1,889,712 results match your criteria Imaging in Chiari II Malformation


[Acute Motor Failure of the N. Peroneus Profundus Caused by a Cystic Tibiofibular Joint].

Z Orthop Unfall 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Orthopädie und Traumatologie, Bürgerspital Solothurn, Solothurn, Schweiz.

A ganglion cyst is rarely the cause of peripheral nerve compression. In the lower extremity, it is important to distinguish clinically the symptoms from a radiculopathy. In the literature, neural damage of the peroneal nerve due to a ganglion cyst has been described. Read More

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December 2018

Transoral Robotic Surgery (TORS) for Bilateral Eagle Syndrome.

ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec 2018 Dec 11;81(1):36-40. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Eagle syndrome is a rare and poorly understood clinical condition caused by an elongated or disfigured styloid process. The possible managements of Eagle syndrome include conservative medical treatment or surgical intervention. The surgical removal of the elongated styloid process may be efficiently achieved either by an intraoral or a transcervical approach. Read More

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December 2018
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Resveratrol attenuates the MSU crystal-induced inflammatory response through the inhibition of TAK1 activity.

Int Immunopharmacol 2018 Dec 7;67:62-68. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Institute of Rheumatology and Immunology, The Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College, 63# Wenhua Road, Nanchong 637000, Sichuan, China; Sichuan Key Laboratory of Medical Imaging, North SiChuan Medical College, 234# Fujiang Road, Nanchong 637000, Sichuan, China; Preclinical School of North SiChuan Medical College, 234# Fujiang Road, Nanchong 637000, Sichuan, China. Electronic address:

TAK1 is closely associated with the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. In the present study, we aimed to explore the relationship between TAK1 and gout as well as the effects of resveratrol on TAK1 activity and MSU crystal-induced inflammation. The expression levels of total TAK1 and phosphorylated TAK1 in gout patients were detected by western blotting. Read More

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December 2018

The neurophysiological and neurochemical effects of alcohol on the brain are inconsistent with current evidence based models of sleepwalking.

Authors:
Mark R Pressman

Sleep Med Rev 2018 Nov 10;43:92-95. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Sleep Medicine Services, Lankenau Medical Center, Wynnewood, PA, USA; Lankenau Institute for Medical Research, Wynnewood, PA, USA; Department of Medicine, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Charles Widger School of Law, Villanova University, Villanova, PA, USA. Electronic address:

The DSM-5 and ICSD-3 have removed alcohol from the list of potential triggers for sleepwalking due to the lack of empirical evidence. Recent imaging and EEG based studies of sleepwalking and confusional arousals have provided a more data-based method of examining if alcohol is compatible with what is known about the neurophysiology and neurochemistry of sleepwalking. These studies have demonstrated a deactivation of the frontal areas of the brain, while the cingulate or motor cortex remains active and characterized activation in the form of beta EEG. Read More

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November 2018

Using GPUs to accelerate computational diffusion MRI: From microstructure estimation to tractography and connectomes.

Neuroimage 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Wellcome Centre for Integrative Neuroimaging - Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain (FMRIB), University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; Sir Peter Mansfield Imaging Centre, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.

The great potential of computational diffusion MRI (dMRI) relies on indirect inference of tissue microstructure and brain connections, since modelling and tractography frameworks map diffusion measurements to neuroanatomical features. This mapping however can be computationally highly expensive, particularly given the trend of increasing dataset sizes and the complexity in biophysical modelling. Limitations on computing resources can restrict data exploration and methodology development. Read More

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December 2018

Posterior staphyloma in pathologic myopia.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Ophthalmology, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Ruprecht-Karls-University of Heidelberg, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167, Mannheim, Germany. Electronic address:

A posterior staphyloma is an outpouching of a circumscribed region of the posterior fundus and has been considered a hallmark of pathologic myopia. Occurring in highly myopic eyes, it is histologically characterized by a relatively abrupt scleral thinning starting at the staphyloma edge, a pronounced de-arrangement of scleral collagen fibrils and a marked choroidal thinning, which is the most marked at the staphyloma edge and which occurs in addition to the axial elongation-associated choroidal thinning. Besides in highly myopic eyes, a posterior staphyloma can be found in non-highly myopic eyes in association with retinitis pigmentosa or localized defects of Bruch's membrane in the cases of which it is not associated with a marked choroidal thinning. Read More

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December 2018

Fluid and PET biomarkers for amyloid pathology in Alzheimer's disease.

