1,848 results match your criteria Imaging in CNS Tuberculosis


Magnetic resonance imaging findings of intracranial tuberculoma patients in a tertiary hospital in Mogadishu, Somalia: A retrospective study.

Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2022 Jun 21;78:103812. Epub 2022 May 21.

Department of Radiology Mogadishu Somali Turkish Training and Research Hospital, Mogadishu, Somalia.

Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is a fatal disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.TB) with over eight million annual mortality reported worldwide attributed to the disease's direct or indirect effects. Among the most severe form of M. Read More

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GeneXpert: A Rapid and Supplementary Diagnostic Tool for Tuberculous Meningitis, Experience from Tertiary Neurocenter.

J Neurosci Rural Pract 2022 Apr 18;13(2):204-210. Epub 2022 Feb 18.

Department of Neuromicrobiology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

 Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a highly lethal form of central nervous system tuberculosis (CNS TB) that causes high mortality and morbidity in children and adults. Nonspecific clinical presentation and fewer TB bacilli challenge clinicians resulting in delays in diagnosis and treatment.  This study aimed to evaluate the utility of GeneXpert alone and in combination with culture using 1 mL of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in a volume constraint situation. Read More

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Value of CSF-Cl, CSF-GS, CSF-MALB, and CSF-ADA in Differential Diagnosis of Secondary Hydrocephalus.

Contrast Media Mol Imaging 2022 28;2022:6742795. Epub 2022 May 28.

Department of Neurosurgery, Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang City, Guangdong Province, China.

Objectives: To investigate the value of cerebrospinal fluid chloride (CSF-Cl), cerebrospinal fluid glucose (CSF-GS), cerebrospinal fluid microalbumin (CSF-MALB), and cerebrospinal fluid adenosine deaminase (CSF-ADA) in the differential diagnosis of secondary hydrocephalus.

Methods: 103 patients with secondary hydrocephalus treated in our hospital from January 2018 to April 2022 were selected. According to different types, it is divided into the hemorrhagic hydrocephalus group and tumor hydrocephalus group. Read More

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A Rare Presentation of Central Nervous System Tuberculomas in an Immunocompetent Patient.

Hawaii J Health Soc Welf 2022 Jun;81(6):151-154

Hawai'i Pacific Neuroscience, Honolulu, HI (DK, EC, KKL).

The uncommon presentation of simultaneous brain and lung lesions in an immunocompetent adult patient with frequent travel to a mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) endemic area requires high clinical suspicion for central nervous system (CNS) MTB, as this disease often results in severe neurologic morbidity and mortality. Non-specific and subacute symptoms make the diagnosis of CNS MTB clinically challenging, and a workup with imaging and microbiological studies such as acid-fast bacilli staining, nucleic acid amplification testing, and tissue culture must not delay prompt treatment with anti-tuberculosis therapy. This case illustrates the complex challenges of medical diagnosis and multi-disciplinary decision-making involved in the workup of CNS MTB. Read More

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Intracranial necrotising sarcoid granulomatosis mimicking petroclival meningioma.

BMJ Case Rep 2022 May 17;15(5). Epub 2022 May 17.

Neurology, Meitra Hospital, Calicut, India.

We present a unique case of biopsy-proven necrotising sarcoidosis involving the central nervous system in a man in his 40s. The patient presented with a 2-week history of right-sided headache and diplopia. He had right trochlear and abducens nerve palsy, sensory blunting over V1 and V2 segment of right trigeminal sensory nerve and right sensory neural hearing loss. Read More

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[Cerebral manifestationsof tuberculosis].

Ugeskr Laeger 2022 03;184(13)

Afdelingen for Hjerne- og Nervekirurgi, Københavns Universitetshospital - Rigshospitalet.

Almost two billion people are infected with M. Tuberculosis. The most common manifestation of TB is pulmonary; however, severe manifestations of TB can affect the central nervous system. Read More

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Extremely high levels of central nervous system involvement in miliary tuberculosis.

BMC Infect Dis 2022 Apr 29;22(1):417. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

National Clinical Laboratory on Tuberculosis, Beijing Key Laboratory on Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Beijing Chest Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing Tuberculosis and Thoracic Tumor Research Institute, Beiguan St. #9, Beijing, 101149, China.

Background: Miliary tuberculosis (TB) is one of the severest manifestations of TB that can be lethal when concomitant with the central nervous system (CNS) involvement. Bacteriological, biochemical and radiological methods for find CNS comorbidity in miliary TB was evaluated in this study.

