473 results match your criteria Imaging in Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia


Live imaging of alveologenesis in precision-cut lung slices reveals dynamic epithelial cell behaviour.

Nat Commun 2019 03 12;10(1):1178. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Damage to alveoli, the gas-exchanging region of the lungs, is a component of many chronic and acute lung diseases. In addition, insufficient generation of alveoli results in bronchopulmonary dysplasia, a disease of prematurity. Therefore visualising the process of alveolar development (alveologenesis) is critical for our understanding of lung homeostasis and for the development of treatments to repair and regenerate lung tissue. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-09067-3
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-09067-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6414680PMC
March 2019
3 Reads
10.742 Impact Factor

Imaging Assessment of Partial Liquid Ventilation in Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

Curr Probl Diagn Radiol 2019 May - Jun;48(3):247-250. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA; Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

Partial liquid ventilation is proposed as an alternative ventilation strategy to reduce surface tension, increase alveolar recruitment, and decrease inflammation. Studied in acute respiratory distress and other indications, liquid ventilation is being revisited for infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Perfluorooctyl bromide used for liquid ventilation is radiopaque, allowing radiographic visualization of lung liquid ventilation patterns that may provide additional insight into pulmonary pathophysiology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1067/j.cpradiol.2018.12.005DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Recent Advances in Pathology: the 2019 Annual Review Issue of The Journal of Pathology.

J Pathol 2019 Apr;247(5):535-538

RECAMO, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Brno, Czech Republic.

In this Annual Review Issue of The Journal of Pathology, we present 15 invited reviews on topical aspects of pathology, ranging from the impacts of the microbiome in human disease through mechanisms of cell death and autophagy to recent advances in immunity and the uses of genomics for understanding, classifying and treating human cancers. Each of the reviews is authored by experts in their fields and our intention is to provide comprehensive updates in specific areas of pathology in which there has been considerable recent progress. Copyright © 2019 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/path.5255
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/path.5255DOI Listing
April 2019
17 Reads

Third Trimester Cerebellar Metabolite Concentrations are Decreased in Very Premature Infants with Structural Brain Injury.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 4;9(1):1212. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Developing Brain Research Laboratory, Children's National Health System, Washington, D.C., USA.

Advanced neuroimaging techniques have improved our understanding of microstructural changes in the preterm supratentorial brain as well as the cerebellum and its association with impaired neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, the metabolic interrogation of the developing cerebellum during the early postnatal period after preterm birth remains largely unknown. Our study investigates the relationship between cerebellar neurometabolites measured by proton magnetic spectroscopy (H-MRS) in preterm infants with advancing post-menstrual age (PMA) and brain injury during ex-utero third trimester prior to term equivalent age (TEA). Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-37203-4
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-37203-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6362247PMC
February 2019
7 Reads

Local pulmonary drug delivery in the preterm rabbit: feasibility and efficacy of daily intratracheal injections.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2019 Apr 24;316(4):L589-L597. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Department of Development and Regeneration, Cluster Woman and Child, KU Leuven , Leuven , Belgium.

Recent clinical trials in newborns have successfully used surfactant as a drug carrier for an active compound, to minimize systemic exposure. To investigate the translational potential of surfactant-compound mixtures and other local therapeutics, a relevant animal model is required in which intratracheal administration for maximal local deposition is technically possible and well tolerated. Preterm rabbit pups (born at 28 days of gestation) were exposed to either hyperoxia or normoxia and randomized to receive daily intratracheal surfactant, daily intratracheal saline, or no injections for 7 days. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajplung.00255.2018DOI Listing
April 2019
11 Reads

Advanced pulmonary MRI to quantify alveolar and acinar duct abnormalities: Current status and future clinical applications.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2019 Jan 13. Epub 2019 Jan 13.

Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada.

