1,225 results match your criteria Imaging in Herpes Encephalitis


Third time's a charm: diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis after two negative polymerase chain reaction results.

Heliyon 2020 Jun 23;6(6):e04247. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of Neurology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Introduction: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a sensitive and specific method in diagnosing herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis. However there are increasing reports of false negative HSV PCR.

Case Description: We present a patient in the 9 decade of life with abnormal behavior and focal seizures with MRI showing a right temporal T2 hyperintense non-enhancing lesion with electrographic evidence of right lateralized periodic discharges. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04247DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7322049PMC

A case of anti--methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis.

SAGE Open Med Case Rep 2020 3;8:2050313X20926431. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Imaging, Level 3, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia.

Anti--methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis is characterized by the clinical manifestation of neuropsychiatric symptoms, predominantly affecting young adults, and frequently associated with neoplasms. It is the second most common cause of autoimmune and paraneoplastic encephalitis. Early diagnosis is often missed, as patients are commonly diagnosed with psychiatric illnesses and are treated with antipsychotics - which rarely gives complete resolution of symptoms. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2050313X20926431DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7273584PMC

HSV-1-Specific IgG Titers Correlate with Brain Cortical Thinning in Individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease.

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 May 29;8(2). Epub 2020 May 29.

IRCCS Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi, 20148 Milano, Italy.

Repeated reactivations of latent herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) in the central nervous system (CNS) may contribute to neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Immune response is a key element for the control of viral reactivation. HSV-1 uses a number of strategies to evade immune recognition, Immunoglobulin G 3 (IgG) alone counteracts humoral immunoevasion, as it is the only IgG subclass that is not blocked by the HSV-1 Fc receptor, a protein that protects virion and infected cells from antibody-mediated effector mechanisms. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020255DOI Listing

A prospective cohort study to identify clinical, biological and imaging features that predict etiology of acute encephalitis.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Maladies infectieuses, CHUGA, Grenoble, France.

Background: New diagnostic tools have been developed to improve the diagnosis of infectious encephalitis. Using a prospective cohort of encephalitis patients, our objective was to identify possible clusters of patients with similar patterns among encephalitis of unknown cause, and to describe to what extent the patient's initial presentation may be predictive of encephalitis etiology, particularly Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Varicella-zona virus (VZV).

Methods: The national cohort of infectious encephalitis in France (ENCEIF) is an ongoing prospective cohort study implemented in France in 2016. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa598DOI Listing

Diagnosing herpes simplex-1 encephalitis at the time of COVID-19 pandemic.

Neurol Sci 2020 Jun 13;41(6):1361-1364. Epub 2020 May 13.

Neurology Unit, Luigi Sacco University Hospital, Via Giovanni Battista Grassi 74, 20157, Milan, Italy.

Case Report: We describe the case of a 73-year-old woman who was diagnosed with herpes simplex virus-1 encephalitis during the COVID-19 pandemic. The diagnosis was somehow delayed because relatives were initially cautious in bringing the patient to the hospital and, here, the work-up focus was on coronavirusrelated aspects as the patient was initially reputed to be infected with COVID-19.

Conclusions: During the current viral outbreak, physicians should not neglect the possibility of other diseases that represent neurological emergencies and require immediate recognition and treatment. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-020-04461-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7220643PMC

BX795 demonstrates potent antiviral benefits against herpes simplex Virus-1 infection of human cell lines.

Antiviral Res 2020 May 5;180:104814. Epub 2020 May 5.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Illinois Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA; Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL 60607, USA. Electronic address:

Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection is known to cause skin blisters, keratitis as well as deadly cases of encephalitis in some situations. Only a few therapeutic modalities are available for this globally prevalent infection. Very recently, a small molecule BX795 was identified as an inhibitor of HSV-1 protein synthesis in an ocular model of infection. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104814DOI Listing
May 2020
3.938 Impact Factor

Anti-NMDAR Encephalitis Following Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis: 2 Cases From Portugal.

