10,275 results match your criteria Imaging in Juvenile Pilocytic Astrocytoma

Brain network hubs and cognitive performance of survivors of childhood infratentorial tumors.

Radiother Oncol 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University Hospitals Leuven, Belgium.

Background: Childhood infratentorial tumor patients frequently suffer from long-term cognitive deficits. As each constituent of their treatment can lead to neurotoxicity, cascade effects can lead to profound reorganization of the underlying brain network, the so-called 'connectome'. However, to date, few studies have assessed the relationship between brain network topology, the functional role of network hubs (i. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Accuracy of Machine Learning Algorithms for the Classification of Molecular Features of Gliomas on MRI: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 26;13(11). Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Medical Imaging, Radboud University Medical Center, Radboud University, 6500HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Treatment planning and prognosis in glioma treatment are based on the classification into low- and high-grade oligodendroglioma or astrocytoma, which is mainly based on molecular characteristics (IDH1/2- and 1p/19q codeletion status). It would be of great value if this classification could be made reliably before surgery, without biopsy. Machine learning algorithms (MLAs) could play a role in achieving this by enabling glioma characterization on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data without invasive tissue sampling. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Revision of Commonly Accepted Warburg Mechanism of Cancer Development: Redox-Sensitive Mitochondrial Cytochromes in Breast and Brain Cancers by Raman Imaging.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 26;13(11). Epub 2021 May 26.

Laboratory of Laser Molecular Spectroscopy, Institute of Applied Radiation Chemistry, Lodz University of Technology, Wroblewskiego 15, 93-590 Lodz, Poland.

We used Raman imaging to monitor changes in the redox state of the mitochondrial cytochromes in ex vivo human brain and breast tissues, surgically resected specimens of human tissues and in vitro human brain cells of normal astrocytes (NHA), astrocytoma (CRL-1718), glioblastoma (U87-MG) and medulloblastoma (Daoy), and human breast cells of normal cells (MCF 10A), slightly malignant cells (MCF7) and highly aggressive cells (MDA-MB-231) by means of Raman microspectroscopy at 532 nm. We visualized localization of cytochromes by Raman imaging in the major organelles in cancer cells. We demonstrated that the "redox state Raman marker" of the ferric low-spin heme in cytochrome at 1584 cm can serve as a sensitive indicator of cancer aggressiveness. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Hypermetabolism and impaired cerebrovascular reactivity beyond the standard MRI-identified tumor border indicate diffuse glioma extended tissue infiltration.

Neurooncol Adv 2021 Jan-Dec;3(1):vdab048. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: Diffuse gliomas exhibit diffuse infiltrative growth, often beyond the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-detectable tumor lesion. Within this lesion, hypermetabolism and impaired cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) are found, but its exact distribution pattern into the peritumoral environment is unknown. Our aim was to better characterize the extent of diffuse glioma tissue infiltration, beyond the visible lesion (ie, beyond the T1-contrast-enhancing lesion and/or T2/FLAIR-defined tumor border), with metabolic positron emission tomography (PET), and functional MRI CVR (blood oxygenation-level-dependent CVR [BOLD-CVR]) mapping. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Neuroophthalmic Manifestations of Intracranial Tumours in Children.

Case Rep Ophthalmol Med 2021 15;2021:7793382. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Neurosurgery, Dr. D.Y. Patil Medical College and Hospital, Pimpri, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Background: All children between 0 and 16 years presenting with brain tumours confirmed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and treated surgically in our institute were included in this study.

Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the neuroophthalmic and clinical characteristics of intracranial space occupying lesions in children.

Methods: Neuroophthalmic manifestations along with location of the tumour by contrast-enhanced MRI, type of surgical intervention, and postoperative histopathological diagnosis were evaluated. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Spatial concordance of DNA methylation classification in diffuse glioma.

Neuro Oncol 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Neurosurgery, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit, and Brain Tumor Centre, Cancer Center Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Intratumoral heterogeneity is a hallmark of diffuse gliomas. DNA methylation profiling is an emerging approach in the clinical classification of brain tumors. The goal of this study is to investigate the effects of intratumoral heterogeneity on classification confidence. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Challenges in Building of Deep Learning Models for Glioblastoma Segmentation: Evidence from Clinical Data.

Stud Health Technol Inform 2021 May;281:298-302

N.N. Burdenko National Medical Research Center of Neurosurgery, Moscow, Russia.

