697 results match your criteria Imaging in CNS Toxoplasmosis


Hemorrhagic Lesions in the Central Nervous System: Toxoplasmosis in a Person Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

Cureus 2022 May 8;14(5):e24827. Epub 2022 May 8.

Internal Medicine, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, IND.

Central nervous system (CNS) toxoplasmosis is one of the common causes of hemorrhagic brain lesions in people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA), resulting in high mortality and morbidity. It has a broad clinical and neuro-radiological spectrum, which may or may not be limited to typical findings of focal and subacute neurological deficits or ring-enhancing lesions in the basal ganglia. Here, we present a case of a patient who is a newly detected person living with HIV and AIDS with a low CD cell count and classical imaging findings of central nervous system toxoplasmosis on his magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Read More

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Cerebral toxoplasmosis in a patient with multiple myeloma.

Surg Neurol Int 2022 6;13:191. Epub 2022 May 6.

Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York City, New York, United States.

Background: Cerebral toxoplasmosis is a rare complication of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (MM) after autologous stem cell transplant (SCT). Imaging characteristics can be helpful in leading to rapid diagnosis and treatment.

Case Description: A 76-year-old man with relapsed/refractory IgA kappa MM status post autologous SCT who presented to the hospital with altered mental status. Read More

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Progressive Worsening of Neurological Manifestations in HIV-Associated Opportunistic Central Nervous System (CNS) Infection Patients After COVID-19 Vaccinations: A Possible Co-Incidence Causality.

Am J Case Rep 2022 May 25;23:e936257. Epub 2022 May 25.

Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

BACKGROUND The iceberg phenomenon (in which the most of a problem is invisible) of people living with HIV/AIDS, particularly those with unknown HIV status, has been epidemiologically challenging. Central nervous system (CNS) opportunistic infections in patients with HIV/AIDS are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in people living with HIV/AIDS. There are currently limited data on the immunogenicity, safety, and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines in people living with HIV/AIDS with its associated opportunistic CNS infections as well as those without antiretroviral treatment. Read More

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Management of a human immunodeficiency virus case with discordant antiviral drug resistance profiles in cerebrospinal fluid compared with plasma: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2022 Feb 15;16(1):62. Epub 2022 Feb 15.

Department of infectious Diseases Q, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus-1-associated neurocognitive disorder is a known complication in individuals treated with antiretroviral therapy. Cerebrospinal fluid escape, which is defined as discordant higher cerebrospinal fluid viremia than plasma, may occur in antiretroviral therapy-experienced individuals. Different cerebrospinal fluid versus plasma mutation patterns have been observed in individuals with cerebrospinal fluid escape. Read More

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February 2022

Miliary pattern in secondary central nervous system T-cell lymphoma.

Surg Neurol Int 2022 20;13:25. Epub 2022 Jan 20.

Department of Neurosurgery, Neurological Institute, Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas, United States.

Background: Secondary central nervous system lymphoma may manifest in a variety of ways on imaging, but most commonly presents with leptomeningeal disease, isolated parenchymal lesions, or both. We present a case of secondary central nervous system T-cell lymphoma with miliary pattern of spread noted on imaging.

Case Description: Our patient had known systemic T-cell lymphoma involving the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts and underwent stereotactic biopsy confirming secondary cerebral metastasis. Read More

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January 2022

[Brain abscess due to Nocardia sp. In an immunocompetent patient in Peru: a case report].

Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica 2021 Jul-Sep;38(3):463-466. Epub 2021 Dec 20.

Hospital Nacional Edgardo Rebagliati Martins. Lima, Perú.

Cerebral nocardia infections is a rare entity, which has been mainly reported in immunosuppressed patients. Currently, there are no clinical guidelines for first-line treatment. Our case refers to an older immunocompetent adult, with encephalopathy and left hemiparesis, associated with lesions compatible with multiple brain abscess and suggestive of infectious etiology. Read More

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December 2021

Sleep state misperception: is there a CNS structural source?

Sleep Sci 2021 Jan-Mar;14(Spec 1):94-96

Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Departamento de Psicobiologia - São Paulo - Brazil.

Introduction: We describe a case of sleep state misperception in a patient with a neurotoxoplasmosis lesion in the left nucleocapsular region.

Case Report: A 40-year-old female patient presented relating sleeplessness over the past 2 years, concurrent with progressive headaches, dizziness and motor and sensory deficits in the right upper and lower limbs. She had a history of AIDS, on irregular antiretroviral therapy and neurotoxoplasmosis. Read More

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Infratentorial Stereotactic Biopsy of Brainstem and Cerebellar Lesions.

