novel pathogen-associated molecular pattern.

New Phytol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Plant Protection, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100, China.

Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are conserved molecules which are crucial for normal life cycle of microorganisms. However, the diversity of microbial PAMPs is little known. During screening of cell death-inducing factors from the necrotrophic fungus Valsa mali, we identified a novel PAMP VmE02 that is widely spread in oomycetes and fungi. Read More

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December 2018

Expression of Plet1 controls interstitial migration of murine small intestinal dendritic cells.

Eur J Immunol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Hematology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Under homeostatic conditions, dendritic cells (DCs) continuously patrol the intestinal lamina propria. Upon antigen encounter, DCs initiate C-C motif chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) expression and migrate into lymph nodes to direct T cell activation and differentiation. The mechanistic underpinnings of DC migration from the tissues to lymph nodes have been largely elucidated, contributing greatly to our understanding of DC functionality and intestinal immunity. Read More

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December 2018

Fibroblast-specific integrin alpha V differentially regulates type 17 and type 2 driven inflammation and fibrosis.

J Pathol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Immunopathogenesis Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Fibroproliferative diseases affect a significant proportion of the world's population. Despite this, core mechanisms driving organ fibrosis of diverse etiologies remain ill defined. Recent studies suggest that integrin-alpha V serves as a master driver of fibrosis in multiple organs. Read More

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December 2018

Diacylglycerol kinase α-selective inhibitors induce apoptosis and reduce viability of melanoma and several other cancer cell lines.

J Cell Biochem 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Diacylglycerol (DG) kinase (DGK), which phosphorylates DG to generate phosphatidic acid (PA), consists of ten isozymes (α-к). Recently, we identified a novel small molecule inhibitor, CU-3, that selectively inhibits the activity of the α isozyme. In addition, we newly obtained Compound A, which selectively and strongly inhibits type I DGKs (α, β, and γ). Read More

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December 2018

Toll-like receptor 2 regulates metabolic reprogramming in gastric cancer via superoxide dismutase 2.

Int J Cancer 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of General Surgery, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200080, China.

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play critical roles in host defence following recognition of conserved microbial- and host-derived components, and their dysregulation is a common feature of various inflammation-associated cancers, including gastric cancer (GC). Despite the recent recognition that metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer, the molecular effectors of altered metabolism during tumorigenesis remain unclear. Here, using bioenergetics function assays on human GC cells, we reveal that ligand-induced activation of TLR2, predominantly through TLR1/2 heterodimer, augments both oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and glycolysis, with a bias towards glycolytic activity. Read More

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December 2018

Characterization of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma arising in young patients: Particular focus on molecular alteration and tumor immunity.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Pathology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: The purpose of this study was to comprehensively characterize head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) arising in young patients (<45 years old).

Methods: We performed immunohistochemistry, silver, and fluorescence in situ hybridization using samples obtained from 396 radically resected cases among 1787 HNSCCs.

Results: Young age HNSCCs occurred in 10. Read More

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December 2018

A Click-Chemistry Linked 2'3'-cGAMP Analog.

Chemistry 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Butenandtstraße 5-13, 81377, München, GERMANY.

2'3'-cGAMP is an uncanonical cyclic dinucleotide where one A and one G base are connected via a 3'-5' and a unique 2'-5' linkage. The molecule is produced by the cyclase cGAS in response to cytosolic DNA binding. cGAMP activates STING and hence one of the most powerful pathways of innate immunity. Read More

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December 2018

Phytophthora infestans effector SFI3 targets potato UBK to suppress early immune transcriptional responses.

New Phytol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Division of Plant Science, School of Life Science, University of Dundee (at JHI), Invergowrie, Dundee, DD2 5DA, UK.

