678 results match your criteria Imaging in CNS Toxoplasmosis

MRI imaging features of HIV-related central nervous system diseases: diagnosis by pattern recognition in daily practice.

Jpn J Radiol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2‑2, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565‑0871, Japan.

With the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), the prognosis of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has improved, and the frequency of HIV-related central nervous system (CNS) diseases has decreased. Nevertheless, mortality from HIV-related CNS diseases, including those associated with ART (e.g. Read More

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Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Presented as Atypical Ocular Toxoplasmosis.

Case Rep Ophthalmol Med 2021 1;2021:5512408. Epub 2021 May 1.

Eye Research Center, Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The aim is to report an atypical presentation of ocular toxoplasmosis which led to the diagnosis of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). . The 38-year-old woman was referred with metamorphopsia and reduced vision in the right eye over the past 3 weeks. Read More

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Severe congenital chorioretinitis caused by congenital lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection.

Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2021 Jun 17;22:101094. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Baylor College of Medicine, 1 Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Purpose: To describe a case of congenital lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), a potentially severe and under-diagnosed etiology of congenital chorioretinitis.

Observations: A 5-month old boy presented with esotropia. Examination revealed light perception vision in the right eye and normal fixation and following behavior in the left eye, and a 50PD esotropia with full versions. Read More

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Cerebral Toxoplasmosis, CMV and Bacterial Pneumonia with Decreasing CD4+ T-Cell Count as Results of Antiretroviral Therapy Discontinuation-A Case Report.

Pathogens 2021 Apr 20;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

The Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases and Hepatology, Medical University of Warsaw, Wolska 37 Street, 01-201 Warsaw, Poland.

Cerebral toxoplasmosis occurs mainly in immunocompromised hosts as a reactivation of latent infection. In the diagnostic process, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), serum testing, and biopsy are used. We describe a case of a 43-year-old HIV-positive patient presenting with altered levels of consciousness, aphasia, and hemiparesis. Read More

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New-onset focal seizure as a presenting feature of HIV infection: a case report and mini review to the challenge in resource-limited settings.

AIDS Res Ther 2021 04 15;18(1):12. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Hayat Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Background: The frequency of new-onset HIV-associated seizure in the HIV-infected patient is estimated to be between 2 and 11%. Identifying the underlying etiology of new-onset seizure will have a vital impact on the mortality and morbidity of patients living with HIV infection.

Case Presentation: We report a 34-year old newly diagnosed HIV+ male patient presented with abnormal body movement (ABM) involving his right hemibody associated with loss of consciousness lasting few minutes of two weeks duration. Read More

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Differential diagnosis of brain lesions in a metastatic endometrial carcinosarcoma patient.

Ecancermedicalscience 2021 9;15:1182. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Division of Advanced Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, National University Hospital, National University Health System, 1E Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119228, Singapore.

The differential diagnosis of ring-enhancing brain lesions in a patient with metastatic malignancy may initially seem straightforward, and easily attributed to brain metastases. On rare occasions, the physician needs to avoid anchoring bias by re-evaluating the entire clinical context in which these ring-enhancing brain lesions are found. We report a case of cerebral toxoplasmosis mimicking brain metastases in a patient with metastatic cancer and without a prior history of human immunodeficiency virus. Read More

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February 2021

Diffuse encephalitic toxoplasmosis in HIV.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Mar 18;14(3). Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Healthcare for Older People, Royal Devon and Exeter NHS Foundation Trust, Exeter, Devon, UK.

This case demonstrates an atypical radiological presentation of cerebral toxoplasmosis in a 62-year-old HIV-positive patient. The diagnosis is discussed alongside MRI imaging, laboratory results and treatment. Central nervous system toxoplasmosis is typically associated with ring enhancing lesions on neuroimaging with contrast, but the radiology for this patient shows diffuse white matter changes and ependymal enhancement, which would normally suggest an alternative diagnosis. Read More

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Ocular Findings in Infants with Congenital Toxoplasmosis after a Toxoplasmosis Outbreak.

