684 results match your criteria Imaging in Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

Virtual Bronchoscopy of Neonatal Airway Malacia via High-Resolution, Respiratory-Gated MRI.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2022 Jun 2. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 2518, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States.

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Lung ultrasound score has better diagnostic ability than NT-proBNP to predict moderate-severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

Eur J Pediatr 2022 Jun 1. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Puerta del Mar Universitary Hospital, Avenida Ana de Viya 11, 11010, Cádiz, Spain.

The N-terminal end of B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and lung ultrasound (LUS) score have been proven to be adequate early biomarkers of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. Our aim was to study if the predictive capacity of each one is increased by analyzing them together. We included infants born before 32 weeks with NT-proBNP and LUS scores on the first day of life (DOL) and on the 3rd, 7th, and 14th DOL and compared the diagnostic ability for moderate-severe BPD (msBPD) of each biomarker and in combination. Read More

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Diagnosis and management of pulmonary hypertension in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2022 May 26:101351. Epub 2022 May 26.

Division of Newborn Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital and Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Chronic pulmonary hypertension of infancy (cPHi) is a heterogeneous disease process that contributes to morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. cPHi is most commonly associated with chronic lung disease of prematurity and represents a unique phenotype of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. It is characterized by persistently elevated or newly rising pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary artery pressure beyond the first weeks of age. Read More

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Lung ultrasound in Italian neonatal intensive care units: A national survey.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2022 May 30. Epub 2022 May 30.

Department of Neurosciences Psychology Drug Research and Child Health, Careggi University Hospital of Florence, Florence, Italy.

Introduction: Lung ultrasound (LU) is a noninvasive, bedside imaging technique that is attracting growing interest in the evaluation of neonatal respiratory diseases. We conducted a nationwide survey of LU usage in Italian neonatal intensive care units (NICUs).

Methods: A structured questionnaire was developed and sent online to 114 Italian NICUs from June to September 2021. Read More

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Early severity prediction of BPD for premature infants from chest X-ray images using deep learning: A study at the 28th day of oxygen inhalation.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2022 Jun 10;221:106869. Epub 2022 May 10.

Center for Biomedical Engineering, School of Information Science and Technology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, China; Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, China. Electronic address:

Background And Objective: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is a common respiratory disease in premature infants. The severity is diagnosed at the 56th day after birth or discharge by analyzing the clinical indicators, which may cause the delay of the best treatment opportunity. Thus, we proposed a deep learning-based method using chest X-ray images of the 28th day of oxygen inhalation for the early severity prediction of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in clinic. Read More

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Right Atrial Strain in Preterm Infants With a History of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

J Cardiovasc Imaging 2022 Apr;30(2):112-122

Department of Diagnostic Laboratory Medicine, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University School of Medicine, Seongnam, Korea.

Background: Few studies have utilized right atrial (RA) strain to evaluate right ventricular (RV) diastolic dysfunction in preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). We aimed to evaluate the associations of RA strain with BPD severity and respiratory outcomes in preterm infants with BPD.

Methods: We retrospectively studied 153 infants with BPD born before 32 weeks of gestational age at CHA Bundang Medical Center. Read More

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Factors associated with the follow-up of high risk infants discharged from a neonatal intensive care unit.

Pediatr Neonatol 2022 Mar 28. Epub 2022 Mar 28.

Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea; Department of Pediatrics, Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: The study aimed to identify factors associated with compliance to follow-up (FU) appointments among infants following their discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).

Methods: This retrospective cohort study reviewed 657 infants (birth weight <1500 g or gestational age [GA] <32 weeks), born between 2011 and 2015. A total of 525 eligible infants were classified into two groups: the compliant group (n = 360), who attended clinics from 18 to 24 months, and the non-compliant group (n = 165), who were lost to FU before 18 months. Read More

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The association between pulmonary vascular disease and respiratory improvement in infants with type I severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

J Perinatol 2022 Jun 9;42(6):788-795. Epub 2022 Apr 9.

Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago and the Department of Pediatrics, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.

Objective: To describe the association between echocardiographic measures of pulmonary vascular disease and time to respiratory improvement among infants with Type I severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (sBPD).

