4,404 results match your criteria Imaging in Asthma

The effect of combination inhaled therapy on ventilation distribution measured by SPECT/CT imaging in uncontrolled asthma.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Airway Physiology and Imaging Group, The Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, grid.1013.3The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background: Asthma is characterised by heterogeneous ventilation as measured by 3-dimensional ventilation imaging. Combination inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting beta agonist (ICS/LABA) treatment response is variable in asthma and effects on regional ventilation are unknown. Our aims were to determine whether regional ventilation defects decrease after ICS/LABA treatment and whether small airways dysfunction predicts response in uncontrolled asthma. Read More

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Ultra-short echo-time magnetic resonance imaging lung segmentation with under-Annotations and domain shift.

Med Image Anal 2021 Jun 2;72:102107. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Division of Respirology, Department of Medicine, Western University, London, ON, N6A 5B7, Canada; Robarts Research Institute, School of Biomedical Engineering, Western University, London, ON, N6A 5B7, Canada. Electronic address:

Ultra-short echo-time (UTE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides enhanced visualization of pulmonary structural and functional abnormalities and has shown promise in phenotyping lung disease. Here, we describe the development and evaluation of a lung segmentation approach to facilitate UTE MRI methods for patient-based imaging. The proposed approach employs a k-means algorithm in kernel space for pair-wise feature clustering and imposes image domain continuous regularization, coined as continuous kernel k-means (CKKM). Read More

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Massive Pneumomediastinum and Subcutaneous Emphysema Secondary to Foreign Body Aspiration.

J Emerg Med 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Pediatrics, Soroka University Medical Center, Beer Sheva, Israel; Pediatric Pulmonary Unit, Soroka University Medical Center, Beer Sheva, Israel; Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion, University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel.

Background: Spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM) occurs in cases of mediastinal leaks that are not caused by trauma, mechanical ventilation, or other surgical procedures. In most cases, in the pediatric population a trigger can be identified, most commonly asthma. SPM caused by foreign body aspiration is not a common entity. Read More

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Concurrent asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adult ED patients: A national perspective.

Am J Emerg Med 2021 Jun 15;49:216-225. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Renaissance School of Medicine at Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: Emergency department (ED) visits for Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) are common. The designation of Asthma-COPD overlap (ACO) has been used to describe patients with features of both diseases. Studies show that ACO patients may be at increased risk of poor outcomes relative to patients with either disease alone. Read More

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Everything That Wheezes Is Not Asthma: A Case Report.

Pediatr Allergy Immunol Pulmonol 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, Michigan, USA.

This case report provides the general pediatrician with insight on a unique presentation of an already rare disease. Plastic bronchitis (PB) is an exceedingly rare disease that presents with the formation of casts in the endobronchial tree. This typically occurs in patients with congenital heart defects that have undergone repair, however, it is atypical to be seen in otherwise healthy patients. Read More

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Complete recovery of herpes zoster radiculopathy based on electrodiagnostic study: A case report.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Jun;9(17):4303-4309

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul 04763, South Korea.

Background: Herpes zoster is a painful infectious disease caused by the varicella zoster virus. Herpes zoster radiculopathy, which is a type of segmental zoster paresis, can complicate the disease and cause motor weakness. This complication should be considered when a patient with a rash complains of acute-onset motor weakness, and the diagnosis can be verified electrodiagnostic study. Read More

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Formation of biogenic amines in fish: Dietary intakes and health risk assessment.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jun 6;9(6):3123-3129. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Food Control Department Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Zagazig University Zagazig Egypt.

