621 results match your criteria Imaging in CNS Toxoplasmosis


Metastatic Malignant Lymphoma Mimicking Cerebral Toxoplasmosis with the "Target Sign".

Intern Med 2018 Dec 18. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Therapeutics, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Japan.

We herein report the case of a 60-year-old man with a "target sign" in the left frontal lobe on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is thought to be a specific sign of cerebral toxoplasmosis. F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography showed no increased uptake, and Tl-single photon emission computed tomography showed the focal uptake in the left frontal lesion. On a brain biopsy, the patient was given a definitive diagnosis of brain metastasis from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and cerebral toxoplasmosis was excluded. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.1156-18DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Disseminated toxoplasmosis with atypical symptoms which developed with exacerbation of systemic lupus erythematosus.

Lupus 2019 Jan 28;28(1):133-136. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

1 Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba, Japan.

Toxoplasma is a common parasite worldwide that mainly affects the brain, lungs and eyes. Although toxoplasmic encephalitis is a lethal disease without treatment, past case reports show most patients with systemic lupus erythematosus who developed toxoplasmic encephalitis were misdiagnosed and treated as neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus, which led to unfavorable outcomes. We herein describe a case of disseminated toxoplasmosis affecting all the above organs with atypical symptoms, which developed with exacerbation of systemic lupus erythematosus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0961203318815583DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Severe disseminated acute toxoplasmosis in an adult immunocompetent patient from the Colombian Pacific

Biomedica 2018 08 1;38(0):19-23. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Facultad de Salud, Departamento de Patología, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

We present the case of a 72-year-old immunocompetent patient from Chocó, Colombia, with a 12-day course of fever, headache, progressive neurological deterioration, and rapid evolution to multiorgan failure and death. In the histopathological study of tissues obtained at necropsy, tissue cysts morphologically suggestive of being bradyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii were identified and confirmed by immunohistochemistry in heart, brain, and striated muscle. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v38i0.4087DOI Listing

Congenital cerebral toxoplasmosis, Zika and chikungunya virus infections: a case report

Biomedica 2018 06 15;38(2):144-152. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Equipo Banco de Proyectos, Dirección de Investigación en Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia.

We report a case of intrauterine infection by Toxoplasma gondii, Chikungunya and Zika viruses in a Colombian woman from the southern part of the country. The patient attended prenatal care in the second trimester of her pregnancy and she informed that in the first trimester she had presented with clinical symptoms compatible with Zika virus infection. Amniotic fluid PCR assays showed infection by T. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v38i0.3652DOI Listing

The Neurotropic Parasite Toxoplasma gondii Induces Sustained Neuroinflammation with Microvascular Dysfunction in Infected Mice.

Am J Pathol 2018 Nov 17;188(11):2674-2687. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

Laboratório de Biologia Estrutural, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

Toxoplasmosis is one of the leading parasitic diseases worldwide. Some data suggest that chronic acquired toxoplasmosis could be linked to behavioral alterations in humans. The parasite infects neurons, forming immunologically silent cysts. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00029440173111
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpath.2018.07.007DOI Listing
November 2018
27 Reads

Gadolinium Distribution in Cerebrospinal Fluid after Administration of a Gadolinium-based MR Contrast Agent in Humans.

Radiology 2018 09 8;288(3):703-709. Epub 2018 May 8.

From the Departments of Radiology (F.B., R.A.K.H., T.N.) and Internal Medicine (H.R.S., J.H.B.), Kantonsspital Baden AG, Im Ergel 1, 5401 Baden, Switzerland; Department of Forensic Medicine and Imaging (F.B., M.J.T.) and Department of Forensic Pharmacology and Toxicology (M.P., T.K.), Zurich Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Zurich, Switzerland; and Guerbet Contrast Media Company, Zurich, Switzerland (J.M.F.).