The potato blight agent Phytophthora infestans secretes a range of RXLR effectors to promote disease. Recent evidence indicates that some effectors suppress early pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) following perception of Microbe-Associated Molecular Patterns (MAMPs). Phytophthora infestans effector PiSFI3/Pi06087/PexRD16 was previously shown to suppress MAMP-triggered pFRK1-Luciferase reporter gene activity. Read More

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December 2018

Uric acid and angiotensin II additively promote inflammation and oxidative stress in human proximal tubule cells by activation of toll-like receptor 4.

J Cell Physiol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa and Ospedale Policlinico San Martino-IST, Genova, Italy.

Renal proximal tubular cells (PTECs) participate in several mechanisms of innate immunity, express toll-like receptors (TLRs), and proinflammatory cytokines. Hyperuricemia may be a promoter of inflammation and renal damage. Angiotensin II (Ang II) modulate immune and inflammatory responses in renal tubular cells. Read More

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December 2018

Overview of antibody-mediated immunity to S. pneumoniae: pneumococcal infections, pneumococcal immunity assessment, and recommendations for IG product evaluation.

Transfusion 2018 Dec;58 Suppl 3:3106-3113

Regional Immunology Service, The Royal Hospitals, Belfast Health & Social Care Trust and Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UK.

Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) strains colonize the nasopharynx and can cause mucosal infections in the upper airway and middle ear, pneumonias, and invasive infections like bacteremia, sepsis, and meningitis. Over 90 serotypes, defined by the structure of their capsular polysaccharides, are known. Read More

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December 2018

Antibodies to vaccine antigens in pooled polyclonal human IgG products.

Authors:
Melvin Berger

Transfusion 2018 Dec;58 Suppl 3:3096-3105

Global Medical Affairs, CSL Behring, LLC, King of Prussia, Pennsylvania.

Immune-deficient patients depend on the antibodies in pooled human immunoglobulin G (IgG) preparations to remain free from serious infections. The potency of IgG preparations is therefore an ongoing concern. The use of pooled IgG to prevent infection is based on the concept that healthy adults have recovered from infections earlier in life and maintain relatively high antibody titers. Read More

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December 2018

Humoral immunodeficiencies: conferred risk of infections and benefits of immunoglobulin replacement therapy.

Transfusion 2018 Dec;58 Suppl 3:3056-3064

Division of Clinical Immunology, Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.

Primary immunodeficiency (PID) diseases result from genetic defects of the immune system that increase a patient's susceptibility to infections. The types of infections that occur in patients with PID diseases are dictated largely by the nature of the immunodeficiency, which can be defined by dysfunction of cellular or humoral defenses. An increasing number of PID diseases, including those with both cellular and humoral defects, have antibody deficiency as a major feature, and as a result can benefit from immunoglobulin replacement therapy. Read More

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December 2018

Protections Preserved for University-Employed Physicians.

Authors:
Joey Berlin

Tex Med 2018 Jul 1;114(7):34-35. Epub 2018 Jul 1.

The Texas Supreme Court blocked a challenge to liability protections for physicians employed by state medical schools, a legal victory for TMA. Thanks to the court's decision, physicians employed by a government institution, like a publicly funded medical school, still can perform clinical duties at a non-government facility, like a private hospital, without giving up immunity from lawsuits. Read More

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Inflammasomes in Bone Diseases.

Exp Suppl 2018 ;108:269-279

Division of Bone and Mineral Diseases, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Unresolved inflammation is harmful to any tissues in the organism. Bone in particular is vulnerable to inflammatory assaults because its integrity depends on the activity of osteoclasts, which arise from myeloid precursors. Osteoclasts are responsible for bone resorption in normal and disease conditions. Read More

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January 2018

Inflammasomes in the Kidney.

Exp Suppl 2018 ;108:177-210

Centre for Inflammatory Diseases, Monash University Department of Medicine, Monash Medical Centre, Clayton, VIC, Australia.

