1,326 results match your criteria Imaging in Herpes Encephalitis

Childhood encephalitis in the Greater Mekong region (the SouthEast Asia Encephalitis Project): a multicentre prospective study.

Lancet Glob Health 2022 Jul;10(7):e989-e1002

National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Background: Encephalitis is a worldwide public health issue, with a substantially high burden among children in southeast Asia. We aimed to determine the causes of encephalitis in children admitted to hospitals across the Greater Mekong region by implementing a comprehensive state-of-the-art diagnostic procedure harmonised across all centres, and identifying clinical characteristics related to patients' conditions.

Methods: In this multicentre, observational, prospective study of childhood encephalitis, four referral hospitals in Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar recruited children (aged 28 days to 16 years) who presented with altered mental status lasting more than 24 h and two of the following minor criteria: fever (within the 72 h before or after presentation), one or more generalised or partial seizures (excluding febrile seizures), a new-onset focal neurological deficit, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) white blood cell count of 5 per mL or higher, or brain imaging (CT or MRI) suggestive of lesions of encephalitis. Read More

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Orofacial Dyskinesia and Intractable Hiccups in a Patient with Varicella-Zoster Virus Encephalomyelitis.

Intern Med 2022 Jun 7. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Departments of Neurology, Takamatsu Red Cross Hospital, Japan.

A 73-year-old Japanese man with diabetic complications presented with involuntary lip movements and long-lasting hiccups after developing zoster rash. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed lesions involving the medial temporal lobe and C1 level of the spinal cord. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) encephalomyelitis was diagnosed. Read More

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Contribution of diffusion-weighted imaging to distinguish herpetic encephalitis from auto-immune encephalitis at an early stage.

J Neuroradiol 2022 May 31. Epub 2022 May 31.

Service de Radiologie, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Chemin du Grand-Revoyet, Pierre-Bénite 69495, France; INSA-Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, UJM-Saint Etienne, CNRS, Inserm, CREATIS UMR 5220, U1206, Université de Lyon, Pierre-Bénite F-69495, France. Electronic address:

Objectives: To determine whether diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can help to distinguish early stage autoimmune (AI) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitides.

Methods: This case-control study included patients from a multi-center cohort of AI encephalitides whose initial MRI including DWI was performed within ten days after symptoms onset. They were compared with patients with HSV encephalitis enrolled prospectively in a single-center from June, 2020 to December, 2020. Read More

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Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome mimicking herpes simplex encephalitis: A case report.

Radiol Case Rep 2022 Jul 8;17(7):2428-2431. Epub 2022 May 8.

Department of Neurology, Changsha Central Hospital, Yuhua District, Changsha, China.

Mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome presents with the features of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), which is rare and has been described in only a few case reports. Our case describes a 17-year-old female with no significant previous medical history presenting with an acute onset of fever, headache, and epilepsy, similar to HSE. Computed tomography of the brain showed bilateral basal ganglia calcification. Read More

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Clinical and neuroradiologic characteristics in varicella zoster virus reactivation with central nervous system involvement.

J Neurol Sci 2022 Jun 16;437:120262. Epub 2022 Apr 16.

Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States of America; Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States of America. Electronic address:

Objective: To investigate the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of patients with varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation involving the cranial nerves and central nervous system (CNS).

Methods: This is a retrospective, multi-center case-series of 37 patients with VZV infection affecting the cranial nerves and CNS.

Results: The median age was 71 years [IQR 51. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2-associated haemorrhagic encephalitis mimicking Herpes encephalitis.

J Neurovirol 2022 04 8;28(2):322-325. Epub 2022 Apr 8.

Department of Neurology, BLK Super Speciality Hospital, New Delhi, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.

Although acute encephalopathy is quite commonly seen in patients of SARS-CoV-2 infection, encephalitis characterised by brain inflammation is relatively rare. Encephalitis caused by Herpes simplex type 1 is the most common cause of identified sporadic encephalitis, and early diagnosis and prompt treatment can prevent the devastating outcome. In this brief communication, we report a case of SARS-CoV-2 associated haemorrhagic encephalitis mimicking herpes encephalitis. Read More

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Caspr2 antibodies in herpes simplex encephalitis: an extension of the spectrum of virus induced autoimmunity? - A case report.

BMC Neurol 2022 Apr 5;22(1):131. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

Department of Neurology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstraße 35, 6020, Innsbruck, Austria.

Background: Post herpes simplex virus (HSV) autoimmune encephalitis has been reported mainly in association with NMDA receptor antibodies, however, never with Caspr2 antibodies.