Neurohospitalist 2020 Apr 26;10(2):133-138. Epub 2019 Aug 26.

Department of Biomedical Sciences and Medicine, University of Algarve, Faro, Portugal.

Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE) usually presents as a monophasic disease. Symptomatic HSVE relapsing with seizures, encephalopathy, or involuntary movements associated with anti--methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis have been recently reported. We report 2 cases of adult post-HSVE anti-NMDAR encephalitis from Portugal. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1941874419870987DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7191661PMC

Differential diagnosis of temporal lobe lesions with hyperintense signal on T2-weighted and FLAIR sequences: pictorial essay.

Radiol Bras 2020 Mar-Apr;53(2):129-136

Hospital Universitário Cassiano Antônio de Moraes da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (HUCAM/UFES), Vitória, ES, Brazil.

Various neuropathologies produce hyperintense signals on T2-weighted or fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences of the temporal lobes. Recognition of the distribution pattern and associated findings may narrow the spectrum of differential diagnoses or suggest a specific disease. This pictorial essay aims to illustrate the relatively common diseases that affect the temporal lobe, such as herpes simplex encephalitis, neurosyphilis, limbic encephalitis, postictal edema, neoplasia, and multiple sclerosis, as well as those that are less common, such as myotonic dystrophy type 1, CADASIL, and CARASIL, together with the particularities of each entity. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0100-3984.2018.0117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7170575PMC

An Autopsy Case of Varicella Zoster Virus Encephalitis with Multiple Brain Lesions.

Intern Med 2020 Jul 2;59(13):1643-1647. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Department of Neurology, International University of Health and Welfare Hospital, Japan.

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) encephalitis in the absence of vasculopathy may rarely occur in association with herpes zoster. We herein report the case of a 67-year-old woman with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma undergoing chemotherapy who presented with an acute alteration in consciousness. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed multiple and nonspecific lesions of hyperintensity with mild edema in the cortex and subcortex. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.3417-19DOI Listing

From Severe Herpes Zoster to Rare Suid Herpesvirus Encephalitis: A New Twist of the Genus Infection in Patients with Kidney Diseases.

Int J Med Sci 2020 5;17(6):745-750. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Department of Science and Education, HeBei Provincial General Hospital, No.348 West HePing Boulevard, ShiJiaZhuang 050051, P.R. China.

Both the herpes zoster virus and suid herpesvirus type 1 (SuHV-1) belong to the Varicellovirus genus of the α-herpesviridae subfamily. They may cause opportunistic infections especially in patients with kidney diseases, varying from latent illness to overt lethality. Under these circumstances, impaired renal function is both the culprit for and victim of the infection. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.41952DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7085264PMC

Neuropsychological and psychiatric outcomes in encephalitis: A multi-centre case-control study.

PLoS One 2020 25;15(3):e0230436. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London (KCL), Camberwell, London, United Kingdom.

Objectives: Our aim was to compare neuropsychological and psychiatric outcomes across three encephalitis aetiological groups: Herpes simplex virus (HSV), other infections or autoimmune causes (Other), and encephalitis of unknown cause (Unknown).

Methods: Patients recruited from NHS hospitals underwent neuropsychological and psychiatric assessment in the short-term (4 months post-discharge), medium-term (9-12 months after the first assessment), and long-term (>1-year). Healthy control subjects were recruited from the general population and completed the same assessments. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0230436PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7094865PMC

Parechovirus-A3 encephalitis presenting with focal seizure mimicking herpes simplex virus infection.

J Infect Chemother 2020 Jul 20;26(7):736-740. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Department of Pediatrics, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata, Japan, 1-757 Asahimachi-dori, Chuo-ku, Niigata, 951-8510, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: Febrile neonates and young infants presenting with seizure require immediate evaluation and treatment. Herein we experienced two young infants with parechovirus-A3 (PeV-A3) encephalitis, initially presented with focal seizure suspecting herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis.

Cases: We have experienced 2 infantile cases, initially presented with focal seizure. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiac.2020.02.003DOI Listing

Clinicoradiological Profile of Superficial Middle Cerebral Vein Thrombosis.