Study Design: We measured the pulmonary artery acceleration time indexed to the right ventricular ejection time (PAAT/RVET) and right ventricular free wall longitudinal strain (RVFWLS) at 34-41 weeks' postmenstrual age. Cox-proportional hazards models were used to estimate the relationship between the PAAT/RVET, RVFWLS, and the outcome: days from 36 weeks' postmenstrual age to room-air or discharge with oxygen (≤0. Read More

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Type 2 immune polarization is associated with cardiopulmonary disease in preterm infants.

Sci Transl Med 2022 04 6;14(639):eaaz8454. Epub 2022 Apr 6.

Department of Paediatrics, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3168, Australia.

Postnatal maturation of the immune system is poorly understood, as is its impact on illnesses afflicting term or preterm infants, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and BPD-associated pulmonary hypertension. These are both cardiopulmonary inflammatory diseases that cause substantial mortality and morbidity with high treatment costs. Here, we characterized blood samples collected from 51 preterm infants longitudinally at five time points, 20 healthy term infants at birth and age 3 to 16 weeks, and 5 healthy adults. Read More

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Authors' Response: CT Scan Using a Dynamic PEEP Protocol to Assess Optimal PEEP Level in Infants with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: A Few Unresolved Issues.

Lung 2022 04 2;200(2):279-281. Epub 2022 Apr 2.

Division of Pulmonary and Sleep Medicine, Oishei Children's Hospital, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, 1001 Main Street, Buffalo, NY, 14203, USA.

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Lung ultrasound in premature infants as an early predictor of bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

J Clin Ultrasound 2022 Mar 30. Epub 2022 Mar 30.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria.

Purpose: Lung ultrasound (LUS) is a widely used technique in neonates to diagnose a lot of acute diseases. However, its role in the diagnosis of chronic lung conditions is still to be evaluated. We aimed to describe the changes in ultrasound images as well as the appearance of lung consolidations (LC) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Read More

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A modified lung ultrasound score to evaluate short-term clinical outcomes of bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

BMC Pulm Med 2022 Mar 19;22(1):95. Epub 2022 Mar 19.

Department of Neonatology, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, National Children's Medical Center, No. 399 Wanyuan Road, Minhang District, Shanghai, 201102, China.

Background: Lung ultrasound (LUS) is a useful tool for assessing the severity of lung disease, without radiation exposure. However, there is little data on the practicality of LUS in assessing the severity of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and evaluating short-term clinical outcomes. We adapted a LUS score to evaluate BPD severity and assess the reliability of mLUS score correlated with short-term clinical outcomes. Read More

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Perinatal assessment of lung hemodynamics. A new tool for predicting of bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

J Clin Ultrasound 2022 Mar;50(3):393-394

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.

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Pediatric Xe Gas-Transfer MRI-Feasibility and Applicability.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2022 Mar 4. Epub 2022 Mar 4.

Center for Pulmonary Imaging Research, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.

Background: Xe gas-transfer MRI provides regional measures of pulmonary gas exchange in adults and separates xenon in interstitial lung tissue/plasma (barrier) from xenon in red blood cells (RBCs). The technique has yet to be demonstrated in pediatric populations or conditions.

Purpose/hypothesis: To perform an exploratory analysis of Xe gas-transfer MRI in children. Read More

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A simple noninvasive biomarker can reflect both the acute and chronic pulmonary impact of patent ductus arteriosus shunting.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2022 05 23;57(5):1209-1213. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

Department of Neonatology, Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.

Aim: The SFR (SpO /FiO ratio) offers a continuous, noninvasive reflection of pulmonary function regardless of whether the baby is ventilated or breathing spontaneously. We hypothesized that significant patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) shunting would impair pulmonary oxygen diffusion, reflected by decreased SFR; and that early PDA related decreases in SFR predict subsequent chronic lung disease (CLD).

Methods: We retrospectively examined records from preterm neonates ≤30 weeks gestational age. Read More

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Implementation of neurally adjusted ventilatory assist and high flow nasal cannula in very preterm infants in a tertiary level NICU.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2022 05 14;57(5):1293-1302. Epub 2022 Mar 14.

Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.

