311 results match your criteria Imaging in Chiari II Malformation


Incidence of Intraspinal and Extraspinal MRI Abnormalities in Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

Spine Deform 2019 01;7(1):47-52

Division of Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgery, Hospital for Special Surgery, 535 East 70th Street, New York, NY 10021, USA.

Study Design: Retrospective study with follow-up.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of intraspinal and extraspinal MRI abnormalities in a consecutive series of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and to describe the evaluation and management of these abnormalities.

Summary Of Background Data: Indications for preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with AIS remain controversial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jspd.2018.06.006DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Multisegmental Lumbar Corporectomy and Transcorporal Fixation for Correction of Extreme Thoracolumbar Kyphosis in Myelomeningocele with Chronic Decubitus.

Pediatr Neurosurg 2019 27;54(2):116-120. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Neurosurgery, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

We introduce a novel technique for the treatment of severe kyphosis in myelomeningocele. A 5-year-old paraplegic boy with myelomeningocele presented with severe thoracolumbar kyphosis and a chronic ulcus at the site of the gibbus. The myelomeningocele had been treated during his first week of life, and an accompanying Chiari type II malformation had been treated by ventriculoperitoneal shunting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000494564DOI Listing
November 2018
15 Reads

Sequential Neuroimaging of the Fetus and Newborn With In Utero Zika Virus Exposure.

JAMA Pediatr 2019 Jan;173(1):52-59

Division of Fetal and Transitional Medicine, Children's National Health System, Washington, DC.

Importance: The evolution of fetal brain injury by Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is not well described.

Objectives: To perform longitudinal neuroimaging of fetuses and infants exposed to in utero maternal ZIKV infection using concomitant magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography (US), as well as to determine the duration of viremia in pregnant women with ZIKV infection and whether the duration of viremia correlated with fetal and/or infant brain abnormalities.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A cohort of 82 pregnant women with clinical criteria for probable ZIKV infection in Barranquilla, Colombia, and Washington, DC, were enrolled from June 15, 2016, through June 27, 2017, with Colombian women identified by community recruitment and physician referral and travel-related cases of American women recruited from a Congenital Zika Program. Read More

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http://archpedi.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?doi=10.1001/jam
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.4138DOI Listing
January 2019
12 Reads

[Cervico-occipital junction malformation and vitiligo].

Pan Afr Med J 2018 20;30:146. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

Departement of Dermatology, Military Hospital My Ismail, Meknes, Morocco.

Vitiligo is a relatively common multifactorial polygenetic dermatosis (0.5%-2% of general population) characterized by segmental or nonsegmental cutaneous depigmentation. Chiari malformation is a congenital cervico-occipital junction disease characterized by a migration of a part of the cerebellum through the foramen magnum. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2018.30.146.15610DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6201618PMC
November 2018
5 Reads

Myelomeningocele Versus Myelocele on Fetal MR Images: Are There Differences in Brain Findings?

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Dec 17;211(6):1376-1380. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

1 Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Ave, Cincinnati, OH 45229-3026.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine differences between patients with myelomeningocele and those with myelocele with respect to brain imaging findings at fetal MRI.

Materials And Methods: A single-center retrospective analysis was performed of fetal MRI examinations revealing open spinal dysraphism from 2004 through 2016 with available diagnostic postnatal spinal MR images in conjunction with neurosurgical follow-up findings. Images were reviewed by two board-certified fellowship-trained pediatric neuroradiologists. Read More

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https://www.ajronline.org/doi/10.2214/AJR.18.20088
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20088DOI Listing
December 2018
22 Reads

Cerebral Diffusivity Changes in Fetuses with Chiari II Malformation.

Fetal Diagn Ther 2019 17;45(4):268-274. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

Divisions of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Children's National Health System, and The George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, District of Columbia, USA.

Objectives: Chiari II malformation is a congenital abnormality characterized by a small posterior fossa with downward displacement of the hindbrain into the foramen magnum. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can be used to quantitatively characterize brain injury and physiological maturation. We aim to evaluate DWI parameters of the infra- and supratentorial brain in fetuses with Chiari II malformation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000490102DOI Listing
August 2018
24 Reads

Basilar Invagination: A Craniocervical Kyphosis.

World Neurosurg 2018 Sep 7;117:e180-e186. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

Post-graduation Program, Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: For more than a century, odontoid process prolapse, which compresses cranial base structures, has been the hallmark of basilar invagination (BI). The angulation of the whole skull toward the cervical spine may be considered to contribute to BI and odontoid prolapse. The objective of this study was to evaluate the craniocervical angular craniometry of patients with BI compared with patients with Chiari malformation (CM) and normal subjects. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S18788750183118
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2018.05.233DOI Listing
September 2018
23 Reads

The newer classifications of the chiari malformations with clarifications: An anatomical review.

