3,662 results match your criteria Imaging in Intrauterine Growth Retardation


Evaluation of placental oxygenation in fetal growth restriction using blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging.

Placenta 2022 Jun 18;126:40-45. Epub 2022 Jun 18.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mie University Faculty Medicine, Mie, Japan.

Introduction: Abnormalities in placental function can lead to fetal growth restriction (FGR), but there is no consensus on their evaluation. Using blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD MRI), we compared placental oxygenation between FGR cases and previously reported normal pregnancies.

Methods: Eight singleton pregnant women (>32 weeks of gestation) diagnosed with fetal growth failure during pregnancy were recruited. Read More

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Umbilical Cord Knots: Is the Number Related to Fetal Risk?

Medicina (Kaunas) 2022 May 25;58(6). Epub 2022 May 25.

Institute for Maternal and Child Health IRCCS "Burlo Garofolo", 34137 Trieste, Italy.

True knots of the umbilical cord (UC) are a rare occurrence and are reported in 0.4-1.2% of deliveries. Read More

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HIGHER FREQUENCY OF GERMINAL MATRIX-INTRAVENTRICULAR HEMORRHAGE IN MODERATE AND LATE PRETERM AND EARLY TERM NEONATES WITH INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RESTRICTION COMPARED TO HEALTHY ONES.

Acta Clin Croat 2021 Dec;60(4):651-656

Institute of Neonatology, Belgrade, Serbia.

Germinal matrix-intraventricular brain hemorrhage is mostly found in preterm neonates, but may also occur in term neonates. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence and severity of this type of hemorrhage in moderate and late preterm and early term neonates with intrauterine growth restriction. In the prospective analysis, 100 newborns were examined, i. Read More

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December 2021

Reference ranges of fetal mandible measurements: Inferior facial angle, jaw index, mandible width/maxilla width ratio and mandible length in Thai fetuses at 15 to 23 weeks of gestation.

PLoS One 2022 1;17(6):e0269095. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Epidemiology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, Thailand.

Objectives: To determine the normal distribution of 1) inferior facial angles (IFA), 2) jaw index, 3) mandible width/maxilla width ratio (MD/MX ratio), and 4) mandible length (ML) in second trimester Thai fetuses.

Methods: A prospective study was performed between April 1 and October 31, 2020, at the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Unit of Songklanagarind Hospital. Transabdominal ultrasonography was performed on Thai singleton pregnant women at 150/7 to 236/7 weeks of gestation to measure IFA, jaw index, MD/MX ratio and ML. Read More

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Prediction of Fetal Growth Restriction for Fetal Umbilical Arterial/Venous Blood Flow Index Evaluated by Ultrasonic Doppler under Intelligent Algorithm.

Comput Math Methods Med 2022 19;2022:7451185. Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Obstetrics, The Affiliated Changzhou No.2 People's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Changzhou, 213004 Jiangsu, China.

The empirical wavelet transform (EWT) algorithm was applied in ultrasound to explore the predictive value for fetal growth restriction (FGR) in fetal arteriovenous indexes. 142 pregnant women who received prenatal ultrasonic examination and delivered were selected. They were classified into control group and FGR group. Read More

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Spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1 (SMARD1): a rare cause of hypotonia, diaphragmatic weakness, and respiratory failure in infants.

Turk J Pediatr 2022 ;64(2):364-374

Department of Pediatric Neurology, University of Health Sciences, Dr. Behçet Uz Children's Education and Research Hospital, İzmir.

Background: Spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1 (SMARD1) is a very rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the immunoglobulin μ-binding protein-2 (IGHMBP2) gene on chromosome 11q13.2-q13.4. Read More

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UNC45A deficiency causes microvillus inclusion disease-like phenotype by impairing myosin VB-dependent apical trafficking.