Preterm infants treated with invasive ventilation are often affected by bronchopulmonary dysplasia, brain structure alterations, and later neurodevelopmental impairment. We studied the implementation of neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) and high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) in a level III neonatal unit, and its effects on pulmonary and central nervous system outcomes. This retrospective cohort study included 193 surviving infants born below 32 weeks of gestation in preimplementation (2007-2008) and postimplementation (2016-2017) periods in a single study center in Finland. Read More

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Lung ultrasound scores in neonatal clinical practice: A narrative review of the literature.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2022 05 28;57(5):1157-1166. Epub 2022 Mar 28.

Department of Neurosciences, Psychology, Drug Research and Child Health, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

Lung ultrasound (LU) has in recent years increasingly been used as a point-of-care method. Initially, LU was used as a so-called descriptive diagnostic method for neonatal respiratory diseases. Instead, this review article focuses on the use of LU as a "functional" tool using classification of findings in patterns or using semiquantitative scores. Read More

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Pulmonary artery dopplers for early prediction of risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely low birth weight babies.

J Clin Ultrasound 2022 Mar 26;50(3):385-392. Epub 2022 Feb 26.

Division of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Objective: The early abnormal pulmonary vasoreactivity observed in babies at risk of Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) increases the pulmonary vascular resistance. This can be assessed non-invasively using Time to Peak Velocity:Right Ventricular Ejection Time ratio (TPV:RVET) measured from pulmonary artery Doppler waveform obtained using echocardiogram. We postulate that screening for this early can predict BPD in this cohort. Read More

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High-Resolution Computed Tomography Scores in Cases of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

Biomed Res Int 2022 7;2022:5208993. Epub 2022 Feb 7.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, School of Medicine, Akdeniz University, Turkey.

Background: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) carries a risk of long-term pulmonary sequelae. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is a method of detecting such structural changes. This study is aimed at characterizing structural abnormalities associated with BPD and at evaluating the clinical findings in the newborn period associated with HRCT scores. Read More

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Exaggerated Mini Puberty during Early Infancy of a Preterm Girl: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

Arch Iran Med 2022 01 1;25(1):64-70. Epub 2022 Jan 1.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Health, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran.

Mini puberty is the important period of infancy life that can have a serious impact on sexual development in both sexes. In the infants born very preterm and with extremely low birth weight, mini puberty changes including changes in clinical, hormonal, and imaging data are severe and long lasting, especially in girls. It can be called "exaggerated mini puberty". Read More

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January 2022

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia from chest radiographs to magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography: adding value.

Pediatr Radiol 2022 Apr 5;52(4):643-660. Epub 2022 Feb 5.

Center for Pulmonary Imaging Research, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a common long-term complication of preterm birth. The chest radiograph appearance and survivability have evolved since the first description of BPD in 1967 because of improved ventilation and clinical strategies and the introduction of surfactant in the early 1990s. Contemporary imaging care is evolving with the recognition that comorbidities of tracheobronchomalacia and pulmonary hypertension have a great influence on outcomes and can be noninvasively evaluated with CT and MRI techniques, which provide a detailed evaluation of the lungs, trachea and to a lesser degree the heart. Read More

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Maladaptive functional changes in alveolar fibroblasts due to perinatal hyperoxia impair epithelial differentiation.

JCI Insight 2022 03 8;7(5). Epub 2022 Mar 8.

The Perinatal Institute and Section of Neonatology, Perinatal and Pulmonary Biology, and.

Infants born prematurely worldwide have up to a 50% chance of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a clinical morbidity characterized by dysregulated lung alveolarization and microvascular development. It is known that PDGFR alpha-positive (PDGFRA+) fibroblasts are critical for alveolarization and that PDGFRA+ fibroblasts are reduced in BPD. A better understanding of fibroblast heterogeneity and functional activation status during pathogenesis is required to develop mesenchymal population-targeted therapies for BPD. Read More

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Imaging in neonatal respiratory disease.

Paediatr Respir Rev 2021 Dec 23. Epub 2021 Dec 23.

Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnett Ave, Cincinnati, OH 45229, United States.