Case Presentation: We report an 82-year old female patient with encephalitis who presented with aphasia, left temporo-mesial hyperintense lesion on MRI, epileptiform discharges on spot electroencephalography, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lymphocytic pleocytosis and who showed positive HSV polymerase chain reaction in CSF as well as antibodies against contactin-associated protein-like 2 (Caspr2).

Conclusion: This is the first report of a patient with encephalitis who tested positive for HSV as well as for Caspr2 antibodies. Read More

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Startle Seizures and Diffuse Leukoencephalopathy After Resolution of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Encephalitis in a Child.

Child Neurol Open 2022 Jan-Dec;9:2329048X221083761. Epub 2022 Mar 24.

University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.

We describe a unique clinical presentation of a child after the acute phase of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) encephalitis. A 17-month-old boy first presented with HSV1 encephalitis and was promptly treated with antiviral medication. Seven months later, he was re-admitted for startle seizures. Read More

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Anti-IgLON5 Encephalopathy with Concomitant Herpes Virus Encephalitis.

Neuroimmunomodulation 2022 Mar 30:1-5. Epub 2022 Mar 30.

Department of Neurology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Anti-IgLON5 encephalopathy is a new and rare autoimmune encephalitis with unclear pathophysiology. In this study, we reported an unusual case of anti-IgLON5 encephalopathy with concomitant herpes virus encephalitis. A 51-year-old man with HLA-DQB1*05:01 and HLA-DRB1*10:01, who suffered from an episode of acute encephalitis, mental disorders, and memory impairment was admitted to our hospital. Read More

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A case of ischemic stroke secondary to varicella-zoster virus meningoencephalitis.

J Neurovirol 2022 04 11;28(2):319-321. Epub 2022 Mar 11.

Department of Neurology, Shanghai Changhai Hospital, Shanghai, China.

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) lurks in cranial nerves and other brain ganglias after infection. Because middle cerebral artery (MCA) receives the ipsilateral trigeminal ganglia afferent innervations, the reactivated VZV infects the adventitia and intima of cerebral artery wall probably through this way and causes vascular inflammation, finally resulting in artery remodeling, vessel occlusion, and ischemia. In fact, there is a growing clinical recognition that there is an association between VZV reactivation and subsequent stroke. Read More

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Post-COVID-19 HSV encephalitis: a review.

QJM 2022 Apr;115(4):222-227

From the Department of Neurology, Bangur Institute of Neurosciences, Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research, Annex-1, 52/1a Shambhunath Pandit Street, Kolkata 700025, India.

Background: Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE) is one of the most common infectious causes of sporadic encephalitis. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been associated with immune dysregulation of the host that might increase the risk of infections like HSVE following SARS-CoV-2 infection. There is paucity of literature on post COVID-19 HSVE. Read More

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Uveo-meningeal syndrome secondary to Herpes Simplex Virus related acute retinal necrosis.

Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2022 Mar 9;25:101409. Epub 2022 Feb 9.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Kansas School of Medicine, 7400 State Line Road, Prairie Village, KS, 66208, USA.

Purpose: To present a rare case of uveo-meningeal syndrome secondary to herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) in a patient with acute retinal necrosis.

Observations: A 49-year-old female with a past medical history of herpes simplex encephalitis 18 years prior presented with a 3-day history of right sided headache and decreased vision of the right eye. Her visual acuity was 20/30 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. Read More

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Left-Right Intensity Asymmetries Vary Depending on Scanner Model for FLAIR and T Weighted MRI Images.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2022 Feb 8. Epub 2022 Feb 8.

Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Background: Localized regions of left-right image intensity asymmetry (LRIA) were incidentally observed on T -weighted (T -w) and T -weighted (T -w) diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images. Suspicion of herpes encephalitis resulted in unnecessary follow-up imaging. A nonbiological imaging artifact that can lead to diagnostic uncertainty was identified. Read More

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February 2022

Acute myelitis with multicranial neuritis caused by Varicella zoster virus: a case report.

BMC Neurol 2022 Feb 5;22(1):45. Epub 2022 Feb 5.

Department of Neurology, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, 050000, PR China.

Background: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) can remain lifelong in the latent state in ganglionic neurons and adrenal glands after the initial infection. However, it can be reactivated anytime and can trigger several severe neurological manifestations such as encephalitis, meningitis, Ramsay-Hunt syndrome, cerebellitis, myelitis, and stroke. In addition, due to the diversity of clinical manifestations, clinical diagnosis of VZV can be difficult, especially in the absence of varicella. Read More

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February 2022

Herpetic encephalitis: which treatment for which body weight?

J Neurol 2022 Jul 31;269(7):3625-3635. Epub 2022 Jan 31.

