86 results match your criteria Imaging in CNS Cryptococcosis


Comparison and Correlation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Clinical Severity in Nonhuman Immunodeficiency Virus Patients with Cryptococcal Infection of Central Nervous System.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2018 Dec;131(24):2930-2937

Department of Radiology, Beijing Youan Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, China.

Background: The incidence of cryptococcal meningitis among immunocompetent patients increases, especially in China and imaging plays an important role. The current study was to find the correlation between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) manifestation and clinical severity in nonhuman immunodeficiency virus patients with cryptococcal infection of central nervous system (CNS).

Methods: A total of 65 patients with CNS cryptococcal infection from August 2014 to October 2016 were retrospectively included in this study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0366-6999.247201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6302650PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Cryptococcal Meningitis: A Retrospective Cohort of a Brazilian Reference Hospital in the Post-HAART Era of Universal Access.

Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 2018 1;2018:6512468. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Section of Infectious Diseases, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

Objective: is a common opportunistic infection in adults with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome worldwide. However, limited data exist for HIV-infected patients in the post-HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) era in Brazil. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of cryptococcosis in a cohort of patients attending a teaching tertiary care hospital in southern Brazil after the introduction of HAART in Brazil. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/6512468DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6093042PMC
August 2018
23 Reads
0.490 Impact Factor

Cryptococcal infection in lung transplant recipients: A 5-year retrospective review at an Australian transplant center.

Transpl Infect Dis 2018 Dec 31;20(6):e12976. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Department of Infectious Diseases, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Cryptococcosis is a common invasive fungal infection (IFI) in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Little is known about cryptococcosis in lung transplant (LTx) recipients despite having one of the highest risks of infection. The aim of this study was to describe demographic and clinical features of cryptococcal infection in LTx recipients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tid.12976DOI Listing
December 2018
8 Reads

Cryptococcoma mimicking a brain tumor in an immunocompetent patient: case report of an extremely rare presentation.

Sao Paulo Med J 2018 Sep-Oct;136(5):492-496. Epub 2017 Nov 6.

PhD. Full Professor and Head, Discipline of Neurosurgery, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas da Santa Casa de São Paulo (FCMSCSP), São Paulo (SP), Brazil.

Context: Central nervous system (CNS) infectious diseases have high prevalence in developing countries and their proper diagnosis and treatment are very important for public health planning. Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungus that may cause several CNS manifestations, especially in immunocompromised patients. Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common type of involvement. Read More

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http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1516-3180.2017.0046210417DOI Listing
February 2019
9 Reads

Choroid Plexitis and Ependymitis by Magnetic Resonance Imaging are Biomarkers of Neuronal Damage and Inflammation in HIV-negative Cryptococcal Meningoencephalitis.

Sci Rep 2017 08 23;7(1):9184. Epub 2017 Aug 23.

Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

CNS cryptococcal meningoencephalitis in both HIV positive (HIV+) and HIV negative (HIV-) subjects is associated with high morbidity and mortality despite optimal antifungal therapy. We thus conducted a detailed analysis of the MR imaging findings in 45 HIV- and 11 HIV+ patients to identify imaging findings associated with refractory disease. Ventricular abnormalities, namely ependymitis and choroid plexitis were seen in HIV- but not in HIV+ subjects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-09694-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5569007PMC
August 2017
25 Reads

Clinical characteristics and prognosis of pediatric cryptococcosis in Beijing Children's Hospital, 2002-2014.

Eur J Pediatr 2017 Sep 3;176(9):1235-1244. Epub 2017 Aug 3.

Key Laboratory of Major Diseases in Children and National Key Discipline of Pediatrics (Capital Medical University), Ministry of Education, National Clinical Research Centre for Respiratory Diseases, Beijing Key Laboratory of Pediatric Respiratory Infection Diseases, Department of Infectious Diseases, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100045, China.

Cryptococcosis is a rare pediatric disease. The aim of the study is to describe clinical characteristics and prognosis of pediatric cryptococcosis from 2002 to 2014 in Beijing Children's Hospital. A total of 53 cases of cryptococcosis were identified, 69. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00431-017-2974-0DOI Listing
September 2017
14 Reads

Clinical characteristics of disseminated cryptococcosis in previously healthy children in China.

BMC Infect Dis 2017 05 22;17(1):359. Epub 2017 May 22.

Respiratory Department, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Disseminated cryptococcosis is a rare and fatal disease, and limited data exist regarding it in children. This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of disseminated cryptococcosis in previously healthy children in China.

Methods: Hospitalized patients with disseminated cryptococcosis were enrolled during January 1996 to December 2015 in Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, China. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-017-2450-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5440943PMC
May 2017
14 Reads

Cerebral cryptococcoma mimicking glioblastoma.

BMJ Case Rep 2017 Feb 10;2017. Epub 2017 Feb 10.

Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Herston, Queensland, Australia.

and cause invasive fungal disease, with meningitis being the most common manifestation of central nervous system (CNS) disease. Encapsulated cryptococcomas occur rarely, predominantly in immunocompetent hosts, usually related to Our patient was an immunocompetent man who presented with headache and a large cystic CNS lesion thought to be glioblastoma. Biopsy of a concomitant lung lesion confirmed cryptococcoma and empiric antifungal therapy was started for presumed CNS cryptococcoma. Read More

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http://casereports.bmj.com/content/2017/bcr-2016-218824.full
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2016-218824DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5307282PMC
February 2017
5 Reads

Central nervous system infections in immunocompromised patients.

Curr Opin Crit Care 2017 Apr;23(2):128-133

aAP-HP, Bichat Hospital, Department of Intensive Care Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Paris Diderot University bUMR1148, LVTS, Sorbonne Paris Cité, INSERM/Paris Diderot University, Paris, France cDepartment of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospitals Leuven, KULeuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Purpose Of Review: Although rare, central nervous system (CNS) infections are increasingly being recognized in immunocompromised patients. The goal of the present review is to provide a practical diagnostic approach for the intensivist, and to briefly discuss some of the most prevalent conditions.

Recent Findings: Immunocompromised patients presenting with new neurological symptoms should always be suspected of a CNS infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCC.0000000000000397DOI Listing
April 2017
2 Reads

Neurotuberculosis immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in the setting of HIV infection: A case report and review of literature.

Indian J Radiol Imaging 2016 Oct-Dec;26(4):446-450

Department of Radiodiagnosis, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER), Pondicherry, India.

Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is an exaggerated immune response which can occur with various coinfections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients, of which the most commonly implicated in central nervous system (CNS)-IRIS are progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), cryptococcosis, and tuberculosis (TB). TB-IRIS is a known complication of pulmonary TB or TB lymphadenitis coinfection in HIV infected patients who are on antituberculosis treatment (ATT) after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, development of IRIS in extrapulmonary TB such as CNS TB is very rare. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0971-3026.195782DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5201071PMC
January 2017
11 Reads

Spinal Arachnoiditis as a Complication of Cryptococcal Meningoencephalitis in Non-HIV Previously Healthy Adults.

Clin Infect Dis 2017 Feb 10;64(3):275-283. Epub 2016 Nov 10.

Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases (LCID), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda,Maryland.

Background: Cryptococcus can cause meningoencephalitis (CM) among previously healthy non-HIV adults. Spinal arachnoiditis is under-recognized, since diagnosis is difficult with concomitant central nervous system (CNS) pathology.

Methods: We describe 6 cases of spinal arachnoiditis among 26 consecutively recruited CM patients with normal CD4 counts who achieved microbiologic control. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciw739DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5241780PMC
February 2017
35 Reads

Clinical Diversity of CNS Cryptococcosis.

J Assoc Physicians India 2016 10;64(10):15-19

Assistant Professor and Statistician, Department of Community Medicine, Christian Medical College, Ludhiana.

Background: Though cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is recognized as a disease of the immunocompromised, studies have implicated that it also affect immunocompetent patients.

Methodology: This was a cross sectional study conducted in the Department of Medicine of a tertiary teaching institution in North India. All the patients diagnosed with CM on the basis of detection of cryptococcal antigen or the presence of capsulated budding yeast cells on India ink preparation, from April 2009 to March2015 were included in the study. Read More

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October 2016
2 Reads

[Dementia in Patients with Central Nervous System Mycosis].

Brain Nerve 2016 Apr;68(4):329-39

Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine.

Central nervous system (CNS) mycosis is a potentially life-threatening but treatable neurological emergency. CNS mycoses progress slowly and are sometimes difficult to distinguish from dementia. Though most patients with CNS mycosis have an underlying disease, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, cancer, diabetes mellitus, and/or use of immunosuppressants, cryptococcosis can occur in non-immunosuppressed persons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416200402DOI Listing
April 2016
6 Reads

CRYPTOCOCCAL MENINGITIS IN IMMUNOCOMPETENT PATIENT.

J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2015 Oct-Dec;27(4):942-4

Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is life threatening fungal infection of central nervous system (CNS). Although it is commonly associated with immunosuppression but rarely it can occur in immune competent patient. We report a case of 21 year old non HIV infected girl. Read More

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April 2016
8 Reads

Spectrum of imaging appearances of intracranial cryptococcal infection in HIV/AIDS patients in the anti-retroviral therapy era.

Clin Radiol 2016 Jan 10;71(1):9-17. Epub 2015 Nov 10.

Department of Neuroradiology, Imaging Department, Royal London Hospital, Barts Health NHS Trust, Whitechapel, London E1 1BB, UK.

Cryptococcus neoformans infection is the most common fungal infection of the central nervous system (CNS) in advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients, but remains a relatively uncommon CNS infection in both the immunocompromised and immunocompetent patient population, rendering it a somewhat elusive and frequently overlooked diagnosis. The morbidity and mortality associated with CNS cryptococcal infection can be significantly reduced by early recognition of the imaging appearances by the radiologist in order to focus and expedite clinical management and treatment. The emergence and evolution of anti-retroviral therapy have also impacted significantly on the imaging appearances, morbidity, and mortality of this neuro-infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.crad.2015.10.005DOI Listing
January 2016
2 Reads

Paradoxical Immune Responses in Non-HIV Cryptococcal Meningitis.

PLoS Pathog 2015 May 28;11(5):e1004884. Epub 2015 May 28.

Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America.

The fungus Cryptococcus is a major cause of meningoencephalitis in HIV-infected as well as HIV-uninfected individuals with mortalities in developed countries of 20% and 30%, respectively. In HIV-related disease, defects in T-cell immunity are paramount, whereas there is little understanding of mechanisms of susceptibility in non-HIV related disease, especially that occurring in previously healthy adults. The present description is the first detailed immunological study of non-HIV-infected patients including those with severe central nervous system (s-CNS) disease to 1) identify mechanisms of susceptibility as well as 2) understand mechanisms underlying severe disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004884DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4447450PMC
May 2015
32 Reads

A retrospective study of contributing factors for prognosis and survival length of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis in Southern part of China (1998-2013).

BMC Infect Dis 2015 Feb 19;15:77. Epub 2015 Feb 19.

Department of Neurology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, No.1838 North Guangzhou Avenue, Guangzhou City, Guangdong Province, People's republic of China.

Background: Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis (CM) is the most common opportunistic infection of the central nervous system (CNS). Despite this observation, there have only been a few studies analyzing clinical characteristics as well as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), electroencephalograph (EEG), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features in CM patients of all ages.

Methods: We reviewed the medical records of all patients diagnosed with cryptococcal meningoencephalitis from 1998 to 2013 in the Nanfang Hospital in China and gathered data on the underlying diseases, bird exposure history, and clinical features, including those from CSF, EEG and MRI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-015-0826-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4349236PMC
February 2015
15 Reads

Cerebellar cryptococcosis characterized by a space-occupying lesion in an immunocompetent non-HIV patient.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2015 19;11:21-4. Epub 2014 Dec 19.

Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, People's Republic of China.

Central nervous system (CNS) cryptococcosis is an opportunistic fungal infection that typically occurs in patients with reduced immunological function, such as patients with AIDS, patients receiving organ transplants, or patients receiving corticosteroid and immunosuppressive therapy. CNS cryptococcosis rarely occurs in immunocompetent patients. CNS cryptococcosis is characterized by meningitis and encephalitis and occasionally forms isolated granulomas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S75432DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4277240PMC
January 2015
6 Reads

Management of Cryptococcus gattii meningoencephalitis.

Lancet Infect Dis 2015 Mar 26;15(3):348-55. Epub 2014 Nov 26.

Johns Hopkins University Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA; the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Cryptococcosis is a fungal disease caused by Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. By inhalation and subsequent pulmonary infection, it may disseminate to the CNS and cause meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Most cases occur in immunosuppressed hosts, including patients with HIV/AIDS, patients receiving immunosuppressing drugs, and solid organ transplant recipients. Read More

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http://www.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/laninf/PIIS1473309914
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http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S147330991470945
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(14)70945-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4481715PMC
March 2015
7 Reads

Acute longitudinal myelitis following Cryptococcus laurentii pneumonia in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

Lupus 2015 Jan 8;24(1):94-7. Epub 2014 Oct 8.

Dipartimento di Medicina Interna e Specialità Mediche - Reumatologia; Sapienza Università di Roma, Rome, Italy.

Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is reported in about 50% of patients. Among the neuropsychiatric features of SLE, myelopathy, including acute transverse myelitis (ATM) or acute longitudinal myelitis (ALM), represents an uncommon event. A possible vascular aetiology of SLE myelopathies has been hypothesized and it seems to be much more associated to SLE-associated antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0961203314554848DOI Listing
January 2015
10 Reads

Imaging of the brain in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

Top Magn Reson Imaging 2014 Oct;23(5):275-91

From the *Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO; †Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; ‡Department of Radiology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX; §Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; and ∥Department of Radiology, The Ottawa Hospital, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON.

Neurologic disease in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients is related either to opportunistic pathogens or to direct central nervous system (CNS) invasion by the human immunodeficiency virus. Despite the increasing availability of antiretroviral therapy, opportunistic infections continue to afflict patients in the developing world and in other populations with limited access to appropriate treatment. Classic CNS infections in the setting of AIDS include toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, and cytomegalovirus encephalitis. Read More

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http://pdfs.journals.lww.com/topicsinmri/2014/10000/Imaging_
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http://content.wkhealth.com/linkback/openurl?sid=WKPTLP:land
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RMR.0000000000000031DOI Listing
October 2014
11 Reads

Cryptococcus gattii infections.

Clin Microbiol Rev 2014 Oct;27(4):980-1024

Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Westmead Millennium Institute, Westmead, NSW, Australia Western Clinical School, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Westmead, NSW, Australia

Understanding of the taxonomy and phylogeny of Cryptococcus gattii has been advanced by modern molecular techniques. C. gattii probably diverged from Cryptococcus neoformans between 16 million and 160 million years ago, depending on the dating methods applied, and maintains diversity by recombining in nature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/CMR.00126-13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4187630PMC
October 2014
1 Read

MRI of CNS fungal infections: review of aspergillosis to histoplasmosis and everything in between.

Clin Neuroradiol 2014 Sep 29;24(3):217-30. Epub 2014 May 29.

Department of Radiology & Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Avenue, M-391, San Francisco, CA, 94143-0628, USA,

Fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS) represent a wide spectrum of diseases with some common magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features. Risk factors include immunocompromise of any cause and living in endemic areas. CNS infection occurs through hematogenous spread, cerebrospinal fluid seeding, or direct extension. Read More

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http://www.life-worldwide.org/assets/uploads/files/StarkeyCN
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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00062-014-0305-7
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00062-014-0305-7DOI Listing
September 2014
12 Reads

Cryptococcal meningitis in a multiple sclerosis patient taking natalizumab.

J Neurol Sci 2014 May 11;340(1-2):109-11. Epub 2014 Mar 11.

Department of Neurology, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Illinois Neurologic Institute, Department of Medicine, Peoria, United States. Electronic address:

Importance: Natalizumab was approved in 2004 by the US Food and Drug Administration (US-FDA) for treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS), however it was temporarily withdrawn after its use was associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Other reported adverse events have included melanoma, primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma, and gastrointestinal cryptosporidiosis. An MS exacerbation may occur after discontinuation and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), particularly in the setting of PML, is also possible. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2014.03.007DOI Listing
May 2014
9 Reads

Cryptococcal meningitis associated with tuberculosis in HIV infected patients.

Indian J Tuberc 2013 Jul;60(3):180-3

Department of Tuberculosis and Chest Diseases, Government Medical College, TB Hospital, Patiala, India.

Opportunistic infections are common complications of advanced immuno-deficiency in individuals with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. Following involvement of the lung, the central nervous system (CNS) is the second most commonly affected organ. We report two cases of concurrent cryptococcal meningitis and tuberculosis (TB) in HIV infected persons. Read More

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July 2013
2 Reads

[Cryptococcal meningitis in a patient with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt and monitoring for pulmonary sarcoidosis].

Neurochirurgie 2013 Feb 8;59(1):47-9. Epub 2013 Feb 8.

Service de neurochirurgie, hôpital militaire d'instruction Mohamed-V, Hay Riyad, Rabat, Maroc.

The fungus Cryptococcus neoformans can cause common opportunistic infection in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. But other conditions can be associated with sarcoidosis. Meningoencephalitis is the most common manifestation of this disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuchi.2012.06.005DOI Listing
February 2013
6 Reads

Chronic and subacute meningitis.

Continuum (Minneap Minn) 2012 Dec;18(6 Infectious Disease):1290-318

Harborview Medical Center, 325 Ninth Ave, Room 3EH70, Box 359775, Seattle, WA 98104, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This article describes the background, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of selected etiologies of subacute and chronic meningitis. Key diagnostic considerations when evaluating a patient presenting with chronic inflammation of the CNS are discussed, and several specific infectious, neoplastic, and autoimmune etiologies are reviewed in detail.

Recent Findings: With recent advancement in serologic and CSF diagnostic testing, specific infectious, neoplastic, or autoimmune etiologies of chronic meningitis can be identified. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/01.CON.0000423848.17276.21DOI Listing
December 2012
50 Reads

[Intraventricular cryptococcoma successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B and voriconazole: a case report].

No Shinkei Geka 2012 Sep;40(9):777-84

Department of Neurosurgery, Ehime University School of Medicine, Japan.

Cryptococcal infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are infrequent in immunocompetent hosts and usually present as meningitis. However, fungal masses called cryptococcoma can sometimes be formed. We report a case in which intraventricular cryptococcoma in an immunocompetent patient was completely cured using liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB) and voriconazole (VRCZ). Read More

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September 2012
1 Read

Clinical manifestations of Cryptococcus gattii infection: determinants of neurological sequelae and death.

Clin Infect Dis 2012 Sep 5;55(6):789-98. Epub 2012 Jun 5.

Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Westmead Millennium Institute, Sydney, Australia.

Background: Longer-term morbidity and outcomes of Cryptococcus gattii infection are not described. We analyzed clinical, microbiological, and outcome data in Australian patients followed for 12 months, to identify prognostic determinants.

Methods: Culture-confirmed C. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/cis529DOI Listing
September 2012
17 Reads

Central nervous system fungal infections: observations from a large tertiary hospital in northern India.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2012 Nov 30;114(9):1232-7. Epub 2012 Mar 30.

Department of Neurology, Sir Gangaram Hospital, New Delhi, India.

Objective: To report our observations regarding fungal infections of the brain over two years from a large tertiary hospital in northern India. To identify fungal infections in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients and to compare the two groups with respect to their age of occurrence, demographic data, clinical profile, radiological findings, response to treatment and outcome.

Methods: All consecutive cases of central nervous system (CNS) fungal infections admitted to the hospital over two years were included in this study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2012.03.007DOI Listing
November 2012
11 Reads

Feline cryptococcosis: impact of current research on clinical management.

J Feline Med Surg 2011 Mar;13(3):163-72

Animal Surgical and Emergency Center, 1535 S Sepulveda Blvd, Los Angeles, CA 90025, USA.

Unlabelled: DISEASE SUMMARY: Cryptococcosis, principally caused by Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii, is the most common systemic mycosis of cats worldwide. Cats may be infected following inhalation of spores from the environment, with the nasal cavity suspected as being the initial site of colonization and subsequent infection. Other sites of infection in cats are the skin, lungs, lymph nodes, central nervous system (CNS), eyes and, occasionally, periarticular connective tissue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfms.2011.01.009DOI Listing
March 2011
2 Reads

Clinical signs, imaging features, neuropathology, and outcome in cats and dogs with central nervous system cryptococcosis from California.

J Vet Intern Med 2010 Nov-Dec;24(6):1427-38

Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

Background: Cryptococcus spp. is a fungal pathogen with a predilection for the central nervous system (CNS).

Objectives: To compare the clinical, advanced imaging, and neuropathologic findings in dogs and cats with CNS cryptococcosis, and to evaluate outcome of treatment in these animals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-1676.2010.0633.xDOI Listing
February 2011
1 Read

The human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans escapes macrophages by a phagosome emptying mechanism that is inhibited by Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin polymerisation.

PLoS Pathog 2010 Aug 12;6(8):e1001041. Epub 2010 Aug 12.

School of Biosciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

The lysis of infected cells by disease-causing microorganisms is an efficient but risky strategy for disseminated infection, as it exposes the pathogen to the full repertoire of the host's immune system. Cryptococcus neoformans is a widespread fungal pathogen that causes a fatal meningitis in HIV and other immunocompromised patients. Following intracellular growth, cryptococci are able to escape their host cells by a non-lytic expulsive mechanism that may contribute to the invasion of the central nervous system. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001041
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2920849PMC
August 2010
6 Reads

Cryptococcal choroid plexitis: rare imaging findings of central nervous system cryptococcal infection in an immunocompetent individual.

Br J Radiol 2010 Jan;83(985):e14-7

Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Human Behaviour and Allied Sciences, Dilshad Garden, Shahadara, Delhi-95, India.

Central nervous system (CNS) cryptococcosis is a common opportunistic fungal infection in immunocompromised patients, and the imaging findings differ from those in immunocompetent patients. Here, we present the imaging findings in an immunocompetent woman of a rare case of central nervous system cryptococcal choroid plexitis with trapped temporal horns, enlarged enhancing bilateral choroid plexuses and multiple intraventricular choroid plexus cysts. Read More

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http://www.birpublications.org/doi/10.1259/bjr/50945216
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjr/50945216DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3487264PMC
January 2010
2 Reads

Unusual presentations of nervous system infection by Cryptococcus neoformans.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2009 Sep 21;111(7):638-42. Epub 2009 Jun 21.

Department of Neurology, Harvard University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02215, United States.

Nervous system infections by Cryptococcus neoformans may occur not only in congenital or acquired immunodeficiency syndromes, but also in immunocompetent hosts. Neurological manifestations of C. neoformans infection include meningitis and, less commonly, parenchymal CNS granulomatous disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2009.05.007DOI Listing
September 2009
1 Read

First reported case of Cryptococcus gattii in the Southeastern USA: implications for travel-associated acquisition of an emerging pathogen.

PLoS One 2009 Jun 10;4(6):e5851. Epub 2009 Jun 10.

Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

In 2007, the first confirmed case of Cryptococcus gattii was reported in the state of North Carolina, USA. An otherwise healthy HIV negative male patient presented with a large upper thigh cryptococcoma in February, which was surgically removed and the patient was started on long-term high-dose fluconazole treatment. In May of 2007, the patient presented to the Duke University hospital emergency room with seizures. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0005851PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2689935PMC
June 2009
1 Read

Central nervous system cryptococcoma in immunocompetent patients: a short review illustrated by a new case.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2010 Jan 30;152(1):129-36. Epub 2009 Apr 30.

Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610041, People's Republic of China.

Objective: Cryptococcal infection in CNS is frequently seen in HIV patients and those with other immunosuppressed conditions. However, cryptococcal granuloma in CNS in immunocompetent patient is rare. We present one new case of cryptococcoma and review literature to illustrate diagnosis and treatment of these lesions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-009-0311-8DOI Listing
January 2010
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From the archives of the AFIP: central nervous system infections associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection: radiologic-pathologic correlation.

Radiographics 2008 Nov-Dec;28(7):2033-58

Departments of Radiologic Pathology and Neuropathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC, USA.

Diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) result directly from HIV itself or from a variety of opportunistic agents. These infections include progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, toxoplasmosis, and cryptococcosis. A resurgence of tuberculosis and neurosyphilis has also been documented. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/rg.287085135DOI Listing
January 2009
37 Reads

Cerebellar cryptococcoma in an immunocompetent child. Case report.

J Neurosurg 2007 Oct;107(4 Suppl):314-7

Department of Neurosurgery, Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, New York 10021, USA.

This is the first report of a cerebellar cryptococcoma in a previously healthy, HIV-negative child. Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungus that typically affects patients who are HIV-positive and other patients with compromised immune systems. Isolated cryptococcomas of the central nervous system (CNS) have been previously described in immunocompetent adults; however, this is the first report of a cryptococcoma in a child. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/PED-07/10/314DOI Listing
October 2007
3 Reads

Intraventricular cryptococcal cysts masquerading as racemose neurocysticercosis.

Surg Neurol 2007 Jun;67(6):647-9

Department of Neurosurgery, University of California, Irvine, Orange, CA 92868.

Background: Cryptococcal infections of the CNS are infrequent in immunocompetent hosts. When present, they usually present as meningitis and hydrocephalus or as fungal masses called cryptococcomas. We report a case in which intraventricular cryptococcal cysts clinically and radiologically simulated the racemose form of neurocysticercosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surneu.2006.10.049DOI Listing
June 2007
8 Reads

[The role of brain magnetic resonance studies in the diagnostics of central nervous system lesions in HIV-1 positive patients].

Wiad Lek 2006 ;59(11-12):805-13

Zakładu Neuroradiologii Katedry Radiologii, Akademii Medycznej we Wrocławiu.

Unlabelled: Approximately 10% of persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and 75-90% patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) present neurological symptoms. This group causes the greatest diagnostic difficulties among AIDS patients. The purpose of the study was to demonstrate the usefulness of the magnetic resonance imaging (MR) of the central nervous system (CNS) in the diagnosis and differentiation of primary and secondary lesions. Read More

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June 2007
12 Reads

Choroid plexitis in a case of systemic nocardiosis.

Emerg Radiol 2007 Oct 4;14(5):337-43. Epub 2007 Apr 4.

SUNY Downstate Medical Center, 450 Clarkson Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11203, USA.

Although rare, primary choroid plexitis can occur as an early presentation of a central nervous system (CNS) infection most commonly with cryptococcosis, tuberculosis, and nocardiosis. In the appropriate clinical setting, an enlarged, intensely enhancing choroid plexus should raise suspicion for choroid plexitis. It is important to recognize this entity early as aggressive diagnostic and therapeutic intervention may be necessary. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10140-007-0604-2DOI Listing
October 2007
2 Reads

The imaging appearances of intracranial CNS infections in adult HIV and AIDS patients.

Clin Radiol 2006 May;61(5):393-401

Department of Neuroradiology, Hope Hospital, Salford, Manchester, UK.

The spectrum of pathology affecting the central nervous system (CNS) in patients suffering from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is broad and comprises predominantly opportunistic infections and neoplasms. It is estimated that approximately one-third of all patients with AIDS develop neurological complications. The organisms responsible for AIDS are human retroviruses: primarily the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV). Read More

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http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S000992600600040
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.crad.2006.01.008DOI Listing
May 2006
4 Reads

Central nervous system opportunistic infections in developed countries in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era.