Brain Sci 2021 Oct 28;11(11). Epub 2021 Oct 28.

Department of Neurosurgery, 10th Military Research Hospital and Polyclinic, 85-681 Bydgoszcz, Poland.

Stereotactic biopsy of posterior fossa lesions is often regarded as hazardous due to the critical structures in that area. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and safety of infratentorial stereotactic biopsy of brainstem or cerebellar lesions and its associations with other clinical, laboratory, and radiological parameters. From January 2000 to May 2021, 190 infratentorial stereotactic biopsies of posterior fossa tumors, including 108 biopsies of brainstem lesions, were performed. Read More

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October 2021

brain abscess with lymphadenitis.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Oct 27;14(10). Epub 2021 Oct 27.

Microbiology, Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, New Delhi, India.

Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis refers to central nervous system infection by dematiaceous mould or by dark walled fungi which contain the dark pigment melanin in their cell wall which adds to the virulence of fungus. These dematiaceous fungi can cause a variety of central nervous infections including invasive sinusitis, brain abscess, meningitis, myelitis and arachnoiditis. among these dematiaceous fungi is the most common cause of brain abscess in immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals and is known to occur worldwide though is predominantly reported from subtropical regions especially the Asian subcontinent. Read More

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October 2021

Differentiation of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Related Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma from Cerebral toxoplasmosis with Use of Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging and Contrast Enhanced 3D-T1WI.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Dec 17;113:251-258. Epub 2021 Oct 17.

Department of Radiology, Beijing Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical University. Electronic address:

Background: We aimed to investigate whether susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) and contrast-enhanced 3D-T1WI can differentiate Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome-Related Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma (AR-PCNSL) from cerebral toxoplasmosis.

Methods: This was a prospective cohort study. 20 AIDS patients were divided into AR-PCNSL group (13 cases) and cerebral toxoplasmosis group (7 cases) based on pathology results. Read More

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December 2021

Multimodal Medical Image Fusion Based on Multiple Latent Low-Rank Representation.

Comput Math Methods Med 2021 28;2021:1544955. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

School of Mechanical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Manufacturing Equipment Mechanism Design and Control of Chongqing, Chongqing Technology and Business University, Chongqing 400067, China.

A multimodal medical image fusion algorithm based on multiple latent low-rank representation is proposed to improve imaging quality by solving fuzzy details and enhancing the display of lesions. Firstly, the proposed method decomposes the source image repeatedly using latent low-rank representation to obtain several saliency parts and one low-rank part. Secondly, the VGG-19 network identifies the low-rank part's features and generates the weight maps. Read More

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November 2021

Cerebral toxoplasmosis complicating lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma in partial remission.

J Infect Chemother 2022 Feb 25;28(2):279-282. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo, 113-8655, Japan; Department of Cell Therapy and Transplantation Medicine, The University of Tokyo Hospital, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo, 113-8655, Japan. Electronic address:

Toxoplasma gondii can develop toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) in immunodeficient conditions such as AIDS and after organ transplantation. While some cases of TE with malignant lymphoma were reported, these cases occurred immediately after chemotherapy or when their diseases were active. Here we report the first Case of TE that occurred in patient who was in partial remission (PR) of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL) for two years. Read More

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February 2022

Cerebral Toxoplasmosis in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

Neurohospitalist 2021 Oct 30;11(4):377-378. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Radiology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Bandar Tun Razak, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

A 37-year-old man with underlying systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis presented with an episode of generalized tonic seizure. He complained of poor concentration and forgetfulness for 1 week. He suffered a relapse of lupus nephritis 4 months ago and received a course of intravenous methylprednisolone followed by oral prednisolone and mycophenolate mofetil. Read More

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October 2021

A rare case of an HIV-seronegative patient with meningoencephalitis.

IDCases 2021 31;26:e01271. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Dept. of Neurology, Medical Faculty, Trakia University, Stara Zagora, Bulgaria.

Cerebral toxoplasmosis is a common opportunistic infection that causes expansive brain lesions in people living with HIV/AIDS. But it is extremely rarely associated with HIV negative patients. This study presents a case of a 23-year-old male with non HIV-relative cerebral toxoplasmosis. Read More

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[Difficulties of cerebral toxoplasmosis diagnosis in a patient with multiple sclerosis and HIV].

Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2021 ;121(6):76-80

Almazov National Medical Research Centre, St Petersburg, Russia.

Toxoplasmosis is a widespread parasitic disease. It is caused by an intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. It can affect various tissues and organs, forming cysts and continuing to replicate within them. Read More

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Determination of parasitic burden in the brain tissue of infected mice in acute toxoplasmosis after treatment by fluconazole combined with sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine.

Eur J Med Res 2021 Jun 30;26(1):65. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Infectious Disease and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Resistance Tuberculosis Institute, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.

Background/aims: One of the opportunistic pathogens which cause serious problems in the human immune system is Toxoplasma gondii, with toxoplasma encephalitis (TE) seen in patients affected by it. The treatment of these patients is limited, and if not treated on time, death will be possible.

Methods: In this study, the effects of the treatment with different doses of fluconazole (FLZ) in combination with the current treatment of acute toxoplasmosis on reducing the mortality rate and the parasitic load in the murine model in vivo were studied. Read More

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MRI imaging features of HIV-related central nervous system diseases: diagnosis by pattern recognition in daily practice.

Jpn J Radiol 2021 Nov 14;39(11):1023-1038. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2‑2, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565‑0871, Japan.

With the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), the prognosis of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has improved, and the frequency of HIV-related central nervous system (CNS) diseases has decreased. Nevertheless, mortality from HIV-related CNS diseases, including those associated with ART (e.g. Read More

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November 2021

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Presented as Atypical Ocular Toxoplasmosis.

Case Rep Ophthalmol Med 2021 1;2021:5512408. Epub 2021 May 1.

Eye Research Center, Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The aim is to report an atypical presentation of ocular toxoplasmosis which led to the diagnosis of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). . The 38-year-old woman was referred with metamorphopsia and reduced vision in the right eye over the past 3 weeks. Read More

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Severe congenital chorioretinitis caused by congenital lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection.

Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2021 Jun 17;22:101094. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Baylor College of Medicine, 1 Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Purpose: To describe a case of congenital lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), a potentially severe and under-diagnosed etiology of congenital chorioretinitis.

Observations: A 5-month old boy presented with esotropia. Examination revealed light perception vision in the right eye and normal fixation and following behavior in the left eye, and a 50PD esotropia with full versions. Read More

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Cerebral Toxoplasmosis, CMV and Bacterial Pneumonia with Decreasing CD4+ T-Cell Count as Results of Antiretroviral Therapy Discontinuation-A Case Report.

Pathogens 2021 Apr 20;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

The Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases and Hepatology, Medical University of Warsaw, Wolska 37 Street, 01-201 Warsaw, Poland.

Cerebral toxoplasmosis occurs mainly in immunocompromised hosts as a reactivation of latent infection. In the diagnostic process, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), serum testing, and biopsy are used. We describe a case of a 43-year-old HIV-positive patient presenting with altered levels of consciousness, aphasia, and hemiparesis. Read More

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New-onset focal seizure as a presenting feature of HIV infection: a case report and mini review to the challenge in resource-limited settings.

AIDS Res Ther 2021 04 15;18(1):12. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Hayat Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Background: The frequency of new-onset HIV-associated seizure in the HIV-infected patient is estimated to be between 2 and 11%. Identifying the underlying etiology of new-onset seizure will have a vital impact on the mortality and morbidity of patients living with HIV infection.

Case Presentation: We report a 34-year old newly diagnosed HIV+ male patient presented with abnormal body movement (ABM) involving his right hemibody associated with loss of consciousness lasting few minutes of two weeks duration. Read More

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Multiple Reactivations of Viral Infections Followed by Cerebral Toxoplasmosis After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in an Adolescent With Ph(+) Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Case Report.

Transplant Proc 2021 May 28;53(4):1355-1359. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Department of Pediatric Oncology, Hematology and Transplantology, University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland.

After allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), especially from an unrelated donor, infectious complications are frequent and severe, sometimes with fatal outcomes. Despite using highly sensitive molecular techniques for close monitoring in the early post-transplant period for early diagnosis, not every viral infection or reactivation can be detected adequately early, even with highly sensitive methods. Particularly after toxic and deeply immunosuppressive treatment, multiple infections or reactivations, uncommon infections, or infections in unusual locations can occur. Read More

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Differential diagnosis of brain lesions in a metastatic endometrial carcinosarcoma patient.