There are serious clinical gaps in our understanding of chronic lung disease that require novel, sensitive, and noninvasive in vivo measurements of the lung parenchyma to measure disease pathogenesis and progressive changes over time as well as response to treatment. Until recently, our knowledge and appreciation of the tissue changes that accompany lung disease has depended on ex vivo biopsy and concomitant histological and stereological measurements. These measurements have revealed the underlying pathologies that drive lung disease and have provided important observations about airway occlusion, obliteration of the terminal bronchioles and airspace enlargement, or fibrosis and their roles in disease initiation and progression. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/jmri.26623
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.26623DOI Listing
January 2019
7 Reads

Impact of chest radiography-based definition of bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

Pediatr Int 2019 Mar 7;61(3):258-263. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Department of Pediatrics, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, Akita, Japan.

Background: Bubbly/cystic appearance on chest radiograph is an important factor in severe-type bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in Japan. The aim of this study was to determine the perinatal characteristics and neonatal complications of the bubbly/cystic(+) group in extremely preterm infants with BPD, that is, oxygen dependency at day 28 after birth (BPD28).

Methods: This was a multicenter retrospective cohort study of population data from infants (birthweight, <1,500 g) enrolled in the Neonatal Research Network of Japan. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ped.13786DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

50 Years Ago in The Journal of Pediatrics: Radiologic Findings in the Lungs of Premature Infants.

J Pediatr 2019 01;204:133

Department of Pediatrics and Radiology University of California, San Francisco San Francisco, California.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.08.001DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Intraluminal Pulmonary Vein Stenosis in Children: A "New" Lesion.

Anesth Analg 2018 Nov 16. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

From the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Division of Cardiac Anesthesia, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is a rare disorder that leads to progressive narrowing of the extrapulmonary veins. PVS has been reported in both children and adults and in its worse iteration leads to pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular failure, and death. Multiple etiologies of PVS have been described in children and adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000003924DOI Listing
November 2018
30 Reads

Diagnostic Value of Multi-Slice Spiral Computed Tomography for Bronchial Dysplasia in Premature Infants.

Med Sci Monit 2018 Oct 15;24:7375-7381. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Women and Children Health Institute Futian, University of South China, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of multi-slice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) for bronchial dysplasia in premature infants. MATERIAL AND METHODS A retrospective analysis of 248 premature infants who were highly suspected to have bronchial dysplasia and were admitted to our hospital from 2015 onwards was conducted. We observed bronchus morphologies, sizes, and tissue characteristics using fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FB) as the criterion standard for diagnosis. Read More

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https://www.medscimonit.com/abstract/index/idArt/911749
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.911749DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6198711PMC
October 2018
4 Reads

Quantitative Assessment of Regional Dynamic Airway Collapse in Neonates via Retrospectively Respiratory-Gated H Ultrashort Echo Time MRI.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2019 Mar 25;49(3):659-667. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Upper Airway Center, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.

Background: Neonatal dynamic tracheal collapse (tracheomalacia, TM) is a common and serious comorbidity in infants, particularly those with chronic lung disease of prematurity (bronchopulmonary dysplasia, BPD) or congenital airway or lung-related conditions such as congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), but the underlying pathology, impact on clinical outcomes, and response to therapy are not well understood. There is a pressing clinical need for an accurate, objective, and safe assessment of neonatal TM.

Purpose: To use retrospectively respiratory-gated ultrashort echo-time (UTE) MRI to noninvasively analyze moving tracheal anatomy for regional, quantitative evaluation of dynamic airway collapse in quiet-breathing, nonsedated neonates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.26296DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6375762PMC
March 2019
14 Reads

Echocardiographic Measurements of Right Ventricular Mechanics in Infants with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia at 36 Weeks Postmenstrual Age.

J Pediatr 2018 12 21;203:210-217.e1. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

The University of Colorado School of Medicine; Division of Pediatric Cardiology; Heart Institute, Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, CO.

Objective: To test the hypothesis that specific echocardiographic measurements of right ventricular (RV) mechanics at 36 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) are associated with the severity of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD).

Study Design: A subset of 93 preterm infants (born between 27 and 29 weeks of gestation) was selected retrospectively from a prospectively enrolled cohort. BPD was defined using the National Institutes of Health workshop definition, with modifications for oxygen reduction testing and altitude. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.08.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6252141PMC
December 2018
6 Reads

Covariation of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit-Level Patent Ductus Arteriosus Management and In-Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Outcomes Following Preterm Birth.