Clin Anat 2018 Apr 20;31(3):314-322. Epub 2018 Feb 20.

Department of Anatomical Sciences, St. George's University, Grenada.

In 1891, Hans Chiari described a group of congenital hindbrain anomalies, which were eventually named after him. He classified these malformations into three types (Chiari malformations I, II, and III), and four years later added the Chiari IV malformation. However, numerous reports across the literature do not seem to fit Chiari's original descriptions of these malformations, so researchers have been encouraged to propose new classifications to encompass these variants (e. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ca.23051
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ca.23051DOI Listing
April 2018
11 Reads

Fetal Valproate Syndrome - Still a Problem Today!

Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol 2017 Oct 26;221(5):243-246. Epub 2017 Oct 26.

Neonatology, University Children's Hospital, Würzburg, Germany.

Fetal exposition to valproate can lead to a cluster of facial dysmorphism, congenital anomalies and neurodevelopmental retardation. In this report we describe 2 cases of fetal valproate syndrome. In the first case, the gravida had a valproate medication before and during pregnancy with additional folic acid. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0043-107619DOI Listing
October 2017
4 Reads

Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Paediatric Spinal Dysraphism with Comparative Usefulness of Various Magnetic Resonance Sequences.

J Clin Diagn Res 2017 Aug 1;11(8):TC17-TC22. Epub 2017 Aug 1.

Professor, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Pramukhswami Medical College and Shree Krishna Hospital, Gokal Nagar, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat, India.

Introduction: Spinal dysraphism occurs due to failure of fusion of parts along dorsal aspect of midline structures lying along spinal axis from skin to vertebrae and spinal cord. Congenital spinal anomalies may be minimal and asymptomatic like spinal bifida occulta, or severe with marked neurological deficits like Arnold-Chiari malformation or caudal regression syndrome. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice to diagnose mild to severe spinal dysraphism. Read More

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http://jcdr.net/article_fulltext.asp?issn=0973-709x&year
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2017/30134.10393DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5620880PMC
August 2017
8 Reads

Frontal and occipital horn ratio is associated with multifocal intraparenchymal hemorrhages in neonatal shunted hydrocephalus.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2017 Nov 8;20(5):432-438. Epub 2017 Sep 8.

Radiology, and.

OBJECTIVE Placement of a cerebrospinal fluid diversion device (i.e., shunt) is a routine pediatric neurosurgical procedure, often performed in the first weeks of life for treatment of congenital hydrocephalus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2017.6.PEDS16481DOI Listing
November 2017
38 Reads

Fetal Cerebral Ventricular Dilatation: Etiopathogenic Study of 130 Observations.

Birth Defects Res 2017 Nov 31;109(19):1586-1595. Epub 2017 Jul 31.

Service d'Histologie-Embryologie-Cytogénétique, Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades, APHP, Paris, France.

Background: Fetal cerebral ventricular dilatation (CVD) is a common abnormal prenatal finding that often predicts a poor prognosis. The etiology involves both genetic and nongenetic factors with diverse pathogenic mechanisms. We describe the neuropathological features of CVD in a large cohort of fetuses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bdr2.1093DOI Listing
November 2017
12 Reads

Embryology and pathophysiology of the Chiari I and II malformations: A comprehensive review.

Clin Anat 2018 Mar 4;31(2):202-215. Epub 2017 Dec 4.

Department of Anatomical Sciences, St. George's University, School of Medicine Grenada, West Indies.

Although the Chiari malformations are well-studied and described developmental anomalies, there remains some incongruity in regards to their underlying etiologies. A number of theories have been proposed with the purpose of accounting for the embryology and pathogenesis of the Chiari I and II malformations and their associated complications and clinical syndromes. The present review aims to review the pertinent literature for all of the main theories that have been proposed, and outline their validity and relevance to our contemporary understanding of these anomalies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ca.22939DOI Listing
March 2018
3 Reads

Comparison of Prenatal and Postnatal Management of Patients with Myelomeningocele.

Neurosurg Clin N Am 2017 Jul 24;28(3):439-448. Epub 2017 Mar 24.

