592 results match your criteria Imaging in Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

Characterization of lung ultrasound imaging in preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Neonatology, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Lung ultrasound (LUS) is a bedside technique that can be used on diagnosis and follow-up of neonatal respiratory diseases. However, there are rare reports on the ultrasound features of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) which is one of the most common chronic lung diseases in preterm infants.

Objective: To describe the ultrasound features of different BPD levels, and to investigate the value of ultrasound in evaluating moderate-to-severe BPD. Read More

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Perinatal risk factors associated with central retinal changes in former preterm children on optical coherence tomography angiography.

Acta Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Eye Hospital, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Purpose: To assess the association between perinatal risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and central retinal structures of former preterm children seen on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA).

Methods: This prospective cohort study included 40 children with a history of preterm birth and 33 healthy full-term children. We documented their birth weight, gestational age, other significant risk factors for ROP development and presence of ROP. Read More

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Lung growth and pulmonary function after prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Women's and Children's Health, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Padova University Hospital, Padova, Italy.

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) still carries a heavy burden of morbidity and mortality in survivors of extreme prematurity. The disease is characterized by simplification of the alveolar structure, involving a smaller number of enlarged alveoli due to decreased septation and a dysmorphic pulmonary microvessel growth. These changes lead to persistent abnormalities mainly affecting the smaller airways, lung parenchyma, and pulmonary vasculature, which can be assessed with lung function tests and imaging techniques. Read More

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The Predictive Value of Lung Ultrasound Scores in Developing Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: A Prospective Multicenter Diagnostic Accuracy Study.

Chest 2021 Mar 6. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Biomedicine Institute of León (IBIOMED), University of León, León, Spain; Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Complejo Asistencial Universitario de León, León, Spain; Working Group on Bedside Ultrasound of the Spanish Society of Pediatric Intensive Care (SECIP), Madrid, Spain.

Background: Different lung ultrasound (LUS) scanning protocols have been used, and the results in terms of diagnostic accuracy are heterogeneous.

Research Questions: What is the diagnostic accuracy of the LUS score to predict moderate to severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (msBPD)? Does scanning of posterior lung fields improve the diagnostic accuracy?

Study Design And Methods: This was a multicenter prospective, observational study in six centers. Two LUS aeration scores, one involving only anterolateral lung fields (LUS score-al) and the other adding the posterior fields (LUS score-p) were obtained at birth, on the third day of life (DOL), on the seventh DOL, on the 14th DOL, and on the 21st DOL. Read More

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Fully automated estimation of the mean linear intercept in histopathology images of mouse lung tissue.

J Med Imaging (Bellingham) 2021 Mar 4;8(2):027501. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Carleton University, Department of Systems and Computer Engineering, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

The mean linear intercept (MLI) score is a common metric for quantification of injury in lung histopathology images. The automated estimation of the MLI score is a challenging task because it requires accurate segmentation of different biological components of the lung tissue. Therefore, the most widely used approaches for MLI quantification are based on manual/semi-automated assessment of lung histopathology images, which can be expensive and time-consuming. Read More

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Early diagnosis and targeted approaches to pulmonary vascular disease in bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

Pediatr Res 2021 Mar 5. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Division of Neonatology, St-Luc University Hospital, Catholic University of Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.

Pulmonary hypertension has emerged as a life-threatening disease in preterm infants suffering from bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Its development is closely linked to respiratory disease, as vasculogenesis and alveologenesis are closely interconnected. Once clinically significant, BPD-associated pulmonary hypertension (BPD-PH) can be challenging to manage, due to poor reversibility and multiple comorbidities frequently associated. Read More

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Screening for Retinopathy of Prematurity in Very Preterm Children: The EPIPAGE-2 Cohort Study.

Neonatology 2021 11;118(1):80-89. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Epidemiology and Statistics Research Center/CRESS, INSERM, INRA, University of Paris, Paris, France.

