652 results match your criteria Imaging in CNS Toxoplasmosis


Neurotoxoplasmosis mimicking primary brain malignancy.

IDCases 2020 15;21:e00767. Epub 2020 May 15.

University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, USA.

Toxoplasma gondii infection is an uncommon and potentially life-threatening condition in immunocompromised patients in the setting of solid organ transplantation. We present the case of cerebral toxoplasmosis which presented as a solitary intracranial space-occupying lesion in a patient who received a combined kidney and pancreas transplant more than twenty years ago. Initially, the lesion was considered as a primary brain malignancy based on brain imaging but surprisingly the brain biopsy led to the correct diagnosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idcr.2020.e00767DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7248659PMC

Evaluation of a PCR assay for diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cell among HIV/AIDS patients.

J Parasit Dis 2020 Mar 11;44(1):159-165. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

6Student Research Committee, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Cerebral toxoplasmosis is one of the neurological infections with high morbidity and mortality in patients with AIDS, so the accurate method for diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis seems necessary. In this study, nested PCR assay using B1 gene was evaluated in diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) among HIV/AIDS patients. One hundred eight blood samples from HIV/AIDS patients, including four patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis and 104 HIV/AIDS patients without cerebral toxoplasmosis were evaluated for the antibodies using Enzyme Linked immunosorbent Assay. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12639-019-01176-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7046870PMC

Fulminant and Diffuse Cerebral Toxoplasmosis as the First Manifestation of HIV Infection: A Case Presentation and Review of the Literature.

Am J Case Rep 2020 Jan 26;21:e919624. Epub 2020 Jan 26.

Department of Neurosurgery, National Skull Base Foundation, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA.

BACKGROUND One of the most common causes of central nervous system (CNS) opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients is toxoplasmosis. It can cause focal or disseminated brain lesions leading to neurological deficit, coma, and death. Prompt management with optimal antibiotics is vital. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/AJCR.919624DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6998800PMC
January 2020

[Neurological symptoms in a patient on anti-TNF therapy, methotrexate and prednisolone for rheumatoid arthritis].

Internist (Berl) 2020 Mar;61(3):313-320

Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik III, Bereich Rheumatologie, Universitätsklinikum Leipzig, Liebigstraße 20, Haus 4, 04103, Leipzig, Deutschland.

A 78-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis on TNF-α inhibitor, methotrexate and prednisolone presented with severe but unspecific symptoms such as leg weakness, shivering, bifrontal headache, nausea and staggering. The broad range of differential diagnoses lead to intricate and time-consuming diagnostic procedures. Serology, magnetic resonance imaging and microbiological investigations represent important steps to make the final diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00108-019-00727-6DOI Listing

Fulminant toxoplasmosis presenting as isolated myelitis.

Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2019 12;77(12):901-902

Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Departamento de Neurologia e Neurocirurgia, São Paulo SP, Brasil.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0004-282X20190171DOI Listing
December 2019

Cerebral toxoplasmosis after rituximab for pemphigus vulgaris.

JAAD Case Rep 2020 Jan 24;6(1):37-41. Epub 2019 Dec 24.

Department of Dermatology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdcr.2019.10.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6938870PMC
January 2020

Clinical and Etiological Characteristics of Epilepsy in the Elderly: A Hospital-Based Study from a Tertiary Care Referral Center of Niamey, Niger.

J Neurosci Rural Pract 2019 Oct 11;10(4):571-575. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Department of Medicine and Medical Specialties, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Abdou Moumouni University, Niamey, Niger.

The aim of this study is to evaluate the management of epilepsy in the elderly at a tertiary referral center in Niger to obtain a comprehensive understanding to determine the intrahospital deficiencies to improve and to make recommendations in terms to improve the management of epilepsy in the elderly in Niger. We conducted a retrospective study at the Neurology Outpatient Clinic of the National Hospital of Niamey (Niger) over a period of 5 years from May 2013 to May 2018, collecting all cases of patients aged 60 years or over diagnosed with epilepsy by neurologists. From the registers of consultation, we collected and analyzed for each patient the demographic, clinical, etiological, and therapeutic data, as well as the outcomes during follow-up visits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1700308DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6906092PMC
October 2019

Imaging the dynamic recruitment of monocytes to the blood-brain barrier and specific brain regions during infection.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 12 14;116(49):24796-24807. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697;