Neurosurgery Department, Nationwide Children's Hospital, FB, Suite 4 A.2, 700 Children's Drive, Columbus, Ohio 43205, USA. Electronic address:

Myelomeningocele (MMC) is a costly lifetime disease with many comorbidities, including sensory and motor lower limb disability, bladder/bowel dysfunction, scoliosis, club foot, and hydrocephalus. MMC treatment options have changed over time because routine use of fetal ultrasonography and MRI has provided prenatal diagnosis and the potential for fetal surgery. There is still no consensus on how to treat the MMC diagnoses prenatally, mainly related to the infrastructure required to operate on pregnant patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nec.2017.02.005DOI Listing
July 2017
26 Reads

Prenatal diagnosis of spina bifida: from intracranial translucency to intrauterine surgery.

Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Jul 7;33(7):1083-1099. Epub 2017 Jun 7.

Department of Neurosurgery, Clinica Las Condes, Santiago, Chile.

Accurate and timely prenatal diagnosis of spina bifida (SB) is a major goal of modern antenatal care. Prenatal screening for open SB should be first performed at the time of routine first-trimester ultrasound by examining the posterior fossa for obliteration or non-visualization of the fourth ventricle ("intracranial translucency") and cisterna magna. The second step of screening is the second-trimester anatomy scan, at which time the features of the Chiari type II malformation should be looked for, including ventriculomegaly, scalloping of the frontal bones ("lemon" sign), and backward and caudal displacement of the cerebellar vermis with obliteration of the cisterna magna ("banana" sign). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00381-017-3445-7DOI Listing
July 2017
35 Reads

Evolution of posterior fossa and brain morphology after in utero repair of open neural tube defects assessed by MRI.

Eur Radiol 2017 Nov 12;27(11):4571-4580. Epub 2017 May 12.

Department of Diagnostic Imaging, University Children's Hospital Zurich, Steinwiesstrasse 75, 8032, Zurich, Switzerland.

Objectives: To describe characteristics of foetuses undergoing in utero repair of open neural tube defects (ONTD) and assess postoperative evolution of posterior fossa and brain morphology.

Methods: Analysis of pre- and postoperative foetal as well as neonatal MRI of 27 foetuses who underwent in utero repair of ONTD. Type and level of ONTD, hindbrain configuration, posterior fossa and liquor space dimensions, and detection of associated findings were compared between MRI studies and to age-matched controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-017-4807-yDOI Listing
November 2017
35 Reads

Use of three-dimensional, CAD/CAM-assisted, virtual surgical simulation and planning in the pediatric craniofacial population.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2017 Jun 4;97:163-169. Epub 2017 Apr 4.

Cohen Childrens Medical Center, Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine, 500 Hofstra Blvd, Hempstead, NY 11549, United States; Children's Hospital of Pennsylvania, 3401 Civic Center Blvd, Philadelphia, PA 19104, United States. Electronic address:

Objective: Virtual Surgical Planning (VSP) and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) have recently helped improve efficiency and accuracy in many different craniofacial surgeries. Research has mainly focused on the use in the adult population with the exception of the use for mandibular distractions and cranial vault remodeling in the pediatric population. This study aims to elucidate the role of VSP and CAD/CAM in complex pediatric craniofacial cases by exploring its use in the correction of midface hypoplasia, orbital dystopia, mandibular reconstruction, and posterior cranial vault expansion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2017.04.004DOI Listing
June 2017
21 Reads

First 60 fetal in-utero myelomeningocele repairs at Saint Louis Fetal Care Institute in the post-MOMS trial era: hydrocephalus treatment outcomes (endoscopic third ventriculostomy versus ventriculo-peritoneal shunt).

Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Jul 3;33(7):1157-1168. Epub 2017 May 3.

Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women's Health, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Saint Louis Fetal Care Institute, SSM Health Cardinal Glennon Children's Hospital, Saint Louis, MO, USA.

Introduction: The published results of the Management of Myelomeningocele Study (MOMS) trial in 2011 showed improved outcomes (reduced need for shunting, decreased incidence of Chiari II malformation, and improved scores of mental development and motor function) in the fetal prenatal repair group compared to the postnatal group. Historically, endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) remains as a controversial hydrocephalus treatment option with high failure rates in pediatric patients with a history of myelomeningocele (MMC). We report hydrocephalus treatment outcomes in the fetal in-utero myelomeningocele repair patients who underwent repair at our Saint Louis Fetal Care Institute following the MOMS trial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00381-017-3428-8DOI Listing
July 2017
13 Reads

Anatomical subgroup analysis of the MERIDIAN cohort: posterior fossa abnormalities.

Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2017 Dec 8;50(6):745-752. Epub 2017 Nov 8.

Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds, UK.

Objective: To assess the diagnostic and clinical contribution of fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in fetuses of the MERIDIAN cohort diagnosed with abnormalities of the posterior fossa as the only intracranial abnormality recognized on antenatal ultrasound.