Introduction: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a blinding disease that requires screening by retinal examination. Screening practices are rarely evaluated. We aimed to determine the prevalence of ROP screening in very preterm infants and individual- and center-related factors associated with ROP screening. Read More

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February 2021

Modern pulmonary imaging of bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

J Perinatol 2021 Apr 5;41(4):707-717. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Center for Pulmonary Imaging Research, Division of Pulmonary Medicine and Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a complex and serious cardiopulmonary morbidity in infants who are born preterm. Despite advances in clinical care, BPD remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality, due in large part to the increased survival of extremely preterm infants. There are few strong early prognostic indicators of BPD or its later outcomes, and evidence for the usage and timing of various interventions is minimal. Read More

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Altered asymmetries of the structural networks comprising the fronto-limbic brain circuitry of preterm infants.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 14;11(1):1318. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Pediatrics, Hanyang University Hospital, Hanyang University College of Medicine, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul, 133-792, Republic of Korea.

This study aimed to elaborate upon prior findings suggestive of the altered lateralization of structural connectivity in the developing preterm brain by using diffusion tensor imaging tractography to explore how network topological asymmetries in fronto-limbic neural circuitry are altered at 36-41 weeks, postmenstrual age in 64 preterm infants without severe brain injury and 33 term-born infants. We compared the pattern of structural connectivity and network lateralization of the betweenness centrality in the medial fronto-orbital gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, amygdala, and hippocampus-the structures comprising the fronto-limbic brain circuit-between preterm and term infants. Global efficiency, local efficiency, and small-world characteristics did not differ significantly between the two hemispheres in term-born infants, suggesting that integration and segregation are balanced between the left and right hemispheres. Read More

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January 2021

Effects of neonatal lung abnormalities on parenchymal R * estimates.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2021 Jun 6;53(6):1853-1861. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

Infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) often suffer from multifaceted pulmonary morbidities that are not well understood. Ultrashort echo time (UTE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a promising technique for pulmonary imaging in this population without requiring exposure to ionizing radiation. The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of neonatal pulmonary disease on R * and tissue density and to utilize numerical simulations to evaluate the effect of different alveolar structures on predicted R *. Read More

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Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells: physiology, tissue homeostasis and disease.

Dis Model Mech 2020 12 21;13(12). Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Laboratory for Lung Development and Regeneration, RIKEN Centre for Biosystems Dynamics Research, Kobe 650-0047, Japan

Mammalian lungs have the ability to recognize external environments by sensing different compounds in inhaled air. Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNECs) are rare, multi-functional epithelial cells currently garnering attention as intrapulmonary sensors; PNECs can detect hypoxic conditions through chemoreception. Because PNEC overactivation has been reported in patients suffering from respiratory diseases - such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and other congenital diseases - an improved understanding of the fundamental characteristics of PNECs is becoming crucial in pulmonary biology and pathology. Read More

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December 2020

Lung Ultrasound to Monitor Extremely Preterm Infants and Predict BPD: Multicenter Longitudinal Cohort Study.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2020 Dec 22. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

South Paris University Hospitals, "A.Beclere" Medical Center, NICU, Clamart (Paris), France;

Rationale: Lung ultrasound is useful in critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure. Given its characteristics, it could be also useful in extremely preterm infants with evolving chronic respiratory failure, as we lack accurate imaging tools to monitor them.

Objectives: To verify if lung ultrasound can monitor lung aeration and function, and has good reliability to predict bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely preterm neonates. Read More

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December 2020

Functional respiratory imaging provides novel insights into the long-term respiratory sequelae of bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

Eur Respir J 2020 Dec 10. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Laboratory for Experimental Medicine and Paediatrics, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

Rationale: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a common complication of preterm birth. Lung function and imaging are classically used to assess BPD. Functional Respiratory Imaging (FRI) combines a structural and functional assessment of the airways and their vasculature. Read More

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December 2020

Perinatal Risk and Protective Factors in the Development of Diffuse White Matter Abnormality on Term-Equivalent Age Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Infants Born Very Preterm.

J Pediatr 2020 Nov 28. Epub 2020 Nov 28.

The Perinatal Institute, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH.

Objective: To identify perinatal clinical diseases and treatments that are associated with the development of objectively diagnosed diffuse white matter abnormality (DWMA) on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at term-equivalent age in infants born very preterm.

Study Design: A prospective cohort of 392 infants born very preterm (≤32 weeks of gestational age) was enrolled from 5 level III/IV neonatal intensive care units between September 2016 and November 2019. MRIs of the brain were collected at 39 to 45 weeks of postmenstrual age to evaluate DWMA volume. Read More

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November 2020

Regional ventilation characteristics during non-invasive respiratory support in preterm infants.

Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2020 Nov 27. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Neonatal Research, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

Objectives: To determine the regional ventilation characteristics during non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in stable preterm infants. The secondary aim was to explore the relationship between indicators of ventilation homogeneity and other clinical measures of respiratory status.

Design: Prospective observational study. Read More

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November 2020

Alveolar Airspace Size in Healthy and Diseased Infant Lungs Measured via Hyperpolarized 3He Gas Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Neonatology 2020 11;117(6):704-712. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Division of Pulmonary Medicine and Department of Radiology, Center for Pulmonary Imaging Research, Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.

Background: Alveolar development and lung parenchymal simplification are not well characterized in vivo in neonatal patients with respiratory morbidities, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Hyperpolarized (HP) gas diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a sensitive, safe, nonionizing, and noninvasive biomarker for measuring airspace size in vivo but has not yet been implemented in young infants.

Objective: This work quantified alveolar airspace size via HP gas diffusion MRI in healthy and diseased explanted infant lung specimens, with comparison to histological morphometry. Read More

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November 2020

A cell-centric view of lung alveologenesis.

Dev Dyn 2021 Apr 17;250(4):482-496. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Department of Pulmonary Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA.

Lung alveologenesis, formation of the alveolar region, allows sufficient gas exchange surface to be packed inside the chest cavity yet with orderly connection to the trachea. The real-life alveolar region, however, bears little resemblance to idealized cartoons owing to its three-dimensional nature, nonuniform shape, and mostly air-filled void. This morphological complexity is matched by its cellular complexity-comprised of intermixed and often tangled cells of the epithelial, mesenchymal, endothelial, and immune lineages. Read More

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Lung abnormalities do not influence aerobic capacity in school children born preterm.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2021 Feb 3;121(2):489-498. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA, 6845, Australia.

Purpose: Children born preterm have impaired lung function and altered lung structure. However, there are conflicting reports on how preterm birth impacts aerobic exercise capacity in childhood. We aimed to investigate how neonatal history and a diagnosis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) impact the relationship between function and structure of the lung, and aerobic capacity in school-aged children born very preterm. Read More

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February 2021

[An assessment of white matter development in preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia using diffusion tensor imaging].

Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2020 Oct;22(10):1079-1084

Department of Neonatology, Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, China.

Objective: To assess white matter development in preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) using fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI).

Methods: Ninety-six infants with a gestational age of ≤32 weeks and a birth weight of <1 500 g who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit within 24 hours after birth from August 2016 to April 2019 and underwent head MRI and DTI before discharge were enrolled. According to the discharge diagnosis, they were divided into BPD group with 48 infants and non-BPD group with 48 infants. Read More

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October 2020

The future of Cochrane Neonatal.

Early Hum Dev 2020 11 12;150:105191. Epub 2020 Sep 12.

York University, UK.

Cochrane Neonatal was first established in 1993, as one of the original review groups of the Cochrane Collaboration. In fact, the origins of Cochrane Neonatal precede the establishment of the collaboration. In the 1980's, the National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit at Oxford, led by Dr. Read More

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November 2020

Lung ultrasound score and diuretics in preterm infants born before 32 weeks: A pilot study.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2020 12 7;55(12):3312-3318. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Puerta del Mar University Hospital, Cádiz, Spain.

Objective: To describe if weekly determined lung ultrasound (LU) scores in preterm infants born before 32 weeks (PTB32W) change with diuretic therapy.

Design: We included infants who received diuretics and compared LU scores according to their evolution on respiratory support (RS) before and after diuretics.

Results: We included 18 PTB32W divided into two groups. Read More

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December 2020

Current and Future Applications of Thoracic Dual-Energy CT in Children: Pearls and Pitfalls of Technique and Interpretation.

Semin Ultrasound CT MR 2020 Oct 28;41(5):433-441. Epub 2020 May 28.

Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, 3401 Civic Center Blvd, Philadelphia, PA; University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA.

Dual-energy computer tomography (DECT) technology has experienced rapid growth in recent years, now allowing for the collection of 2 CT data sets and opening the potential for functional data acquisition. Data from a single postcontrast phase are deconstructed and Iodine can be subtracted to create a virtual noncontrast image, or selectively represented as a contrast map that allows for the qualification and quantification of lung perfusion. Virtual monoenergetic images can also be used to reduce beam-hardening artifact from concentrated contrast or metal implants. Read More

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October 2020

A semi-automated method for unbiased alveolar morphometry: Validation in a bronchopulmonary dysplasia model.