Biogenic amines (BAs) are toxicants that are produced during the proteolytic activities of some microorganisms, or naturally during the metabolism of their precursor amino acids. The objective of this study was to estimate the formed BAs in six types of fish retailed in Egypt including tilapia, mullet, mackerel, sardine, herring, and tuna. In addition, total mesophilic (TMC) and total psychrophilic (TPsC) bacterial counts were investigated. Read More

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Flow Structure and Particle Deposition Analyses for Optimization of a Pressurized Metered Dose Inhaler (pMDI) in a Model of Tracheobronchial Airway.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2021 Jun 12;164:105911. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Institute of Lung Biology and Disease, Helmholtz Zentrum München- German Research Centre for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany; Comprehensive Pneumology Center, Member of the German Center for Lung Research, Max-Lebsche-Platz 31, Munich 81377, Germany. Electronic address:

Inhalation therapy plays an important role in management or treatment of respiratory diseases such asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPDs). For decades, pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) have been the most popular and prescribed drug delivery devices for inhalation therapy. The main objectives of the present computational work are to study flow structure inside a pMDI, as well as transport and deposition of micron-sized particles in a model of human tracheobronchial airways and their dependence on inhalation air flow rate and characteristic pMDI parameters. Read More

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Noninvasive ventilation use in pediatric status asthmaticus.

J Asthma 2021 Jun 18:1-5. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

Introduction: Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is sometimes used in refractory pediatric status asthmaticus for its potential benefits of stenting airways and dispersing albuterol. However, its effectiveness in pediatric asthma remains unproven. The usage pattern, outcomes, and safety of NIV in pediatric status asthmaticus are described. Read More

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Seeking Illumination: The Path to Chemiluminescent 1,2-Dioxetanes for Quantitative Measurements and Imaging.

Acc Chem Res 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Chemistry, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas 75275-0314, United States.

ConspectusChemiluminescence is a fascinating phenomenon that evolved in nature and has been harnessed by chemists in diverse ways to improve life. This Account tells the story of our research group's efforts to formulate and manifest spiroadamantane 1,2-dioxetanes with triggerable chemiluminescence for imaging and monitoring important reactive analytes in living cells, animals, and human clinical samples. Analytes like reactive sulfur, oxygen and nitrogen species, as well as pH and hypoxia can be indicators of cellular function or dysfunction and are often implicated in the causes and effects of disease. Read More

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Acute and durable effect of inhaled hypertonic saline on mucociliary clearance in adult asthma.

ERJ Open Res 2021 Apr 7;7(2). Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Center for Environmental Medicine, Asthma and Lung Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Background: Impaired mucus clearance and airway mucus plugging have been shown to occur in moderate-severe asthma, especially during acute exacerbations. In cystic fibrosis, where airway mucus is dehydrated, it has been shown that inhaled hypertonic saline (HS) produces both acute and sustained enhancement of mucociliary clearance (MCC). The current study was designed to assess the acute and sustained effect of inhaled 7% HS on MCC in adult asthma. Read More

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Lung MRI with hyperpolarised gases: current & future clinical perspectives.

Br J Radiol 2021 Jun 9:20210207. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

POLARIS, Department of Infection, Immunity & Cardiovascular Disease, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

The use of pulmonary MRI in a clinical setting has historically been limited. Whilst CT remains the gold-standard for lung imaging in many clinical indications, technical developments in ultrashort and zero echo time MRI techniques are beginning to help realise non-ionising imaging in certain lung disorders. In this invited review, we discuss a complementary technique - hyperpolarised (HP) gas MRI with inhaled He and Xe - a method for and imaging of the lung that has great potential as a clinical tool for early detection and improved understanding of pathophysiology in many lung diseases. Read More

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Analysis of Risk Factors for Rectus Sheath Hematoma.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2021 Jun;30(6):633-637

Department of General Surgery, Medical School, Hitit University, Corum, Turkey.

Objective: To evaluate the risk factors for developing rectus sheath hematoma (RSH).

Study Design: An observational study.

Place And Duration Of Study: Department of General Surgery, Hitit University School of Medicine, Erol Olcok Training and Research Hospital, Turkey; from January 2018 to April 2020. Read More

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Mechanisms and biomarkers of airway epithelial cell damage in asthma: a review.

Clin Respir J 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Bronchial asthma is a heterogeneous disease with complex pathological mechanisms representing different phenotypes, including severe asthma. The airway epithelium is a major site of complex pathological changes in severe asthma due, in part, to activation of inflammatory and immune mechanisms in response to noxious agents. Current imaging procedures are unable to accurately measure epithelial and airway remodeling. Read More

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Well-Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Invading the Trachea in a Pediatric Patient.