J Neurovirol 2005 ;11 Suppl 3:72-82

Infectious Diseases Service, Hospital Clinic, Institut d'Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

A marked decrease in incidence has been observed for most central nervous system (CNS) opportunistic infections (OIs) after the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in developed countries. However, the spectrum of these OIs in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients has remained almost unchanged. CNS toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, tuberculosis, and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) remain the most frequent ones. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13550280500513846DOI Listing
July 2006
41 Reads

Fungal infections of the central nervous system in the dog and cat.

Clin Tech Small Anim Pract 2005 Nov;20(4):212-9

Department of Neurology, The Animal Care Center, Rohnert Park, CA 94928, USA.

Fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS) in dogs and cats are uncommon. The purpose of this paper is to review the clinical signs, diagnostic tests, and therapeutic options of fungal infections of the CNS in the dog and cat. Clinical signs are dependent on lesion location and are often multifocal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ctsap.2005.07.001DOI Listing
November 2005
2 Reads

Fungal CNS infections in patients with hematologic malignancy.

Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2005 Oct;3(5):775-85

Istituto di Ematologia, Università Cattolica S. Cuore, Largo Francesco Vito, 1I-00168 Rome, Italy.

Various fungal agents can cause CNS infections. CNS fungal infections may present as a mass (i.e. Read More

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http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1586/14787210.3.5.775
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/14787210.3.5.775DOI Listing
October 2005
3 Reads

[CNS changes in HIV-infected patients: magnetic resonance spectroscopy].

Neurol Neurochir Pol 2003 ;37 Suppl 2:21-8

Zakład Radiologii, Klinika Obserwacyjno-Zakaźna Akademii Medycznej w Białymstoku.

Changes that may appear in the central nervous system in the course of AIDS either result directly from HIV infection or--as is the case with opportunistic infections and some neoplasms--develop as a secondary consequence of general immunodeficiency. Neuroimaging techniques may be most useful in the differential diagnosis of these lesions. Basic principles of HIV encephalitis and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy differentiation in MRI scans are discussed in the paper, and diagnostic possibilities of MR imaging in some other infections (tuberculosis, toxoplasmosis, and cryptococcosis) are outlined. Read More

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February 2004
2 Reads

Opportunistic infections of the CNS in patients with AIDS: diagnosis and management.

Authors:
Julio Collazos

CNS Drugs 2003 ;17(12):869-87

Section of Infectious Diseases, Hospital de Galdakao, Vizcaya, Spain.

The CNS is the second most commonly affected organ in patients with AIDS. Many opportunistic infections may involve the brain, but the four most frequent conditions are toxoplasmosis, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), cryptococcosis and cytomegalovirus infection. Although the incidence of these infections among patients with AIDS has decreased in the past years as a consequence of the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), they remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in this patient group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00023210-200317120-00002DOI Listing
November 2003
6 Reads

CNS cryptococcoma in an HIV-positive patient.

J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic) 2002 Oct-Dec;1(4):131-3

University of Buenos Aires, Francisco J Muñiz Hospital, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

This is the first case of brain cryptococcoma in an AIDS patient reported in Argentina. The patient was a 28-year-old white heterosexual man with AIDS who presented with altered mental status, seizures, visual hallucinations, headache, and fever without significant focal neurological deficit. He had a lumbar puncture, and was treated for cryptococcal meningitis. Read More

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February 2004
22 Reads
4 Citations

Cryptococcosis of the central nervous system in a dog.

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003 Jun;222(12):1722-5, 1706

Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, MA 01536, USA.

A 3-year-old female German Shepherd Dog was evaluated for progressive mental obtundation and vestibular signs. Central nervous system cryptococcosis was diagnosed on the basis of growth of Cryptococcus neoformans in fungal culture of CSF, as well as detection of the organism in CSF via microscopy. Cryptococcal capsular latex antigen agglutination titer was 1:262,144 in CSF and 1:1,048,576 in serum samples. Read More

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June 2003
6 Reads