Methods: Consecutive miliary TB adults were retrospectively enrolled from two designated TB hospitals in China. Read More

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Giant cerebral tuberculoma mimicking a high-grade tumour in a child.

BMJ Case Rep 2022 Apr 20;15(4). Epub 2022 Apr 20.

Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.

We present an 11-year-old girl who manifested with unprovoked right-sided focal motor seizures. CT revealed a large lobulated hypodense mass in the left temporoparietal lobe, with perilesional oedema and postcontrast peripheral enhancement. Diagnostic uncertainty resulted in further neuroimaging, which included MRI with modalities including diffusion-weighted imaging, perfusion imaging, as well as spectroscopy. Read More

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Clinical Efficacy of Dexamethasone in the Treatment of Patients with Tuberculous Meningitis: A Meta-Analysis.

Contrast Media Mol Imaging 2022 30;2022:2180374. Epub 2022 Mar 30.

Department of Neurology, People's Hospital of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, Yinchuan 750002, China.

Objective: This study aimed to systematically evaluate the clinical efficacy of dexamethasone in patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) through meta-analysis.

Method: PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and the Wanfang Databases were searched, and all relevant Chinese and English literature from 2000 to 2021 were retrieved from each database. We collected randomized controlled trials of conventional antituberculosis drugs combined with dexamethasone treatment (treatment group) and conventional antituberculosis drug treatment or combined with placebo treatment (control group) in TBM patients. Read More

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Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) after SARS- CoV-2 vaccination: A case report.

Radiol Case Rep 2022 May 26;17(5):1789-1793. Epub 2022 Mar 26.

Medical Imaging Research center, Department of Radiology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an acute demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system that is ordinarily monophasic. ADEM can develop following infection or vaccination. Here, we present a 37 y/o male patient with progressive muscle weakness in all limbs along with dysphagia following COVID-19 vaccination. Read More

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Pulse corticosteroids for the management of extensive CNS tuberculosis presenting with acute-onset quadriparesis.

Drug Discov Ther 2022 May 24;16(2):102-104. Epub 2022 Mar 24.

Department of Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Delhi, India.

Myelopathy in central nervous system tuberculosis is notorious for poor outcomes, determined by the severity of inflammation and cord level involved. Acute-onset quadriplegia or paraplegia in these cases represents a neuro-emergency. We report a young female with disseminated tuberculosis who presented with acute onset flaccid quadriparesis with loss of bladder and bowel function. Read More

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Infections in the Developing Brain: The Role of the Neuro-Immune Axis.

Front Neurol 2022 17;13:805786. Epub 2022 Feb 17.

Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States.

Central nervous system (CNS) infections occur more commonly in young children than in adults and pose unique challenges in the developing brain. This review builds on the distinct vulnerabilities in children's peripheral immune system (outlined in part 1 of this review series) and focuses on how the developing brain responds once a CNS infection occurs. Although the protective blood-brain barrier (BBB) matures early, pathogens enter the CNS and initiate a localized innate immune response with release of cytokines and chemokines to recruit peripheral immune cells that contribute to the inflammatory cascade. Read More

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February 2022

A Case of Brain Tuberculosis With an Unusual Presentation Mimicking Viral Fever During a Dengue Outbreak in Bangladesh.

Cureus 2022 Jan 15;14(1):e21260. Epub 2022 Jan 15.

Epidemiology, Projahnmo Research Foundation, Dhaka, BGD.

Both dengue and tuberculosis are endemic in South Asian countries, including Bangladesh. Here we report an interesting case presenting as suspected dengue fever and eventually diagnosed as a case of brain tuberculosis. A 27-year-old immunocompetent male presented to us with fever, headache, retro-orbital pain, and photophobia for five days. Read More

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January 2022

Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis: The 'Dark Side' of fungal infections.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2022 03 11;214:107173. Epub 2022 Feb 11.

Department of Neurosurgery, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India. Electronic address:

Purpose: Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis is a rare and fatal fungal infection of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by dematiaceous fungi. The aim of this study was to analyse the clinico- radiological presentation, pathology and outcome of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis and discuss the relevant literature.

Patients And Methods: Data of 7 patients diagnosed with cerebral phaeohyphomycosis and managed at our institute between 2014 and 2020 was collected and reviewed retrospectively. Read More

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Bilateral interstitial keratitis in a patient with presumed brain tuberculoma.