Ecancermedicalscience 2021 9;15:1182. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Division of Advanced Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, National University Hospital, National University Health System, 1E Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119228, Singapore.

The differential diagnosis of ring-enhancing brain lesions in a patient with metastatic malignancy may initially seem straightforward, and easily attributed to brain metastases. On rare occasions, the physician needs to avoid anchoring bias by re-evaluating the entire clinical context in which these ring-enhancing brain lesions are found. We report a case of cerebral toxoplasmosis mimicking brain metastases in a patient with metastatic cancer and without a prior history of human immunodeficiency virus. Read More

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February 2021

Diffuse encephalitic toxoplasmosis in HIV.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Mar 18;14(3). Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Healthcare for Older People, Royal Devon and Exeter NHS Foundation Trust, Exeter, Devon, UK.

This case demonstrates an atypical radiological presentation of cerebral toxoplasmosis in a 62-year-old HIV-positive patient. The diagnosis is discussed alongside MRI imaging, laboratory results and treatment. Central nervous system toxoplasmosis is typically associated with ring enhancing lesions on neuroimaging with contrast, but the radiology for this patient shows diffuse white matter changes and ependymal enhancement, which would normally suggest an alternative diagnosis. Read More

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Ocular Findings in Infants with Congenital Toxoplasmosis after a Toxoplasmosis Outbreak.

Ophthalmology 2021 09 10;128(9):1346-1355. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Ophthalmology, Federal University of São Paulo, Paulista Medical School, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; Vision Institute, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Purpose: We investigated the prevalence of ocular abnormalities in infants vertically exposed to Toxoplasma gondii infection during an outbreak in Santa Maria City, Brazil.

Design: Consecutive case series.

Participants: A total of 187 infants were included. Read More

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September 2021

Hemichorea-Hemiballismus as a Presentation of Cerebritis from Intracranial Toxoplasmosis and Tuberculosis.

Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov (N Y) 2021 01 20;11. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Neurosciences, College of Medicine - Philippine General Hospital, University of the Philippines Manila, PH.

Background: There is limited literature documenting hemichorea-hemiballism (HCHB) resulting from co-infection of toxoplasmosis and tuberculosis (TB) in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Toxoplasmic abscess is the most common cause while TB is a rare etiology.

Case Description: We describe a 24-year-old male with AIDS-related HCHB as the presentation of cerebritis on the right subthalamic nucleus and cerebral peduncle from intracranial toxoplasma and TB co-infection. Read More

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January 2021

Cerebral toxoplasmosis with multiple hemorrhage lesions in an HIV infected patient: A case report and literature review.

Parasitol Int 2021 Apr 2;81:102280. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Department of Infectious Disease, Kawasaki Municipal Kawasaki Hospital, Japan.

A 47-year-old man was admitted to a hospital for disturbance of consciousness. He was diagnosed with multiple hemorrhagic brain abscesses in bilateral hemispheres with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and was transferred to our hospital for further examination and treatment. On admission, although he could respond to pain stimuli, he could not talk or communicate. Read More

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Development of a risk scoring system for prognostication in HIV-related toxoplasma encephalitis.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Dec 4;20(1):923. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Chongqing Public Health Medical Center, 109 Baoyu Road, Shapingba, Chongqing, China.

Background: This study aims to evaluate specific risk factors influencing prognosis of HIV-infected patients with toxoplasma encephalitis (TE) in order to develop a prognostic risk scoring system for them.

Methods: This is a six-center retrospective study of hospitalized HIV/TE patients. Data including six-week mortality after diagnosis, baseline characteristics, clinical features, laboratory tests and radiological characteristics of eligible patients were assimilated for risk model establishing. Read More

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December 2020

Image Diagnosis: Eccentric Target Sign of Focal Toxoplasma Encephalitis.

Perm J 2020 22;24. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Internal Medicine, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

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October 2021

Rare Presentation of Pneumonitis in the Absence of Neurological Symptoms in an AIDS Patient and Use of Next-Generation Sequencing for Diagnosis.

Eur J Case Rep Intern Med 2020 4;7(11):001862. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Peoria, Illinois, USA.

is a known cause of encephalitis in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients. pneumonitis is a manifestation of extracerebral toxoplasmosis and can be clinically indistinguishable from other opportunistic infections including pneumonia (PJP) and miliary tuberculosis. In this case report, pneumonitis and disseminated toxoplasmosis was diagnosed using next-generation sequencing (NGS) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assessment. Read More

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September 2020