J Pediatr 2018 12 20;203:225-233.e1. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatal and Developmental Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA; California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA.

Objective: To test the hypothesis that neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)-specific changes in patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) management are associated with changes in local outcomes in preterm infants.

Study Design: This retrospective repeated-measures study of aggregated data included infants born 400-1499 g admitted within 2 days of delivery to NICUs participating in the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative. The period 2008-2015 was divided into four 2-year epochs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.07.025DOI Listing
December 2018
5 Reads

Early breast milk exposure modifies brain connectivity in preterm infants.

Neuroimage 2019 01 18;184:431-439. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

MRC Centre for Reproductive Health, University of Edinburgh, EH16 4TJ, UK; Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, Chancellor's Building, 49 Little France Crescent, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH16 4SB, UK. Electronic address:

Preterm infants are at increased risk of alterations in brain structure and connectivity, and subsequent neurocognitive impairment. Breast milk may be more advantageous than formula feed for promoting brain development in infants born at term, but uncertainties remain about its effect on preterm brain development and the optimal nutritional regimen for preterm infants. We test the hypothesis that breast milk exposure is associated with improved markers of brain development and connectivity in preterm infants at term equivalent age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2018.09.045DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Structural and Functional Pulmonary Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Pediatrics-From the Neonate to the Young Adult.

Acad Radiol 2019 Mar 15;26(3):424-430. Epub 2018 Sep 15.

Center for Pulmonary Imaging Research, Division of Pulmonary Medicine and Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Ave, Cincinnati, OH 45229; Departments of Radiology and Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45229. Electronic address:

The clinical imaging modalities available to investigate pediatric pulmonary conditions such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, cystic fibrosis, and asthma are limited primarily to chest x-ray radiograph and computed tomography. As the challenges that historically limited the application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to the lung have been overcome, its clinical potential has greatly expanded. In this review article, recent advances in pulmonary MRI including ultrashort echo time and hyperpolarized-gas MRI techniques are discussed with an emphasis on pediatric research and translational applications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acra.2018.08.006DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Proximity to the Diaphragm Predicts the Presence of Rhabdomyomatous Dysplasia in Congenital Pulmonary Airway Malformations.

Eur J Pediatr Surg 2019 Feb 13;29(1):49-52. Epub 2018 Aug 13.

Division of Pediatric Surgery, Brown University Warren Alpert Medical School, Providence, Rhode Island, United States.

Introduction:  Rhabdomyomatous dysplasia (RD) is a pathologic finding in CPAMs that was incorrectly attributed to their malignant potential. The increasing recognition of extrathoracic (intradiaphragmatic and intraabdominal) congenital pulmonary airway malformations (CPAMs) offers a clue to the origin of RD. We hypothesize that the presence of RD is related to the CPAM's anatomic location. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0038-1668140DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Blast from the past: a novel complication of bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

BMJ Case Rep 2018 Jul 30;2018. Epub 2018 Jul 30.

Department of Pulmonology/Critical Care, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2018-225005DOI Listing
July 2018
3 Reads

Urinary H-NMR Metabolomics in the First Week of Life Can Anticipate BPD Diagnosis.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2018 28;2018:7620671. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.

Despite the advancements in medical knowledge and technology, the etiopathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is not yet fully understood although oxidative stress seems to play a role, leading to a very demanding management of these patients by the neonatologist. In this context, metabolomics can be useful in understanding, diagnosing, and treating this illness since it is one of the newest omics science that analyzes the metabolome of an individual through the investigation of biological fluids such as urine and blood. In this study, 18 patients admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the Cagliari University Hospital were enrolled. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/7620671DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6046120PMC
October 2018
1 Read

The cerebral hemodynamic response to phonetic changes of speech in preterm and term infants: The impact of postmenstrual age.

Neuroimage Clin 2018 15;19:599-606. Epub 2018 May 15.