Brain infection by the parasite in mice is thought to generate vulnerability to predation by mechanisms that remain elusive. Monocytes play a key role in host defense and inflammation and are critical for controlling However, the dynamic and regional relationship between brain-infiltrating monocytes and parasites is unknown. We report the mobilization of inflammatory (CCR2Ly6C) and patrolling (CX3CR1Ly6C) monocytes into the blood and brain during infection of C57BL/6J and CCR2CX3CR1 mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1915778116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6900744PMC
December 2019

Unexpected neurologic complications following a novel lymphoma treatment 'expected' to give rise to neurologic toxicity.

BMJ Case Rep 2019 Nov 12;12(11). Epub 2019 Nov 12.

Department of Haematology, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy is a novel and promising form of cellular immunotherapy using genetically engineered, tumour-specific autologous T cells. CD19-specific CAR T-cells have been shown to be very effective as a treatment for relapsed/refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. ICANS (immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome) is one of the most frequently occurring toxicities of CAR T-cell treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2019-229946DOI Listing
November 2019

Efficacy and safety of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in HIV-infected patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis in Brazil: a single-arm open-label clinical trial.

Int J STD AIDS 2019 10 27;30(12):1156-1162. Epub 2019 Sep 27.

Division of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, School of Medicine of the University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956462419865829DOI Listing
October 2019
1 Read

Computed tomography-guided navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation for preoperative brain motor mapping in brain lesion resection: A case report.

Surg Neurol Int 2019 5;10:134. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Department of Surgical Specialties, Neurosurgery Teaching and Assistance Unit, Pedro Ernesto University Hospital, RJ, Brazil.

Background: Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) is a well establish a noninvasive method for preoperative brain motor mapping. We commonly use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to supply the nTMS system. In some cases, MRI is not possible or available, and the use of computed tomography (CT) is necessary. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.25259/SNI-124-2019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6744739PMC

Central Nervous System Tuberculoma Complicated with Spinal Arachnoiditis in Immunocompetent Patient.

Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2019 Jun 30;7(12):2002-2005. Epub 2019 Jun 30.

Neurosurgery Departement Faculty of Medicine Udayana University, Sanglah Hospital Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia.

Background: Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis (TB) can manifest as meningitis, abscess, tuberculoma or other manifestations. CNS TB is a rare TB complication, and its diagnosis remains a challenge since it has clinical and imaging features that resemble other diseases. The antituberculosis treatment has a significant role in determining a patient's outcome and prevent complications and mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.272DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6684426PMC
June 2019
12 Reads

Toxoplasmic encephalitis of basal ganglia with tumor-like features proven by pathogen-specific polymerase chain reaction and direct DNA sequencing.

Neuropathology 2019 Oct 29;39(5):398-403. Epub 2019 Jul 29.

Department of Pathology, Changhai Hospital, the Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.

We report a case of a young female patient who developed progressive neurological dysfunction with a ring-enhancing tumor-like nodule on brain magnetic resonance imaging. Urgent surgery was performed to remove the mass in the left basal ganglia. Pathological findings showed that the necrotic brain areas were accompanied by congestion, edema, discrete hemorrhage, and intestinal and perivascular lymphohistiocytic infiltration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/neup.12588DOI Listing
October 2019

Sonographic Detection of Seizure-Like Activity in Fetuses with Congenital Infection: Report of Three Cases and Review of the Literature.

Fetal Diagn Ther 2019 26;46(3):207-216. Epub 2019 Jul 26.

FETALMED, Maternal-Fetal Diagnostic Center, Fetal Imaging Unit, Santiago, Chile.

Fetal seizure is a very rare prenatal finding and associated with an almost invariably poor outcome, the most common causes being hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, congenital anomalies of either the central nervous system (CNS) or musculoskeletal system, and metabolic disorders. The prenatal detection of seizure-like activity in fetuses with congenital infection has not been previously reported. In this report, we describe 3 cases of seizures in fetuses with congenital infection including Zika virus (n = 2) and toxoplasmosis (n = 1). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000500023DOI Listing
February 2020
6 Reads

Hemorrhagic brain lesions in a newly diagnosed HIV-1 infected patient.

Int J STD AIDS 2019 08 3;30(9):930-933. Epub 2019 Jun 3.