J Clin Invest 2022 May;132(10)

Institute of Cell Biology, Biocenter, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

Variants in the UNC45A cochaperone have been recently associated with a syndrome combining diarrhea, cholestasis, deafness, and bone fragility. Yet the mechanism underlying intestinal failure in UNC45A deficiency remains unclear. Here, biallelic variants in UNC45A were identified by next-generation sequencing in 6 patients with congenital diarrhea. Read More

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Evaluating the predictive value of fetal Doppler indices and neonatal outcome in late-onset preeclampsia with severe features: a cross-sectional study in a resource-limited setting.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2022 May 1;22(1):377. Epub 2022 May 1.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Background: Preeclampsia constitutes a major health problem with substantial maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to detect the diagnostic efficacy of fetal Doppler in predicting adverse outcomes in severe late onset preeclampsia (LOP).

Methods: A prospective study was conducted among childbearing women who presented with severe LOP and matched controls. Read More

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Disseminated Congenital Tuberculosis in Neonates: A Case Series.

J Trop Pediatr 2022 04;68(3)

Department of Pediatrics, Grant Government Medical College and Sir J.J. Group of Hospitals, Mumbai 400008, India.

Congenital tuberculosis (CTB) is an uncommon yet, well-defined condition. CTB has a non-specific clinical presentation, making the diagnosis difficult. The rarity of CTB in neonates is due to the difficulty in distinguishing between congenital and postnatally acquired infection, and non-specific symptoms in the newborn, which are often misdiagnosed. Read More

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Brain volumes and white matter microstructure in 8- to 10-year-old children born with fetal growth restriction.

Pediatr Radiol 2022 Apr 22. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Department of Radiology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Background: Fetal growth restriction caused by placental insufficiency is associated with increased risk of poor neurodevelopment, even in the absence of specific perinatal brain injury. Placental insufficiency leads to chronic hypoxaemia that may alter cerebral tissue organisation and maturation.

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effects fetal growth restriction and fetal haemodynamic abnormalities have on brain volumes and white matter microstructure at early school age. Read More

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Ultrasound predictors of adverse outcome in pregnancy complicated by pre-existing and gestational diabetes.

Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2022 Jul 20;101(7):787-793. Epub 2022 Apr 20.

Fetal Medicine Unit, Women's Centre, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK.

Introduction: Ultrasound assessment of fetuses subjected to hyperglycemia is recommended but, apart from increased size, little is known about its interpretation, and the identification of which large fetuses of diabetic pregnancy are at risk is unclear. Newer markers of adverse outcomes, abdominal circumference growth velocity and cerebro-placental ratio, help to predict risk in non-diabetic pregnancy. Our study aims to assess their role in pregnancies complicated by diabetes. Read More

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Sonographic evaluation of umbilical cord thickness in monochorionic diamniotic twin pregnancies.

Prenat Diagn 2022 05 12;42(5):636-642. Epub 2022 Apr 12.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital das Clínicas - Faculdade de Medicina FMUSP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Objective: To develop a nomogram of the thickness of the umbilical cord (UC) and its components in monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA) twin pregnancies.

Methods: This prospective longitudinal study involved 47 MCDA twin pregnancies (94 fetuses) between 18 and 33 weeks of gestation. Ultrasound assessments of UC cross-sections and measurements of the umbilical cord area (UCA), the umbilical vein area (UVA), the umbilical artery area (UAA), and the Wharton jelly area (WJA) were made. Read More

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The value of placental vascularization indices for predicting preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction in different stages of gestation: A prospective and longitudinal study.

Placenta 2022 05 26;122:1-8. Epub 2022 Mar 26.

Department of Medical Ultrasound, Guangzhou First People's Hospital, China; Jinan University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Introduction: To assess value of placental vascularization indices (PVIs) for predicting preeclampsia (PE) and fetal growth restriction (FGR) in different stages of pregnancy in high-risk women.

Method: PVIs derived from 3-dimensional power doppler(3DPD) imaging were measured at seven stages of pregnancy: 11-13w, 15-19w, 20-23w, 24-27w, 28-31w, 32-36w, and ≥37w. PE and FGR were used as outcomes in logistic regression models. Read More

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The role of the fetal biophysical profile in the management of fetal growth restriction.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2022 04;226(4):475-486

Fetal Maternal Medicine Consultant, Envision Health, Nashville, TN.