In this article, we compare the performance of a state-of-the-art segmentation network (UNet) on two different glioblastoma (GB) segmentation datasets. Our experiments show that the same training procedure yields almost twice as bad results on the retrospective clinical data compared to the BraTS challenge data (in terms of Dice score). We discuss possible reasons for such an outcome, including inter-rater variability and high variability in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners and scanner settings. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cyclin D1 expression in ganglioglioma, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma and pilocytic astrocytoma.

Exp Mol Pathol 2021 May 19;121:104652. Epub 2021 May 19.

University Hospital of Saint Etienne, North Hospital, Department of Pathology, Avenue Albert Raimond, 42055, Saint Etienne CEDEX 2, France; Corneal Graft Biology, Engineering and Imaging Laboratory, BiiGC, EA2521, Federative Institute of Research in Sciences and Health Engineering, Faculty of Medicine, Jean Monnet University, Saint-Etienne, France.

Ganglioglioma, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) and pilocytic astrocytoma are rare brain neoplasms with frequent activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. A downstream marker of MAP-kinase pathway activation is cyclin D1. However, the expression of cyclin D1 has not been studied in the differential diagnosis between these brain tumors. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Super resolution microscopy reveals DHA-dependent alterations in glioblastoma membrane remodelling and cell migration.

Nanoscale 2021 Jun;13(21):9706-9722

Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta, Department of Oncology, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Brain fatty acid binding protein (FABP7; B-FABP) promotes glioblastoma (GBM) cell migration and is associated with tumor infiltration, properties associated with a poor prognosis in GBM patients. FABP7-expressing neural stem-like cells are known to drive tumor migration/infiltration and resistance to treatment. We have previously shown that FABP7's effects on cell migration can be reversed when GBM cells are cultured in medium supplemented with the omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cerebrospinal Fluid Drop Metastases of Canine Glioma: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Classification.

Front Vet Sci 2021 3;8:650320. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, Blacksburg, VA, United States.

Dissemination of glioma in humans can occur as leptomeningeal nodules, diffuse leptomeningeal lesions, or ependymal lesions. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drop metastasis of glioma is not well-recognized in dogs. Ten dogs with at least two anatomically distinct and histologically confirmed foci of glioma were included in this study. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Case Report: Chemotherapy Indication in a Case of Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Presenting Optic Pathway Glioma: A One-Year Clinical Case Study Using Differential Tractography Approach.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 6;15:620439. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Functional Neurosurgery Research Center, Shohada Tajrish Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is associated with peripheral and central nervous system tumors. It is noteworthy that the regions in which these tumors frequently arise are the optic pathways (OPs) and the brainstem. Thus, we decided to trace the procedure of diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dMRI) alterations along with Short-Wavelength Automated Perimetry (SWAP) examinations of the OPs after surgery and chemotherapy over 1 year, which enabled us to evaluate chemotherapy's efficacy in an NF1 patient with an OP tumor. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

3D whole-brain metabolite imaging to improve characterization of low-to-intermediate grade gliomas.

J Neurooncol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Emory University School of Medicine, 1701 Uppergate Drive, C5018, Atlanta, GA, 30322, USA.

Purpose: MRI is the standard imaging modality used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and post-treatment management of gliomas. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted (CE-T1w) MRI is used to plan biopsy and radiation for grade IV gliomas but is less effective for grade II and III gliomas (i.e. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Secondary cerebellopontine angle oligodendroglioma after cranial irradiation: A case report and literature review.

Int J Neurosci 2021 May 11:1-7. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Cerebral Vascular Disease Research Centre, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

Cerebellopontine angle (CPA) oligodendrogliomas are very rare, and only 3 preoperative cases have been confirmed. Secondary cerebellopontine angle oligodendrogliomas after radiation therapy are exceptionally rare, and no other cases have been reported. We present a case of a 25-year-old male with CPA oligodendroglioma who experienced hearing loss in right ear with walking instability for more than 2 months. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Case report and literature review: antenatal diagnosis of a fetal anaplastic astrocytoma.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 May 9:1-7. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Ultrasound, The School of Clinical Medicine, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China.

Objectives: To describe the ultrasonographic appearance of congenital anaplastic astrocytoma, so as to provide diagnostic clues for it. An updated review of the literature was also carried out.