Ophthalmology 2021 Mar 10. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Ophthalmology, Federal University of São Paulo, Paulista Medical School, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; Vision Institute, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Purpose: We investigated the prevalence of ocular abnormalities in infants vertically exposed to Toxoplasma gondii infection during an outbreak in Santa Maria City, Brazil.

Design: Consecutive case series.

Participants: A total of 187 infants were included. Read More

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Cerebral toxoplasmosis with multiple hemorrhage lesions in an HIV infected patient: A case report and literature review.

Parasitol Int 2021 Apr 2;81:102280. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Department of Infectious Disease, Kawasaki Municipal Kawasaki Hospital, Japan.

A 47-year-old man was admitted to a hospital for disturbance of consciousness. He was diagnosed with multiple hemorrhagic brain abscesses in bilateral hemispheres with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and was transferred to our hospital for further examination and treatment. On admission, although he could respond to pain stimuli, he could not talk or communicate. Read More

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Development of a risk scoring system for prognostication in HIV-related toxoplasma encephalitis.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Dec 4;20(1):923. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Chongqing Public Health Medical Center, 109 Baoyu Road, Shapingba, Chongqing, China.

Background: This study aims to evaluate specific risk factors influencing prognosis of HIV-infected patients with toxoplasma encephalitis (TE) in order to develop a prognostic risk scoring system for them.

Methods: This is a six-center retrospective study of hospitalized HIV/TE patients. Data including six-week mortality after diagnosis, baseline characteristics, clinical features, laboratory tests and radiological characteristics of eligible patients were assimilated for risk model establishing. Read More

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December 2020

Rare Presentation of Pneumonitis in the Absence of Neurological Symptoms in an AIDS Patient and Use of Next-Generation Sequencing for Diagnosis.

Eur J Case Rep Intern Med 2020 4;7(11):001862. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Peoria, Illinois, USA.

is a known cause of encephalitis in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients. pneumonitis is a manifestation of extracerebral toxoplasmosis and can be clinically indistinguishable from other opportunistic infections including pneumonia (PJP) and miliary tuberculosis. In this case report, pneumonitis and disseminated toxoplasmosis was diagnosed using next-generation sequencing (NGS) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assessment. Read More

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September 2020

Imaging in Differentiating Cerebral Toxoplasmosis and Primary CNS Lymphoma With Special Focus on FDG PET/CT.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2021 01 28;216(1):157-164. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Department of Radiology, West Virginia University, 1 Medical Center Dr, Morgantown, WV 26505.

The purpose of this article is to present a brief review of literature evaluating different imaging modalities with special focus on F-FDG PET/CT in differentiating cerebral toxoplasmosis and primary CNS lymphoma. Differentiating cerebral toxoplasmosis and primary CNS lymphoma is crucial in the care of patients with HIV infection. Delayed diagnosis can lead to considerable morbidity and mortality. Read More

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January 2021

Toxoplasmic Encephalitis Followed by Primary EBV-Associated Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder of the Central Nervous System in a Patient Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant: A Case Report.

Transplant Proc 2020 Nov 29;52(9):2858-2860. Epub 2020 Aug 29.

Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Japan.

Toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder of the central nervous system (CNS-PTLD) are major complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-SCT); both are fatal without timely diagnosis and disease-specific treatment. Differential diagnosis of TE and CNS-PTLD can be challenging because brain biopsy, a gold standard for diagnosis, is sometimes not possible, owing to poor patient condition after allo-SCT. Here, we describe a case of isolated CNS-PTLD arising during the therapeutic course of TE. Read More

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November 2020

Case 27-2020: A 53-Year-Old Woman with Headache and Gait Imbalance.