3 Department of Neurology, Instituto Medicina, Infectologia Emílio Ribas, São Paulo, Brazil.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956462419845965DOI Listing
August 2019
25 Reads

Ring enhancing brain lesions in a patient with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS): a diagnostic dilemma.

BMJ Case Rep 2019 May 5;12(5). Epub 2019 May 5.

Infectious Disease, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2019-229686DOI Listing
May 2019
2 Reads

[Multifocal tuberculosis associated with cerebral toxoplasmosis in an African immigrant immunocompromised patient due to HIV-infection at the Hospital Centre in Soissons, France].

Pan Afr Med J 2018 20;31:47. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Service de Dermatologie de l'Hôpital National Donka, Université Gamal Abdel Nasser de Conakry, Conakry, République de Guinée.

In the industrialized countries and, in particular, in France, given the means of prevention, early screening and treatment of HIV infection, there is almost no evidence of opportunistic infections among immigrants and in some disadvantaged socio-professional groups. We here report the case of a 42-year old African immigrant HIV1 positive man with impaired general condition hospitalized for infectious syndrome. He had received antiretroviral therapy for 2 years and stopped it four months before admission. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2018.31.47.15916DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6430834PMC
April 2019
7 Reads

Central nervous system toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent individual.

Kaohsiung J Med Sci 2019 Apr 19;35(4):248-249. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Neurology, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, New Taipei City, Taiwan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/kjm2.12036DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Combination of Clindamycin and Azithromycin as Alternative Treatment for Toxoplasma gondii Encephalitis.

Emerg Infect Dis 2019 04;25(4):841-843

Current standard therapies for toxoplasmic encephalitis often cause severe adverse events. A 57-year-old HIV-positive man in Japan who had toxoplasmic encephalitis but was intolerant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, and atovaquone was successfully treated with the combination of clindamycin and azithromycin. This drug combination can be an alternative treatment for this condition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.181689DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6433045PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Concurrent cerebral toxoplasmosis and cytomegalovirus retinitis in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus.

Can J Ophthalmol 2019 02 19;54(1):e33-e35. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

Department of Neurology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Ind; Department of Ophthalmology, Indiana University School of Medicine; Department of Neurosurgery, Indiana University School of Medicine. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcjo.2018.04.025DOI Listing
February 2019
6 Reads

Liver transplant, toxoplasmosis and kidney stones: connecting the dots.

BMJ Case Rep 2019 Feb 15;12(2). Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Nephrology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2019-229197DOI Listing
February 2019
5 Reads

Cerebral toxoplasmosis after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation diagnosed by megagenomic analysis.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2019 Mar;132(5):609-610

Department of Hematolgy and Hematological Research Laboratory, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000000087DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6415999PMC
March 2019
25 Reads

Metagenomic next-generation sequencing as a diagnostic tool for toxoplasmic encephalitis.

Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2018 Dec 26;17(1):45. Epub 2018 Dec 26.

Department of Clinical Research Center, the Second Hospital of Nanjing, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, 1-1 Zhongfu Road, Nanjing, 210003, China.

Background: More than 100 different pathogens can cause encephalitis. Testing of all the neurological pathogens by conventional methods can be difficult. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (NGS) could identify the infectious agents in a target-independent manner. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12941-018-0298-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6305995PMC
December 2018
8 Reads

Metastatic Malignant Lymphoma Mimicking Cerebral Toxoplasmosis with the "Target Sign".

Intern Med 2019 Apr 18;58(8):1157-1162. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Therapeutics, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Japan.

We herein report the case of a 60-year-old man with a "target sign" in the left frontal lobe on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is thought to be a specific sign of cerebral toxoplasmosis. F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography showed no increased uptake, and Tl-single photon emission computed tomography showed the focal uptake in the left frontal lesion. On a brain biopsy, the patient was given a definitive diagnosis of brain metastasis from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and cerebral toxoplasmosis was excluded. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.1156-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6522404PMC
April 2019
9 Reads

[IMPROVEMENT OF ETIOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF THE CEREBRAL TOXOPLASMOSIS IN HIV-INFECTED PERSONS].

Georgian Med News 2018 Oct(283):63-66

National Medical University, Kharkiv; Regional Clinical Infectious Diseases Hospital, Kharkiv, Ukraine.