Department of Pediatrics, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan.

Higher brain dysfunction, such as language delay, is a major concern among preterm infants. Cerebral substrates of cognitive development in preterm infants remain elusive, partly because of limited methods. The present study focuses on hemodynamic response patterns for brain function by using near-infrared spectroscopy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2018.05.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6029566PMC
January 2019
8 Reads

Oral indomethacin versus oral ibuprofen for treatment of patent ductus arteriosus: a randomised controlled study in very low-birthweight infants.

Paediatr Int Child Health 2018 08 18;38(3):187-192. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

a Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics , Faculty of Medicine , Chiang Mai University , Chiang Mai , Thailand.

Background: In low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA) is treated with oral indomethacin (IDC) and ibuprofen (IB) instead of intravenous formulations. No significant differences in efficacy have been reported. However, previous studies had small numbers of VLBW infants (<1500 g). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20469047.2018.1483566DOI Listing
August 2018
24 Reads

Neonatal Pulmonary Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Predicts Short-Term Clinical Outcomes.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2018 Nov;198(10):1302-1311

1 Center for Pulmonary Imaging Research, Division of Pulmonary Medicine and Department of Radiology.

Rationale: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a serious neonatal pulmonary condition associated with premature birth, but the underlying parenchymal disease and trajectory are poorly characterized. The current National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD)/NHLBI definition of BPD severity is based on degree of prematurity and extent of oxygen requirement. However, no clear link exists between initial diagnosis and clinical outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201711-2287OCDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6290936PMC
November 2018
29 Reads

Hybrid surgery in treatment of pulmonary sequestration with abdominal aorta feeding vessel: a case report.

J Cardiothorac Surg 2018 May 18;13(1):44. Epub 2018 May 18.

Department of Thoracic surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610000, China.

Background: Pulmonary sequestration is a rare congenital pulmonary dysplasia, which requires surgical resection (either via open thoracotomy or video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery [VATS] or via endoluminal occlusion of the abnormal feeding vessel).

Case Presentation: We described a 51-year-old female patient with a history of recurrent cough and repeated pneumonia. She was referred to our hospital for further work-up of pulmonary sequestration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13019-018-0733-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5960101PMC
May 2018
3 Reads

Postnatal Microstructural Developmental Trajectory of Corpus Callosum Subregions and Relationship to Clinical Factors in Very Preterm Infants.

Sci Rep 2018 May 15;8(1):7550. Epub 2018 May 15.

Perinatal Institute, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America.

Our objectives were to define the microstructural developmental trajectory of six corpus callosum subregions and identify perinatal clinical factors that influence early development of these subregions in very preterm infants. We performed a longitudinal cohort study of very preterm infants (32 weeks gestational age or younger) (N = 36) who underwent structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging serially at four time points - before 32, 32, 38, and 52 weeks postmenstrual age. We divided the corpus callosum into six subregions, performed probabilistic tractography, and used linear mixed effects models to evaluate the influence of antecedent clinical factors on its microstructural growth trajectory. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-25245-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5954149PMC
May 2018
5 Reads
5.080 Impact Factor

Persistent and progressive long-term lung disease in survivors of preterm birth.

Paediatr Respir Rev 2018 Sep 13;28:87-94. Epub 2018 Apr 13.

Telethon Kids Institute, Perth, Australia. Electronic address:

Preterm birth accounts for approximately 11% of births globally, with rates increasing across many countries. Concurrent advances in neonatal care have led to increased survival of infants of lower gestational age (GA). However, infants born <32 weeks of GA experience adverse respiratory outcomes, manifesting with increased respiratory symptoms, hospitalisation and health care utilisation into early childhood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prrv.2018.04.001DOI Listing
September 2018
4 Reads

He diffusion MRI in human lungs.

J Magn Reson 2018 Jul 26;292:90-98. Epub 2018 Apr 26.

ABQMR, Inc., 2301 Yale Blvd. SE, Suite C2, Albuquerque, NM 87106, USA; Department of Physics, Washington University, One Brookings Drive, CB 1105, St Louis, MO 63130, USA. Electronic address:

Hyperpolarized He gas allows the air spaces of the lungs to be imaged via MRI. Imaging of restricted diffusion is addressed here, which allows the microstructure of the lung to be characterized through the physical restrictions to gas diffusion presented by airway and alveolar walls in the lung. Measurements of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of He at time scales of milliseconds and seconds are compared; measurement of acinar airway sizes by determination of the microscopic anisotropy of diffusion is discussed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmr.2018.04.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6386180PMC
July 2018
9 Reads

Permissive Hypercapnia Results in Decreased Functional Vessel Density in the Skin of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants.

Front Pediatr 2018 13;6:52. Epub 2018 Mar 13.

Divsion of Neonatology, University Hospital of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.

Background: Ventilator-induced lung injury with subsequent bronchopulmonary dysplasia remains an important issue in the care of extremely low-birth-weight infants. Permissive hypercapnia has been proposed to reduce lung injury. Hypercapnia changes cerebral perfusion, but its influence on the peripheral microcirculation is unknown. Read More

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http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fped.2018.000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2018.00052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5890181PMC
March 2018
10 Reads

Evidence of Echocardiographic Markers of Pulmonary Vascular Disease in Asymptomatic Infants Born Preterm at One Year of Age.

J Pediatr 2018 06 3;197:48-56.e2. Epub 2018 Apr 3.

Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis, St Louis, MO.

Objective: To test the hypothesis that echocardiographic markers of pulmonary vascular disease (PVD) exist in asymptomatic infants born preterm at 1-year corrected age.

Study Design: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 80 infants born preterm (<29 weeks of gestation) and 100 age- and weight-matched infants born at term and compared broad-based conventional and quantitative echocardiographic measures of pulmonary hemodynamics at 1-year corrected age. Pulmonary artery acceleration time (PAAT), a validated index of pulmonary vascular resistance, arterial pressure, and compliance, was used to assess pulmonary hemodynamics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.02.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5970955PMC
June 2018
3 Reads

Successful Establishment of Primary Type II Alveolar Epithelium with 3D Organotypic Coculture.

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2018 08;59(2):158-166

2 Program in Cancer Biology.

Alveolar type II (AT2) epithelial cells are uniquely specialized to produce surfactant in the lung and act as progenitor cells in the process of repair after lung injury. AT2 cell injury has been implicated in several lung diseases, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The inability to maintain primary AT2 cells in culture has been a significant barrier in the investigation of pulmonary biology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1165/rcmb.2017-0442MADOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6096337PMC
August 2018
72 Reads

Diagnostic value of chest CT combined with x-ray for premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Mar;97(9):e9723

Pediatric Center of the First People's Hospital of Jining City, Jining City, Shandong Province, China.

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a common chronic lung disease in the newborns. Staging of BPD severity does not have a high predictive value for the outcomes. This study was aimed to assess the diagnostic value of chest computed tomography (CT) combined with x-ray for premature infants with BPD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000009723DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5851751PMC
March 2018
6 Reads

A Shared Pattern of β-Catenin Activation in Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia and Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.

Am J Pathol 2018 04 31;188(4):853-862. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

Mildred Stahlman Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee.

Wnt/β-catenin signaling is necessary for normal lung development, and abnormal Wnt signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of both bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), fibrotic lung diseases that occur during infancy and aging, respectively. Using a library of human normal and diseased human lung samples, we identified a distinct signature of nuclear accumulation of β-catenin phosphorylated at tyrosine 489 and epithelial cell cytosolic localization of β-catenin phosphorylated at tyrosine 654 in early normal lung development and fibrotic lung diseases BPD and IPF. Furthermore, this signature was recapitulated in murine models of BPD and IPF. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpath.2017.12.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5866104PMC
April 2018
15 Reads

Quantitative CT scans of lung parenchymal pathology in premature infants ages 0-6 years.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2018 03 21;53(3):316-323. Epub 2017 Dec 21.

Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Background: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a common, heterogeneous disease in premature infants. We hypothesized that quantitative CT techniques could assess lung parenchymal heterogeneity in BPD patients across a broad age range and demonstrate how pathologies change over time.

Methods: A cross-sectional, retrospective study of children age 0-6 years with non-contrast chest CT scans was conducted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.23921DOI Listing
March 2018
6 Reads

Long-term pulmonary and cardiovascular morbidities of neonatal hyperoxia exposure in mice.

Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2018 01 7;94:119-124. Epub 2017 Dec 7.

Section of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) frequently occurs in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), causing increased mortality and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction that persists into adulthood. A first step in developing better therapeutic options is identifying and characterizing an appropriate animal model. Previously, we characterized the short-term morbidities of a model in which C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice were exposed to 70% O (hyperoxia) during the neonatal period. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocel.2017.12.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5745292PMC
January 2018
5 Reads

Successful Reversal of Furosemide-Induced Secondary Hyperparathyroidism With Cinacalcet.

Pediatrics 2017 Dec;140(6)

Sections of Nephrology, Bone and Mineral Disorder Clinic, and

Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a rare complication of furosemide therapy that can occur in patients treated with the loop diuretic for a long period of time. We report a 6-month-old 28-weeks premature infant treated chronically with furosemide for his bronchopulmonary dysplasia, who developed hypocalcemia and severe SHPT, adversely affecting his bones. Discontinuation of the loop diuretic and the addition of supplemental calcium and calcitriol only partially reversed the SHPT, bringing serum parathyroid hormone level down from 553 to 238 pg/mL. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2016-3789DOI Listing
December 2017
20 Reads

Pulmonary Artery Pressures in School-Age Children Born Prematurely.

J Pediatr 2017 12;191:42-49.e3

Division of Asthma, Allergy and Lung Biology, Medical Research Council Centre for Allergic Mechanisms in Asthma, King's College London, London, United Kingdom; NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at Guy's & St Thomas NHS Foundation Trust and King's College London, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Objectives: To test the hypothesis that pulmonary artery pressures were higher in school aged children born extremely premature than those born at term. We also wanted to assess whether pulmonary artery pressures differed between children born prematurely with or without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or between those randomized in the neonatal period to different ventilation modes.

Study Design: Transthoracic echocardiography was performed on 193 children born extremely premature (106 had BPD) and 110 children born at term when they were 11-14 years of age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2017.08.034DOI Listing
December 2017
4 Reads

Pulmonary hypertension in the premature infant population: Analysis of echocardiographic findings and biomarkers.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2018 03 23;53(3):302-309. Epub 2017 Nov 23.

Division of Pediatric Pulmonary, Allergy, and Immunology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee.

Objective: Extremely low gestational age neonates (ELGANs) are at risk for pulmonary hypertension (PH). We hypothesized that PH, defined by echocardiogram at 36 weeks gestational age (GA), would associate with respiratory morbidity, increased oxidant stress, and reduced nitric oxide production.

Study Design: ELGANs in the Vanderbilt fraction of the Prematurity and Respiratory Outcomes Program (PROP) who had echocardiograms at 36 ± 1 weeks GA were studied. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ppul.23913
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.23913DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5815883PMC
March 2018
9 Reads

An Echocardiographic Screening Program Helps to Identify Pulmonary Hypertension in Extremely Low Birthweight Infants with and without Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: A Single-Center Experience.

Neonatology 2018 8;113(1):81-88. Epub 2017 Nov 8.

Division of Neonatology, Children's Hospital, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Background: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) affects 1 in 6 infants with a birthweight <1,000 g (extremely low birthweight; ELBW) and is frequently associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). If untreated, the mortality rates of the disease are high.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to characterize risk factors for PH in ELBW infants and to describe the timing of onset of the disease by setting up a screening program. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000480694DOI Listing
August 2018
4 Reads

Human amnion cells reverse acute and chronic pulmonary damage in experimental neonatal lung injury.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2017 Nov 10;8(1):257. Epub 2017 Nov 10.

The Ritchie Centre, Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, VIC, Australia.