N Engl J Med 2020 Aug;383(9):859-866

From the Departments of Medicine and Global Health, Center for Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle (G.S.G.); and the Departments of Medicine (J.M.R., R.T.G.) and Radiology (R.G.G.), Massachusetts General Hospital, and the Departments of Medicine (J.M.R., R.T.G.) and Radiology (R.G.G.), Harvard Medical School - both in Boston.

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Prenatal cranial MR findings in fetuses with suspected CMV infection: Correlation with postnatal outcome and differential diagnostic considerations.

J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol 2020 Dec 27;64(6):769-778. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Alfred Health, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Purpose: To: (1) Evaluate intrauterine MRI (iuMRI) findings in fetuses with suspected cCMV and correlate these with final diagnosis(es). (2) Correlate iuMRI in cases of confirmed cCMV with clinical outcomes.

Methods: Retrospective cohort of iuMRI referrals for suspected cCMV between 2010 and 2018. Read More

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December 2020

Approach to an Intracranial Mass in Patients With HIV.

Isabel Elicer

Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2020 07 30;20(9):43. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Hospital Dr. Sótero del Río, Neurology Service, Av. Concha y Toro 3459, Puente Alto, Santiago, Chile.

Purpose Of Review: Space-occupying lesions represent a diagnostic challenge among people with the human immunodeficiency virus, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). To determine the best diagnostic approach to the wide array of possible etiologies and provide a thorough interpretation of neuroimaging in order to narrow a hierarchical differential diagnosis among these patients. Given that there is no pathognomonic neuroimaging pattern in this clinical setting, we searched results from brain biopsies to best determine the etiology of commonly found lesions. Read More

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Cerebral Toxoplasmosis in a Rheumatoid Arthritis Patient on Immunosuppressive Therapy.

Cureus 2020 Jun 10;12(6):e8547. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Infectious Disease, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, USA.

Cerebral toxoplasmosis is a life-threatening infection most commonly found in immunocompromised hosts such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or transplant patients. However, it is not known to affect patients with chronic inflammatory disorders on immunosuppressive therapy. We describe the case of a 70-year-old female with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on chronic therapy with methotrexate and infliximab, who presented to the hospital after two weeks of right-sided weakness. Read More

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Neurotoxoplasmosis mimicking primary brain malignancy.

IDCases 2020 15;21:e00767. Epub 2020 May 15.

University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, USA.

Toxoplasma gondii infection is an uncommon and potentially life-threatening condition in immunocompromised patients in the setting of solid organ transplantation. We present the case of cerebral toxoplasmosis which presented as a solitary intracranial space-occupying lesion in a patient who received a combined kidney and pancreas transplant more than twenty years ago. Initially, the lesion was considered as a primary brain malignancy based on brain imaging but surprisingly the brain biopsy led to the correct diagnosis. Read More

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What Can Mimic Multiple Sclerosis?

Semin Ultrasound CT MR 2020 Jun 29;41(3):284-295. Epub 2020 Feb 29.

University of California Davis, Sacramento, CA.

This article discusses mimics of multiple sclerosis (MS). Excluded in this discussion are neuromyelitis optica and vasculitis, discussed in other articles in this journal. Covered entities include posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, reversible vasoconstriction syndrome, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, Sussac's Syndrome, and chronic idiopathic demyelinating polyneuropathy. Read More

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Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine Consult Series #52: Diagnosis and management of fetal growth restriction: (Replaces Clinical Guideline Number 3, April 2012).

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2020 10 12;223(4):B2-B17. Epub 2020 May 12.

Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, 409 12 St. SW, Washington, DC 20024, USA.

Fetal growth restriction can result from a variety of maternal, fetal, and placental conditions. It occurs in up to 10% of pregnancies and is a leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality. This complex obstetrical problem has disparate published diagnostic criteria, relatively low detection rates, and limited preventative and treatment options. Read More

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October 2020

Cerebral toxoplasmosis in HIV-infected patients over 2015-2018 (a case study of Russia).

Epidemiol Infect 2020 05 4;148:e142. Epub 2020 May 4.