Growth-restricted fetuses are at risk of hypoxemia, acidemia, and stillbirth because of progressive placental dysfunction. Current fetal well-being, neonatal risks following delivery, and the anticipated rate of fetal deterioration are the major management considerations in fetal growth restriction. Surveillance has to quantify the fetal risks accurately to determine the delivery threshold and identify the testing frequency most likely to capture future deterioration and prevent stillbirth. Read More

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A prenatal standard for fetal weight improves the prenatal diagnosis of small for gestational age fetuses in pregnancies at increased risk.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2022 Mar 26;22(1):254. Epub 2022 Mar 26.

Department of Woman's and Child's Health, Maternal-Fetal Medicine Unit, University of Padua, Via Nicolò Giustiniani, 3, 35128, Padua, Padova, Italy.

Objective: Our aim was to assess diagnostic accuracy in the prediction of small for gestational age (SGA <10th centile) and fetal growth restricted (FGR) (SGA <3rd centile) fetuses using three different sonographic methods in pregnancies at increased risk of fetal growth restriction: 1) fetal abdominal circumference (AC) z-scores, 2) estimated fetal weight (EFW) z-scores according to postnatal reference standard; 3) EFW z-scores according to a prenatal reference standard.

Methods: Singleton pregnancies at increased risk of fetal growth restriction seen in two university hospitals between 2014 and 2015 were studied retrospectively. EFW was calculated using formulas proposed by the INTERGROWTH-21st project and Hadlock; data derived from publications by the INTEGROWTH-twenty-first century project and Hadlock were used to calculate z-scores (AC and EFW). Read More

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Late-term fetuses with reduced umbilical vein blood flow volume: An under-recognized population at increased risk of growth restriction.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2022 May 15;272:182-187. Epub 2022 Mar 15.

Department of Mother, Child and Neonate, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Policlinico di Milano, Milan, Italy; Department of Clinical and Community Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Objectives: To investigate the umbilical vein and uterine arteries blood flow volume (UV-Q, UtA-Q) in late-term pregnancies.

Study Design: This was a prospective observational cohort study of singleton pregnancies ≥40 + 0 weeks in which UV-Q and UtA-Q, both absolute and normalized for estimated fetal weight (EFW) values, were evaluated in relation to AC drop of ≥20 percentiles from 20 weeks to term, Doppler signs of fetal cerebral blood flow redistribution and composite adverse perinatal outcome. The presence of neonatal hypoglycaemia and the need of formula milk supplementation were also examined. Read More

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Impact of intrauterine growth restriction on cerebral and renal oxygenation and perfusion during the first 3 days after birth.

Sci Rep 2022 03 24;12(1):5067. Epub 2022 Mar 24.

Department of Neonatology, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Naples, Italy.

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with a higher incidence of perinatal complications as well as cardiovascular and renal diseases later on. A better insight into the disease mechanisms underlying these sequalae is important in order to identify which IUGR infants are at a higher risk and find strategies to improve their outcome. In this prospective case-control study we examined whether IUGR had any effect on renal and cerebral perfusion and oxygen saturation in term neonates. Read More

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Early Ultrasonic Monitoring of Brain Growth and Later Neurodevelopmental Outcome in Very Preterm Infants.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2022 04 24;43(4):639-644. Epub 2022 Mar 24.

From the Department of Pediatrics (V.A.A.B., J.A.R., P.G., R.M.C.S., I.K.M.R., M.J.V.)

Background And Purpose: In infants born very preterm, monitoring of early brain growth could contribute to prediction of later neurodevelopment. Therefore, our aim was to investigate associations between 2 early cranial ultrasound markers (corpus callosum-fastigium and corpus callosum length) and neurodevelopmental outcome and the added value of both markers in the prediction of neurodevelopmental outcome based on neonatal risk factors and head circumference in very preterm infants.

Materials And Methods: This prospective observational study included 225 infants born at <30 weeks' gestational age, of whom 153 were without any brain injury on cranial ultrasound. Read More

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Utility of placental diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in prenatal diagnosis of small for gestational age infants and pregnancy outcome prediction.