Methods: This was a subgroup analysis of the MERIDIAN study of fetuses with abnormalities of the posterior fossa (with or without ventriculomegaly) diagnosed on antenatal ultrasound in women who had MRI within 2 weeks of ultrasound and for whom outcome reference data were available. The diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound and MRI is reported, as well as indicators of diagnostic confidence and effects on prognosis and clinical management. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/uog.17485DOI Listing
December 2017
6 Reads

Neurologic Evaluation in Children With Laryngeal Cleft.

JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2017 07;143(7):651-655

Department of Otolaryngology and Communication Enhancement, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts2Department of Otolaryngology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Importance: Referral to a neurologist and imaging play important roles in the management of laryngeal cleft. Swallowing involves a complex series of neuromuscular interactions, and aspiration can result from anatomical causes (eg, laryngeal cleft), neuromuscular disorders, or some combination thereof. To date, no protocols or guidelines exist to identify which patients with laryngeal cleft should undergo neuroimaging studies and/or consultation with a neurologist. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoto.2016.4735DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5824199PMC
July 2017
4 Reads

Hindbrain Herniation in Chiari II Malformation on Fetal and Postnatal MRI.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 May 9;38(5):1031-1036. Epub 2017 Mar 9.

From the Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging (B.Z., B.M.K.-F.).

Background And Purpose: As the practice of in utero repair of myelomeningoceles becomes more prevalent, knowledge of the expected MR imaging findings has become increasingly important. Our aim was to examine neuroimaging findings with a focus on hindbrain herniation and ventricular size in fetuses with open spinal dysraphism and to compare them with postnatal imaging features in groups undergoing prenatal-versus-postnatal repair.

Materials And Methods: Single-center retrospective analysis was performed on MRIs of fetuses with open spinal dysraphism from January 2004 through July 2015 with available postnatal imaging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5116DOI Listing
May 2017
4 Reads

Management of parturients in active labor with Arnold Chiari malformation, tonsillar herniation, and syringomyelia.

Surg Neurol Int 2017 19;8:10. Epub 2017 Jan 19.

Department of Anesthesiology, Advocate Illinois Masonic Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA; Department of Anesthesiology, University of Illinois, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Background: Arnold-Chiari malformation Type 1 (ACM-1) in parturients is a topic of ongoing discussion between obstetricians and anesthesiologists. The primary unanswered question remains; How should the anesthesia provider proceed with labor analgesia and anesthesia for cesarean section when confronted with an advanced, asymptomatic, or minimally symptomatic case of ACM-1 during labor?

Case Description: A 24-year-old, ASA II, G1P0 full-term parturient presented to Labor and Delivery for vaginal delivery. A diagnosis of ACM-1 was made 12 years ago when a brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed for right-sided numbness following a rear-end motor vehicle collision. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2152-7806.198737DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5288987PMC
January 2017
38 Reads

[Papillary oedema revealing Arnold Chiari malformation type 1: about a case].

Pan Afr Med J 2016 3;24:293. Epub 2016 Aug 3.

Service d'Ophtalmologie, CHU Mohammed VI, Oujda, Maroc.

Arnold Chiari malformation type 1 is defined as a herniation of the cerebellar tonsils into the foramen magnum of more than 5 mm. Symptoms are most commonly dominated by occipital headache, torticollis and sometimes swallowing disorders. Ophthalmologically abnormal convergences, oculomotor palsy and diplopia are the main clinical signs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2016.24.293.7415DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5267851PMC
February 2017
6 Reads

Use of Morphometric Mapping to Characterise Symptomatic Chiari-Like Malformation, Secondary Syringomyelia and Associated Brachycephaly in the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel.

PLoS One 2017 25;12(1):e0170315. Epub 2017 Jan 25.

School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Health & Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, United Kingdom.

Objectives: To characterise the symptomatic phenotype of Chiari-like malformation (CM), secondary syringomyelia (SM) and brachycephaly in the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel using morphometric measurements on mid-sagittal Magnetic Resonance images (MRI) of the brain and craniocervical junction.

Methods: This retrospective study, based on a previous quantitative analysis in the Griffon Bruxellois (GB), used 24 measurements taken on 130 T1-weighted MRI of hindbrain and cervical region. Associated brachycephaly was estimated using 26 measurements, including rostral forebrain flattening and olfactory lobe rotation, on 72 T2-weighted MRI of the whole brain. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0170315PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5266281PMC
August 2017
8 Reads

Craniometric Analysis of the Hindbrain and Craniocervical Junction of Chihuahua, Affenpinscher and Cavalier King Charles Spaniel Dogs With and Without Syringomyelia Secondary to Chiari-Like Malformation.