Neurol India 2020 Mar-Apr;68(2):373-377

Department of Neurology, Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Background: The diagnosis of isolated cortical vein thrombosis (ICVT) involving superficial middle cerebral vein (SMCV) remains challenging even in the present era of modern MRI protocols.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to review the clinical and radiological characteristics of SMCV thrombosis in our hospital.

Methods: Chart review of cases of SMCV thrombosis admitted in a tertiary care university hospital in South India during a 1-year period from September 2015 to August 2016. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0028-3886.280640DOI Listing
March 2020
1.084 Impact Factor

Epidemiology and Etiology of Severe Childhood Encephalitis in The Netherlands.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2020 04;39(4):267-272

From the Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Emma Children's Hospital, Academic Medical Centre (AMC), Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Limited data are available on childhood encephalitis. Our study aimed to increase insight on clinical presentation, etiology, and clinical outcome of children with severe encephalitis in the Netherlands.

Methods: We identified patients through the Dutch Pediatric Intensive Care Evaluation database and included children diagnosed with encephalitis <18 years of age admitted to 1 of the 8 pediatric intensive care units (PICU) in the Netherlands between January 2003 and December 2013. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002551DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7182237PMC

Travel-associated neurological disease terminated in a postmortem diagnosed atypical HSV-1 encephalitis after high-dose steroid therapy - a case report.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Feb 18;20(1):150. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Max von Pettenkofer Institute, Virology, Faculty of Medicine, LMU Munich, Pettenkoferstraße 9a, D-80336, Munich, Germany.

Background: Human encephalitis can originate from a variety of different aetiologies, of which infection is the most common one. The diagnostic work-up is specifically challenging in patients with travel history since a broader spectrum of unfamiliar additional infectious agents, e. g. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-4859-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7029604PMC
February 2020

Immunomodulatory Strategies in Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis.

Clin Microbiol Rev 2020 Mar 12;33(2). Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Research Center in Infectious Diseases, CHU de Quebec-Laval University, Quebec City, Canada

SUMMARYHerpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) can be responsible for life-threatening HSV encephalitis (HSE). The mortality rate of patients with HSE who do not receive antiviral treatment is 70%, with most survivors suffering from permanent neurological sequelae. The use of intravenous acyclovir together with improved diagnostic technologies such as PCR and magnetic resonance imaging has resulted in a reduction in the mortality rate to close to 20%. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/CMR.00105-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7018500PMC

Understanding and managing acute encephalitis.

Authors:
Rashmi Kumar

F1000Res 2020 29;9. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Department of Pediatrics, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, India.

Encephalitis is an important cause of morbidity, mortality, and permanent neurologic sequelae  globally. Causes are diverse and include viral and non-viral infections of the brain as well as autoimmune processes. In the West, the autoimmune encephalitides are now more common than any single infectious cause, but, in Asia, infectious causes are still more common. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.20634.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6993835PMC
January 2020

A Pictorial Review of Intracranial Haemorrhage Revisited.

Curr Med Imaging Rev 2019;15(9):853-865

Department of Neuroradiology, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, United Kingdom.

Background: The many causes of Intracerebral Haemorrhage (IH) can be difficult to differentiate. However, there are imaging features that can provide useful clues. This paper aims to provide a pictorial review of the common causes of IH, to identify some distinguishing diagnostic features and to provide guidance on subsequent imaging and follow up. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573405614666180528080436DOI Listing
January 2019

Brainstem and Cerebellar Involvement in Ramsay Hunt Syndrome.

Case Rep Otolaryngol 2019 12;2019:7605056. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

Department of Neurology, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine and Truman Medical Center, Kansas City, MO, USA.

We present a case of a 62-year-old Caucasian male with laryngeal cancer and Ramsay Hunt Syndrome otherwise known as herpes zoster oticus due to reactivation of the varicella zoster virus. Classic findings include the triad of ipsilateral facial paralysis, otic pain, and herpetic lesions in the sensory supply of the facial nerve. The common pathogenesis is associated with anterograde axonal reactivation of the varicella zoster virus in the geniculate ganglion. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/7605056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6931020PMC
December 2019

Brucellosis mimicking herpes simplex virus encephalitis.