AACE Clin Case Rep 2021 May-Jun;7(3):207-210. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

University of Michigan, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Objectives: Pediatric thyroid cancer is rare. Most cases are well-differentiated thyroid cancers (WDTCs). However, gross laryngotracheal invasion of WDTCs is unusual. Read More

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Epithelial Barrier Integrity Profiling: Combined Approach Using Cellular Junctional Complex Imaging and Transepithelial Electrical Resistance.

SLAS Discov 2021 Jun 4:24725552211013077. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

GlaxoSmithKline R&D, Stevenage, Hertfordshire, UK.

A core aspect of epithelial cell function is barrier integrity. A loss of barrier integrity is a feature of a number of respiratory diseases, including asthma, allergic rhinitis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Restoration of barrier integrity is a target for respiratory disease drug discovery. Read More

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Airway smooth muscle cells from severe asthma patients with fixed airflow obstruction are responsive to steroid and bronchodilator treatment .

ERJ Open Res 2021 Apr 31;7(2). Epub 2021 May 31.

Airway Physiology and Imaging Group, Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

https://bit.ly/3muvNsW. Read More

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Airway mucin MUC5AC and MUC5B concentrations and the initiation and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an analysis of the SPIROMICS cohort.

Lancet Respir Med 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Marsico Lung Institute/Cystic Fibrosis and Pulmonary Research Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Background: We previously described the contributions of increased total airway mucin concentrations to the pathogenesis and diagnosis of the chronic bronchitic component of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Here, we investigated the relative contribution of each of the major airway gel-forming mucins, MUC5AC and MUC5B, to the initiation, progression, and early diagnosis of airways disease in COPD.

Methods: SPIROMICS was a multicentre, observational study in patients aged 40-80 years recruited from six clinical sites and additional subsites in the USA. Read More

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Evaluation of bronchial wall thickness in asthma using magnetic resonance imaging.

Eur Respir J 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Univ. Bordeaux, Centre de Recherche Cardio-thoracique de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France

Background: Bronchial thickening is a pathological feature of asthma that has been evaluated using computed tomography (CT), an ionised radiation technique. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) with Ultrashort Echo Time (UTE) pulse sequences could be an alternative to CT.

Objectives: To measure bronchial dimensions using MRI-UTE in asthmatic patients, by evaluating the accuracy and agreement with CT, by comparing severe and non-severe asthma and by correlating with pulmonary function tests. Read More

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COVID-19 and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis or COVID-19 mimicking eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis?

Rheumatol Int 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Ankara City Hospital, Ankara, 06100, Turkey.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) share similarities in clinical, imaging findings and may present with respiratory distress. Differentiating a new-onset EGPA from COVID-19 during the current pandemic is a diagnostic challenge, particularly if other EGPA symptoms are overlooked. Here in this study we reviewed the literature regarding EGPA patients with COVID-19 and patients who diagnosed with EGPA or suffered an EGPA flare mimicking COVID-19. Read More

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Mucociliary Clearance Differs in Mild Asthma by Levels of Type 2 Inflammation.

Chest 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, PA.

Background: Although mucus plugging is a well-reported feature of asthma, whether asthma and type 2 inflammation affect mucociliary clearance (MCC) is unknown.

Research Question: Does type 2 inflammation influence mucus clearance rates in patients with mild asthma who are not receiving corticosteroids?

Study Design And Methods: The clearance rates of inhaled radiolabeled particles were compared between patients with mild asthma with low (n = 17) and high (n = 18) levels of T2 inflammation. Fraction exhaled nitric oxide (Feno) was used to prospectively segregate subjects into T2 Lo (Feno < 25 ppb) and T2 Hi (Feno > 35 ppb) cohorts. Read More

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SOX18 enhances the proliferation and migration of airway smooth muscle cells induced by tumor necrosis factor-α via the regulation of Notch1 signaling.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Jul 15;96:107746. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Interventional Radiology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University and Shanghai Institute of Medical Imaging, Shanghai 200032, China.

Childhood asthma is a frequent chronic disease of pediatric populations. The excessive proliferation and migration of airway smooth muscle cells contribute to airway remodeling during asthma pathogenesis. Sex-determining region on the Y chromosome-related high mobility group box 18 (SOX18) has been reported to be over-expressed in asthma. Read More

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Sample preparation strategy for the detection of steroid-like compounds using MALDI mass spectrometry imaging: pulmonary distribution of budesonide as a case study.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2021 Jul 17;413(16):4363-4371. Epub 2021 May 17.

Preclinical R&D, Chiesi Farmaceutici, 43122, Parma, Italy.

Corticosteroids as budesonide can be effective in reducing topic inflammation processes in different organs. Therapeutic use of budesonide in respiratory diseases, like asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and allergic rhinitis is well known. However, the pulmonary distribution of budesonide is not well understood, mainly due to the difficulties in tracing the molecule in lung samples without the addition of a label. Read More

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Coronary Artery Ectasia: A Case Report Discussing the Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

Cureus 2021 Apr 12;13(4):e14431. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Interventional Cardiology, Richmond University Medical Center, Staten Island, USA.

The localized or diffused dilation of a coronary artery lumen is referred to as coronary artery ectasia (CAE). Though it is well recognized, CAE is a rare finding that is encountered in the diagnostic procedure of coronary angiography. This form of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD) can be found in 1. Read More

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Total IgE Variability Is Associated with Future Asthma Exacerbations: A 1-Year Prospective Cohort Study.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Airway Physiology and Imaging Group and Woolcock Emphysema Centre, Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; Discipline of Medical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Background: Few prospective studies have investigated the relationship between IgE variability and risk for asthma exacerbations (AEs).

Objective: To explore the relationship between IgE variability and AEs.

Methods: Recruited patients with stable asthma underwent two serum total IgE tests within a month (at screening [baseline IgE] and at 1 month) to obtain the coefficient of variation (CV) of base 10 log-transformed IgE. Read More

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The YAP/HIF-1α/miR-182/EGR2 axis is implicated in asthma severity through the control of Th17 cell differentiation.

Cell Biosci 2021 May 12;11(1):84. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, No. 17, Yongwai Street, Donghu District, Nanchang, 330006, People's Republic of China.

Background: Asthma is a heterogeneous chronic inflammatory disease of the airway, involving reversible airflow limitation and airway remodeling. T helper 17 (Th17) cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. However, there is limited understanding of the signaling pathways controlling Th17 cell differentiation in asthma. Read More

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Association of Maternal Immune Activation during Pregnancy and Neurologic Outcomes in Offspring.

J Pediatr 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA; Newborn Brain Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA; Weill Institute for Neuroscience, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA; Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA. Electronic address:

Objective: To evaluate neurologic morbidity among offspring during their first year of life in association with prenatal maternal immune activation (MIA), using an inclusive definition.

Study Design: This retrospective cohort study included singletons born in California between 2011 and 2017. MIA was defined by International Classification of Diseases diagnosis of infection, autoimmune disorder, allergy, asthma, atherosclerosis, or malignancy during pregnancy. Read More

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A case of spontaneous pneumomediastinum in a patient with severe SARS-CoV-2 and a review of the literature.

SAGE Open Med Case Rep 2021 21;9:2050313X211010021. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Internal Medicine, Harbor-University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Medical Center, Torrance, CA, USA.

Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is defined as having an etiology that is not related to surgery, trauma, or mechanical ventilation. Precipitating causes of spontaneous pneumomediastinum include coughing, exercise, vomiting, infection, underlying lung diseases such as asthma, and illicit drugs. Symptoms include chest pain, shortness of breath, and dysphagia. Read More

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The Role of Atopy in the Choroidal Profile of Keratoconus Patients.

Clin Ophthalmol 2021 28;15:1799-1807. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Ophthalmology, Centro Hospitalar Universitário São João, Porto, Portugal.

Purpose: Although classically classified as a non-inflammatory condition, an inflammatory basis for keratoconus (KC) appears to be a growing evidence. Recently, it has been shown that KC patients have an increased choroidal thickness (CT). Among inflammatory disorders, atopy has been associated with KC development; therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate if the increased CT in patients with KC is related to atopy. Read More

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