Purpose To evaluate whether gadolinium penetrates human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after MR imaging (MRI) with a gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA). Materials and Methods For this retrospective study, the authors analyzed 60 CSF samples from 57 patients (median age, 50 years; range, 3-92 years) who underwent one contrast material-enhanced MRI examination with gadoterate meglumine within 60 days of CSF extraction between January and December 2016. CSF samples from patients who underwent MRI without contrast material administration (n = 22) or those who underwent contrast-enhanced MRI at least 1 year before extraction (n = 2) were analyzed and used as control samples. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2018171829DOI Listing
September 2018
2 Reads

Mild fetal ventriculomegaly: diagnosis, evaluation, and management.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2018 Jul 26;219(1):B2-B9. Epub 2018 Apr 26.

Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, 409 12 St. SW, Washington, DC 20024, USA.

Ventriculomegaly is defined as dilation of the fetal cerebral ventricles and is a relatively common finding on prenatal ultrasound. The purpose of this document is to review the diagnosis, evaluation, and management of mild fetal ventriculomegaly. When enlargement of the lateral ventricles (≥10 mm) is identified, a thorough evaluation should be performed, including detailed sonographic evaluation of fetal anatomy, amniocentesis for karyotype and chromosomal microarray analysis, and a workup for fetal infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2018.04.039DOI Listing
July 2018
6 Reads

Concentric and Eccentric Target MRI Signs in a Case of HIV-Associated Cerebral Toxoplasmosis.

Case Rep Neurol Med 2018 21;2018:9876514. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin 9, Ireland.

Cerebral toxoplasmosis is one of the most common causes of focal brain lesions in immunocompromised patients, such as those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Differentiating toxoplasmosis from other central nervous system (CNS) lesions provides a significant clinical challenge. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain is key to prompt diagnosis and treatment of cerebral toxoplasmosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/9876514DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5841062PMC
February 2018
1 Read

Primary CNS lymphoma in HIV infection.

Handb Clin Neurol 2018 ;152:177-186

Department of Neuro-Oncology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center Cancer Center Daniel den Hoed, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) has been designated an acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining disease since 1983 and accounts for up to 15% of non-Hodgkin lymphomas in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. The majority of HIV patients are Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related. The most likely etiology is ineffective immunoregulation of EBV, inducing oncogenic protein expression, and subsequent loss of apoptosis and increased proliferation of lymphocytes. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/B97804446384960
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-63849-6.00014-1DOI Listing
September 2018
19 Reads

Imaging of congenital central nervous system infections.

Pediatr Radiol 2018 04 17;48(4):513-523. Epub 2018 Mar 17.

Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital Colorado, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 13123 E. 16th Ave., Box B125, Aurora, CO, 80045, USA.

Congenital central nervous system (CNS) infections are a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. The recent Zika virus outbreak raised awareness of congenital CNS infections. Imaging can be effective in diagnosing the presence and severity of infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00247-018-4092-1DOI Listing
April 2018
6 Reads

Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis associated with acute Toxoplasma gondii infection: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Feb;97(7):e9924

Department of Neurology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Rationale: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis has been recognized as the most frequent autoimmune encephalitis in children. Several infectious agents have been implicated in anti-NMDA encephalitis.

Patient Concerns: A previously healthy immunocompetent 9-year-old girl first presented with seizures, headaches and vomiting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000009924DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5839864PMC
February 2018
30 Reads

Disseminated cerebral toxoplasmosis in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

J Clin Neurosci 2018 Apr 7;50:127-128. Epub 2018 Feb 7.

Department of Neurosurgery, Center for Neurological Restoration, Cleveland Clinic Foundation 9500 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH 44195, United States.

Infections are one of the most common causes of mortality in immunocompromised patients. In patients diagnosed with hematologic malignancies, treatment with stem cell transplants (SCT) or T-cell suppressing chemotherapy increases the risk of central nervous system (CNS) infections, of which toxoplasmosis is the most common. We report the case of a 63 year-old woman with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) that presented with gait instability and visual changes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2018.01.057DOI Listing
April 2018
2 Reads

Myoclonic Jerks, Exposure to Many Cats, and Neurotoxoplasmosis in an Immunocompetent Male.

Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov (N Y) 2018 5;8:511. Epub 2018 Jan 5.

Radiology Department, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago.

Background: Myoclonic jerks are due to sudden, brief, involuntary muscle contractions, positive myoclonus, or brief cessation of ongoing muscular activity, negative myoclonus, and may be difficult to recognize.

Case Report: We describe an immunocompetent, adult, male patient with sleep-related, multifocal, myoclonic jerks and neurotoxoplasmosis with abnormal cerebrospinal fluid but normal brain imaging. There was complete resolution of the myoclonus with antitoxoplasmosis therapy after 1 week, and no relapse after 1 year. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7916/D8B86GQCDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5803508PMC
November 2018
2 Reads

Microcephaly in Piauí, Brazil: descriptive study during the Zika virus epidemic, 2015-2016.

Epidemiol Serv Saude 2018 02 1;27(1):e20163692. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Ministério da Saúde, Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde, Brasília, DF, Brasil.

Objective: to describe the occurrence and characteristics of microcephaly cases in Piauí, Brazil, during an epidemic of Zika virus infection in 2015-2016.

Methods: descriptive study using data of live births from January/2015 to January/2016, obtained from the Information System on Live Births (Sinasc), the Public Health Events Registry (RESP) and the active search for medical records; mothers and live births were tested for dengue, chikungunya, and Zika, besides syphilis, toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, and herpes (STORCH).

Results: of the 75 microcephaly cases, 34 were related to congenital infectious process; microcephaly prevalence was of 13. Read More

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http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5123/S1679-49742018000100002DOI Listing
February 2018
13 Reads

Cerebral Toxoplasmosis Diagnosed by Nested-polymerase Chain Reaction in a Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Intern Med 2018 May 11;57(10):1463-1468. Epub 2018 Jan 11.

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Japan.

A 65-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) visited our hospital because of right facial sensory hypoesthesia. Cerebral toxoplasmosis was suspected on brain magnetic resonance imaging. We discontinued methotrexate for RA and started a sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (ST) mixture. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.0139-17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5995717PMC
May 2018
5 Reads

Impact of alternative treatment approach for cerebral toxoplasmosis among HIV/AIDS patients from a resource-poor setting in Burkina Faso

Ann Parasitol 2017;63(3):173–181

Laboratory of Parasitology-Mycology, Saint-Louis Hospital, 1 Avenue Claude-Vellefaux, 75010 Paris, France

Cerebral toxoplasmosis is caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii because of reactivation of latent tissue cysts in the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients with severe immunosuppression. The objective of this study was to evaluate the benefit of co-trimoxazole in presumptive and prevention of cerebral toxoplasmosis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/AIDS patients at Bobo-Dioulasso Hospital in Burkina Faso from June 2012 to October 2014. ELISA and ELFA were performed on serum for the quantitative determination of IgG and IgM anti-T. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17420/ap6303.103DOI Listing
March 2018
14 Reads

Successful Treatment of Pulmonary and Cerebral Toxoplasmosis Associated with Pneumocystis Pneumonia in an HIV Patient.

Diseases 2017 Dec 18;5(4). Epub 2017 Dec 18.

Université Aix Marseille, CNRS 7278, IRD 198, Inserm 1095, AP-HM, URMITE, IHU Méditerranée Infection, 13915 Marseille CEDEX, France.

In both the post and pre combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) era, and remain common opportunistic infectious agents. The common manifestations are pneumonia for and brain abscess for . Nevertheless, co-infection remains rare, and pulmonary toxoplasmosis is scarce, or may be underestimated because of its similarity with pneumonia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diseases5040035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5750546PMC
December 2017
5 Reads