Placenta 2022 04 12;121:91-98. Epub 2022 Mar 12.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, China. Electronic address:

Introduction: Ultrasound-diagnosed small for gestational age (SGA) has a particular rate of misdiagnosis. We hypothesized that diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) imaging, could identify false-positive SGA (fpSGA).

Methods: A prospective study. Read More

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Association between morphine exposure and impaired brain development on term-equivalent age brain magnetic resonance imaging in very preterm infants.

Sci Rep 2022 03 16;12(1):4498. Epub 2022 Mar 16.

Clinical Pharmacy Department, Pharmaceutical Care Services, King Saud Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

To investigate the relationship between morphine exposure in the first week of life and brain injury on term-equivalent age magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in very preterm infants. A retrospective study included 106 infants with a birth weight of < 1500 g who were born at King Saud Medical City at ≤ 32 gestational weeks, were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, and underwent term-equivalent age or pre-discharge brain MRI. A univariate analysis in addition to modified log-Poisson regression with a robust variance estimator was applied, and the effect of early morphine exposure and cumulative dose in the first seven days on brain morphology and growth at term-equivalent age was determined using the Kidokoro score. Read More

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Antenatal Doppler screening for fetuses at risk of adverse outcomes: a multicountry cohort study of the prevalence of abnormal resistance index in low-risk pregnant women.

BMJ Open 2022 03 16;12(3):e053622. Epub 2022 Mar 16.

UNDP-UNFPA-UNICEF-WHO-World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction (HRP), Department of Sexual and Reproductive Health and Research, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Introduction: Few interventions exist to address the high burden of stillbirths in apparently healthy pregnant women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). To establish whether a trial on the impact of routine Doppler screening in a low-risk obstetric population is warranted, we determined the prevalence of abnormal fetal umbilical artery resistance indices among low-risk pregnant women using a low-cost Doppler device in five LMICs.

Methods: We conducted a multicentre, prospective cohort study in Ghana, India, Kenya, Rwanda and South Africa. Read More

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Accuracy of estimated fetal weight in extremely preterm infants and the impact of prepregnancy body mass index.

Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM 2022 05 11;4(3):100615. Epub 2022 Mar 11.

Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Magee-Womens Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA; Magee-Womens Research Institute and Foundation, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Magee-Womens Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA.

Background: Antenatally, we rely on ultrasound estimated fetal weight as a proxy for birthweight to inform discussions regarding perinatal morbidity and mortality. Maternal obesity may negatively impact the quality of ultrasound imaging, and thus, understanding the associations between obesity and estimated fetal weight in the preterm period is important.

Objective: Given the rising obesity rates and association with preterm birth, we sought to determine the accuracy of ultrasound-derived estimated fetal weight in predicting birthweight in preterm infants by prepregnancy body mass index and to evaluate the accuracy of estimated fetal weight in predicting birthweight between small-for-gestational-age and appropriate-for-gestational-age infants. Read More

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Fetal growth restriction with abnormal individual biometric parameters at second trimester ultrasound is associated with small for gestational age neonate at delivery.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2022 May 5;272:1-5. Epub 2022 Mar 5.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Science, Mount Sinai Health System & Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, United States.

Objectives: To determine if early-onset fetal growth restriction with abnormal individual biometric parameters, defined as head circumference, abdominal circumference and femur length less than the 10th percentile, is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes compared to fetal growth restriction with normal biometric parameters.

Study Design: Retrospective cohort study including women diagnosed with fetal growth restriction between 16 and 24 weeks gestation who delivered a singleton, non-anomalous neonate at Mount Sinai Hospital from 2013 to 2019. The primary outcome was rate of small for gestational age neonate at delivery. Read More

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Interpreting the role of nuchal fold for fetal growth restriction prediction using machine learning.

Sci Rep 2022 03 10;12(1):3907. Epub 2022 Mar 10.