Inflammasomes influence a diverse range of kidney disease, including acute and chronic kidney diseases, and those mediated by innate and adaptive immunity. Both IL-18 and in particular IL-1β are validated therapeutic targets in several kidney diseases. In addition to leukocyte-derived inflammasomes, renal tissue cells express functional inflammasome components. Read More

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January 2018

Lung Diseases.

Exp Suppl 2018 ;108:61-84

Centre for Innate Immunity and Infectious Diseases, Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, VIC, Australia.

Inflammasomes are large innate cytoplasmic complexes that play a major role in promoting inflammation in the lung in response to a range of environmental and infectious stimuli. Inflammasomes are critical for driving acute innate immune responses that resolve infection and maintain tissue homeostasis. However, dysregulated or excessive inflammasome activation can be detrimental. Read More

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January 2018

Relationship between Volatile Anesthetics and Tumor Progression: Unveiling the Mystery.

Curr Med Sci 2018 Dec 7;38(6):962-967. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Anesthesiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, China.

A series of factors can be involved in the perioperative period to cause an increase in cancer-related mortality. Unfortunately, volatile anesthesia might aggravate the deleterious effects. In this article, we review the association of diverse volatile anesthetic agents with immune system and cancer cell biology, and examine the effects on angeogenesis and postoperative metastasis or recurrence. Read More

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December 2018

Intestinal Microbiota Is Altered in Patients with Gastric Cancer from Shanxi Province, China.

Dig Dis Sci 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Immunology Department, Shanxi Cancer Hospital, No. 3 Zhigong New Street, Taiyuan, 030013, Shanxi, China.

Background: Many diseases have been associated with intestinal microbial dysbiosis. Host-microbial interactions regulate immune function, which influences the development of gastric cancer.

Aims: The aims were to investigate the characteristics of intestinal microbiota composition in gastric cancer patients and correlations between the intestinal microbiota and cellular immunity. Read More

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December 2018
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Multi-type Galton-Watson Processes with Affinity-Dependent Selection Applied to Antibody Affinity Maturation.

Bull Math Biol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Département d'Informatique, Ecole Normale Supérieure, 45 rue d'Ulm, 75005, Paris, France.

We analyze the interactions between division, mutation and selection in a simplified evolutionary model, assuming that the population observed can be classified into fitness levels. The construction of our mathematical framework is motivated by the modeling of antibody affinity maturation of B-cells in germinal centers during an immune response. This is a key process in adaptive immunity leading to the production of high-affinity antibodies against a presented antigen. Read More

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December 2018

Cane toads (Rhinella marina) rely on water access, not drought tolerance, to invade xeric Australian environments.

Oecologia 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, 85287-4501, USA.

The invasion of habitats with novel environmental challenges may require physiological tolerances not seen in conspecifics from the native range. We used a combination of field and laboratory-based experiments to assess physiological tolerance to limited water access at four sites distributed across the historical invasion path of cane toads (Rhinella marina) in Australia that, from east to west, alternated between mesic and seasonally xeric habitats. Toads from all locations were well hydrated at the time of capture. Read More

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December 2018

An Analysis of the Intracellular Signal Transduction of Peripheral Blood Leukocytes in Animal Models of Diabetes Using Flow Cytometry.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1916:177-193

Department of Enviromental and Preventive Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Japan.

Various complications of diabetes are induced by the augmentation of chronic inflammation and attenuation of immunity. Leukocytes, which play major roles in inflammation and immune responses, are affected by the glycemic status and blood insulin level. In this chapter, we explain a method for analyzing the signal transduction pathway of leukocytes in peripheral blood. Read More

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January 2019

Metabolic Regulation of Innate Immunity to Fungal Infection.

Exp Suppl 2018 ;109:403-420

Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Medicine, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal.