A delayed diagnosis of X-linked hyper IgM syndrome complicated with toxoplasmic encephalitis in a child: A case report and literature review.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Dec;96(49):e8989

aDepartment of Pediatrics, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, ChengdubKey Laboratory of Birth Defects and Related Diseases of Women and Children (Sichuan University), Ministry of Education Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Introduction: The X-linked hyper-immunoglobulin M syndrome (XHIGM) is an uncommon primary combined immunodeficiency disease caused by CD40L gene mutations. A delayed or missed diagnosis of XHIGM is common and concerning, owing to atypical immunoglobulin profile and phenotype of some patients, low recognition, and limited knowledge of clinicians on XHIGM in some underdeveloped areas. Opportunistic infections are a prominent clinical feature of XHIGM. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00005792-201712080-0006
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000008989DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5728888PMC
December 2017
13 Reads

Central nervous system vasculitis in a patient with HIV infection: a diagnostic challenge.

Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2017 Dec;75(12):897-898

Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Divisão de Doenças Infecciosas, São Paulo SP, Brasil.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0004-282X20170163DOI Listing
December 2017
8 Reads

Cerebral toxoplasmosis in an MS patient receiving Fingolimod.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2017 Nov 12;18:106-108. Epub 2017 May 12.

Fundación Valle del Lili, Cali, Colombia; Universidad ICESI, Cali, Colombia. Electronic address:

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease in which lymphocytes target putative myelin antigens in the CNS, causing inflammation and neurodegeneration. Fingolimod (FTY720) is an immunosuppressive drug used as a second line therapy for relapsing forms of MS due to its safety profile and good response to treatment. Despite its safety, there are still concerns about the possibility of Fingolimod being linked to the development of opportunistic infections like disseminated varicella zoster infections and herpes simplex encephalitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2017.05.004DOI Listing
November 2017
14 Reads

AIDS-Related Central Nervous System Toxoplasmosis With Increased 18F-Fluoroethyl-L-Tyrosine Amino Acid PET Uptake Due to LAT1/2 Expression of Inflammatory Cells.

Clin Nucl Med 2017 Dec;42(12):e506-e508

From the *Department of Neurology 1, NeuroMed Campus, Kepler University Hospital, Linz, Austria; †Department of Neurology, ‡Wilhelm Sander Neurooncology Unit, and Departments of §Neuropathology and ∥Nuclear Medicine, University of Regensburg Medical School, Regensburg; ¶Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich; **Department of Neurology, University of Cologne, Cologne; ††Center of Integrated Oncology, Universities of Cologne and Bonn, Cologne; and ‡‡Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Aachen, Aachen, Germany.

We report the case of a 40-year-old woman with a progressive right-sided hemiparesis. Standard MRI revealed a contrast-enhancing brain lesion within the left basal ganglia. Ffluoroethyl-L-tyrosine (F-FET) PET showed a distinct tracer uptake (lesion-to-brain ratio [LBR]: LBRmax = 2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLU.0000000000001873DOI Listing
December 2017
14 Reads

Pitfalls of PACNS: A Rare Case of Central Nervous System Vasculitis Associated with Toxoplasmosis.

J Rheumatol 2017 08;44(8):1290-1291

Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Clinical Immunology Center, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, and the Ministry of Education Key Laboratory, Beijing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3899/jrheum.161472DOI Listing
August 2017
2 Reads

Nocardia brain abscesses in an HIV-infected individual.

IDCases 2017 27;9:65-69. Epub 2017 Jun 27.

Mount Sinai Hospital, 1500 South Fairfield Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60608, United States.

We describe a case of a 50-year-old Hispanic man diagnosed with HIV/AIDS who presented with a generalized tonic clonic seizure and ring enhancing cerebral lesions on imaging. He was initially treated for CNS toxoplasmosis but presented to the hospital with another tonic clonic seizure despite prescribed therapy. Brain biopsy was performed which revealed Nocardia . Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S22142509173000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idcr.2017.03.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5499028PMC
June 2017
5 Reads

Contribution of arterial spin-labelling MRI in a case with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.

BMJ Case Rep 2017 Jul 6;2017. Epub 2017 Jul 6.