PLoS One 2017 25;12(1):e0169898. Epub 2017 Jan 25.

School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Health & Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, United Kingdom.

Objectives: To characterize and compare the phenotypic variables of the hindbrain and craniocervical junction associated with syringomyelia (SM) in the Chihuahua, Affenpinscher and Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (CKCS).

Method: Analysis of 273 T1-weighted mid-sagittal DICOM sequences of the hindbrain and craniocervical junction from 99 Chihuahuas, 42 Affenpinschers and 132 CKCSs. The study compared 22 morphometric features (11 lines, eight angles and three ratios) of dogs with and without SM using refined techniques based on previous studies of the Griffon Bruxellois (GB) using Discriminant Function Analysis and ANOVA with post-hoc corrections. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0169898PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5266279PMC
August 2017
8 Reads

Entire syringomyelia associated with Chiari II malformation and severe scoliosis and hydrocephalus.

J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil 2017 ;30(2):387-391

Background: The syrinx can occur in any region of the spinal cord and is common in cervical and/or thoracic region, and distributing along spinal cord is unusual, especially association with Chiari II malformation and scoliosis.

Objective: To report a first case of entire syringomyelia associated with Chiari II malformation and severe scoliosis and hydrocephalus.

Case Presentation: The patient began to experience symptoms of bilateral hand weakness in adulthood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/BMR-150389DOI Listing
May 2017
10 Reads

Fetal Myelomeningocele After Maternal Methotrexate Administration: A Case Report.

J Reprod Med 2016 Nov-Dec;61(11-12):609-11

Background: Folate supplementation in women of reproductive age has a well-established role in the prevention of neural tube defects. Methotrexate is a commonly used drug which functions by inhibiting normal folate metabolism in active cells. An association between fetal methotrexate exposure and myelomeningocele might be expected, considering this relationship. Read More

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October 2018

Intracranial translucency assessment at first trimester nuchal translucency ultrasound.

J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol 2017 Apr 21;61(2):185-189. Epub 2016 Oct 21.

Department of Medical Imaging, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Introduction: The antenatal diagnosis of open spina bifida (OSB), a neural tube defect, is predominantly made at the second trimester morphology scan by ultrasound detection of structural abnormalities resulting from the associated Chiari II malformation. Evidence has emerged suggesting that these structural abnormalities can be detected earlier, by examination of the posterior fossa as part of the first trimester nuchal translucency scan. In particular, absence of the intra-cranial translucency (IT) of the fourth ventricle has shown promise as a diagnostic marker of OSB, although the sensitivity and specificity of this finding varies widely in the literature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1754-9485.12548DOI Listing
April 2017
10 Reads

Congenital malformations of the brain and spine.

Handb Clin Neurol 2016 ;136:1121-37

Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. Electronic address:

In this chapter we briefly address the most common congenital brain and spinal anomalies as well as their most salient imaging, especially magnetic resonance, findings. Some of them, such as Chiari II, and open spinal defects, have become relatively rare due to their detection in utero and repair of the spinal malformation. Regardless of the type of brain anomaly, the most common clinical symptoms are mental retardation, hydrocephalus, and seizure; the latter two may need to be surgically and medically addressed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-53486-6.00058-2DOI Listing
February 2017
12 Reads

Prenatal Cerebellar Disruptions: Neuroimaging Spectrum of Findings in Correlation with Likely Mechanisms and Etiologies of Injury.

Neuroimaging Clin N Am 2016 Aug;26(3):359-72

Section of Pediatric Neuroradiology, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charlotte R. Bloomberg Children's Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Sheikh Zayed Tower, Room 4174, 1800 Orleans Street, Baltimore, MD 21287-0842, USA.

There is increasing evidence that the cerebellum is susceptible to prenatal infections and hemorrhages and that congenital morphologic anomalies of the cerebellum may be caused by disruptive (acquired) causes. Starting from the neuroimaging pattern, this report describes a spectrum of prenatal cerebellar disruptions including cerebellar agenesis, unilateral cerebellar hypoplasia, cerebellar cleft, global cerebellar hypoplasia, and vanishing cerebellum in Chiari type II malformation. The neuroimaging findings, possible causative disruptive events, and clinical features of each disruption are discussed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nic.2016.03.006DOI Listing
August 2016
8 Reads

Cerebellar disruptions and neurodevelopmental disabilities.

Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2016 10 12;21(5):339-48. Epub 2016 May 12.