Lancet Infect Dis 2020 01;20(1):144

Department of Radiology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(19)30553-5DOI Listing
January 2020
22.433 Impact Factor

Adult onset MELAS Syndrome Presenting as A Mimic of Herpes Simplex Encephalitis.

Acta Neurol Taiwan 2019 Jun;28(2):46-51

Department of Neurology, Neurological Institute, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Purpose: Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome primarily affects the young and may not be considered first in an older adult with infection-like encephalopathy. Here, we present the case of a patient who suffered from the acute onset of fever, delirium, and epilepsy, mimicking herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE).

Case Report: A 52-year-old woman with diabetes and end stage renal disease (ESRD) regularly took oral anti-diabetic drugs (OADs) and received hemodialysis. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source

Acute retinal necrosis by herpes simplex virus type 1: an unusual presentation of a primary infection.

BMJ Case Rep 2019 Dec 2;12(12). Epub 2019 Dec 2.

Infectious Diseases, Centro Hospitalar e Universitario de Coimbra EPE, Coimbra, Portugal.

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) can affect the central nervous system causing meningitis, encephalitis and, rarely, acute retinal necrosis. We present a case of a 46-year-old man, previously healthy complaining of a 5-day persistent headache and sudden loss of vision of his left eye that progressed to the right. We started ceftriaxone, methylprednisolone and acyclovir for suspected encephalitis with vasculitis. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2019-232566DOI Listing
December 2019

Infectious Trigger for Autoimmune Encephalitis: A Case Report and Literature Review.

Case Rep Infect Dis 2019 6;2019:5731969. Epub 2019 Nov 6.

Wright State University Boonshoft School of Medicine, Miami Valley Hospital, Dayton, Ohio, USA.

Herpes simplex virus 1 infection is a common cause of encephalitis (HSVE) in the United States. Post-HSVE development of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antibodies resulting in autoimmune encephalitis is a rare complication, primarily affecting children and young adults. Anti-NMDAR develops 1-4 weeks after HSVE, manifesting as choreoathetosis and/or orofacial dyskinesia in children and psychiatric symptoms in young adults. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/5731969DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6875379PMC
November 2019

Psychiatric Presentation of Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis.

Front Neurol 2019 5;10:1086. Epub 2019 Nov 5.

Section for Experimental Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Anti-N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is an autoimmune condition characterized by neuropsychiatric symptoms, including epileptic seizures, movement disorders, autonomic instability, disturbances of consciousness, paranoia, delusions, and catatonia. Ovarian teratomas and viral infections, typically Herpes simplex viruses, have previously been demonstrated to precipitate anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, but in many cases, the trigger remains unclear. The detection of anti-NMDA receptor antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), in combination with other CSF, electroencephalography (EEG), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities, typically leads to diagnostic clarification. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2019.01086DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6848057PMC
November 2019

Role of 3D Pseudocontinuous Arterial Spin-Labeling Perfusion in the Diagnosis and Follow-Up in Patients with Herpes Simplex Encephalitis.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 11 24;40(11):1901-1907. Epub 2019 Oct 24.

Department of Radiology (R.L., T.-F.L., Y.L., Y.W., K.W., X.-J.C., H.-F.X., Y.-L.W., L.M., X.L.), Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background And Purpose: Early diagnosis and treatment of herpes simplex encephalitis are crucial to reduce morbidity and mortality. Our aim was to investigate the role of 3D pseudocontinuous arterial spin-labeling in herpes simplex encephalitis.

Materials And Methods: From 2014 to 2019, seventeen consecutive patients with herpes simplex encephalitis and 15 healthy volunteers were recruited in the study. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6279DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6975109PMC
November 2019

Relapse of herpes simplex encephalitis in a patient with metastatic small cell lung cancer following scalp sparing whole brain radiotherapy.