Mol Cell Neurosci 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Molndal, Sweden; Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, University College, London, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; UK Dementia Research Institute at UCL, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid plaques and tau pathology (neurofibrillary tangles and neuropil threads). Amyloid plaques are primarily composed of aggregated and oligomeric β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides ending at position 42 (Aβ42). The development of fluid and PET biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD), has allowed for detection of Aβ pathology in vivo and marks a major advancement in understanding the role of Aβ in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Read More

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December 2018

Parental and family predictors of fruits and vegetables in elementary school Children's home-packed lunches across a school week.

Appetite 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Human Ecology, University of California, Davis 1309 Hart Hall, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA, 95616, USA. Electronic address:

Home-packed lunches have been found to be of lower nutritional quality than school-bought lunches, yet little is known about family-based factors associated with lunch packing. The current exploratory study examines parental and family predictors of fruits and vegetables packed in lunches, hypothesizing parents' nutrition knowledge and authoritative parenting as well as children's involvement in lunch decisions would relate to packing more fruits and vegetables, while financial difficulties would relate to packing fewer. Ninety parent-child dyads from 4th-6th grade participated for 5 consecutive school days. Read More

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December 2018

Primary liver carcinoma with sarcomatous changes: Analysis of 10 cases.

Hepatol Res 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Hepatology, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Background & Aim: Primary liver carcinoma with sarcomatous change is a rare malignancy associated with high aggressiveness and poor prognosis. However, the characteristics of these types of tumors are still unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the imaging features, prognostic significance, and clinicopathological characteristics of patients with these tumors. Read More

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December 2018

The histone-like protein HupB influences biofilm formation and virulence in Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri through the regulation of flagellar biosynthesis.

Mol Plant Pathol 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología Dr. César Milstein, Fundación Pablo Cassará, CONICET. Saladillo 2468, C1440FFX, Ciudad de Buenos, Aires, Argentina.

Citrus canker is an important disease of citrus, whose causal agent is the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc). In previous studies, we found a group of Xcc mutants, generated by the insertion of the Tn5 transposon, which show impaired ability to attach to an abiotic substrate. Read More

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December 2018

Molecular scaffolds as double targeting agents for the diagnosis and treatment of Neuroblastoma.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Farmacia, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040, Madrid, SPAIN.

The selective delivery of therapeutic and imaging agents to tumoral cells has been postulated as some of the most important challenges in nanomedicine field. The cellular selectivity of nanocarriers is usually achieved by their surface decoration with targeting moieties able to recognize these cells in a specific manner. Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most frequent extra-cranial pedriatic tumor, almost incurable at advanced stages. Read More

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December 2018

Initial results from the off-label use of the SAPIEN S3 valve for percutaneous transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement: A multi-institutional experience.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, UCLA Mattel Children's Hospital, Los Angeles, California.

Objectives: To describe a multi-center experience of percutaneous transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (TPVR) using the Edwards Sapien S3 Valve.

Background: Off-label use of the Sapien S3 valve can allow for TPVR in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) and large diameter dysfunctional right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT). The initial experience at five centers with the SAPIEN S3 valve for TPVR is presented with a focus on procedural techniques, success, complications, and efficacy. Read More

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December 2018

A versatile synthetic route to the preparation of N heterocycles.

J Labelled Comp Radiopharm 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

International Tomography Center SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia.

A robust medium-scale (~3 g) synthetic method for N labeling of pyridine ( N-Py) is reported based on the Zincke reaction. N enrichment in excess of 81% was achieved with ~33% yield. N-Py serves as a standard substrate in a wide range of studies employing a hyperpolarization technique for efficient polarization transfer from parahydrogen to heteronuclei; this technique, called SABRE (Signal Amplification by Reversible Exchange), employs a simultaneous chemical exchange of parahydrogen and to-be-hyperpolarized substrate (e. Read More

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December 2018

A NEW COMPREHENSIVE PROCEDURE FOR CUSTOM-MADE TOTAL ANKLE REPLACEMENTS: MEDICAL IMAGING, JOINT MODELING, PROSTHESIS DESIGN, AND 3D PRINTING.

J Orthop Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Movement Analysis Laboratory, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna, Italy.