PLoS One 2020 23;15(9):e0239562. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Department of Development and Regeneration, KULeuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Reproducible and unbiased methods to quantify alveolar structure are important for research on many lung diseases. However, manually estimating alveolar structure through stereology is time consuming and inter-observer variability is high. The objective of this work was to develop and validate a fast, reproducible and accurate (semi-)automatic alternative. Read More

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November 2020

Arterial Structure and Stiffness Are Altered in Young Adults Born Preterm.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2020 10 27;40(10):2548-2556. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Department of Pediatrics (A.F., R.O.F., J.D.M., D.R.D., A.C., J.-L.B., T.M.L., A.M.N.), Faculty of Medicine, Sainte-Justine University Hospital and Research Center, Université de Montréal, Quebec, Canada.

Objective: Preterm birth has been associated with changes in arterial structure and function. Association with complications occurring during the neonatal period, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia, on vascular outcomes in adulthood is unknown. Approach and Results: We evaluated a cohort of 86 adults born preterm (below 30 weeks of gestation), compared to 85 adults born term, at a mean age of 23 years. Read More

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October 2020

The direct laryngoscopy and rigid bronchoscopy findings and the subsequent management of infants with failed extubations.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2020 Nov 7;138:110268. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Medical College of Wisconsin, Department of Otolaryngology, Milwaukee, WI, USA; Children's Wisconsin, Department of Otolaryngology/Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: There is limited data regarding the role of direct laryngoscopy and rigid bronchoscopy (DLRB) in infants with failed extubations. Pediatric otolaryngologists are frequently consulted to perform DLRB in infants with failed extubations.

Objective: To determine the DLRB findings in infants with failed extubations and the interventions performed based on these findings. Read More

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November 2020

Neuroimaging findings associated with the fetal inflammatory response syndrome.

Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2020 08 3;25(4):101143. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Emeritus-Radiologist-in-Chief, Phoenix Children's Hospital, Emeritus Professor of Radiology and Child Health, University of Arizona College of Medicine-Phoenix, Professor of Radiology Mayo Clinic, USA. Electronic address:

The fetal inflammatory response syndrome (FIRS) is a condition whereby the fetus mounts an inflammatory response to intrauterine infection/inflammation. Clinical consequences include preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), spontaneous preterm delivery, neonatal sepsis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and brain and other organ injury. Mechanisms leading to brain injury in FIRS have been investigated in animal and human studies. Read More

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Lung imaging in bronchopulmonary dysplasia: a systematic review.

Respir Med 2020 09 1;171:106101. Epub 2020 Aug 1.

Laboratory of Experimental Medicine and Paediatrics, University of Antwerp, Belgium; Department of Paediatrics, Antwerp University Hospital, Belgium.

Background: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains a common complication of preterm birth. Both historically and in current practice, radiologic evaluation of the lungs has an important role in assessing disease severity and complications.

Aim: To provide an overview of imaging techniques for detecting lung abnormalities in patients with BPD in all age ranges. Read More

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September 2020

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging derived septal curvature in neonates with bronchopulmonary dysplasia associated pulmonary hypertension.

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 2020 07 23;22(1):50. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Center for Pulmonary Imaging Research, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Background: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in premature infants. Recent advances have allowed the use of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in the assessment of respiratory and cardiac disease in infants with BPD. In adults and older pediatric patients, decreased CMR interventricular septal curvature correlates with increased mean pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance. Read More

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Increased Work of Breathing due to Tracheomalacia in Neonates.

Ann Am Thorac Soc 2020 10;17(10):1247-1256

Center for Pulmonary Imaging Research.

Dynamic collapse of the tracheal lumen (tracheomalacia) occurs frequently in premature neonates, particularly in those with common comorbidities such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The tracheal collapse increases the effort necessary to breathe (work of breathing [WOB]). However, quantifying the increased WOB related to tracheomalacia has previously not been possible. Read More

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October 2020

The Left Heart, Systemic Circulation, and Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: Relevance to Pathophysiology and Therapeutics.

J Pediatr 2020 10 14;225:13-22.e2. Epub 2020 Jun 14.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Iowa Children's Hospital, Dr, Iowa City, IA; Internal Medicine, University of Iowa Children's Hospital, Dr, Iowa City, IA.

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October 2020