IDCases 2019 20;18:e00626. Epub 2019 Aug 20.

Department of Medicine, Oncology Unit, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman.

Herpes simplex virus is the most common cause of severe and potentially fatal sporadic encephalitis worldwide. Recurrence of neurologic symptoms after resolution of the initial episode of HSV encephalitis and despite adequate treatment with intravenous acyclovir is well recognized albeit rare. Most of these recurrences had no evidence of replicating virus and are immune in nature with only a minority of these recurrences representing true virologic relapses. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S22142509193022
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idcr.2019.e00626DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6739592PMC
August 2019
8 Reads

Multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with herpes virus infection in a patient with TLR3 deficiency.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2019 Nov 28;36:101379. Epub 2019 Aug 28.

Department of Neurology, Santa Casa de São Paulo School of Medical Sciences, São Paulo, Brazil.

We report a case of a 14-year-old girl that presented headache, amaurosis, drowsiness, fever, vomiting and diffuse reduction of muscle strength. She had been diagnosed with ADEM one year before and had a previous diagnosis of Toll-Like 3 receptor deficiency. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed pleocytosis (28/mm, 12/mm red blood cells, 70% lymphocytes cells, 2% monocytes cells, 28% neutrophils), normal total protein (38 pg/mL) and normal glucose level (53/mm). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S22110348193035
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2019.101379DOI Listing
November 2019
7 Reads

Thymoma associated paraneoplastic encephalitis (TAPE), a potential cause of limbic encephalitis.

BMJ Case Rep 2019 Aug 30;12(8). Epub 2019 Aug 30.

Division of Infectious Diseases, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, California, USA.

A 59-year-old man presents with expressive aphasia and short term memory deficits. Shortly thereafter, he started developing staring spells and intermittent right hand spasms, preliminarily thought to be simple partial seizures. Subsequent MRI brain imaging was highly suggestive of herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis; however, HSV PCR from cerebrospinal fluid was negative. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2019-230709DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6720759PMC
August 2019
3 Reads

Rapid detection of human herpes virus by next-generation sequencing in a patient with encephalitis.

Virol J 2019 08 17;16(1):104. Epub 2019 Aug 17.

Department of Neurology, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang City, Hebei Province, China.

Background: The inflammatory or non-inflammatory changes caused by the virus entering the nervous system and related tissues are central nervous system virus infections. Viral infection is a common infectious disease of the central nervous system, of which herpes simplex virus encephalitis is the most common. However, conventional laboratory techniques to detect an infectious agent are difficult to achieve etiological diagnosis. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12985-019-1205-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6697991PMC
August 2019
1 Read

Herpes simplex virus encephalitis in a patient receiving ustekinumab associated with extensive cerebral oedema and brainshift successfully treated by immunosuppression with dexamethasone.

BMJ Case Rep 2019 Aug 13;12(8). Epub 2019 Aug 13.

Neurology, The Walton Centre NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool, UK.

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis affects 2-4 people per million/year. Immunocompomised patients can have atypical presentations of HSV encephalitis, including a lack of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis. We present the case of a patient who was receiving ustekinumab therapy for psoriasis which inhibits interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23 signalling pathways. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2019-229468DOI Listing
August 2019
2 Reads

Update on HSV and VZV infections of the brain.

Authors:
J P Stahl

Rev Neurol (Paris) 2019 Sep - Oct;175(7-8):442-444. Epub 2019 Aug 8.

Infectiologie, CHU Grenoble Alpes, 38043 Grenoble, France. Electronic address:

HSV and VZV are the most frequently identified pathogen in encephalitis cases in France. Recent guidelines were provided by some scientific societies, for the management of encephalitis. PCR is the gold standard for the diagnosis, and the first-line imaging tool is MRI. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurol.2019.07.010DOI Listing
February 2020

Herpes simplex virus infection presenting as stroke-like symptoms with atypical MRI findings.