Many failures in total joint replacement are associated to prosthesis-to-bone mismatch. With recent additive-manufacturing, i.e. Read More

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December 2018

Initial evidence for hypothalamic gliosis in children with obesity by quantitative T2 MRI and implications for blood oxygen-level dependent response to glucose ingestion.

Pediatr Obes 2018 Dec 10:e12486. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Pediatrics, School of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil.

Objective: In adults, hypothalamic gliosis has been documented using quantitative T2 neuroimaging, whereas functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has shown a defective hypothalamic response to nutrients. No studies have yet evaluated these hypothalamic abnormalities in children with obesity.

Methods: Children with obesity and lean controls underwent quantitative MRI measuring T2 relaxation time, along with continuous hypothalamic fMRI acquisition to evaluate early response to glucose ingestion. Read More

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December 2018

Future clinical applicability of optical coherence tomography angiography.

Clin Exp Optom 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Ocular Imaging Group, Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore.

Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) is an emerging technology that allows for the non-invasive imaging of the ocular microvasculature. Despite the wealth of observations and numerous research studies illustrating the potential clinical uses of OCT-A, this technique is currently rarely used in routine clinical settings. In this review, technical and clinical aspects of OCT-A imaging are discussed, and the future clinical potential of OCT-A is considered. Read More

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December 2018

Grey matter alterations in obesity: A meta-analysis of whole-brain studies.

Obes Rev 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Center of Mental Health, Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatics, and Psychotherapy, University Hospital of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

Obesity is a major problem in the modern world causing a higher risk for various cerebrovascular diseases causing a profound individual and societal burden. The neurobiological foundation bears potential to understand the complex interaction of individual differences in brain structure and function and ingestive behaviour. This systematic review was performed on the current evidence of structural abnormalities in grey matter volume (GMV) in patients with obesity based on studies published until December 2017, which were selected through search in PubMed, CENTER (Cochrane Library), PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Ovid MEDLINE. Read More

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December 2018

Targeting Peptide-Based Probes for Molecular Imaging and Diagnosis.

Adv Mater 2018 Dec 7:e1804827. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

CAS Key Laboratory of Standardization and Measurement for Nanotechnology, CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology of China, Beijing, 100190, P. R. China.

A series of novel peptide-based molecular probes for different biomarkers is highlighted herein. These probes can provide targeted recognition with high affinity, high specificity, high penetration, and rapid excretion ability. These sensitive peptides can achieve rapid and specific detection when they are conjugated with imaging moieties or are formed into nanoprobes, which can be adapted for in vivo molecular imaging in targeted diagnosis and therapy. Read More

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December 2018

Management of persistent juvenile angiofibroma after endoscopic resection: Analysis of a single institution series of 74 patients.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Unit of Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.

Background: Management of persistent juvenile angiofibroma (pJA) after transnasal endoscopic resection is controversial. To better understand its behavior, optimize treatment, and minimize morbidity, we report our experience in pJA focusing on follow-up strategies and disease progression.

Methods: A retrospective review of clinical records of all JA cases treated with endoscopic surgery at the Unit of Otorhinolaryngology of the University of Brescia between January 1994 and October 2015 was performed. Read More

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December 2018

Combined treatment with systemic resveratrol and resveratrol preconditioned mesenchymal stem cells, maximizes antifibrotic action in diabetic cardiomyopathy.

J Cell Physiol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays a crucial role in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), thus we aimed at investigating the effect of one therapeutic approach with resveratrol (RSV) given systemically and combined treatment of RSV with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that was either RSV-preconditioned or not on Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in streptozotocin-induced DCM, and to evaluate effects of RSV preconditioning on MSCs therapeutic potential. The rats were divided into control (C, n = 8), diabetic (DM, n = 8), diabetic treated with systemic RSV (DM-RSV, n = 8), diabetic treated with RSV and nonconditioned MSCs (DM-RSV-MSCs, n = 8), diabetic treated with RSV and RSV-incubated with MSCs (DM-RSV-MSCc, n = 8) and diabetic treated with RSV-conditioned MSCs (DM-MSCc, n = 8). Echocardiography (Echo) showed significant improvement of cardiac functions in all groups treated with RSV either systemic or added in culture media. Read More

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December 2018

The Effects of High Dynamic Range on Fingerprint Images Processed by Photoshop.