The purpose of this review is to describe the current state of the art in clinical imaging for NICU patients, divided into major areas that correspond to likely phenotypes of neonatal respiratory disease: airway abnormalities, parenchymal disease, and pulmonary vascular disease. All common imaging modalities (ultrasound, X-ray, CT, and MRI) are discussed, with an emphasis on modalities that are most relevant to the individual underlying aspects of disease. Some promising aspects of dynamic and functional imaging are included, where there may be future clinical applicability. Read More

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December 2021

Pulmonary Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Ex-preterm Children with/without Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

Ann Am Thorac Soc 2022 Jan 14. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

SickKids, Paediatrics, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Rationale: Children born prematurely, particularly those with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, have persisting lung abnormalities requiring longitudinal monitoring. Pulmonary ultra-short echo time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements may provide sensitive markers of persisting lung abnormalities, and have not been evaluated in school-aged children born prematurely.

Objective: To compare pulmonary MRI and pulmonary function test measurements in preterm-born school-aged children with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Read More

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January 2022

Tracheostomy prediction model in neonatal bronchopulmonary dysplasia via lung and airway MRI.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2022 04 25;57(4):1042-1050. Epub 2022 Jan 25.

Department of Pediatrics, The Perinatal Institute, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.

Rationale: Clinical management of neonatal bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is often imprecise and can vary widely between different institutions and providers, due to limited objective measurements of disease pathology severity. There is critical need to improve guidance on the application and timing of interventional treatments, such as tracheostomy.

Objectives: To generate an imaging-based clinical tool for early identification of those patients with BPD who are likely to require later tracheostomy and long-term mechanical ventilation. Read More

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Dynamic PEEP Study: A Non-invasive Diagnostic Exam to Assess for Effective PEEP in Children with Severe BPD.

Lung 2022 02 11;200(1):59-65. Epub 2022 Jan 11.

Division of Pulmonary and Sleep Medicine, Oishei Children's Hospital, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, 1001 Main Street, Buffalo, NY, 14203, USA.

Objective: Tracheobronchomalacia (TBM) is common in neonates with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and is associated with higher morbidity. This study evaluates the value of a CT protocol to assess the degree of TBM and gauge the adequacy of prescribed PEEP.

Study Design: Four infants with severe BPD on invasive mechanical ventilation underwent a chest CT protocol, including limited reduced-dose expiratory scans with varying PEEP levels. Read More

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February 2022

Lysyl oxidase regulation and protein aldehydes in the injured newborn lung.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2022 02 8;322(2):L204-L223. Epub 2021 Dec 8.

Cardiovascular Research Center of the General Medical Services, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

During newborn lung injury, excessive activity of lysyl oxidases (LOXs) disrupts extracellular matrix (ECM) formation. Previous studies indicate that TGFβ activation in the O-injured mouse pup lung increases lysyl oxidase (LOX) expression. But how TGFβ regulates this, and whether the LOXs generate excess pulmonary aldehydes are unknown. Read More

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February 2022

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

Paediatr Anaesth 2022 Feb 15;32(2):174-180. Epub 2021 Dec 15.

Division of Pediatric Cardiac Anesthesia - Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California, USA.

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is the most frequent adverse outcome of prematurity. Before implementation of antenatal steroids and surfactant therapy, bronchopulmonary dysplasia was mostly characterized by fibrotic, scarred, and hyper-inflated lungs due to pulmonary injury following mechanical ventilation and oxygen toxicity. With advances in neonatal medicine, this "old" bronchopulmonary dysplasia has changed to a "new" bronchopulmonary dysplasia characterized by an arrest in lung growth, leading to alveolar simplification and pulmonary vascular dysangiogenesis. Read More

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February 2022

Relationship between the Quantitative Indicators of Cranial MRI and the Early Neurodevelopment of Preterm Infants.

Comput Math Methods Med 2021 19;2021:6486452. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

Department of Pediatrics, Xuzhou Medical University Affiliated Hospital of Lianyungang, Lianyungang 222000, China.

Aim: To explore the relationship between the quantitative indicators (biparietal width, interhemispheric distance) of the cranial MRI for preterm infants at 37 weeks of postmenstrual age (PMA) and neurodevelopment at 6 months of corrected age.

Methods: A total of 113 preterm infants (gestational age < 37 weeks) delivered in the Obstetrics Department of the First People's Hospital of Lianyungang from September 2018 to February 2020 and directly transferred to the Neonatology Department for treatment were enrolled in this study. Based on their development quotient (DQ), the patients were divided into the normal (DQ ≥ 85, = 76) group and the abnormal (DQ < 85, = 37) group. Read More

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February 2022