The objective of the study was to determine the diagnostic value of the parallel detection of the avidity index of the IgG to Toxoplasma gondii in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid by a three-step solid-phase enzyme immunoassay using T. gondii antigen, protein dissociating agent and monoclonal antibodies against human IgG at HIV-infected individuals with a focal damage of the brain. The results of the study showed that conducting of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay by a direct and dissociated method makes it possible to detect specific intrathecal and serum immunoglobulins, which is proposed in terms of improving diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis in HIV-infected individuals. Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads

Disseminated toxoplasmosis with atypical symptoms which developed with exacerbation of systemic lupus erythematosus.

Lupus 2019 Jan 28;28(1):133-136. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

1 Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba, Japan.

Toxoplasma is a common parasite worldwide that mainly affects the brain, lungs and eyes. Although toxoplasmic encephalitis is a lethal disease without treatment, past case reports show most patients with systemic lupus erythematosus who developed toxoplasmic encephalitis were misdiagnosed and treated as neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus, which led to unfavorable outcomes. We herein describe a case of disseminated toxoplasmosis affecting all the above organs with atypical symptoms, which developed with exacerbation of systemic lupus erythematosus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0961203318815583DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Cerebral toxoplasmosis in a patient with prolonged CD4 lymphopenia post autologous hemopoietic stem cell transplant.

Leuk Lymphoma 2019 02 8;60(2):544-546. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

a Department Clinical Haematology , Austin Hospital and Olivia Newton John Cancer Research Institute , Melbourne , Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2018.1485906DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Primary central nervous system post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder mimicking toxoplasmosis.

Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2018 08;76(8):566-567

Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Departamento de Medicina Interna, Campinas SP, Brasil.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0004-282X20180049DOI Listing
August 2018
6 Reads

Severe disseminated acute toxoplasmosis in an adult immunocompetent patient from the Colombian Pacific

Biomedica 2018 08 1;38(0):19-23. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Facultad de Salud, Departamento de Patología, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

We present the case of a 72-year-old immunocompetent patient from Chocó, Colombia, with a 12-day course of fever, headache, progressive neurological deterioration, and rapid evolution to multiorgan failure and death. In the histopathological study of tissues obtained at necropsy, tissue cysts morphologically suggestive of being bradyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii were identified and confirmed by immunohistochemistry in heart, brain, and striated muscle. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v38i0.4087DOI Listing
August 2018
5 Reads

Congenital cerebral toxoplasmosis, Zika and chikungunya virus infections: a case report

Biomedica 2018 06 15;38(2):144-152. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Equipo Banco de Proyectos, Dirección de Investigación en Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia.

We report a case of intrauterine infection by Toxoplasma gondii, Chikungunya and Zika viruses in a Colombian woman from the southern part of the country. The patient attended prenatal care in the second trimester of her pregnancy and she informed that in the first trimester she had presented with clinical symptoms compatible with Zika virus infection. Amniotic fluid PCR assays showed infection by T. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v38i0.3652DOI Listing
June 2018
6 Reads

The Neurotropic Parasite Toxoplasma gondii Induces Sustained Neuroinflammation with Microvascular Dysfunction in Infected Mice.

Am J Pathol 2018 11 17;188(11):2674-2687. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

Laboratório de Biologia Estrutural, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

Toxoplasmosis is one of the leading parasitic diseases worldwide. Some data suggest that chronic acquired toxoplasmosis could be linked to behavioral alterations in humans. The parasite infects neurons, forming immunologically silent cysts. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00029440173111
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpath.2018.07.007DOI Listing
November 2018
49 Reads

Semi-automated quantification and neuroanatomical mapping of heterogeneous cell populations.

J Neurosci Methods 2018 07 18;305:98-104. Epub 2018 May 18.

BIO5 Institute, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States; Department of Immunobiology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States; Department of Neurology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Our group studies the interactions between cells of the brain and the neurotropic parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Using an in vivo system that allows us to permanently mark and identify brain cells injected with Toxoplasma protein, we have identified that Toxoplasma-injected neurons (TINs) are heterogeneously distributed throughout the brain. Unfortunately, standard methods to quantify and map heterogeneous cell populations onto a reference brain atlas are time consuming and prone to user bias. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneumeth.2018.05.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6357967PMC
July 2018
2 Reads

Gadolinium Distribution in Cerebrospinal Fluid after Administration of a Gadolinium-based MR Contrast Agent in Humans.