Authors:
Hungngai Chuk

J Forensic Sci 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Forensic Science Department, George Washington University, 2400 Virginia Avenue, NW, C926, Washington, DC, 20037.

High dynamic range (HDR) imaging is a function that combines five images with different exposures into a single image. This technique may provide fine ridge details of fingerprint images for forensic latent fingerprint examination. Therefore, viewing fingerprints under optimal conditions is of paramount importance. Read More

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December 2018

On hormonal regulation of the dynamic apical hook development.

New Phytol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Institute of Plant and Food Science, Department of Biology, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong, 518055, China.

To deal with the ever-changing environment, sessile plants adapt diverse and plastic organ structures during postembryonic development. Among these, the apical hook forms shortly after seed germination of most dicots, protects the delicate shoot meristem from mechanical damage during soil emergence. For decades, this structure has been taken as an excellent model for investigating the mechanisms underlying differential growth of plant tissues. Read More

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December 2018

Chromatin dynamics governed by a set of nuclear structural proteins.

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Physics Department & Nanotechnology Institute, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel.

During the past three decades, the study of nuclear and chromatin organization has become of great interest. The organization and dynamics of chromatin are directly responsible for many functions including gene regulation, genome replication, and maintenance. In order to better understand the details of these mechanisms, we need to understand the role of specific proteins that take part in these processes. Read More

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December 2018

Simultaneous Co-segmentation of Tumors in PET-CT Images Using Deep Fully Convolutional Networks.

Med Phys 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, the University of Iowa.

Purpose: To investigate the use and efficiency of 3-D deep learning, fully convolutional networks (DFCN) for simultaneous tumor co-segmentation on dual-modality non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) PET-CT images.

Methods: We used DFCN co-segmentation for NSCLC tumors in PET-CT images, considering both the CT and PET information. The proposed DFCN-based co-segmentation method consists of two coupled 3D-UNets with an encoder-decoder architecture, which can communicate with the other in order to share complementary information between PET and CT. Read More

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December 2018

Comparison of Fimasartan and Amlodipine Therapy on Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaque Inflammation.

Clin Cardiol 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Department of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: The renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in promoting atherosclerotic plaque inflammation, which may be inhibited by angiotension-II receptor blockers.

Hypothesis: We investigated the effects of fimasartan and amlodipine therapy on carotid atherosclerotic plaque inflammation using F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging.

Methods: Fifty patients with acute coronary syndrome and at least one lesion with FDG uptake in the carotid artery (target to background ratio (TBR) ≥ 1. Read More

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December 2018

Magnetic resonance imaging in enterovirus-71, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody, aquaporin-4 antibody, and multiple sclerosis-associated myelitis in children.

Dev Med Child Neurol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Neuroimmunology Group, Institute for Neuroscience and Muscle Research, The Kids Research Institute, Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Aim: We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to compare the neuroimaging of children with their first episode of clinical enterovirus 71-associated transverse myelitis (EV71-TM), myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody positive transverse myelitis (MOG-TM), aquaporin-4 antibody positive transverse myelitis (AQP4-TM), transverse myelitis in multiple sclerosis (MS-TM), and unclassified transverse myelitis (UNC-TM).

Method: We performed a retrospective blinded radiological assessment and compared the neuroimaging of 52 children (32 females, 20 males; mean age 9y 8mo, SD 5y 5mo, range 5mo-17y) presenting with their first episode of myelitis caused by EV71-TM (n=11), MOG-TM (n=10), AQP4-TM (n=9), MS-TM (n=13), and UNC-TM (n=9).

Results: In the EV71-TM group, lesions were distributed throughout the cord and enhancement of nerve roots (ventral and dorsal) was common. Read More

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December 2018

Volume change in infrapatellar fat pad is associated not with obesity but with cartilage degeneration.

J Orthop Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of General Medical Services, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8670, Japan.

Infrapatellar fat pad has been implicated in knee osteoarthritis. We examined whether infrapatellar fat pad volume is associated with quantitative cartilage changes using magnetic resonance imaging T1ρ mapping. Fifty-eight knees of knee pain patients (19 men, 39 women, mean age 57. Read More

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December 2018

Oscillatory dynamics of cortical functional connections in semantic prediction.

Hum Brain Mapp 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

MEG and Cortical Networks Group, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany.