Department of Radiology, Kokuritsu Kokusai Iryo Center Byoin, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Central nervous system immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (CNS-IRIS), which occurs most often in HIV-infected patients, is an exacerbation of inflammatory reactions related to opportunistic infections as well as primary CNS malignancies both of which mostly occur in HIV-infected patients. However, differential diagnoses are challenging both clinically and radiologically. We describe a patient with CNS-IRIS due to toxoplasmosis whose C-methionine uptake suggested lymphoma but whose arterial spin-labelling MRI led to the correct diagnosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2017-219860DOI Listing
July 2017
9 Reads

Ring enhancing lesions in the brain of an HIV infected patient: a diagnostic challenge.

Pan Afr Med J 2017;26:185. Epub 2017 Mar 30.

Department of Internal Medicine, Government Medical College Kozhikode.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2017.26.185.9127DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5483375PMC
February 2018
20 Reads

Extensive brain masses and cavitary lung lesions associated with toxoplasmosis and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

Int J STD AIDS 2017 10 2;28(11):1150-1154. Epub 2017 Mar 2.

Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA, USA.

Toxoplasmosis is an important cause of enhancing brain lesions in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and it is typically associated with low CD4-lymphocyte counts. Extensive toxoplasma encephalitis when the CD4-lymphocyte count is above 100 cells/µl is unusual. Cavitary lung lesions are also not typically associated with toxoplasmosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956462417696216DOI Listing
October 2017
1 Read

Should isolated fetal ventriculomegaly measured below 12 mm be viewed as a variant of the norm? Results of a 5-year experience in a prenatal referral center.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2018 Sep 11;31(17):2325-2331. Epub 2017 Jul 11.

a Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology , University Hospital of Amiens , CHU Amiens Sud , Amiens CEDEX 1 , France.

Background: Fetal ventriculomegaly (VM) is defined as lateral ventricles measured above 10 mm. Some authors believe VM <12 mm are variants of the norm and need not be addressed for referral ultrasound.

Methods: A retrospective continuous cohort study of 127 confirmed fetal VM was divided into three groups after initial referral sonographic assessment: isolated VM <12 mm (group A), isolated VM ≥12 mm (group B), and VM associated with other malformations (group C). Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14767058.2017.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2017.1342801DOI Listing
September 2018
13 Reads

Intracranial Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases Presenting as Neurosurgical Pathologies.

Neurosurgery 2017 Jul;81(1):10-28

Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.

There are many infectious and inflammatory processes affecting the central nervous system that can simulate other neurosurgical pathologies (e.g. tumor) and may precipitate a brain biopsy for definitive diagnosis if not suspected a priori. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/neurosurgery/article-lookup/doi/10.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyx201DOI Listing
July 2017
8 Reads

Toxoplasmic Encephalitis in Patient with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

Brain Tumor Res Treat 2017 Apr 30;5(1):34-36. Epub 2017 Apr 30.

Department of Neurosurgery, Uijeongbu St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea School of Medicine, Uijeongbu, Korea.

Toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) is an opportunistic infection found in immunocompromised patients and TE related cerebral mass lesion is often reported in acquired immunodeficiency acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. However, incidence of TE related AIDS in Korea is still rare and is unfamiliar to neurosurgeons. Differential diagnosis is needed to rule out other brain lesions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14791/btrt.2017.5.1.34DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5433949PMC
April 2017
11 Reads

Disseminated toxoplasmosis after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation showing unusual magnetic resonance images.

Transpl Infect Dis 2017 Aug 20;19(4). Epub 2017 Jun 20.

Department of Hematology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.

We herein report a patient who had disseminated toxoplasmosis after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation showing atypical clinical presentation and neuroimaging. Parkinsonism symptoms such as muscle rigidity, bradykinesia, tremor, and postural instability were initial manifestations. Magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse symmetrical lesions of bilateral basal ganglia lacking ringed enhancement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tid.12720DOI Listing
August 2017
21 Reads

[Chagas disease affecting the central nervous system in a patient with AIDS demonstrated by quantitative molecular methods].

Rev Chilena Infectol 2017 Feb;34(1):69-76

Servicio de Neurología, Hospital Militar, Santiago, Chile.