Radiology 2018 09 8;288(3):703-709. Epub 2018 May 8.

From the Departments of Radiology (F.B., R.A.K.H., T.N.) and Internal Medicine (H.R.S., J.H.B.), Kantonsspital Baden AG, Im Ergel 1, 5401 Baden, Switzerland; Department of Forensic Medicine and Imaging (F.B., M.J.T.) and Department of Forensic Pharmacology and Toxicology (M.P., T.K.), Zurich Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Zurich, Switzerland; and Guerbet Contrast Media Company, Zurich, Switzerland (J.M.F.).

Purpose To evaluate whether gadolinium penetrates human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after MR imaging (MRI) with a gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA). Materials and Methods For this retrospective study, the authors analyzed 60 CSF samples from 57 patients (median age, 50 years; range, 3-92 years) who underwent one contrast material-enhanced MRI examination with gadoterate meglumine within 60 days of CSF extraction between January and December 2016. CSF samples from patients who underwent MRI without contrast material administration (n = 22) or those who underwent contrast-enhanced MRI at least 1 year before extraction (n = 2) were analyzed and used as control samples. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2018171829DOI Listing
September 2018
7 Reads

Mild fetal ventriculomegaly: diagnosis, evaluation, and management.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2018 07 26;219(1):B2-B9. Epub 2018 Apr 26.

Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, 409 12 St. SW, Washington, DC 20024, USA.

Ventriculomegaly is defined as dilation of the fetal cerebral ventricles and is a relatively common finding on prenatal ultrasound. The purpose of this document is to review the diagnosis, evaluation, and management of mild fetal ventriculomegaly. When enlargement of the lateral ventricles (≥10 mm) is identified, a thorough evaluation should be performed, including detailed sonographic evaluation of fetal anatomy, amniocentesis for karyotype and chromosomal microarray analysis, and a workup for fetal infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2018.04.039DOI Listing
July 2018
10 Reads

Concentric and Eccentric Target MRI Signs in a Case of HIV-Associated Cerebral Toxoplasmosis.

Case Rep Neurol Med 2018 21;2018:9876514. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin 9, Ireland.

Cerebral toxoplasmosis is one of the most common causes of focal brain lesions in immunocompromised patients, such as those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Differentiating toxoplasmosis from other central nervous system (CNS) lesions provides a significant clinical challenge. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain is key to prompt diagnosis and treatment of cerebral toxoplasmosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/9876514DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5841062PMC
February 2018
3 Reads

Primary CNS lymphoma in HIV infection.

Handb Clin Neurol 2018 ;152:177-186

Department of Neuro-Oncology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center Cancer Center Daniel den Hoed, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) has been designated an acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining disease since 1983 and accounts for up to 15% of non-Hodgkin lymphomas in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. The majority of HIV patients are Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related. The most likely etiology is ineffective immunoregulation of EBV, inducing oncogenic protein expression, and subsequent loss of apoptosis and increased proliferation of lymphocytes. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/B97804446384960
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-63849-6.00014-1DOI Listing
September 2018
42 Reads

Imaging of congenital central nervous system infections.

Pediatr Radiol 2018 04 17;48(4):513-523. Epub 2018 Mar 17.

Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital Colorado, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 13123 E. 16th Ave., Box B125, Aurora, CO, 80045, USA.

Congenital central nervous system (CNS) infections are a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. The recent Zika virus outbreak raised awareness of congenital CNS infections. Imaging can be effective in diagnosing the presence and severity of infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00247-018-4092-1DOI Listing
April 2018
26 Reads

Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis associated with acute Toxoplasma gondii infection: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Feb;97(7):e9924

Department of Neurology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Rationale: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis has been recognized as the most frequent autoimmune encephalitis in children. Several infectious agents have been implicated in anti-NMDA encephalitis.

Patient Concerns: A previously healthy immunocompetent 9-year-old girl first presented with seizures, headaches and vomiting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000009924DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5839864PMC
February 2018
107 Reads

Disseminated cerebral toxoplasmosis in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

J Clin Neurosci 2018 Apr 7;50:127-128. Epub 2018 Feb 7.