An event related potential, known as the N400, has been particularly useful in investigating language processing as it serves as a neural index for semantic prediction. There are numerous studies on the functional segregation of N400 neural sources; however, the oscillatory dynamics of functional connections among the relevant sources has remained elusive. In this study we acquired magnetoencephalography data during a classic N400 paradigm, where the semantic predictability of a fixed target noun was manipulated in simple German sentences. Read More

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December 2018

Dielectric and Resistive Heating of Polymeric Media: Toward Remote Thermal Activation of Stimuli-Responsive Soft Materials.

Macromol Rapid Commun 2018 Dec 11:e1800669. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 27695, USA.

Stimuli-responsive soft materials are becoming increasingly important in a wide range of contemporary technologies, and methods by which to promote thermal stimulation remotely are of considerable interest for controllable device deployment, particularly in inaccessible environments such as outer space. Until now, remote thermal stimulation of responsive polymers has relied extensively on the use of nanocomposites wherein embedded nanoparticles/structures are selectively targeted for heating purposes. In this study, an alternative remote-heating mechanism demonstrates that the dielectric and resistive thermal losses introduced upon application of an alternating current generate sufficient heat to raise the temperature of a neat polyimide by over 70 °C within ≈10 s. Read More

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December 2018

Efficient Cholera Toxin B Subunit-Based Nanoparticles with MRI Capability for Drug Delivery to the Brain Following Intranasal Administration.

Macromol Biosci 2018 Dec 7:e1800340. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers (Ministry of Education), Beijing Laboratory of Biomedical Materials, Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Soft Matter Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, 100029, China.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an incurable neurodegenerative brain disorder that exhibits clear pathologic changes in the hippocampus. Traditional drug delivery systems are ineffective due to the existence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In this study, an efficient, stable, and easily constructed nanosystem (CB-Gd-Cy5. Read More

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December 2018

Feasibility of indocyanine green fluorescence imaging for intraoperative identification of parathyroid glands during thyroid surgery.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Background: This study assessed the feasibility of near-infrared fluorescence imaging with indocyanine green (ICG) to identify the parathyroid glands (PGs) intraoperatively and to assess their perfusion after thyroid resection.

Methods: Patients undergoing elective thyroidectomy were enrolled in this prospective study. An intravenous bolus of 7. Read More

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December 2018

Tau PET Imaging for Staging of Alzheimer's Disease in Down Syndrome.

Authors:
Michael S Rafii

Dev Neurobiol 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Alzheimer's Therapeutic Research Institute (ATRI), Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology and early-onset dementia develop almost universally in Down syndrome (DS). AD is defined neuropathologically by the presence of extracellular plaques of aggregated amyloid β protein and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) of aggregated hyperphosphorylated tau protein. The development of radiolabeled positron emission tomography (PET) ligands for amyloid plaques and tau tangles enables the longitudinal assessment of the spatial pattern of their accumulation in relation to symptomatology. Read More

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December 2018

Ultrasound Elastography Images in Vascular Anomalies.

J Ultrasound Med 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Dermatology , Puerta de Hierro Universitary Hospital, Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain.

Ultrasound elastography is an emerging imaging technique that provides an objective method to assess the relative or absolute stiffness of soft tissues. The authors have not found any description in the use of ultrasound elastography in vascular anomalies, and we want to share our experience in different cases with ultrasound elastography and its applications in these pathologies. Read More

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December 2018
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Prenatal diagnosis of antenatal midgut volvulus: Specific ultrasound features.

Prenat Diagn 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Department of Pediatric Imaging, CHU Montpellier, Montpellier, France.

Objective: To assess specific, direct, and indirect prenatal ultrasound features in cases of fetal midgut volvulus.

Methods: Retrospective case series of neonatal volvulus, based on postnatal and prenatal imaging findings that occurred from 2006-2017. Prenatal and postnatal signs including the specific "whirlpool sign" were computed. Read More

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December 2018

Angioplasty versus stenting for infrapopliteal arterial lesions in chronic limb-threatening ischaemia.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 8;12:CD009195. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Medical Imaging, Gold Coast University Hospital, 1 Hospital Blvd, Southport, Queensland, Australia, 4215.