Arq Bras Oftalmol 2022 Feb 14. Epub 2022 Feb 14.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Interstitial keratitis is an inflammation of the corneal stroma without epithelium or endothelium involvement. The underlying causes are mostly infectious or immune mediated. Brazil has one of the highest incidence rates of tuberculosis in the world. Read More

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February 2022

Systemic Manifestation of Miliary Tuberculosis in Patient With Advanced Diabetic Retinopathy Presenting With Electrolyte Imbalance, Seizures, and Adrenal Insufficiency.

Cureus 2022 Jan 9;14(1):e21047. Epub 2022 Jan 9.

Internal Medicine/Diabetes and Endocrinology, Barking, Havering and Redbridge University Hospitals NHS Trust, London, GBR.

Extra-pulmonary manifestations of tuberculosis can have diverse presentations depending on the affected organs. In this case report, we describe a case of a 50-year-old man of South Asian origin who presented with acute adrenal crisis on a background of undiagnosed miliary tuberculosis. Imaging after repeated episodes of adrenal crisis and seizures revealed bilaterally enlarged adrenals and cerebral tuberculomas, suggesting adrenal and central nervous system involvement. Read More

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January 2022

Granulomatous Diseases of the Central Nervous System.

Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2022 01 9;22(1):33-45. Epub 2022 Feb 9.

Department of Neurology, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, 2160 South First Avenue Maguire Building Suite 2700, Maywood, IL, 60153, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To discuss the pathophysiology, key clinical features, necessary diagnostic evaluation, and current treatment regimens for granulomatous diseases of the central nervous system.

Recent Findings: The diagnosis and management of granulomatous disease of the central nervous system has been revolutionized by advances in diagnostic imaging. Nevertheless, tissue and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sampling remains necessary to establish the diagnosis in most cases. Read More

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January 2022

Lessons learned from a fatal case of tuberculous meningitis with a rapid decline in an infant.

J Clin Imaging Sci 2022 5;12. Epub 2022 Jan 5.

Department of Radiology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, LeBonheur Children's Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, United States.

Tuberculous meningitis is a highly lethal, often underrecognized disease with characteristic clinical and imaging features which can be cured if the diagnosis and subsequent treatment are begun at early stages. Frequently, there is a delayed diagnosis of this condition due to unfamiliarity of clinicians in non-endemic areas about its presentation and diagnostic workup. This article presents a case of rapid decline and fatality due to tuberculous meningitis in an 11-month-old child from a non-TB-endemic area and describes the characteristic clinical presentation, imaging findings, and diagnostic pitfalls associated with this condition. Read More

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January 2022

Miliary pattern in secondary central nervous system T-cell lymphoma.

Surg Neurol Int 2022 20;13:25. Epub 2022 Jan 20.

Department of Neurosurgery, Neurological Institute, Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas, United States.

Background: Secondary central nervous system lymphoma may manifest in a variety of ways on imaging, but most commonly presents with leptomeningeal disease, isolated parenchymal lesions, or both. We present a case of secondary central nervous system T-cell lymphoma with miliary pattern of spread noted on imaging.

Case Description: Our patient had known systemic T-cell lymphoma involving the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts and underwent stereotactic biopsy confirming secondary cerebral metastasis. Read More

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January 2022

Intracranial and Spinal Tuberculosis: A Rare Entity.

Cureus 2021 Dec 28;13(12):e20787. Epub 2021 Dec 28.

Radiology, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore, PAK.

CNS tuberculosis has a broad spectrum of disease patterns and a high risk of complications and mortality. We present a case of a 36-year-old man who was diagnosed with neurotuberculosis with intracranial and spinal tuberculomas, meningitis, and spondylodiscitis. The patient was a known case of sarcoidosis and was being managed on corticosteroids. Read More

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December 2021

Hydrocephalus in Tuberculous Meningitis - Pearls and Nuances.

Neurol India 2021 Nov-Dec;69(Supplement):S330-S335

Department of Neurology, King George Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is associated with high mortality. A large proportion of patients with TBM, who survive, live with disabling neurological sequelae. Hydrocephalus is one of the common complications of TBM, seen in up to 80% of patients. Read More

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February 2022

High-dose rifampin improves bactericidal activity without increased intracerebral inflammation in animal models of tuberculous meningitis.

J Clin Invest 2022 03;132(6)

Center for Infection and Inflammation Imaging Research.