Results: There was a case of fetal anaplastic astrocytoma detected by ultrasound at 37 + 1 weeks of gestation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Hypothalamic Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma in a Child with Lipodystrophy.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Radiology (J.C.B., T.J.K., L.E., J.G.), Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Pilomyxoid astrocytoma is a rare form of pediatric CNS malignancy first classified in 2007 by the World Health Organization. The tumors are similar to pilocytic astrocytomas, sharing both some imaging and histologic traits. However, pilomyxoid astrocytomas portend a more ominous prognosis, with more aggressive local tendencies and a greater proclivity for leptomeningeal spread. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma in the insula: Case report and review of the literature.

Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2021 May 15;65:102300. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Surgery, King Hussein Cancer Center, Amman, Jordan.

Introduction: and Importance: Adult Pilocytic Astrocytomas (APA) are infrequent low grade tumors. While supratentorial APA is considered rare, insular APA is extremely rare.

Case Presentation: We present a case of pure insular APA along with surgical outcomes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Intramedullary spinal cord lesions in children.

J Pak Med Assoc 2021 Feb;71(2(B)):775-777

Section of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi.

Paediatric intramedullary spinal cord lesions are uncommon pathologies, prone to result in dismal prognosis if not managed promptly and aggressively. While children usually present in good functional grades compared to adults, early recognition and treatment is important to improve outcomes. In this review, we present tumour demographics, patient factors, and treatment modalities of intramedullary spinal cord lesions in paediatric patients. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Refining the treatment of spinal cord lesions: experience from 500 cases.

Neurosurg Focus 2021 May;50(5):E22

Objective: Tumorous lesions of the spinal cord, as well as some vascular lesions like cavernous hemangiomas, demand careful consideration as to the indication and approach for surgery. As these lesions are rare in any departmental series, refinement of treatment strategies evolves over long periods. In this context, the authors evaluated a series of 500 intramedullary lesions for approach, technique, outcome, complications, and follow-up. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Clinical Classification of Acquired Concomitant Esotropia.

Klin Monbl Augenheilkd 2021 Apr 30;238(4):482-487. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Lausanne, Jules-Gonin Eye Hospital, Fondation Asile des aveugles, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background: Classification and management of acquired concomitant esotropia is controversial. We sought to establish a simple clinical classification in order to determine in which cases further investigations in search of underlying pathologies are necessary.

Patients And Methods: Observational retrospective study of the files of 175 consecutive patients examined in our unit between 2009 and 2018 for acute convergent strabismus. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Correlation of 4'-[methyl-C]-thiothymidine PET with Gd-enhanced and FLAIR MRI in patients with newly diagnosed glioma.

EJNMMI Res 2021 Apr 30;11(1):42. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki-cho, Kita-gun, Kagawa, 761-0793, Japan.

Purpose: To elucidate the biological association between tumor proliferation, tumor infiltration and neovascularization, we analyzed the association between volumetric information of 4'-[methyl-C]thiothymidine (4DST) positron emission tomography (PET) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T1-weighted gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in patients with newly diagnosed glioma.

Methods: A total of 23 patients with newly diagnosed glioma who underwent both 4DST PET/CT and Gd-enhanced MRI before therapy were available for a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) for tumor (T) and the mean SUV for normal contralateral hemisphere (N) were calculated, and the tumor-to-normal (T/N) ratio was determined. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Eye Tumors in Childhood as First Sign of Tumor Predisposition Syndromes: Insights from an Observational Study Conducted in Germany and Austria.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 14;13(8). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Institute of Human Genetics, Medical Faculty, University Duisburg-Essen, 45122 Essen, Germany.

Retinoblastoma and other eye tumors in childhood are rare diseases. Many eye tumors are the first signs of a genetic tumor predisposition syndrome and the affected children carry a higher risk of developing other cancers later in life. Clinical and genetic data of all children with eye tumors diagnosed between 2013-2018 in Germany and Austria were collected in a multicenter prospective observational study. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Physiological Imaging Methods for Evaluating Response to Immunotherapies in Glioblastomas.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 8;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Molecular and Clinical Cancer Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX, UK.

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant brain tumor in adults, with a dismal prognosis despite aggressive multi-modal therapy. Immunotherapy is currently being evaluated as an alternate treatment modality for recurrent GBMs in clinical trials. These immunotherapeutic approaches harness the patient's immune response to fight and eliminate tumor cells. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Combining Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Systemic Monocyte Evaluation for the Implementation of GBM Management.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 6;22(7). Epub 2021 Apr 6.