Service de Médecine Interne, CHU Conception, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Marseille, 147 Boulevard Baille, 13385, Marseille Cedex 5, France.

Background: Prognosis of herpetic encephalitis remains severe, with a high proportion of deaths and sequelae. Its treatment is based on acyclovir, but the precise and most effective modalities of this treatment are not established. The objective of this study was to determine them. Read More

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Varicella-zoster virus-associated meningitis, encephalitis, and myelitis with sporadic skin blisters: A case report.

World J Clin Cases 2022 Jan;10(2):717-724

Department of Internal Medicine, Sainokuni Higashiomiya Medical Center, Saitama 331-8577, Saitama, Japan.

Background: Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) generally causes chickenpox at first infection in childhood and then establishes latent infection in the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord or other nerves. Virus reactivation owing to an impaired immune system causes inflammation along spinal nerves from the affected spinal segment, leading to skin manifestations (herpes zoster). Viremia and subsequent hematogenous transmission and nerve axonal transport of the virus may lead to meningitis, encephalitis, and myelitis. Read More

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January 2022

Severe cytomegalovirus encephalitis in an immunocompetent healthy young woman: A case report.

IDCases 2022 13;27:e01403. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Clinical Research Development Unit of Rajaei, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) causes a mild illness in immunocompetent patients. Conversely, it can be life-threatening in immunocompromised or critically ill patients. We present a 48-year-old immunocompetent woman presenting primary severe CMV encephalitis. Read More

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January 2022

Granulomatous Herpetic Encephalitis A Possible Role for Inflammasomes.

J Child Neurol 2022 04 21;37(5):359-365. Epub 2022 Jan 21.

Department of Paediatric Neuroradiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Granulomatous herpetic encephalitis is a rare inflammatory complication of acute herpes simplex encephalitis.

Methods: We describe 3 cases of granulomatous herpetic encephalitis in children arising between 1 to 10 years after the initial presentation with acute herpes simplex encephalitis. We focus on the clinical course and neuroimaging phenotype with a discussion of possible mechanisms underpinning this entity. Read More

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[Clinical-etiological and MRI parallels of encephalitis in children].

Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2021 ;121(11. Vyp. 2):86-94

Children's Research and Clinical Center for Infectious Diseases, St. Petersburg, Russia.

Objective: Improving the diagnosis of encephalitis (EF) in children by establishing clinical, etiological and MRI parallels.

Material And Methods: 364 children aged from 1 month to 17 years with EF were examined. MRI of the brain and spinal cord, blood and CSF examination for herpes viruses type 1-6 (HHV), enteroviruses (EV), tick-borne encephalitis viruses (TBEV), (BB), varicella zoster (VVZ), herpes simplex (HSV1) and Epstein-Barr (EBV) were performed. Read More

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January 2022

West nile virus infection: One-Year postkidney transplant.

Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2021 Mar-Apr;32(2):532-542

Directorate General for Disease Surveillance and Control, Ministry of Health, Muscat, Oman.

West Nile virus (WNV) infections are a mosquito-borne virus of the Flaviviridae family. The clinical feature of the virus varies between individuals from being asymptomatic in most of the cases to severe central nervous system disease manifested as meningitis, encephalitis, and paralysis. Diabetic nephropathy patient with microvascular and macrovascular complications, who received a kidney transplant a year ago on immunosuppressive therapy, presented with a three-day history of upper respiratory tract infection and fever. Read More

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February 2022

Herpes simplex encephalitis in the context of immune checkpoint inhibitors: a complex interplay.

Acta Neurol Belg 2022 06 6;122(3):823-825. Epub 2022 Jan 6.

Department of Neurology /Neuroimmunology, Centre d'Esclerosi Múltiple de Catalunya (Cemcat), Hospital Universitari Vall d ́Hebron, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

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T2/FLAIR Hyperintensity in Mesial Temporal Lobe: Challenging Differential Diagnosis.

Sungjun Moon

Curr Med Imaging 2022 ;18(3):285-291

Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu, South Korea.

T2/FLAIR hyperintensity in the mesial temporal lobe is the most common MR finding of herpes simplex encephalitis, but may be observed in other infectious and non-infectious diseases. The former includes herpes human virus 6 encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, and neurosyphilis, and the latter autoimmune encephalitis, gliomatosis cerebri, bilateral or paradoxical posterior cerebral artery infarction, status epilepticus, and hippocampal sclerosis. Thus, T2/FLAIR hyperintensity in the mesial temporal lobe is not a disease-specific magnetic resonance imaging finding, and these conditions must be differentiated to ensure proper treatment. Read More

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An Unusual Case of Concurrent Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Cytomegalovirus Encephalitis Complicated by Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma as an Initial Presentation of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

Dawood Findakly

Cureus 2021 Nov 15;13(11):e19601. Epub 2021 Nov 15.