Department of Neurosurgery, Center for Neurological Restoration, Cleveland Clinic Foundation 9500 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH 44195, United States.

Infections are one of the most common causes of mortality in immunocompromised patients. In patients diagnosed with hematologic malignancies, treatment with stem cell transplants (SCT) or T-cell suppressing chemotherapy increases the risk of central nervous system (CNS) infections, of which toxoplasmosis is the most common. We report the case of a 63 year-old woman with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) that presented with gait instability and visual changes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2018.01.057DOI Listing
April 2018
4 Reads

Myoclonic Jerks, Exposure to Many Cats, and Neurotoxoplasmosis in an Immunocompetent Male.

Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov (N Y) 2018 5;8:511. Epub 2018 Jan 5.

Radiology Department, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago.

Background: Myoclonic jerks are due to sudden, brief, involuntary muscle contractions, positive myoclonus, or brief cessation of ongoing muscular activity, negative myoclonus, and may be difficult to recognize.

Case Report: We describe an immunocompetent, adult, male patient with sleep-related, multifocal, myoclonic jerks and neurotoxoplasmosis with abnormal cerebrospinal fluid but normal brain imaging. There was complete resolution of the myoclonus with antitoxoplasmosis therapy after 1 week, and no relapse after 1 year. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7916/D8B86GQCDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5803508PMC
November 2018
9 Reads

Microcephaly in Piauí, Brazil: descriptive study during the Zika virus epidemic, 2015-2016.

Epidemiol Serv Saude 2018 02 1;27(1):e20163692. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Ministério da Saúde, Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde, Brasília, DF, Brasil.

Objective: to describe the occurrence and characteristics of microcephaly cases in Piauí, Brazil, during an epidemic of Zika virus infection in 2015-2016.

Methods: descriptive study using data of live births from January/2015 to January/2016, obtained from the Information System on Live Births (Sinasc), the Public Health Events Registry (RESP) and the active search for medical records; mothers and live births were tested for dengue, chikungunya, and Zika, besides syphilis, toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, and herpes (STORCH).

Results: of the 75 microcephaly cases, 34 were related to congenital infectious process; microcephaly prevalence was of 13. Read More

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http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5123/S1679-49742018000100002DOI Listing
February 2018
22 Reads

Cerebral Toxoplasmosis Diagnosed by Nested-polymerase Chain Reaction in a Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Intern Med 2018 May 11;57(10):1463-1468. Epub 2018 Jan 11.

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Japan.

A 65-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) visited our hospital because of right facial sensory hypoesthesia. Cerebral toxoplasmosis was suspected on brain magnetic resonance imaging. We discontinued methotrexate for RA and started a sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (ST) mixture. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.0139-17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5995717PMC
May 2018
16 Reads

Impact of alternative treatment approach for cerebral toxoplasmosis among HIV/AIDS patients from a resource-poor setting in Burkina Faso

Ann Parasitol 2017;63(3):173–181

Laboratory of Parasitology-Mycology, Saint-Louis Hospital, 1 Avenue Claude-Vellefaux, 75010 Paris, France

Cerebral toxoplasmosis is caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii because of reactivation of latent tissue cysts in the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients with severe immunosuppression. The objective of this study was to evaluate the benefit of co-trimoxazole in presumptive and prevention of cerebral toxoplasmosis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/AIDS patients at Bobo-Dioulasso Hospital in Burkina Faso from June 2012 to October 2014. ELISA and ELFA were performed on serum for the quantitative determination of IgG and IgM anti-T. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17420/ap6303.103DOI Listing
March 2018
21 Reads

Successful Treatment of Pulmonary and Cerebral Toxoplasmosis Associated with Pneumocystis Pneumonia in an HIV Patient.

Diseases 2017 Dec 18;5(4). Epub 2017 Dec 18.

Université Aix Marseille, CNRS 7278, IRD 198, Inserm 1095, AP-HM, URMITE, IHU Méditerranée Infection, 13915 Marseille CEDEX, France.