UOC Radiodiagnostica e Neuroradiologia, Istituto di Radiologia, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario "A.Gemelli" IRCCS, Università Cattolica S.Cuore, 00168 Roma, Italy.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the gold standard for glioblastoma (GBM) patient evaluation. Additional non-invasive diagnostic modalities are needed. GBM is heavily infiltrated with tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) that can be found in peripheral blood. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Fibronectin Expression Determines the Distinct Progressions of Malignant Gliomas via Transforming Growth Factor-Beta Pathway.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 6;22(7). Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan.

Due to the increasing incidence of malignant gliomas, particularly glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a simple and reliable GBM diagnosis is needed to screen early the death-threaten patients. This study aimed to identify a protein that can be used to discriminate GBM from low-grade astrocytoma and elucidate further that it has a functional role during malignant glioma progressions. To identify proteins that display low or no expression in low-grade astrocytoma but elevated levels in GBM, glycoprotein fibronectin (FN) was particularly examined according to the mining of the Human Protein Atlas. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A self-immolated fluorogenic agent triggered by HS exhibiting potential anti-glioblastoma activity.

Analyst 2021 Jun 28;146(11):3510-3515. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210023, P. R. China.

Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive type of malignant brain tumor with poor survival and limited therapeutic options. Theranostic anticancer agents with dual functions of diagnosis and therapy are highly attractive. Self-immolation reaction is a promising approach for theranostic prodrugs triggered by the tumor microenvironment. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

High-grade astrocytoma with piloid features (HGAP): the Charité experience with a new central nervous system tumor entity.

J Neurooncol 2021 May 27;153(1):109-120. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin and Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Department of Radiation Oncology, Charitéplatz 1, 10117, Berlin, Germany.

Purpose: High-grade astrocytoma with piloid features (HGAP) is a recently described brain tumor entity defined by a specific DNA methylation profile. HGAP has been proposed to be integrated in the upcoming World Health Organization classification of central nervous system tumors expected in 2021. In this series, we present the first single-center experience with this new entity. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

DCE-MRI in Glioma, Infiltration Zone and Healthy Brain to Assess Angiogenesis: A Biopsy Study.

Clin Neuroradiol 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Bonn, Venusberg-Campus 1, 53127, Bonn, Germany.

Purpose: To explore the focal predictability of vascular growth factor expression and neovascularization using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in glioma.

Methods: 120 brain biopsies were taken in vital tumor, infiltration zone and normal brain tissue of 30 glioma patients: 17 IDH(isocitrate dehydrogenase)-wildtype glioblastoma (GBM), 1 IDH-wildtype astrocytoma °III (together prognostic group 1), 3 IDH-mutated GBM (group 2), 3 anaplastic astrocytomas IDH-mutated (group 3), 4 anaplastic oligodendrogliomas and 2 low-grade oligodendrogliomas (together prognostic group 4). A mixed linear model evaluated the predictabilities of microvessel density (MVD), vascular area ratio (VAR), mean vessel size (MVS), vascular endothelial growth factor and receptors (VEGF-A, VEGFR‑2) and vascular endothelial-protein tyrosine phosphatase (VE-PTP) expression from Tofts model kinetic and model-free curve parameters. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Challenges in diagnosis and management of adult spinal cord gliomas.

Rev Neurol (Paris) 2021 May 23;177(5):515-523. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Hôpital de la Timone, Marseille, France.

Intramedullary spinal cord gliomas have very low incidence rates. They are associated with difficulties in diagnosis and treatment, and cause significant morbidity. Their clinical presentation and their appearance at magnetic resonance imaging are not specific. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Radiation induced glioma in a sexagenarian: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(16):e25373

Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University; 37 Guo Xue Xiang Road, Chengdu, Sichuan, P. R. China.

Introduction: Radiation induced gliomas often occurs after radiation therapy for other brain tumors. Medulloblastoma often occurs in children and its associated radiation-induced glioblastoma multiforme's (GBM) after radiotherapy often has a long latency period. Our case is very unique because the medulloblastoma was detected at an advance age and the latency period of radiation-induced GBM was relatively shorter. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Stereotactic irradiation in the complex treatment of patients with intracranial pilocytic astrocytoma].

Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko 2021 ;85(2):34-46

Burdenko Neurosurgical Center, Moscow, Russia.

Complex management of patients with intracranial pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) consists of surgical treatment, drug therapy (mainly in young children) and radiotherapy. For many years, radiotherapy (RT) has been a standard for residual tumors, recurrence or continued growth of PA. Currently, stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy are preferred for PA, because these procedures are characterized by high conformity and selectivity, precise irradiation of tumor with minimal damage to surrounding intact tissues. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF