92 results match your criteria Imaging in CNS Cryptococcosis


Clinical analysis in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis in western China.

Sci Rep 2020 06 10;10(1):9387. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Center of Infectious Disease, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, 37 Guoxue Lane, Chengdu, 610041, China.

Cryptococcosis is a systemic infection and it may occur in immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts. In order to better understand the clinical characteristics of patients with PC in different immune status, we retrospectively investigated the clinical, radiological, and treatment profiles of immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients with PC during a 10-year period (2008-2017). As a result, out of 136 patients, 94 (69. Read More

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A Rare Case of Combined Pulmonary Cryptococcosis and Cryptococcal Meningitis in Renal Allograft Recipient.

Indian J Crit Care Med 2019 Dec;23(12):587-589

Department of Pathology, Division of Histopathology, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, New Delhi, India.

Invasive cryptococcosis is the third most common invasive fungal infection among organ transplant recipients. The most frequently encountered clinical manifestation is cryptococcal meningoencephalitis (CM) which may be easily missed because of varying clinical presentations. 1-year mortality is estimated at 20-30% even with long-term consolidated antifungal therapy. Read More

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December 2019

Pulmonary Cryptococcus infections as a manifestation of idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia: case report and literature review.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Oct 17;19(1):862. Epub 2019 Oct 17.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Background: Idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia (ICL) is a rare clinical disease with relative CD4 deficiency in the absence of HIV infection. The pathogenicity of ICL is poorly understood with an unclear incidence rate in the general population. Sequelae of ICL includes AIDS-defining infections, which most commonly includes Cryptococcus neoformans. Read More

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October 2019

Clinical insights and epidemiology of central nervous system infection due to Cryptococcus neoformans/gattii species complexes: A prospective study from South India.

Med Mycol 2020 Jul;58(5):600-608

Department of Neuromicrobiology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore, India.

In the last two decades, central nervous system (CNS) cryptococcosis (CNSc) has emerged as a major opportunistic infection in the immunocompromised population of India. We have analyzed the clinical features of CNSc and epidemiology of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. A total of 160 clinical isolates of C. Read More

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Comparison and Correlation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Clinical Severity in Nonhuman Immunodeficiency Virus Patients with Cryptococcal Infection of Central Nervous System.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2018 Dec;131(24):2930-2937

Department of Radiology, Beijing Youan Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, China.

Background: The incidence of cryptococcal meningitis among immunocompetent patients increases, especially in China and imaging plays an important role. The current study was to find the correlation between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) manifestation and clinical severity in nonhuman immunodeficiency virus patients with cryptococcal infection of central nervous system (CNS).

Methods: A total of 65 patients with CNS cryptococcal infection from August 2014 to October 2016 were retrospectively included in this study. Read More

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December 2018

Cryptococcal Meningitis: A Retrospective Cohort of a Brazilian Reference Hospital in the Post-HAART Era of Universal Access.

Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 2018 1;2018:6512468. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Section of Infectious Diseases, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

Objective: is a common opportunistic infection in adults with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome worldwide. However, limited data exist for HIV-infected patients in the post-HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) era in Brazil. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of cryptococcosis in a cohort of patients attending a teaching tertiary care hospital in southern Brazil after the introduction of HAART in Brazil. Read More

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Cryptococcal infection in lung transplant recipients: A 5-year retrospective review at an Australian transplant center.

Transpl Infect Dis 2018 Dec 31;20(6):e12976. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Department of Infectious Diseases, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Cryptococcosis is a common invasive fungal infection (IFI) in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Little is known about cryptococcosis in lung transplant (LTx) recipients despite having one of the highest risks of infection. The aim of this study was to describe demographic and clinical features of cryptococcal infection in LTx recipients. Read More

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December 2018

The Frozen Brain State of Cryptococcus gattii: A Globe-Trotting, Tropical, Neurotropic Fungus.

Neurocrit Care 2019 04;30(2):272-279

Neurosurgery Department, Kaiser Sacramento, 2025 Morse Avenue, Sacramento, CA, 95825, USA.

Initially reported in tropical regions, Cryptococcus gattii infection is now diagnosed globally. Methods: case report; Literature review. Although initial reports described outbreaks of pulmonary and central nervous system (CNS) disease in tropical regions such as Australia and New Guinea, it is now clear that Cryptococcus gattii is a global, neurotropic pathogen. Read More

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Cryptococcoma mimicking a brain tumor in an immunocompetent patient: case report of an extremely rare presentation.

Sao Paulo Med J 2018 Sep-Oct;136(5):492-496. Epub 2017 Nov 6.

PhD. Full Professor and Head, Discipline of Neurosurgery, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas da Santa Casa de São Paulo (FCMSCSP), São Paulo (SP), Brazil.

Context: Central nervous system (CNS) infectious diseases have high prevalence in developing countries and their proper diagnosis and treatment are very important for public health planning. Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungus that may cause several CNS manifestations, especially in immunocompromised patients. Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common type of involvement. Read More

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February 2019

Choroid Plexitis and Ependymitis by Magnetic Resonance Imaging are Biomarkers of Neuronal Damage and Inflammation in HIV-negative Cryptococcal Meningoencephalitis.

Sci Rep 2017 08 23;7(1):9184. Epub 2017 Aug 23.

Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

CNS cryptococcal meningoencephalitis in both HIV positive (HIV+) and HIV negative (HIV-) subjects is associated with high morbidity and mortality despite optimal antifungal therapy. We thus conducted a detailed analysis of the MR imaging findings in 45 HIV- and 11 HIV+ patients to identify imaging findings associated with refractory disease. Ventricular abnormalities, namely ependymitis and choroid plexitis were seen in HIV- but not in HIV+ subjects. Read More

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Clinical characteristics and prognosis of pediatric cryptococcosis in Beijing Children's Hospital, 2002-2014.

Eur J Pediatr 2017 Sep 3;176(9):1235-1244. Epub 2017 Aug 3.

Key Laboratory of Major Diseases in Children and National Key Discipline of Pediatrics (Capital Medical University), Ministry of Education, National Clinical Research Centre for Respiratory Diseases, Beijing Key Laboratory of Pediatric Respiratory Infection Diseases, Department of Infectious Diseases, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100045, China.

Cryptococcosis is a rare pediatric disease. The aim of the study is to describe clinical characteristics and prognosis of pediatric cryptococcosis from 2002 to 2014 in Beijing Children's Hospital. A total of 53 cases of cryptococcosis were identified, 69. Read More

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September 2017

Clinical characteristics of disseminated cryptococcosis in previously healthy children in China.

BMC Infect Dis 2017 05 22;17(1):359. Epub 2017 May 22.

Respiratory Department, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Disseminated cryptococcosis is a rare and fatal disease, and limited data exist regarding it in children. This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of disseminated cryptococcosis in previously healthy children in China.

Methods: Hospitalized patients with disseminated cryptococcosis were enrolled during January 1996 to December 2015 in Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, China. Read More

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Cerebral cryptococcoma mimicking glioblastoma.

BMJ Case Rep 2017 Feb 10;2017. Epub 2017 Feb 10.

Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Herston, Queensland, Australia.

and cause invasive fungal disease, with meningitis being the most common manifestation of central nervous system (CNS) disease. Encapsulated cryptococcomas occur rarely, predominantly in immunocompetent hosts, usually related to Our patient was an immunocompetent man who presented with headache and a large cystic CNS lesion thought to be glioblastoma. Biopsy of a concomitant lung lesion confirmed cryptococcoma and empiric antifungal therapy was started for presumed CNS cryptococcoma. Read More

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February 2017

Central nervous system infections in immunocompromised patients.

Curr Opin Crit Care 2017 Apr;23(2):128-133

aAP-HP, Bichat Hospital, Department of Intensive Care Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Paris Diderot University bUMR1148, LVTS, Sorbonne Paris Cité, INSERM/Paris Diderot University, Paris, France cDepartment of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospitals Leuven, KULeuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Purpose Of Review: Although rare, central nervous system (CNS) infections are increasingly being recognized in immunocompromised patients. The goal of the present review is to provide a practical diagnostic approach for the intensivist, and to briefly discuss some of the most prevalent conditions.

Recent Findings: Immunocompromised patients presenting with new neurological symptoms should always be suspected of a CNS infection. Read More

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Neurotuberculosis immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in the setting of HIV infection: A case report and review of literature.

Indian J Radiol Imaging 2016 Oct-Dec;26(4):446-450

Department of Radiodiagnosis, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER), Pondicherry, India.

Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is an exaggerated immune response which can occur with various coinfections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients, of which the most commonly implicated in central nervous system (CNS)-IRIS are progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), cryptococcosis, and tuberculosis (TB). TB-IRIS is a known complication of pulmonary TB or TB lymphadenitis coinfection in HIV infected patients who are on antituberculosis treatment (ATT) after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, development of IRIS in extrapulmonary TB such as CNS TB is very rare. Read More

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January 2017

Neurological manifestations of HIV-AIDS at a tertiary care institute in North Eastern India.

Neurol India 2017 Jan-Feb;65(1):64-68

Department of Neurology, North Eastern Indira Gandhi Regional Institute of Health and Medical Sciences (NEIGRIHMS), Shillong, Meghalaya, India.

Background: The nervous system is among the most frequent and serious targets of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The infection usually occurs in patients with profound immunosuppression. In 10 - 20% of the patients, the presence of a neurological disease is the first manifestation of symptomatic HIV infection. Read More

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Spinal Arachnoiditis as a Complication of Cryptococcal Meningoencephalitis in Non-HIV Previously Healthy Adults.

Clin Infect Dis 2017 Feb 10;64(3):275-283. Epub 2016 Nov 10.

Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases (LCID), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda,Maryland.

Background: Cryptococcus can cause meningoencephalitis (CM) among previously healthy non-HIV adults. Spinal arachnoiditis is under-recognized, since diagnosis is difficult with concomitant central nervous system (CNS) pathology.

Methods: We describe 6 cases of spinal arachnoiditis among 26 consecutively recruited CM patients with normal CD4 counts who achieved microbiologic control. Read More

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February 2017

Clinical Diversity of CNS Cryptococcosis.

J Assoc Physicians India 2016 10;64(10):15-19

Assistant Professor and Statistician, Department of Community Medicine, Christian Medical College, Ludhiana.

Background: Though cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is recognized as a disease of the immunocompromised, studies have implicated that it also affect immunocompetent patients.

Methodology: This was a cross sectional study conducted in the Department of Medicine of a tertiary teaching institution in North India. All the patients diagnosed with CM on the basis of detection of cryptococcal antigen or the presence of capsulated budding yeast cells on India ink preparation, from April 2009 to March2015 were included in the study. Read More

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October 2016

[Dementia in Patients with Central Nervous System Mycosis].

Brain Nerve 2016 Apr;68(4):329-39

Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine.

Central nervous system (CNS) mycosis is a potentially life-threatening but treatable neurological emergency. CNS mycoses progress slowly and are sometimes difficult to distinguish from dementia. Though most patients with CNS mycosis have an underlying disease, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, cancer, diabetes mellitus, and/or use of immunosuppressants, cryptococcosis can occur in non-immunosuppressed persons. Read More

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CRYPTOCOCCAL MENINGITIS IN IMMUNOCOMPETENT PATIENT.

J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2015 Oct-Dec;27(4):942-4

Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is life threatening fungal infection of central nervous system (CNS). Although it is commonly associated with immunosuppression but rarely it can occur in immune competent patient. We report a case of 21 year old non HIV infected girl. Read More

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Spectrum of imaging appearances of intracranial cryptococcal infection in HIV/AIDS patients in the anti-retroviral therapy era.

Clin Radiol 2016 Jan 10;71(1):9-17. Epub 2015 Nov 10.

Department of Neuroradiology, Imaging Department, Royal London Hospital, Barts Health NHS Trust, Whitechapel, London E1 1BB, UK.

Cryptococcus neoformans infection is the most common fungal infection of the central nervous system (CNS) in advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients, but remains a relatively uncommon CNS infection in both the immunocompromised and immunocompetent patient population, rendering it a somewhat elusive and frequently overlooked diagnosis. The morbidity and mortality associated with CNS cryptococcal infection can be significantly reduced by early recognition of the imaging appearances by the radiologist in order to focus and expedite clinical management and treatment. The emergence and evolution of anti-retroviral therapy have also impacted significantly on the imaging appearances, morbidity, and mortality of this neuro-infection. Read More

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January 2016

Paradoxical Immune Responses in Non-HIV Cryptococcal Meningitis.

PLoS Pathog 2015 May 28;11(5):e1004884. Epub 2015 May 28.

Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America.

The fungus Cryptococcus is a major cause of meningoencephalitis in HIV-infected as well as HIV-uninfected individuals with mortalities in developed countries of 20% and 30%, respectively. In HIV-related disease, defects in T-cell immunity are paramount, whereas there is little understanding of mechanisms of susceptibility in non-HIV related disease, especially that occurring in previously healthy adults. The present description is the first detailed immunological study of non-HIV-infected patients including those with severe central nervous system (s-CNS) disease to 1) identify mechanisms of susceptibility as well as 2) understand mechanisms underlying severe disease. Read More

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A retrospective study of contributing factors for prognosis and survival length of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis in Southern part of China (1998-2013).

BMC Infect Dis 2015 Feb 19;15:77. Epub 2015 Feb 19.

Department of Neurology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, No.1838 North Guangzhou Avenue, Guangzhou City, Guangdong Province, People's republic of China.

Background: Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis (CM) is the most common opportunistic infection of the central nervous system (CNS). Despite this observation, there have only been a few studies analyzing clinical characteristics as well as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), electroencephalograph (EEG), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features in CM patients of all ages.

Methods: We reviewed the medical records of all patients diagnosed with cryptococcal meningoencephalitis from 1998 to 2013 in the Nanfang Hospital in China and gathered data on the underlying diseases, bird exposure history, and clinical features, including those from CSF, EEG and MRI. Read More

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February 2015

Cerebellar cryptococcosis characterized by a space-occupying lesion in an immunocompetent non-HIV patient.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2015 19;11:21-4. Epub 2014 Dec 19.

Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, People's Republic of China.

Central nervous system (CNS) cryptococcosis is an opportunistic fungal infection that typically occurs in patients with reduced immunological function, such as patients with AIDS, patients receiving organ transplants, or patients receiving corticosteroid and immunosuppressive therapy. CNS cryptococcosis rarely occurs in immunocompetent patients. CNS cryptococcosis is characterized by meningitis and encephalitis and occasionally forms isolated granulomas. Read More

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January 2015

Management of Cryptococcus gattii meningoencephalitis.

Lancet Infect Dis 2015 Mar 26;15(3):348-55. Epub 2014 Nov 26.

Johns Hopkins University Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA; the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Cryptococcosis is a fungal disease caused by Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. By inhalation and subsequent pulmonary infection, it may disseminate to the CNS and cause meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Most cases occur in immunosuppressed hosts, including patients with HIV/AIDS, patients receiving immunosuppressing drugs, and solid organ transplant recipients. Read More

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Acute longitudinal myelitis following Cryptococcus laurentii pneumonia in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

Lupus 2015 Jan 8;24(1):94-7. Epub 2014 Oct 8.

Dipartimento di Medicina Interna e Specialità Mediche - Reumatologia; Sapienza Università di Roma, Rome, Italy.

Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is reported in about 50% of patients. Among the neuropsychiatric features of SLE, myelopathy, including acute transverse myelitis (ATM) or acute longitudinal myelitis (ALM), represents an uncommon event. A possible vascular aetiology of SLE myelopathies has been hypothesized and it seems to be much more associated to SLE-associated antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Read More

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January 2015

Imaging of the brain in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

Top Magn Reson Imaging 2014 Oct;23(5):275-91

From the *Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO; †Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; ‡Department of Radiology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX; §Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; and ∥Department of Radiology, The Ottawa Hospital, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON.

Neurologic disease in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients is related either to opportunistic pathogens or to direct central nervous system (CNS) invasion by the human immunodeficiency virus. Despite the increasing availability of antiretroviral therapy, opportunistic infections continue to afflict patients in the developing world and in other populations with limited access to appropriate treatment. Classic CNS infections in the setting of AIDS include toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, and cytomegalovirus encephalitis. Read More

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October 2014

Cryptococcus gattii infections.

Clin Microbiol Rev 2014 Oct;27(4):980-1024

Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Westmead Millennium Institute, Westmead, NSW, Australia Western Clinical School, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Westmead, NSW, Australia

Understanding of the taxonomy and phylogeny of Cryptococcus gattii has been advanced by modern molecular techniques. C. gattii probably diverged from Cryptococcus neoformans between 16 million and 160 million years ago, depending on the dating methods applied, and maintains diversity by recombining in nature. Read More

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October 2014

MRI of CNS fungal infections: review of aspergillosis to histoplasmosis and everything in between.

Clin Neuroradiol 2014 Sep 29;24(3):217-30. Epub 2014 May 29.

Department of Radiology & Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Avenue, M-391, San Francisco, CA, 94143-0628, USA,

Fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS) represent a wide spectrum of diseases with some common magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features. Risk factors include immunocompromise of any cause and living in endemic areas. CNS infection occurs through hematogenous spread, cerebrospinal fluid seeding, or direct extension. Read More

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September 2014

Cryptococcal meningitis in a multiple sclerosis patient taking natalizumab.

J Neurol Sci 2014 May 11;340(1-2):109-11. Epub 2014 Mar 11.

Department of Neurology, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Illinois Neurologic Institute, Department of Medicine, Peoria, United States. Electronic address:

Importance: Natalizumab was approved in 2004 by the US Food and Drug Administration (US-FDA) for treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS), however it was temporarily withdrawn after its use was associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Other reported adverse events have included melanoma, primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma, and gastrointestinal cryptosporidiosis. An MS exacerbation may occur after discontinuation and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), particularly in the setting of PML, is also possible. Read More

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