Section of Pediatric Neuroradiology and Division of Pediatric Radiology, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:

The vulnerability of the cerebellum during prenatal life to disruptive events such as hemorrhage and infection leads to a wide variety of morphological abnormalities. This review discusses various prenatal cerebellar disruptions including cerebellar agenesis, unilateral cerebellar hypoplasia, cerebellar cleft, global cerebellar hypoplasia, and vanishing cerebellum in Chiari type II malformation. For each entity, we discuss the definition, potential pathomechanism, clinical findings including neurocognitive and behavioral problems, neuroimaging features, and management. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.siny.2016.04.014DOI Listing
October 2016
11 Reads

Myelomeningocele - a single institute analysis of the years 2007 to 2015.

Childs Nerv Syst 2016 Jul 16;32(7):1281-7. Epub 2016 Apr 16.

Neurosurgical Department, Asklepios Children's Hospital, Arnold-Janssen Straße 29, 53757, Sankt Augustin, Germany.

Background: After the introduction of folate supplementation, the number of open spinal dysraphism was successfully reduced over time. In 2007, the department for pediatric neurosurgery was established in the children's hospital. Since then, newborns with myelomeningocele (MMC), the most common form of open neural tube defects (NTD), are treated here. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00381-016-3079-1DOI Listing
July 2016
10 Reads

Sequential morphological change of Chiari malformation type II following surgical repair of myelomeningocele.

Childs Nerv Syst 2016 Jun 2;32(6):1069-78. Epub 2016 Mar 2.

Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8582, Japan.

Purpose: To document long-term morphological changes of Chiari type II malformation (CM-II) following closure of spina bifida manifesta (SBM).

Methods: We retrospectively evaluated postnatal magnetic resonance images of the CM-II and posterior fossa (PF) in 28 consecutive cases. We measured changes in vertebral level and length of the cerebellar peg (CP), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces anterior and posterior to the cerebrospinal junction, PF area, and the anteroposterior diameters of the foramen magnum (FM) and C1 vertebra. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00381-016-3041-2DOI Listing
June 2016
4 Reads

Do the cerebellar tonsils move during flexion and extension of the neck in patients with Chiari I malformation? A radiological study with clinical implications.

Childs Nerv Syst 2016 Mar 12;32(3):527-30. Epub 2016 Jan 12.

Pediatric Neurosurgery, Children's of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, USA.

Background: In the past, diagnosis of the Chiari I malformation has primarily been made on midsagittal MRI. We hypothesized that based on the frequent presentation of opisthotonos in patients with hindbrain hernia (primarily Chiari II malformation but sometimes Chiari I malformation) that the hyperextension might be a compensatory technique used by such patients to bring the cerebellar tonsils up out of the cervical spine.

Patients And Methods: This prospective study reviewed imaging of patients with Chiari I malformation who underwent flexion/extension MRI for evaluation of their hindbrain herniation. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00381-016-3014-5
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00381-016-3014-5DOI Listing
March 2016
16 Reads

Thalamic Massa Intermedia Duplication in a Dysmorphic 14 month-old Toddler.

J Radiol Case Rep 2015 Jun 30;9(6):1-5. Epub 2015 Jun 30.

Department of Neuroradiology, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, D.C., USA.

The massa intermedia is an inconstant parenchymal band connecting the medial thalami. It may be thickened in various disease processes such as Chiari II malformation or absent in other disease states. However, the massa intermedia may also be absent in up to 30% of normal human brains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3941/jrcr.v9i6.2297DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4638374PMC
June 2015
4 Reads

Evaluation of Subependymal Gray Matter Heterotopias on Fetal MRI.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2016 Apr 19;37(4):720-5. Epub 2015 Nov 19.

From the Departments of Radiology and Medical Imaging (U.D.N., B.M.K.-F) University of Cincinnati College of Medicine (U.D.N., J.L.P., K.S.B., B.M.K.-F), Cincinnati, Ohio.

Background And Purpose: Subependymal grey matter heterotopias are seen in a high proportion of children with Chiari II malformation and are potentially clinically relevant. However, despite its growing use, there is little in the literature describing its detection on fetal MRI. Our aim was to evaluate the accuracy in diagnosing subependymal gray matter heterotopias in fetuses with spinal dysraphism on fetal MR imaging. Read More

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http://www.ajnr.org/content/early/2015/11/19/ajnr.A4585.full
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A4585DOI Listing
April 2016
12 Reads

Fetal diffusion tensor quantification of brainstem pathology in Chiari II malformation.

Eur Radiol 2016 May 2;26(5):1274-83. Epub 2015 Sep 2.

Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

Objectives: This prenatal MRI study evaluated the potential of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics to identify changes in the midbrain of fetuses with Chiari II malformations compared to fetuses with mild ventriculomegaly, hydrocephalus and normal CNS development.