In recent years, the renewed interest in immune cell metabolism has driven the emergence of a research field aimed at studying the role of metabolic processes during innate and adaptive immune responses. Although the specific requirements of myeloid cells after the canonical lipopolysaccharide/TLR4 stimulation have been extensively addressed, recent evidence suggests that this model may not represent a universally accurate metabolic blueprint. Instead, different microbial stimuli, pathogens, or tissue microenvironments trigger specific and complex metabolic rewiring of myeloid cells. Read More

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January 2018

Metabolic Host Response to Intracellular Infections.

Exp Suppl 2018 ;109:319-350

Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Medicine, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal.

The interaction between intracellular bacterial pathogens with the host immune response can result in multiple outcomes that range from asymptomatic clearance to the establishment of infection. At its core, these interactions result in multiple metabolic adaptations of both the pathogen and its host cell. There is growing evidence that the host metabolic response plays a key role in the development of immune responses against the invading pathogen. Read More

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January 2018

Upregulated IGF‑1 in the lungs of asthmatic mice originates from alveolar macrophages.

Mol Med Rep 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Immunology, Anhui Provincial Key Laboratory of Infection and Immunity, Bengbu Medical College, Bengbu, Anhui 233030, P.R. China.

Asthma is characterized by inflammation and remodeling of the airways. Insulin‑like growth factor-1 (IGF‑1) serves an important role in the repair of lung tissue injury and airway remodeling by elevating collagen and elastin content, increasing the thickness of smooth muscle and promoting the proliferation of lung epithelial and interstitial cells, as well as fibroblasts; however, the content of IGF‑1 and its cellular origin in the lungs of patients with asthma remain unknown. In the present study, a mouse model of asthma was constructed. Read More

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December 2018

Acupuncture in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition, Department of Inflammation and Immunity, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.

Scientific research into the effects and mechanisms of acupuncture for gastrointestinal diseases including inflammatory bowel disease has been rapidly growing in the past several decades. In this review, we discuss the history, theory, and methodology of acupuncture and review potentially beneficial mechanisms of action of acupuncture for managing inflammatory bowel disease. Acupuncture has been shown to decrease disease activity and inflammation via increase of vagal activity in inflammatory bowel disease. Read More

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December 2018

A unique nanoparticulate TLR9 agonist enables a HA split vaccine to confer FcγR-mediated protection against heterologous lethal influenza virus infection.

Int Immunol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Laboratory of Adjuvant Innovation, Center for Vaccine and Adjuvant Research, Osaka, Japan.

The development of a universal influenza vaccine that can provide a robust and long-lasting protection against a broader range of influenza virus strains is a global public health priority. One approach to improve vaccine efficacy is to use an adjuvant to boost immune responses to the target antigens; nevertheless, the role of adjuvants in the context of influenza vaccines is not fully understood. We have previously developed the K3-schizophyllan (SPG) adjuvant, which is composed of nanoparticulated oligodeoxynucleotides K3, a TLR9 agonist, with SPG, a non-agonistic β-glucan ligand of Dectin-1. Read More

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December 2018

Cytidine deaminase enables Toll-like receptor 8 activation by cytidine or its analogs.

Int Immunol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Division of Innate Immunity, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8), a sensor for pathogen-derived single-stranded RNA (ssRNA), binds to uridine (Uri) and ssRNA to induce defense responses. We here show that cytidine (Cyd) with ssRNA also activated TLR8 in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and a myeloid cell line U937, but not in an embryonic kidney cell line 293T. Cyd deaminase (CDA), an enzyme highly expressed in leukocytes, deaminates Cyd to Uri. Read More

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December 2018

Histological and immunohistochemical study on the apical granuloma.

Rom J Morphol Embryol 2018 ;59(3):811-817

Research Center for Microscopic Morphology and Immunology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Romania;

Introduction: Periapical granuloma is one of the most frequent periodontal pathology and belongs to the group named as apical periodontitis.

Materials And Methods: Out of 78 of diagnosed granulomas, we selected samples that we analyzed histologically and immunohistochemically.