Although infrequent, Trypanosoma cruzi reactivation is possible among patients with HIV/AIDS infection that develop a tumor-like or granulomatous lesion in the CNS. We report the case of a 60 years old male patient with HIV/AIDS and low CD4 lymphocytes count with cerebellar symptoms and mild paresis, associated to supra and infratentorial hypodense lesions and positive serology tests both to T. gondii and Trypanosoma cruzi. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0716-10182017000100011DOI Listing
February 2017
3 Reads

CD11c-Expressing Cells Affect Regulatory T Cell Behavior in the Meninges during Central Nervous System Infection.

J Immunol 2017 05 7;198(10):4054-4061. Epub 2017 Apr 7.

Center for Brain Immunology and Glia, Department of Neuroscience, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908; and

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an important role in the CNS during multiple infections, as well as autoimmune inflammation, but the behavior of this cell type in the CNS has not been explored. In mice, infection with leads to a Th1-polarized parasite-specific effector T cell response in the brain. Similarly, Tregs in the CNS during infection are Th1 polarized, as exemplified by their T-bet, CXCR3, and IFN-γ expression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1601581DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5451665PMC
May 2017
10 Reads

Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii strain directly from human CSF samples of congenital toxoplasmosis clinical case.

New Microbiol 2017 Apr 3;40(2):151-154. Epub 2017 Apr 3.

Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, Federico II University Medical School, Naples, Italy.

This report describes a case of congenital toxoplasmosis in a newborn in Southern Italy. A pregnant mother had been admitted at the 20th week of her pregnancy on account of pharyngodynia and laterocervical lymphadenopathy. Although serological testing of the mother's serum documented a seroconversion with positive IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma antibodies during II trimester, the woman refused to perform prenatal diagnosis for congenital toxoplasmosis. Read More

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April 2017
12 Reads

Late-Onset Cerebral Toxoplasmosis After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Am J Case Rep 2017 Mar 10;18:246-250. Epub 2017 Mar 10.

Blood and Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy Program, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.

BACKGROUND Toxoplasmosis is an uncommon but potentially fatal complication following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). Post-transplant toxoplasmosis is often a reactivation of prior infection and typically occurs within the first 6 months of transplant. Herein, we report that cerebral toxoplasmosis may occur 22 months after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5358837PMC
March 2017
5 Reads

Central nervous system infections in immunocompromised patients.

Curr Opin Crit Care 2017 Apr;23(2):128-133

aAP-HP, Bichat Hospital, Department of Intensive Care Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Paris Diderot University bUMR1148, LVTS, Sorbonne Paris Cité, INSERM/Paris Diderot University, Paris, France cDepartment of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospitals Leuven, KULeuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Purpose Of Review: Although rare, central nervous system (CNS) infections are increasingly being recognized in immunocompromised patients. The goal of the present review is to provide a practical diagnostic approach for the intensivist, and to briefly discuss some of the most prevalent conditions.

Recent Findings: Immunocompromised patients presenting with new neurological symptoms should always be suspected of a CNS infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCC.0000000000000397DOI Listing
April 2017
2 Reads

Toxoplasmosis-associated IRIS involving the CNS: a case report with longitudinal analysis of T cell subsets.

BMC Infect Dis 2017 01 13;17(1):66. Epub 2017 Jan 13.

Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Medicine, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057, Braga, Portugal.

Background: HIV-infected patients may present an unforeseen clinical worsening after initiating antiretroviral therapy known as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). This syndrome is characterized by a heightened inflammatory response toward infectious or non-infectious triggers, and it may affect different organs. Diagnosis of IRIS involving the central nervous system (CNS-IRIS) is challenging due to heterogeneous manifestations, absence of biomarkers to identify this condition, risk of long-term sequelae and high mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-016-2159-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5237164PMC
January 2017
4 Reads

Sarcoidosis, neurotoxoplasmosis and golimumab therapy.

QJM 2016 Dec 22;109(12):817-818. Epub 2016 Dec 22.