Lancet Infect Dis 2019 08;19(8):914

Department of Neurology, St George's University Hospitals National Health Service Foundation Trust, London, UK. Electronic address:

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(19)30308-1DOI Listing
August 2019
1 Read

[Recent progress in autoimmune encephalitis and its related disorders].

Authors:
Takahiro Iizuka

Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2019 Aug 23;59(8):491-501. Epub 2019 Jul 23.

Department of Neurology, Kitasato University School of Medicine.

After the discovery of a series of autoantibodies against neuronal cell surface antigens (NSAs) of the CNS in the past 10 years, the concept of encephalitis has changed dramatically. Accordingly, a practical, syndrome-based diagnostic approach to autoimmune encephalitis was proposed in 2016. These autoantibodies have also been identified in a subset of overlapping encephalitis and demyelinating syndrome, epilepsy, first episode psychosis, movement disorders, post-herpes simplex encephalitis, progressive dementia, postpartum psychosis, stiff-person spectrum disorders, or non-REM/REM sleep behavior disorder. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5692/clinicalneurol.cn-001314DOI Listing
August 2019
3 Reads

Bilateral independent periodic lateralised epileptiform discharges at presentation followed by rapid recovery: novel observations from a case of Epstein-Barr virus encephalitis.

BMJ Case Rep 2019 Jul 19;12(7). Epub 2019 Jul 19.

Neurology, KG Hospital, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Bilateral independent periodic lateralised epileptiform discharges (BIPLEDs) in electroencephalograms (EEGs) are commonly caused by anoxic encephalopathy and central nervous system infections. They are associated with coma and high mortality and are thus markers of poor prognosis. We present a case of encephalitis who presented with BIPLEDs in EEG. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2019-229879DOI Listing
July 2019
3 Reads

C1Q/TNF-related protein 4 expression correlates with herpes simplex encephalitis progression.

Ann Transl Med 2019 Jun;7(11):235

Department of Medical Genetics, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191, China.

Background: Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), an acute inflammatory disease of the central nervous system is caused by the herpes simplex virus infection. HSE occurs at any age, and it is often accompanied by high mortality and neurological dysfunction. The C1Q/TNF-related protein (CTRP) family, usually contains a homotrimeric structure, which comprises the N-terminal signal peptide and the C-terminal C1q globular domain. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm.2019.05.01DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6603354PMC
June 2019
7 Reads

Late-Onset Citrullinemia Type I: A Radiological Mimic of Herpes Encephalitis.

J Pediatr Neurosci 2019 Jan-Mar;14(1):36-37

Department of Pediatric Neurology and Neurodevelopment, Medanta-The Medicity, Gurugram, Haryana, India.

We describe a 10 year old boy who presented with acute onset rapidly progressing encephalopathy. MRI revealed bilateral insular cortex and basifrontal involvement suggesting Herpes encephalitis.He was treated with acyclovir and his symptoms improved. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jpn.JPN_12_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6601122PMC
July 2019
8 Reads

Ventral striatal and septal area hypermetabolism on FDG-PET in herpes simplex viral encephalitis.

J Neurovirol 2020 Feb 8;26(1):118-120. Epub 2019 Jul 8.

Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Building for Transformative Medicine, Room 4092, 60 Fenwood Road, Boston, MA, 02115-6128, USA.

A 71-year-old man presented with sudden onset, generalized tonic-clonic seizures and altered mental status. Initial brain magnetic resonance imaging was normal but a brain FDG-PET scan showed hypermetabolism in the left ventral striatum and septal area. Initial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination showed mildly elevated protein but herpes simplex virus (HSV) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was negative. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-019-00779-2DOI Listing
February 2020
4 Reads

Herpes Simplex Encephalitis Initially Erroneously Diagnosed as Glioma of the Cerebellum: Case Report and Literature Review.

World Neurosurg 2019 Sep 26;129:421-427. Epub 2019 Jun 26.

Neurosurgical Department, Pediatric Hospital of Athens, 'Agia Sophia', Athens, Greece.