Methods: Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were calculated from a region of interest (ROI) in the midbrain of 46 fetuses with normal CNS, 15 with Chiari II malformations, eight with hydrocephalus and 12 with mild ventriculomegaly. Fetuses with different diagnoses were compared group-wise after age-matching. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-015-3939-1DOI Listing
May 2016
5 Reads

Chiari III malformation: a comprehensive review of this enigmatic anomaly.

Childs Nerv Syst 2015 Nov 9;31(11):2035-40. Epub 2015 Aug 9.

Pediatric Neurosurgery, Children's of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, USA.

Introduction: Chiari III is one of the rarest of the Chiari malformations and is characterized by a high cervical or low occipital encephalocele and osseous defect with or without spinal cord involvement and may include many of the anatomical characteristics seen in the Chiari II malformation. Herein, we provide a comprehensive review of this rare anomaly as well as a translation of Chiari's original description.

Methods: We review all reported cases of Chiari III malformation found in the extant literature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00381-015-2853-9DOI Listing
November 2015
10 Reads

Comparison of clinical and radiological manifestations and surgical outcomes of pediatric Chiari I malformations in different age groups.

Childs Nerv Syst 2015 Nov 1;31(11):2091-101. Epub 2015 Aug 1.

Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Children's Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to elucidate the differences in clinical and radiological manifestations and treatment outcomes of pediatric Chiari I malformation patients according to age.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the patients who received surgery in our institution for symptomatic Chiari I malformations between January 1991 and December 2012. Fifty-four patients were identified, and their medical records were reviewed for clinical presentation, radiological findings, surgical treatment, and outcomes including complications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00381-015-2849-5DOI Listing
November 2015
15 Reads

Atlas Assimilation Patterns in Different Types of Adult Craniocervical Junction Malformations.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2015 Nov;40(22):1763-8

*Post-graduation Program in Health Sciences, IAMSPE, São Paulo, Brazil†Hospital Universitário Presidente Dutra, - HUUFMA, São Luís, Brazil‡Hospital do Servidor Público do Estado de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Study Design: This is a cross-sectional analysis of resonance magnetic images of 111 patients with craniocervical malformations and those of normal subjects.

Objective: To test the hypothesis that atlas assimilation is associated with basilar invagination (BI) and atlas's anterior arch assimilation is associated with craniocervical instability and type I BI.

Summary Of Background Data: Atlas assimilation is the most common malformation in the craniocervical junction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000001045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4671914PMC
November 2015
6 Reads

Chiari II malformation.

Authors:
Helen Williams

Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed 2015 Dec 2;100(6):301; discussion 333. Epub 2015 Jul 2.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2015-309025DOI Listing
December 2015
4 Reads

Posterior odontoid process angulation in pediatric Chiari I malformation: an MRI morphometric external validation study.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2015 Aug 22;16(2):138-45. Epub 2015 May 22.

Department of 1 Neurological Surgery and.

OBJECT Osseous anomalies of the craniocervical junction are hypothesized to precipitate the hindbrain herniation observed in Chiari I malformation (CM-I). Previous work by Tubbs et al. showed that posterior angulation of the odontoid process is more prevalent in children with CM-I than in healthy controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2015.1.PEDS14475DOI Listing
August 2015
35 Reads

Physical model from 3D ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging scan data reconstruction of lumbosacral myelomeningocele in a fetus with Chiari II malformation.

Childs Nerv Syst 2015 Apr 17;31(4):511-3. Epub 2015 Feb 17.

Radiologia, Clínica de Diagnóstico por Imagem (CPDI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Rapid prototyping is becoming a fast-growing and valuable technique for physical models in case of congenital anomalies. Manufacturing models are generally built from three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound, computed tomography, and fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan data. Physical prototype has demonstrated to be clinically of value in case of complex fetal malformations and may improve antenatal management especially in cases of craniosynostosis, orofacial clefts, and giant epignathus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00381-015-2641-6DOI Listing
April 2015
12 Reads

[Cerebrovenous orthostatic reactivity in pathology of the craniovertebral junction (Chiari malformation)].

Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko 2015 ;79(6):61-70

Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute, Moscow, Russia.

Aim: Chiari malformation is characterized by herniation of the cerebellar tonsils into the foramen magnum, which leads to disturbance of CSF circulation through the craniovertebral junction. Orthostatic stress, which leads to the movement of SCF through the craniovertebral junction, is an adequate method to detect these disorders. It is accompanied by changes in the intracranial pressure, affecting the cerebrovenous orthostatic reactivity (CVOR), which is noninvasively assessed in patients with Chiari malformation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17116/neiro201579661-70DOI Listing
April 2016
4 Reads

Diagnostic imaging of posterior fossa anomalies in the fetus and neonate: part 2, Posterior fossa disorders.