Results: The histopathological aspect has been dominated by the presence of mononuclear cells of the lymphocyte and plasma cells type, showing the chronic aspect of the apical lesion. Read More

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January 2018

β-Glucan as an immune activator and a carrier in the construction of a synthetic MUC1 vaccine.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China. and Department of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China.

We describe the preparation of a cancer vaccine candidate by conjugating a MUC1 peptide antigen to the β-glucan polysaccharide, which serves both as a carrier and an immune activator. In contrast to amorphous polysaccharides, peptide-β-glucan conjugates form uniform nanoparticles that facilitate the delivery of antigens and binding to myeloid cells, thus leading to the activation of both innate and adaptive immunity. Read More

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December 2018

New Insights into Human Nostril Microbiome from the Expanded Human Oral Microbiome Database (eHOMD): a Resource for the Microbiome of the Human Aerodigestive Tract.

mSystems 2018 Nov-Dec;3(6). Epub 2018 Dec 4.

The Forsyth Institute (Microbiology), Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

The expanded Human Oral Microbiome Database (eHOMD) is a comprehensive microbiome database for sites along the human aerodigestive tract that revealed new insights into the nostril microbiome. The eHOMD provides well-curated 16S rRNA gene reference sequences linked to available genomes and enables assignment of species-level taxonomy to most next-generation sequences derived from diverse aerodigestive tract sites, including the nasal passages, sinuses, throat, esophagus, and mouth. Using minimum entropy decomposition coupled with the RDP Classifier and our eHOMD V1-V3 training set, we reanalyzed 16S rRNA V1-V3 sequences from the nostrils of 210 Human Microbiome Project participants at the species level, revealing four key insights. Read More

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December 2018

IL-6 and the dysregulation of immune, bone, muscle, and metabolic homeostasis during spaceflight.

Authors:
John Kelly Smith

NPJ Microgravity 2018 4;4:24. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Departments of Academic Affairs and Biomedical Sciences, James H. Quillen College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN USA.

We have previously reported that exercise-related secretion of IL-6 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells is proportionate to body weight, suggesting that IL-6 is gravisensitive and that suboptimal production of this key cytokine may contribute to homeostatic dysregulations that occur during spaceflight. This review details what is known about the role of this key cytokine in innate and adaptive immunity, hematopoiesis, and in bone, muscle and metabolic homeostasis on Earth and in the microgravity of space and suggests an experimental approach to confirm or disavow the role of IL-6 in space-related dysregulations. Read More

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December 2018

CD56bright cells respond to stimulation until very advanced age revealing increased expression of cellular protective proteins SIRT1, HSP70 and SOD2.

Immun Ageing 2018 28;15:31. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

1Department of Histology, Medical University of Gdańsk, Dębinki 1, 80-211 Gdańsk, Poland.

Background: NK cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes of innate immunity composed of: cytotoxic CD56dim and immunoregulatory CD56bright cells. The study aimed to analyze the expression of cellular protective proteins: sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) in CD56dim and CD56bright NK cells of the young, seniors aged under 85 ('the old') and seniors aged over 85 ('the oldest'). We studied both non-stimulated NK cells and cells stimulated by IL-2, LPS or PMA with ionomycin. Read More

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November 2018

Dissecting the Genomic Architecture of Resistance to Parasitism in the Chicken.

Front Genet 2018 26;9:528. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

Coccidiosis in poultry, caused by protozoan parasites of the genus , is an intestinal disease with substantial economic impact. With the use of anticoccidial drugs under public and political pressure, and the comparatively higher cost of live-attenuated vaccines, an attractive complementary strategy for control is to breed chickens with increased resistance to parasitism. Prior infection with leads to complete immunity against challenge with homologous strains, but only partial resistance to challenge with antigenically diverse heterologous strains. Read More

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November 2018

Eosinophil Extracellular Traps and Inflammatory Pathologies-Untangling the Web!

Front Immunol 2018 26;9:2763. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of General Internal Medicine and Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, Akita, Japan.