Background: Herpes simplex encephalitis caused by herpes simplex has an estimated annual prevalence in the order of 1 in 250,000 to 500,000 patients and is considered to be the most usually encountered nonendemic pathogenic cause of lethal encephalitis in well-developed countries. There are a few cases reported in the literature in which a diagnostic dilemma between was raised between herpes simplex encephalitis and brain glioma and a definitive diagnosis was difficult to obtain.

Case Description: We report the case of a 5-year-old girl with a previous medical history of premature thelarche. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2019.06.158DOI Listing
September 2019
10 Reads

Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis of Weston Hurst secondary to herpes encephalitis presenting as status epilepticus: A case report and review of literature.

J Clin Neurosci 2019 Sep 22;67:265-270. Epub 2019 Jun 22.

Department of Neurosciences, College of Medicine and Philippine General Hospital, University of the Philippines Manila, Manila, Philippines.

Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis (AHL) is a rare and mostly fatal fulminant demyelinating disease. This case describes a 63-year old male in status epilepticus associated with an intracerebral hemorrhage following a one week viral prodrome with rapid decline to coma. He exhibited peripheral leukocytosis, neutrophilic pleocytosis with normal glucose and high protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2019.06.020DOI Listing
September 2019
10 Reads

Severe influenza pneumonitis in children with inherited TLR3 deficiency.

J Exp Med 2019 09 19;216(9):2038-2056. Epub 2019 Jun 19.

St. Giles Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Rockefeller Branch, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY

Autosomal recessive IRF7 and IRF9 deficiencies impair type I and III IFN immunity and underlie severe influenza pneumonitis. We report three unrelated children with influenza A virus (IAV) infection manifesting as acute respiratory distress syndrome (IAV-ARDS), heterozygous for rare variants (P554S in two patients and P680L in the third) causing autosomal dominant (AD) TLR3 deficiency. AD TLR3 deficiency can underlie herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE) by impairing cortical neuron-intrinsic type I IFN immunity to HSV-1. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20181621DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6719423PMC
September 2019
28 Reads
12.515 Impact Factor

A Case of Human Viral Encephalitis Caused by Pseudorabies Virus Infection in China.

Front Neurol 2019 4;10:534. Epub 2019 Jun 4.

Department of Critical-Care Medicine, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

We report a human case of viral encephalitis caused by pseudorabies virus (PRV) in China. A 43-year-old man with no previous medical history presented with high-grade fever, headache and tonic-clonic seizures as well as coma. Plain computer tomography (CT) brain imaging showed hypo-density in the bilateral basal ganglia, bilateral occipital lobe, bilateral limbic lobe, and left thalamic. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2019.00534DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6558170PMC
June 2019
17 Reads

Herpes Simplex Encephalitis Shortly After Surgery for a Secondary Glioblastoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

World Neurosurg 2019 Sep 29;129:13-17. Epub 2019 May 29.

Department of Neurosurgery, Gui de Chauliac Hospital, Montpellier University Medical Center, Montpellier, France.

Background: Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) co-occurrence has been described in few cases presenting immunocompromised status related to chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Focal encephalitis over surgical edge of resection occurring shortly after GBM resection is rarely reported, and such infection has never been reported in low-grade glioma with secondary malignant transformation (i.e. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2019.05.173DOI Listing
September 2019
8 Reads

Acute retinal necrosis in a patient with remote severe herpes simplex encephalitis.

BMJ Case Rep 2019 May 27;12(5). Epub 2019 May 27.

Internal Medicine, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa, USA.

A 60-year-old man with a history of severe herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis 2 years prior presented with acute onset of visual loss in the left eye. Dilated funduscopic examination showed retinitis and occlusive vasculitis with retinal necrosis. PCR of the vitreous fluid was positive for HSV-1, and he was diagnosed with acute retinal necrosis (ARN) due to HSV-1. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2018-229137DOI Listing
May 2019
7 Reads

Longitudinal Extensive Transverse Myelitis in an Immunocompetent Older Individual-A Rare Complication of Varicella-Zoster Virus Reactivation.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2019 May 23;55(5). Epub 2019 May 23.