From the Department of Clinical Immunology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER), Puducherry, 605006, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/hcw197DOI Listing
December 2016
3 Reads

Toxoplasmosis versus lymphoma: Cerebral lesion characterization using DSC-MRI revisited.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2017 Jan 2;152:84-89. Epub 2016 Dec 2.

Rhode Island Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, 593 Eddy Street, Providence, RI, 02903, United States; The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, 222 Richmond Street, Providence, RI, 02903, United States. Electronic address:

Objective: CNS toxoplasmosis and lymphoma are often indistinguishable by conventional contrast-enhanced MRI. There is limited literature on the diagnostic efficacy of dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MRI for differentiating these entities. This study assesses the clinical utility of relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) for making a diagnosis and determines rCBV thresholds for differentiation using contemporary DSC-MRI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2016.11.023DOI Listing
January 2017
6 Reads

Toxoplasmic Encephalitis with Untreated Hairy Cell Leukemia Variant.

Intern Med 2016;55(21):3175-3180. Epub 2016 Nov 1.

Department of Hematology, Almeida Memorial Hospital, Japan.

Toxoplasmic encephalitis is a rare infectious complication in patients with hematological malignancy except for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We herein report a case of possible toxoplasmic encephalitis with untreated hairy cell leukemia variant. Magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple nodules with surrounding edema in the entire cerebrum. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.55.6668DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5140870PMC
January 2017
9 Reads

Unusual magnetic resonance imaging presentation of post-BMT cerebral toxoplasmosis masquerading as meningoencephalitis and ventriculitis.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2016 11 27;51(11):1533-1536. Epub 2016 Jun 27.

Department of Neurology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bmt.2016.168DOI Listing
November 2016
17 Reads

Progressive lesions of central nervous system in microcephalic fetuses with suspected congenital Zika virus syndrome.

Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2017 Dec 8;50(6):717-722. Epub 2017 Nov 8.

Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Brazil.

Objective: To describe the pattern and progression of central nervous system (CNS) lesions in microcephalic fetuses with suspected Zika virus (ZIKV) infection.

Methods: In this prospective study in Salvador, Brazil, we analyzed fetuses diagnosed with microcephaly and suspected ZIKV infection after a routine primary care ultrasound scan between July 2015 and February 2016 raised suspicion of fetal microcephaly. The pregnancies were followed with serial ultrasound scans until delivery at one of the three main referral centers for fetal abnormalities in Salvador, Brazil. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/uog.17303DOI Listing
December 2017
41 Reads

Hemiballistic movements in a newly HIV patient.

IDCases 2016 10;6:5-8. Epub 2016 Aug 10.

Department of Infectious Disease, Coimbra's Hospital Center and University, Coimbra, Portugal.

Infections of central nervous system (CNS) include a broad group of conditions and pose a particular challenge to physicians, especially in immunocompromised individuals. This case refers to a 26-year-old male patient with a history of smoked hashish and drug abuse admitted to the infectious disease department with hemiballismus of left hemibody and a positive HIV serologic test. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study showed lesions at lower left and right cerebellar hemisphere, one of them thalamus - mesencephalic suggesting an opportunistic infection or an HIV associated encephalopathy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idcr.2016.08.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4995393PMC
September 2016
5 Reads

Cerebral toxoplasmosis in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome in the neurological emergency department of a tertiary hospital.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2016 Nov 16;150:23-26. Epub 2016 Aug 16.

Laboratório de Doenças Transmissíveis, Departamento de Parasitologia, Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães, Av. Prof. Moraes Rego, s/n, Recife, PE, 50670 420, Brazil. Electronic address:

Introduction: Cerebral toxoplasmosis is the most common cause of space occupying brain lesion in patients with HIV/AIDS in Brazil. In the post-HAART era, it is responsible for high rates of morbidity and mortality worldwide.