Hematology and Medical Oncology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, USA.

Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an uncommon brain tumor with a puzzling diagnosis. It has an incidence of seven cases per 100,000,000 people in the United States, which is further lower in immunocompromised patients. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common cause of various malignancies, notably Burkitt's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Hodgkin's lymphomas, and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) including PCNSL. Read More

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November 2021

Rituximab-induced mild encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion syndrome (MERS): An adverse effect to add to the list.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2022 Jun 7;88(6):2969-2972. Epub 2022 Feb 7.

Internal Medicine Department, Farhat Hached University Hospital, Sousse, Tunisia.

Mild encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion syndrome (MERS) is a rare clinico-radiological entity. Rituximab (RTX)-induced MERS has never been described before. Herein, we report the case of a 33-year-old patient diagnosed since 2017, with an IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD). Read More

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Changing profile of encephalitis: Results of a 4-year study in France.

Infect Dis Now 2022 Feb 9;52(1):1-6. Epub 2021 Dec 9.

ESCMID Study Group on the infections of the Brain (ESGIB), Basel, Switzerland; Université Grenoble Alpes, CHUGA, infectious diseases department, Grenoble, France.

Context: In 2007, we performed a nationwide prospective study to assess the epidemiology of encephalitis in France. We aimed to evaluate epidemiological changes 10years later.

Methods: We performed a 4-year prospective cohort study in France (ENCEIF) from 2016 to 2019. Read More

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February 2022

[A case of meningoencephalitis that developed during nivolumab use].

Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi 2021 ;58(4):624-629

Division of Neurology, Department of Internal Medicine, St Marianna University School of Medicine.

A 72-year-old woman developed a fever and consciousness disturbance after completing 8 courses of nivolumab for lung adenocarcinoma. A cerebrospinal fluid test showed an increased cell count, but bacterial culture, herpes simplex virus-polymerase chain reaction, acid-fast staining, and cytology were negative; serum paraneoplastic syndrome-related antibody was also negative. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid specimens were positive for anti-glutamate receptor (GluR) antibody, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images on head magnetic resonance imaging showed a high signal intensity at the right parietal lobe. Read More

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December 2021

HSV-Encephalitis Resembling Acute Cerebral Infarction in a Patient With Atrial Fibrillation: Beware of Stroke Mimics.

Neurologist 2021 Nov 26;27(1):30-33. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Second Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, National & Kapodistiran University of Athens, "Attikon" University Hospital, Athens, Greece.

Introduction: Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) encephalitis, the most common and potentially life-threatening type of encephalitis, may rarely present as a stroke mimic. Prompt diagnosis is of paramount importance for the timely initiation of antiviral treatment and to avert intravenous thrombolysis.

Case Report: A 60-year-old man with a history of lone paroxysmal atrial fibrillation without prior antithrombotic treatment was admitted due to mild gait unsteadiness and intermittent dysarthria of acute onset. Read More

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November 2021

Late complications of biliopancreatic diversion in an older patient: a case report.

BMC Geriatr 2021 11 4;21(1):631. Epub 2021 Nov 4.

Department of Geriatric Medicine, University Hospitals Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000, Leuven, Belgium.

Background: In the mid-seventies, biliopancreatic diversion became popular as weight-loss surgery procedure. This bariatric procedure combines distal gastric resection and intestinal malabsorption, leading to greater weight loss and improvement of co-morbidities than other bariatric procedures. Nowadays, biliopancreatic diversion has become obsolete due to the high risk of nutritional complications. Read More

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November 2021

High-resolution intracranial vessel wall imaging in cerebral viral infections evaluations.

Neuroradiology 2022 May 16;64(5):915-924. Epub 2021 Oct 16.

Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India.

Purpose: Vascular complications can be seen in various viral CNS infections. Variable neuro-imaging findings have been described in the literature elucidating the parenchymal changes with vascular involvement. Vessel wall imaging (VWI) can help to detect these vascular involvements. Read More

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Human viral encephalitis associated with suid herpesvirus 1.

Neurol Sci 2022 Apr 13;43(4):2681-2692. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Yong Wai Zheng Street 17#, Nanchang, 330006, Jiangxi Province, China.

Background: Suid herpesvirus type 1 (SHV1) is a type of neurotropic virus able to infect various species. However, the clinical cases of human SHV1 encephalitis are still rarely reported, and the clinical characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of human SHV1 encephalitis are still unclear.

Methods: In this study, we reported 2 cases of human encephalitis associated with SHV1 infection and reviewed the other 18 cases from the literatures. Read More

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