In both the post and pre combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) era, and remain common opportunistic infectious agents. The common manifestations are pneumonia for and brain abscess for . Nevertheless, co-infection remains rare, and pulmonary toxoplasmosis is scarce, or may be underestimated because of its similarity with pneumonia. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2079-9721/5/4/35
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diseases5040035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5750546PMC
December 2017
10 Reads

A delayed diagnosis of X-linked hyper IgM syndrome complicated with toxoplasmic encephalitis in a child: A case report and literature review.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Dec;96(49):e8989

aDepartment of Pediatrics, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, ChengdubKey Laboratory of Birth Defects and Related Diseases of Women and Children (Sichuan University), Ministry of Education Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Introduction: The X-linked hyper-immunoglobulin M syndrome (XHIGM) is an uncommon primary combined immunodeficiency disease caused by CD40L gene mutations. A delayed or missed diagnosis of XHIGM is common and concerning, owing to atypical immunoglobulin profile and phenotype of some patients, low recognition, and limited knowledge of clinicians on XHIGM in some underdeveloped areas. Opportunistic infections are a prominent clinical feature of XHIGM. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00005792-201712080-0006
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000008989DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5728888PMC
December 2017
15 Reads

Central nervous system vasculitis in a patient with HIV infection: a diagnostic challenge.

Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2017 Dec;75(12):897-898

Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Divisão de Doenças Infecciosas, São Paulo SP, Brasil.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0004-282X20170163DOI Listing
December 2017
35 Reads

Cerebral toxoplasmosis in an MS patient receiving Fingolimod.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2017 Nov 12;18:106-108. Epub 2017 May 12.

Fundación Valle del Lili, Cali, Colombia; Universidad ICESI, Cali, Colombia. Electronic address:

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease in which lymphocytes target putative myelin antigens in the CNS, causing inflammation and neurodegeneration. Fingolimod (FTY720) is an immunosuppressive drug used as a second line therapy for relapsing forms of MS due to its safety profile and good response to treatment. Despite its safety, there are still concerns about the possibility of Fingolimod being linked to the development of opportunistic infections like disseminated varicella zoster infections and herpes simplex encephalitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2017.05.004DOI Listing
November 2017
22 Reads

Primary central nervous system lymphoma presenting as multiple space-occupying lesions in advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection.

SA J Radiol 2017 14;21(2):1234. Epub 2017 Nov 14.

Radiology Department, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, United Kingdom.

A 31-year-old man presented with seizures and cerebellar symptoms on a background of weight loss and lethargy. He was found to be infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and following radiological imaging, was commenced on treatment for presumed cerebral toxoplasmosis. Due to a lack of response, both clinically and on interval imaging, a positron-emission tomography-computed tomography and brain biopsy were undertaken, which demonstrated high-grade primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajr.v21i2.1234DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6837767PMC
November 2017

Hydrocephalus associated to congenital Zika syndrome: does shunting improve clinical features?

Childs Nerv Syst 2018 01 30;34(1):101-106. Epub 2017 Oct 30.

Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil.

Purpose: Congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) is a new entity with little information about its course and natural history. It is known that prenatal infection by Zika virus is associated to disrupted nervous system development, leading to typical neurological disabilities and deformities. Some children present progressive ventriculomegaly and hydrocephalus associated to aggravation of seizures and neurological impairment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00381-017-3636-2DOI Listing
January 2018
2 Reads

AIDS-Related Central Nervous System Toxoplasmosis With Increased 18F-Fluoroethyl-L-Tyrosine Amino Acid PET Uptake Due to LAT1/2 Expression of Inflammatory Cells.

Clin Nucl Med 2017 Dec;42(12):e506-e508

From the *Department of Neurology 1, NeuroMed Campus, Kepler University Hospital, Linz, Austria; †Department of Neurology, ‡Wilhelm Sander Neurooncology Unit, and Departments of §Neuropathology and ∥Nuclear Medicine, University of Regensburg Medical School, Regensburg; ¶Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich; **Department of Neurology, University of Cologne, Cologne; ††Center of Integrated Oncology, Universities of Cologne and Bonn, Cologne; and ‡‡Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Aachen, Aachen, Germany.

We report the case of a 40-year-old woman with a progressive right-sided hemiparesis. Standard MRI revealed a contrast-enhancing brain lesion within the left basal ganglia. Ffluoroethyl-L-tyrosine (F-FET) PET showed a distinct tracer uptake (lesion-to-brain ratio [LBR]: LBRmax = 2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLU.0000000000001873DOI Listing
December 2017
16 Reads