Background: Chronic limb-threatening ischaemia (CLTI) is a manifestation of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) that includes chronic ischaemic rest pain or ischaemic skin lesions, ulcers, or gangrene for longer than two weeks. The severity of the disease depends on the extent of arterial stenosis and the availability of collateral circulation. Treatment for CLTI aims to relieve ischaemic pain, heal ischaemic ulcers, prevent limb loss, improve quality of life, and prolong survival. Read More

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December 2018
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Dendrimer functionalized magnetic nanoparticles as a promising platform for localized hyperthermia and magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis.

J Cell Physiol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Hematology and Cell Therapy Department, School of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are a well-explored class of nanomaterials known for their high magnetization and biocompatibility. They have been used in various biomedical applications such as drug delivery, biosensors, hyperthermia, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent. It is necessary to surface modify the nanoparticles with a biocompatible moiety to prevent their agglomeration and enable them to target to the defined area. Read More

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December 2018

Engineering an EGFR-Binding Gp2 Domain for Increased Hydrophilicity.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

University of Minnesota - Twin Cities, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, 421 Washington Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN.

The Gp2 domain is a 45 amino-acid scaffold that has been evolved for specific, high-affinity binding towards multiple targets, and was proven useful in molecular imaging and biological antagonism. It was hypothesized that Gp2 may benefit from increased hydrophilicity for improved physiological distribution as well as for physicochemical robustness. We identified seven exposed hydrophobic sites for hydrophilic mutations and experimentally evaluated single mutants, which yielded six mutations that do not substantially hinder expression, binding affinity or specificity (to epidermal growth factor receptor), and thermal stability. Read More

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December 2018

Bismuth Ferrite Second Harmonic Nanoparticles for Pulmonary Macrophage Tracking.

Small 2018 Dec 10:e1803776. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Translational Molecular Imaging, Max-Planck Institute for Experimental Medicine, Hermann-Rein-Str. 3, 37075, Göttingen, Germany.

Recently, second harmonic generation (SHG) nanomaterials have been generated that are efficiently employed in the classical (NIR) and extended (NIR-II) near infrared windows using a multiphoton microscope. The aim was to test bismuth ferrite harmonic nanoparticles (BFO-HNPs) for their ability to monitor pulmonary macrophages in mice. BFO-loaded MH-S macrophages are given intratracheally to healthy mice or BFO-HNPs are intranasally instilled in mice with allergic airway inflammation and lung sections of up to 100 μM are prepared. Read More

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December 2018

Otopathology in Angiosarcoma of the Temporal Bone.

Laryngoscope 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Otolaryngology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Objectives/hypothesis: Investigate the otopathology of angiosarcoma of the temporal bone, which has not been previously described in the literature.

Study Design: Postmortem evaluation and literature review.

Methods: Postmortem histological evaluation of the temporal bones and review of the literature for the treatment and prognosis of this rare disease were performed. Read More

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December 2018

The 3D Cancer Nucleus.

Authors:
Sabine Mai

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Cell Biology, Research Institute for Oncology and Hematology, CancerCare Manitoba, The University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.

Research into the three-dimensional (3D) organization of the cancer cell genome started over 100 years ago. We follow an exciting avenue of research in this field, from Hansemann's early observations of aberrant mitoses and nuclei in cancer cells in the late 19 century to Boveri's theory of the cancer cell in the early 20 century, to current views of nuclear organization and its changes in cancer. Molecular and imaging methods go hand in hand with providing us with a better understanding of the spatial nature of the cancer cell genome. Read More

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December 2018

Virtual evaluation of selected cervical lymph nodes with three-dimensional ultrasound in thyroid cancer patients after thyroidectomy.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Department of Medicine and Pathology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York.

Background: We evaluated the usefulness of three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound of cervical lymph nodes (LN), when two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound evaluation is not sufficient to clearly evaluate lymph node characteristics, in thyroid cancer patients being followed after thyroidectomy.

Methods: Two readers retrospectively analyzed 2D and 3D images of 147 LNs; LNs were categorized as normal, reactive, suspicious, or indeterminate, and confidence level was rated. Results were compared to cytological/clinical data. Read More

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December 2018

Seizures as presenting symptom in patients with glioblastoma.

Epilepsia 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Department of Neurosurgery, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Objective: The clinical course and underlying molecular causes in patients with glioblastoma presenting with seizures are poorly understood. Here we investigated clinical features and carrier systems as well as a transaminase relevant in glutamate homeostasis in patients with glioblastoma.

Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of our clinical glioma database for clinical data during a 2-year period. Read More

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December 2018

Robust kidney perfusion mapping in pediatric chronic kidney disease using single-shot 3D-GRASE ASL with optimized retrospective motion correction.

Magn Reson Med 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, University College London Queen Square Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, United Kingdom.

Purpose: To develop a robust renal arterial spin labeling (ASL) acquisition and processing strategy for mapping renal blood flow (RBF) in a pediatric cohort with severe kidney disease.

Methods: A single-shot background-suppressed 3D gradient and spin-echo (GRASE) flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) ASL acquisition method was used to perform 2 studies. First, an evaluation of the feasibility of single-shot 3D-GRASE and retrospective noise reduction methods was performed in healthy volunteers. Read More

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December 2018

Brain connection pattern under interoceptive attention state predict interoceptive intensity and subjective anxiety feeling.

Hum Brain Mapp 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Key Laboratory of Cognition and Personality (SWU), Ministry of Education, Chongqing, China.

Interoception involves the processing of a variety of different types of information ascending from the body. Accumulating evidence has indicated that interoception plays a fundamental role in cognitive and emotional processes, such as anxiety, but how different functional connectivity patterns contribute to emotions and visceral feelings during an interoceptive attention state is still unclear. In the present study, an interoceptive attention task was performed during functional magnetic resonance imaging of healthy subjects, and the participants' subjective ratings of the intensity of interoception and feelings of anxiety were recorded. Read More

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December 2018

Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound for identifying circulatory complications after liver transplants in children.

Pediatr Transplant 2018 Dec 7:e13327. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Our main goal with this study was to share our off-label experience with CEUS for identifying circulatory complications after liver transplantation in children. A total of 74 CEUS examinations performed on 34 pediatric patients who underwent a liver transplant were retrospectively included. About 53% of the examinations were performed on children 2 years old or younger. Read More

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December 2018

One-millimeter isotropic breast diffusion-weighted imaging: Evaluation of a superresolution strategy in terms of signal-to-noise ratio, sharpness and apparent diffusion coefficient.

Magn Reson Med 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

IADI, INSERM U1254 and Université de Lorraine, Nancy, France.

Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate a superresolution technique for 3D, one-millimeter isotropic diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of the whole breasts.

Methods: Isotropic 3D DWI datasets are obtained using a combination of (i) a readout-segmented diffusion-weighted-echo-planar imaging (DW-EPI) sequence (rs-EPI), providing high in-plane resolution, and (ii) a superresolution (SR) strategy, which consists of acquiring 3 datasets with thick slices (3 mm) and 1-mm shifts in the slice direction, and combining them into a 1 × 1 × 1-mm dataset using a dedicated reconstruction. Two SR reconstruction schemes were investigated, based on different regularization schemes: conventional Tikhonov or Beltrami (an edge-preserving constraint). Read More

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December 2018

Near IR Photochemistry for Biology: Exploiting the Optical Window of Tissue.

Photochem Photobiol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Photoactive molecules enable much of modern biology and biochemistry - a vast library of fluorescent chromophores is used to track and label cellular structures and macromolecules. However, photochemistry is better-known to the synthetic or physical organic chemist as a "light switch" that turns on unusual excited-state reactivity, isomerization, or dynamic adjustment of structure. This review details a rapidly growing approach to bio-photochemistry that uses low-energy near-IR wavelengths not only for imaging, but for close spatial control over chemical switching events in biosystems. Read More

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December 2018

Nanocatalysts-Augmented and Photothermal-Enhanced Tumor-Specific Sequential Nanocatalytic Therapy in Both NIR-I and NIR-II Biowindows.

Adv Mater 2018 Dec 9:e1805919. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200050, P. R. China.

The tumor microenvironment (TME) has been increasingly recognized as a crucial contributor to tumorigenesis. Based on the unique TME for achieving tumor-specific therapy, here a novel concept of photothermal-enhanced sequential nanocatalytic therapy in both NIR-I and NIR-II biowindows is proposed, which innovatively changes the condition of nanocatalytic Fenton reaction for production of highly efficient hydroxyl radicals (•OH) and consequently suppressing the tumor growth. Evidence suggests that glucose plays a vital role in powering cancer progression. Read More

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December 2018
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