I. P. Pavlov First St. Petersburg State Medical University, St. Petersburg, Russia.

Cerebral toxoplasmosis is a leading cause of the central nervous system disorders in acquired immune deficiency syndrome. This study aimed to investigate the clinical course of cerebral toxoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. The study included 90 HIV-infected patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis, who underwent inpatient treatment. Read More

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First case report of eosinophilic meningitis associated with cerebral toxoplasmosis in an HIV-positive patient.

Int J STD AIDS 2020 05 7;31(6):596-599. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Laboratory of Medical Investigation, Unit 56, Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

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Toxoplasmosis-Associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in an Allogenic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipient.

Mayo Clin Proc 2020 04;95(4):823-824

Division of Infectious Diseases, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Rochester, MN. Electronic address:

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Evaluation of a PCR assay for diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cell among HIV/AIDS patients.

J Parasit Dis 2020 Mar 11;44(1):159-165. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

6Student Research Committee, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Cerebral toxoplasmosis is one of the neurological infections with high morbidity and mortality in patients with AIDS, so the accurate method for diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis seems necessary. In this study, nested PCR assay using B1 gene was evaluated in diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) among HIV/AIDS patients. One hundred eight blood samples from HIV/AIDS patients, including four patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis and 104 HIV/AIDS patients without cerebral toxoplasmosis were evaluated for the antibodies using Enzyme Linked immunosorbent Assay. Read More

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Fulminant and Diffuse Cerebral Toxoplasmosis as the First Manifestation of HIV Infection: A Case Presentation and Review of the Literature.

Am J Case Rep 2020 Jan 26;21:e919624. Epub 2020 Jan 26.

Department of Neurosurgery, National Skull Base Foundation, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA.

BACKGROUND One of the most common causes of central nervous system (CNS) opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients is toxoplasmosis. It can cause focal or disseminated brain lesions leading to neurological deficit, coma, and death. Prompt management with optimal antibiotics is vital. Read More

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January 2020

[Neurological symptoms in a patient on anti-TNF therapy, methotrexate and prednisolone for rheumatoid arthritis].

Internist (Berl) 2020 Mar;61(3):313-320

Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik III, Bereich Rheumatologie, Universitätsklinikum Leipzig, Liebigstraße 20, Haus 4, 04103, Leipzig, Deutschland.

A 78-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis on TNF-α inhibitor, methotrexate and prednisolone presented with severe but unspecific symptoms such as leg weakness, shivering, bifrontal headache, nausea and staggering. The broad range of differential diagnoses lead to intricate and time-consuming diagnostic procedures. Serology, magnetic resonance imaging and microbiological investigations represent important steps to make the final diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis. Read More

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Cerebral toxoplasmosis after rituximab for pemphigus vulgaris.

JAAD Case Rep 2020 Jan 24;6(1):37-41. Epub 2019 Dec 24.

Department of Dermatology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida.

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January 2020

Clinical and Etiological Characteristics of Epilepsy in the Elderly: A Hospital-Based Study from a Tertiary Care Referral Center of Niamey, Niger.

J Neurosci Rural Pract 2019 Oct 11;10(4):571-575. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Department of Medicine and Medical Specialties, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Abdou Moumouni University, Niamey, Niger.

The aim of this study is to evaluate the management of epilepsy in the elderly at a tertiary referral center in Niger to obtain a comprehensive understanding to determine the intrahospital deficiencies to improve and to make recommendations in terms to improve the management of epilepsy in the elderly in Niger. We conducted a retrospective study at the Neurology Outpatient Clinic of the National Hospital of Niamey (Niger) over a period of 5 years from May 2013 to May 2018, collecting all cases of patients aged 60 years or over diagnosed with epilepsy by neurologists. From the registers of consultation, we collected and analyzed for each patient the demographic, clinical, etiological, and therapeutic data, as well as the outcomes during follow-up visits. Read More

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October 2019