Tuberculous meningitis (TB meningitis) is the most severe form of tuberculosis (TB), requiring 12 months of multidrug treatment for cure, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. High-dose rifampin (35 mg/kg/d) is safe and improves the bactericidal activity of the standard-dose (10 mg/kg/d) rifampin-containing TB regimen in pulmonary TB. However, there are conflicting clinical data regarding its benefit for TB meningitis, where outcomes may also be associated with intracerebral inflammation. Read More

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The Disseminated tuberculosis with cavitary lung lesion and tuberculoma in a six-month-old Libyan infant.

J Infect Dev Ctries 2021 12 31;15(12):1929-1932. Epub 2021 Dec 31.

Department of Family and Community Medicine, Tripoli University, Libya.

The patient of the report is a six- month-old Libyan female, who presented with a history of fever, persistent cough, and an attack of seizure. The patient has been diagnosed with a case of brain Tuberculoma and cavitation in the right lung based on the Brain Magnetic resonance imaging and the Chest Computed tomography scan, respectively. Subsequently, the patient was treated with antituberculous drugs and corticosteroids. Read More

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December 2021

NMR based CSF metabolomics in tuberculous meningitis: correlation with clinical and MRI findings.

Metab Brain Dis 2022 03 14;37(3):773-785. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Department of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, 226014, India.

We report the potential role of H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) based metabolomics in tuberculous meningitis (TBM). We also correlate the significant metabolites with clinical-radiological parameters. Forty-three patients with TBM were included, and their severity of meningitis was graded as stages I to III, and patients with positive Mycobacterium tuberculosis or its nucleic acid was considered as definite TBM. Read More

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Incidental Lung Cavity in the Heartland.

Am J Med Sci 2022 02 2;363(2):191-198. Epub 2022 Jan 2.

Division of Critical Care Nursing, Goldfarb School of Nursing, Barnes Jewish College, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Necrotizing sarcoid granulomatosis (NSG) is a rare inflammatory disease. Although considered by some to be a subtype of sarcoidosis, this opinion is not universal. NSG is histologically characterized by the presence of necrotizing sarcoid like granuloma and granulomatous vasculitis. Read More

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February 2022

Large Cerebral Infarction in Tuberculous Meningitis: Case Report of an Uncommon Complication.

Neurol India 2021 Nov-Dec;69(6):1859-1860

Department of Neurology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

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January 2022

New Onset Refractory Status Epilepticus as a Manifestation of Tuberculosis of the Central Nervous System.

Neurol India 2021 Nov-Dec;69(6):1802-1804

Lokmanya Tilak Municipal Medical College, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

A 28-year-old male presented to us with new onset refractory status epilepticus. Prior to his seizures, he had a history of fever, headache and blurring of vision, for which he was admitted elsewhere. No cause was found; he was treated symptomatically and was discharged as his symptoms had abated. Read More

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January 2022

Magic Dr.T? Tuberculous brain lesions in an immunocompetent patient-A case report.

Radiol Case Rep 2022 Mar 18;17(3):581-586. Epub 2021 Dec 18.

Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Tuberculomas in the form of multiple ring-enhancing brain lesions is an uncommon occurrence in immunocompetent patient. Central nervous system tuberculosis may manifest as meningitis, tuberculoma, or abscess and can even occur in patients with or without active respiratory tract infection. In the case of active infection, specific antibiotic combinations and dosing duration are required, and respiratory isolation/precautionary measures must be taken by the health care workers and members of the family. Read More

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Tuberculostearic acid, a potential parameter for scoring system construction for tuberculous meningitis diagnosis.

Int J Mycobacteriol 2021 Oct-Dec;10(4):428-432

Department of Neurology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: This study aimed to validate the value of tuberculostearic acid (TBSA) whether it could implicate the existence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and assist for the clinical diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM).

Methods: The patient's cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimen was collected through the lumbar puncture and detected for TBSA with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. At the same time, gold standard tests, i. Read More

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January 2022

Neurosarcoidosis Presenting as Young-Onset Chronic Headache: A Case Report.

Case Rep Neurol 2021 Sep-Dec;13(3):687-692. Epub 2021 Oct 21.

Department of Internal Medicine, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India.

Sarcoidosis causes granulomatous inflammation in multiple organ systems. Lungs are the most commonly affected organs. In 50% of the cases with lung involvement, other organs are also involved. Read More

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October 2021