Department of Artificial Intelligence, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, Universiti Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

The objective of the study is to investigate the effect of Nuchal Fold (NF) in predicting Fetal Growth Restriction (FGR) using machine learning (ML), to explain the model's results using model-agnostic interpretable techniques, and to compare the results with clinical guidelines. This study used second-trimester ultrasound biometry and Doppler velocimetry were used to construct six FGR (birthweight < 3rd centile) ML models. Interpretability analysis was conducted using Accumulated Local Effects (ALE) and Shapley Additive Explanations (SHAP). Read More

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A rare case of placental mesenchymal dysplasia - case report and literature review.

Rom J Morphol Embryol 2021 Jul-Sep;62(3):855-859

Department of Anatomy, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nicolae Malaxa Clinical Hospital, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania;

Described as a rare anomaly of the placenta, with a reported incidence of 0.02%, mesenchymal dysplasia is a benign condition characterized by placentomegaly, grape-like vesicles and by microscopic features resembling those of a molar pregnancy, such as hydropic villi, cistern formation and dysplastic blood vessels. We report a rare case of placental mesenchymal dysplasia diagnosed in a pregnancy with early symmetric fetal intrauterine growth restriction and a normal karyotype. Read More

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Percentiles of intrauterine placental volume and placental volume relative to fetal volume: A prospective magnetic resonance imaging study.

Placenta 2022 04 1;121:40-45. Epub 2022 Mar 1.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Akershus University Hospital, P.O. Box 1000, N-1478, Lørenskog, Norway; Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1171, Blindern, N-0318, Oslo, Norway; Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Akershus University Hospital, P.O. Box 1000, N-1478, Lørenskog, Norway.

Introduction: We aimed to provide percentiles of intrauterine placental growth and placental growth relative to fetal growth (placental to fetal ratio) by measuring placental and fetal volumes by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Methods: In this prospective study, 107 unselected singleton pregnancies were examined by MRI at gestational week 27 and 37. Based on the estimated volumes of the placenta and the fetus, we calculated median and percentiles at gestational weeks 27 and 37. Read More

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Prediction of fetal death in monochorionic twin pregnancies complicated by Type-III selective fetal growth restriction.

Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jun;59(6):756-762

Ontario Fetal Centre, Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Objective: Monochorionic diamniotic twin pregnancies complicated by Type-III selective fetal growth restriction (sFGR) are at high risk of fetal death. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of fetal death in these pregnancies.

Methods: This was an international multicenter retrospective cohort study. Read More

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The effect of maternal intravenous hydration on amniotic fluid index in oligohydramnios.

BMC Res Notes 2022 Mar 7;15(1):95. Epub 2022 Mar 7.

Department of Health, Iranshahr University of Medical Sciences, Iranshahr, Iran.

Objective: Assessing amniotic fluid determines an important dimension of fetal health. Significant relationships of oligohydramnios, which occurs in 1-2% of pregnancies, with abnormal pregnancy outcomes such as intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), fetal anomalies, umbilical cord compression, fetal distress, preterm childbirth, meconium-stained amniotic fluid, perinatal mortality and cesarean section necessitate the measurement of amniotic fluid volume in many prenatal fetal health assessments. Amniotic fluid volume may significantly fluctuate between different gestational ages. Read More

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Implementation of neurally adjusted ventilatory assist and high flow nasal cannula in very preterm infants in a tertiary level NICU.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2022 05 14;57(5):1293-1302. Epub 2022 Mar 14.

Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.

Preterm infants treated with invasive ventilation are often affected by bronchopulmonary dysplasia, brain structure alterations, and later neurodevelopmental impairment. We studied the implementation of neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) and high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) in a level III neonatal unit, and its effects on pulmonary and central nervous system outcomes. This retrospective cohort study included 193 surviving infants born below 32 weeks of gestation in preimplementation (2007-2008) and postimplementation (2016-2017) periods in a single study center in Finland. Read More

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Intrauterine growth restriction affects bone mineral density of the mandible and the condyle in growing rats.

J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact 2022 03;22(1):93-101

Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece.

Objectives: To investigate in growing rats the effect of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on the bone mineral density of the mandible and tibia, as well as the quality of the mandibular and condylar bone.

Methods: Twelve male rats were born IUGR by mothers sustaining 50% food restriction during pregnancy. Twelve control male rats were born by mothers fed . Read More

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