Eosinophils are an enigmatic white blood cell, whose immune functions are still under intense investigation. Classically, the eosinophil was considered to fulfill a protective role against parasitic infections, primarily large multicellular helminths. Although eosinophils are predominantly associated with parasite infections, evidence of a role for eosinophils in mediating immunity against bacterial, viral, and fungal infections has been recently reported. Read More

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November 2018

Leptin Functions in Infectious Diseases.

Front Immunol 2018 26;9:2741. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Division of Emerging and Transfusion Transmitted Diseases, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD, United States.

Leptin, a pleiotropic protein has long been recognized to play an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis, metabolism, neuroendocrine function, and other physiological functions through its effects on the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral tissues. Leptin is secreted by adipose tissue and encoded by the obese () gene. Leptin acts as a central mediator which regulates immunity as well as nutrition. Read More

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November 2018

Association of Diverse Genotypes and Phenotypes of Immune Cells and Immunoglobulins With the Course of HIV-1 Infection.

Front Immunol 2018 26;9:2735. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States.

Disease progression among HIV-1-infected individuals varies widely, but the mechanisms underlying this variability remains unknown. Distinct disease outcomes are the consequences of many factors working in concert, including innate and adaptive immune responses, cell-mediated and humoral immunity, and both genetic and phenotypic factors. Current data suggest that these multifaceted aspects in infected individuals should be considered as a whole, rather than as separate unique elements, and that analyses must be performed in greater detail in order to meet the requirements of personalized medicine and guide optimal vaccine design. Read More

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November 2018

Lipocalin-2 Functions as Inhibitor of Innate Resistance to .

Front Immunol 2018 26;9:2717. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Granulocyte Research Laboratory, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Lipocalin-2 is a constituent of the neutrophil secondary granules and is expressed by macrophages and epithelium in response to inflammation. Lipocalin-2 acts in a bacteriostatic fashion by binding iron-loaded siderophores required for bacterial growth. (M. Read More

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November 2018

Structural Immunology of Complement Receptors 3 and 4.

Front Immunol 2018 26;9:2716. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics-Structural Biology, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

Complement receptors (CR) 3 and 4 belong to the family of beta-2 (CD18) integrins. CR3 and CR4 are often co-expressed in the myeloid subsets of leukocytes, but they are also found in NK cells and activated T and B lymphocytes. The heterodimeric ectodomain undergoes considerable conformational change in order to switch the receptor from a structurally bent, ligand-binding in-active state into an extended, ligand-binding active state. Read More

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November 2018

Anti- IgG Antibodies in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders.

Front Psychiatry 2018 26;9:627. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, and The Medical Investigation of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (M.I.N.D.) Institute, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, United States.

The gut microbiota are known to have a profound influence on both mucosal and systemic immunity and are important for gastrointestinal (GI) function. In addition, new evidence shows that the microbiota significantly influence neurodevelopment and behavior. Immune dysfunction and GI distress are extremely common in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Read More

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November 2018

Modulations of Neuroendocrine Stress Responses During Confinement in Antarctica and the Role of Hypobaric Hypoxia.

Front Physiol 2018 26;9:1647. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Laboratory of Translational Research "Stress and Immunity", Department of Anaesthesiology, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany.

The Antarctic continent is an environment of extreme conditions. Only few research stations exist that are occupied throughout the year. The German station Neumayer III and the French-Italian Concordia station are such research platforms and human outposts. Read More

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November 2018

Draft Genome Sequence of a Non-O1/O139 Vibrio cholerae Strain Isolated from a Patient Presenting with Dysuria.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2018 Jul 26;7(3). Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Infection and Immunity, South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of cholera and, more rarely, nondiarrheal opportunistic infections. We report here a draft genome sequence of a non-O1/O139 V. cholerae strain isolated from the urine of a patient presenting with dysuria at a South Australian health care facility. Read More

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