Materials And Methods: This study consists of a case series of 56 patients diagnosed with cerebral toxoplasmosis whose clinical features, brain imaging and cerebrospinal fluid aspects were analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2016.08.014DOI Listing
November 2016
18 Reads

Intra-cranial Toxoplasmosis in an Immunocompetent Female.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2016 06;26(6 Suppl):S39-41

Department of Neurosurgery, Unit II, Lahore General Hospital, Lahore.

Intra-cranial toxoplasmosis is a rare entity occurring mostly in immunosuppressed individuals. It is extremely rare in an immune competent patient. Toxoplasmosis is the third leading cause of food borne illness. Read More

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June 2016
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Clinical Utility of Thallium-201 Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography and Cerebrospinal Fluid Epstein-Barr Virus Detection Using Polymerase Chain Reaction in the Diagnosis of AIDS-Related Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma.

Cureus 2016 May 10;8(5):e606. Epub 2016 May 10.

Department of Neurosurgery, Penn State Hershey Medical Center.

Objective: To determine the diagnostic efficiency of thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the differentiation of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) from other central nervous system processes in patients with HIV/AIDS.

Design/methods: Over 10 years, 68 thallium-201 SPECT scans were performed on neurologically symptomatic HIV+ patients with focal lesions on CT or MRI at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Diagnoses were then established by either autopsy, biopsy, or clinical response to anti-toxoplasmosis therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.606DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4905705PMC
May 2016
11 Reads
2 Citations

Reversible movement disorders due to toxoplasmosis as initial manifestation of HIV-AIDS, with sequential MR and video imaging.

BMJ Case Rep 2016 Jun 16;2016. Epub 2016 Jun 16.

Infectious Disease Unit/Medicine, San Fernando Teaching Hospital, San Fernando, Trinidad and Tobago.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2016-215676DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4932380PMC
June 2016
6 Reads

Prognosis of Fetal Parenchymal Cerebral Lesions without Ventriculomegaly in Congenital Toxoplasmosis Infection.

Fetal Diagn Ther 2017 20;41(1):8-14. Epub 2016 Apr 20.

Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 6, APHP, Service de Médecine Foetale, Hôpital Armand Trousseau, Paris, France.

Objective: To evaluate the neurodevelopmental and ocular outcome of a continuous retrospective series of fetal toxoplasmosis infections for which prenatal ultrasound (US) follow-up revealed abnormal cerebral findings without associated ventriculomegaly.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all cases of proven fetal Toxoplasma gondii infection with fetal cerebral anomalies at US examination without significant ventriculomegaly (≥10 mm) evaluated in our center over a 5-year period. US and magnetic resonance imaging findings were collected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000445113DOI Listing
February 2017
15 Reads

Cerebral toxoplasmosis in a diffuse large B cell lymphoma patient.

Radiol Oncol 2016 Mar 16;50(1):87-93. Epub 2016 Feb 16.

Unit of Neurology, Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Background: Toxoplasmosis is an opportunistic protozoal infection that has, until now, probably been an underestimated cause of encephalitis in patients with hematological malignancies, independent of stem cell or bone marrow transplant. T and B cell depleting regimens are probably an important risk factor for reactivation of a latent toxoplasma infection in these patients.

Case Report: We describe a 62-year-old HIV-negative right-handed Caucasian female with systemic diffuse large B cell lymphoma who presented with sudden onset of high fever, headache, altered mental status, ataxia and findings of pancytopenia, a few days after receiving her final, 8(th) cycle of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, prednisolone (R-CHOP) chemotherapy regimen. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/raon-2014-0042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4825343PMC
March 2016
9 Reads

Multiple intracerebral lesions in a young male.

Afr Health Sci 2015 Sep;15(3):1045-8

Kasturba Medical College, Paediatrics, Manipal University.

Background: As the incidence of HIV infection has increased its neurological complications are being encountered in our clinical practice. Toxoplasmosis is a common cerebral opportunistic infection seen in HIV-infected patients, even though the incidence has declined with the use of antiretroviral therapy. Establishing a definitive diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis is difficult in resource limited settings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v15i3.47DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4765467PMC
September 2015
1 Read