EA 4391, Excitabilité Nerveuse et Thérapeutique, Université Paris-Est-Créteil, 94010 Créteil, France.

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a human neurotropic herpes virus that causes chickenpox in children. After becoming latent in dorsal root ganglia, it can reactivate to cause dermatological manifestations, the most common one being shingles or herpes zoster. Severe neurologic dysfunctions can occur in immunocompromised patients such as encephalitis, meningitis, myelitis and neuropathy. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina55050201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6572170PMC
May 2019
5 Reads
0.508 Impact Factor

Herpes Simplex Virus 1 encephalitis with normal cerebrospinal fluid after brain radiotherapy in a patient with glioblastoma. A case report and review of literature.

Acta Biomed 2019 05 23;90(2):327-330. Epub 2019 May 23.

Neurology Department, Parma Hospital.

Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE) is the most common cause of letal encephalitis and its prevalence appears higher among oncologic patients who undergo brain radiotherapy (RT). We describe a case of 76-year-old woman with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) who developed HSE shortly after brain RT. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis (CSF) was normal and the diagnosis was driven by brain MRI and EEG. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.23750/abm.v90i2.8218DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6776207PMC
May 2019
8 Reads

HSV-2-encephalitis in a patient with multiple sclerosis treated with ocrelizumab.

J Neurol 2019 09 21;266(9):2322-2323. Epub 2019 May 21.

Klinik für Neurologie, Klinikum Kassels, Kassel, Germany.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-019-09391-0DOI Listing
September 2019
1 Read

Acute renal failure related to high doses of acyclovir (15 mg/kg/8 h) during treatment of varicella zoster virus encephalitis.

Antivir Ther 2019 ;24(4):309-312

Institut de virologie, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is less susceptible than herpes simplex virus to acyclovir. The optimal acyclovir regimen during VZV encephalitis remains unknown. We report two cases of acute renal failure after an increase in acyclovir dosage from 10 mg to 15 mg/kg/8 h during the treatment of VZV encephalitis according to French guidelines. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3313DOI Listing
June 2020
6 Reads

Anterior Thalamic Stimulation Induced Relapsing Encephalitis.

Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 2019 3;97(2):132-136. Epub 2019 May 3.

Service de Neurochirurgie Fonctionnelle et Stéréotaxique, INSERM, UMR 1106, Hôpital d'adulte de la Timone, Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, France.

Deep brain stimulation of the anterior thalamic nucleus is one of the promising therapeutic options for epilepsy. Several studies are still under way to further strengthen and clarify the mechanism, efficacy, and complications. Contrary to hardware-related and operation-related events, the stimulation-related adverse effect is mild, target-dependent, and adjustable. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000499072DOI Listing
February 2020
13 Reads

Acute retinal necrosis following herpes simplex encephalitis: a nationwide survey in Japan.

Jpn J Ophthalmol 2019 Jul 3;63(4):304-309. Epub 2019 May 3.

Department of Ophthalmology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-15 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma, 371-8511, Japan.

Purpose: Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) is a severe necrotizing retinitis caused by varicella-zoster virus or herpes simplex virus (HSV) that often results in blindness. Occasionally, HSV-caused ARN develops after herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). It remains unknown, however, when and how often ARN develops after HSE. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10384-019-00668-5DOI Listing
July 2019
11 Reads

Late-onset Mitochondrial Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Stroke-like Episodes Presenting With Auditory Agnosia.

Neurologist 2019 May;24(3):90-92

Departments of Neurology.

Introduction: Mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) is a multisystemic mitochondrial disorder that usually presents in childhood. Patients can have a wide array of neurological symptoms when presenting with stroke-like episodes, and imaging characteristics during the episodes can overlap with different neurological disorders.

Case Report: A 61-year-old woman presented with communication difficulties consistent with auditory agnosia and was found to have bitemporal abnormalities on imaging that first raised the concern for herpes simplex virus encephalitis. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NRL.0000000000000229DOI Listing
May 2019
14 Reads