Background: Despite advances in neonatal care, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains a significant contributor to infant mortality and morbidity. While human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs) have shown promise in small and large animal models of BPD, there is scarce information on long-term benefit and clinically relevant questions surrounding administration strategy remain unanswered. In assessing the therapeutic potential of hAECs, we investigated the impact of cell dosage, administration routes and timing of treatment in a pre-clinical model of BPD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-017-0689-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5681809PMC
November 2017
22 Reads

Asymmetry of cerebral glucose metabolism in very low-birth-weight infants without structural abnormalities.

PLoS One 2017 2;12(11):e0186976. Epub 2017 Nov 2.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

Methods: Thirty-six VLBW infants who underwent F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) brain PET and MRI were prospectively enrolled, while infants with evidence of parenchymal brain injury on MRI were excluded. The regional glucose metabolic ratio and asymmetry index were calculated. The asymmetry index more than 10% (right > left asymmetry) or less than -10% (left > right asymmetry) were defined as abnormal. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0186976PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5667759PMC
December 2017
15 Reads

Progression of Right Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction Detected by Myocardial Deformation Imaging in Asymptomatic Preterm Children.

J Cardiovasc Ultrasound 2017 Sep 29;25(3):98-104. Epub 2017 Sep 29.

Department of Diagnostic Laboratory Medicine, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University School of Medicine, Seongnam, Korea.

Background: To detect progression of right ventricular (RV) systolic dysfunction (RVSD) in asymptomatic preterm children from infancy to 24-month corrected age, using velocity vector imaging (VVI).

Methods: Retrospective study comparing sequential RV longitudinal peak systolic strain (LPSS) from 24 children born at < 33 weeks of gestational age and 10 term infants recruited as controls, obtained at a mean of 4-month (first exam) and 24-month corrected age (second exam).

Results: In 7/24 (29. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4250/jcu.2017.25.3.98DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5658295PMC
September 2017
7 Reads

[Readmission of children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia in the first 2 years of life: a clinical analysis of 121 cases].

Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2017 Oct;19(10):1056-1060

Department of Respiratory Diseases, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University/Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders/China International Science and Technology Cooperation Base of Child Development and Critical Disorders/Chongqing Engineering Research Center of Stem Cell Therapy, Chongqing 400014, China.

Objective: To investigate the clinical features of readmitted children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in the first 2 years of life.

Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 242 children with BPD who were readmitted due to recurrent lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in the first 2 years of life.

Results: Among all the 242 children with BPD, 115(47. Read More

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October 2017
17 Reads

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia-associated pulmonary hypertension: clues from placental pathology.

J Perinatol 2017 12 7;37(12):1310-1314. Epub 2017 Sep 7.

Monash Newborn, Monash University Neonatologist, Monash Children's Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Objectives: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and the associated complication of pulmonary hypertension (PH) leads to increased mortality and a longer length of stay among survivors. Placental histopathology may give early clues of subsequent events. The objective was to evaluate the relationship of maternal vascular underperfusion (MVU) changes on placental histopathology with subsequent development of BPD-associated PH in a cohort of extremely premature infants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jp.2017.130DOI Listing
December 2017
1 Read

Pessary or Progesterone to Prevent Preterm delivery in women with short cervical length: the Quadruple P randomised controlled trial.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2017 Sep 4;17(1):284. Epub 2017 Sep 4.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academic Medical Center (AMC), Meibergdreef 9, 1105, AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Preterm birth is in quantity and in severity the most important topic in obstetric care in the developed world. Progestogens and cervical pessaries have been studied as potential preventive treatments with conflicting results. So far, no study has compared both treatments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-017-1454-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5584011PMC
September 2017
48 Reads

Medical Progress Series: Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia at 50 Years-An Introduction.

Authors:
Steven H Abman

J Pediatr 2017 09;188:18-18.e1

Department of Pediatrics University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado Aurora, Colorado. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2017.07.004DOI Listing
September 2017
1 Read

Role of Early Pulmonary Hypertension as a Risk Factor for Late Pulmonary Hypertension in Extremely Preterm Infants.

Am J Perinatol 2018 Jan 24;35(2):120-126. Epub 2017 Aug 24.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa.

Objective:  The evidence on the role of early pulmonary vascular disease (PVD) in the development of late pulmonary hypertension (PH) in the extremely preterm infants is limited. Objectives were to determine the incidence of early and late PH in extreme preterm infants and to evaluate the role of early PH as a risk factor for development of clinically detected late PH.

Methods:  It was a retrospective analysis of early echocardiograms (day of life 5-14) in preterm infants, 22 to 27 weeks' gestation, admitted to the University of Iowa NICU between July 01, 2012 to June 30, 2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0037-1606189DOI Listing
January 2018
2 Reads

Diagnostic Approach to Pulmonary Hypertension in Premature Neonates.

Children (Basel) 2017 Aug 24;4(9). Epub 2017 Aug 24.

Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, The Women & Children's Hospital of Buffalo, University at Buffalo, 219 Bryant Street, Buffalo, NY 14222-2006, USA.

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a form of chronic lung disease in premature infants following respiratory distress at birth. With increasing survival of extremely low birth weight infants, alveolar simplification is the defining lung characteristic of infants with BPD, and along with pulmonary hypertension, increasingly contributes to both respiratory morbidity and mortality in these infants. Growth restricted infants, infants born to mothers with oligohydramnios or following prolonged preterm rupture of membranes are at particular risk for early onset pulmonary hypertension. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/children4090075DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5615265PMC
August 2017
10 Reads

Neurological consequences of systemic inflammation in the premature neonate.

Neural Regen Res 2017 Jun;12(6):890-896

OMNI Academic Service Line and Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Kentucky Children's Hospital, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.

Despite substantial progress in neonatal care over the past two decades leading to improved survival of extremely premature infants, extreme prematurity continues to be associated with long term neurodevelopmental impairments. Cerebral white matter injury is the predominant form of insult in preterm brain leading to adverse neurological consequences. Such brain injury pattern and unfavorable neurologic sequelae is commonly encountered in premature infants exposed to systemic inflammatory states such as clinical or culture proven sepsis with or without evidence of meningitis, prolonged mechanical ventilation, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis and chorioamnionitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1673-5374.208547DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5514858PMC
June 2017
4 Reads

Fetal Doppler velocimetry and bronchopulmonary dysplasia risk among growth-restricted preterm infants: an observational study.

BMJ Open 2017 Jul 20;7(7):e015232. Epub 2017 Jul 20.

Division of Neonatology, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli-Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy.

Objective: To investigate whether fetal growth restriction (FGR) diagnosis, based on pathological prenatal fetal Doppler velocimetry, is associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) independently of being small for gestational age (SGA) per se at birth among very preterm infants.

Design: Prospective, observational study. FGR was defined as failing fetal growth in utero and fetal Doppler velocimetry abnormalities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-015232DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5541508PMC
July 2017
16 Reads

Imaging Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia-A Multimodality Update.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2017 29;4:88. Epub 2017 Jun 29.

Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is the most common form of infantile chronic lung disease and results in significant health-care expenditure. The roles of chest radiography and computed tomography (CT) are well documented but numerous recent advances in imaging technology have paved the way for newer imaging techniques including structural pulmonary assessment lung magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional assessment ventilation, and perfusion MRI and quantitative imaging techniques using both CT and MRI. New applications for ultrasound have also been suggested. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2017.00088DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5497953PMC
June 2017
6 Reads

Structural and functional ventilatory impairment in infants with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2017 08 3;52(8):1029-1037. Epub 2017 Jul 3.

Division of Pediatric Respiratory Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Erasmus MC-Sophia, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most frequent serious complication in preterm infants. We aimed to describe lung structure and ventilatory function of preterm infants with severe BPD and explored the association between early postnatal growth and these outcomes.

Methods: We included preterm infants born ≤32 weeks gestational age (GA) with severe BPD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.23696DOI Listing
August 2017
12 Reads