Clin Imaging 2015 Mar-Apr;39(2):167-75. Epub 2014 Oct 22.

Department of Radiology, University of Washington Medical Center, Box 357115, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Seattle, WA 98195-7117.

This second portion of a two-part review illustrates examples of posterior fossa disorders detectable on prenatal ultrasound and MRI, with postnatal or pathology correlation where available. These disorders are discussed in the context of an anatomic classification scheme described in Part 1 of this posterior fossa anomaly review. Assessment of the size and formation of the cerebellar hemispheres and vermis is critical. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinimag.2014.10.012DOI Listing
October 2015
13 Reads

Assessment of 3D T2-weighted high-sampling-efficiency technique (SPACE) for detection of cerebellar tonsillar motion: new useful sign for Chiari I malformation.

Clin Imaging 2015 Jan-Feb;39(1):42-50. Epub 2014 Oct 16.

Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Gazi University Ankara, Turkey.

Objective: To describe tonsillar blackout sign (TBS) on three-dimensional (3D)-SPACE, evaluate its performance in identifying Chiari malformation (CM1) as diagnostic marker, and investigate its role in differentiation of symptomatic and asymptomatic CM1.

Methods: One-hundred fifty-six patients were divided into two groups based on caudal displacement of cerebellar tonsils: CM1 (Group I) and non-CM1 (Group II). Group I was subclassified as symptomatic and asymptomatic by a neurosurgeon. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08997071140024
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinimag.2014.08.011DOI Listing
June 2015
17 Reads

Is atlantoaxial instability the cause of Chiari malformation? Outcome analysis of 65 patients treated by atlantoaxial fixation.

Authors:
Atul Goel

J Neurosurg Spine 2015 Feb 21;22(2):116-27. Epub 2014 Nov 21.

Department of Neurosurgery, King Edward VII Memorial Hospital and Seth G.S. Medical College, Parel, Mumbai, India.

Object: Understanding that atlantoaxial instability is the cause of Chiari malformation (CM), the author treated 65 patients using atlantoaxial stabilization. The results are analyzed.

Methods: Cases of CM treated using atlantoaxial fixation during the period from January 2010 to November 2013 were reviewed and analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2014.10.SPINE14176DOI Listing
February 2015
51 Reads

Stenogyria - not only in Chiari II malformation.

J Neurol Sci 2014 Dec 28;347(1-2):337-40. Epub 2014 Sep 28.

Clinic of Neurology of Children and Adolescents, Institute of Mother and Child, Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw, Poland.

Stenogyria, meaning multiple small compacted gyri separated by shallow sulci, is reported in the literature in association with Chiari II malformation (CM II) which in turn is reported in association with myelomeningocele (MMC). The authors present five cases of stenogyria (and other abnormalities found in CM II, like callosal hypoplasia/dysplasia, agenesis of the anterior commissure, hypoplasia of the falx cerebri) in children without the history of MMC or any other form of open spinal dysraphism. In these cases stenogyria was associated with Chiari I malformation, rhombencephalosynapsis and spina bifida. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0022510X140060
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2014.09.022DOI Listing
December 2014
23 Reads

Ventriculoperitoneal shunt with a rare twist: small-bowel ischemia and necrosis secondary to knotting of peritoneal catheter.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2014 Sep 4;14(3):234-7. Epub 2014 Jul 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois.

Small-bowel ischemia and necrosis due to knotting of the peritoneal catheter is an extremely rare complication related to a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS). A 3-month-old girl, with a history of Chiari II malformation and myelomeningocele (MM) after undergoing right occipital VPS insertion and MM repair at birth, presented to the emergency department with a high-grade fever. Examination of a CSF sample obtained via shunt tap raised suspicion for the presence of infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2014.6.PEDS1418DOI Listing
September 2014
25 Reads

Rachischisis totalis without acrania in a newborn male.

Pediatr Neurol 2014 Jul 4;51(1):123-5. Epub 2014 Mar 4.

Department of Pediatrics and Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio.

Background: Rachischisis totalis is a rare open neural tube defect often associated with lethal acrania. When acrania is not present, mortality remains high and morbidity for survivors is extreme.

Patient: We describe is a term newborn with in-utero diagnosed rachischisis totalis without acrania and Chiari II malformation with subsequent hydrocephalus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2014.02.019DOI Listing
July 2014
10 Reads