615 results match your criteria Imaging Pulmonary Interstitial Emphysema

Lung MRI with hyperpolarised gases: current & future clinical perspectives.

Br J Radiol 2021 Jun 9:20210207. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

POLARIS, Department of Infection, Immunity & Cardiovascular Disease, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

The use of pulmonary MRI in a clinical setting has historically been limited. Whilst CT remains the gold-standard for lung imaging in many clinical indications, technical developments in ultrashort and zero echo time MRI techniques are beginning to help realise non-ionising imaging in certain lung disorders. In this invited review, we discuss a complementary technique - hyperpolarised (HP) gas MRI with inhaled He and Xe - a method for and imaging of the lung that has great potential as a clinical tool for early detection and improved understanding of pathophysiology in many lung diseases. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema with rheumatoid arthritis.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 May 4;14(5). Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Internal Medicine, Suzu General Hospital, Suzu, Ishikawa, Japan.

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Pulmonary Hypertension in Association with Lung Disease: Quantitative CT and Artificial Intelligence to the Rescue? State-of-the-Art Review.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Apr 9;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Infection, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2RX, UK.

Accurate phenotyping of patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an integral part of informing disease classification, treatment, and prognosis. The impact of lung disease on PH outcomes and response to treatment remains a challenging area with limited progress. Imaging with computed tomography (CT) plays an important role in patients with suspected PH when assessing for parenchymal lung disease, however, current assessments are limited by their semi-qualitative nature. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Evaluation of Patients with Fibrotic Interstitial Lung Disease: Preliminary results from the Turk-UIP Study.

Turk Thorac J 2021 Mar 1;22(2):102-109. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Chest Diseases, Koç University Medical Faculty, Istanbul, Turkey.

Objective: Differential diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is important among fibrotic interstitial lung diseases (ILD). This study aimed to evaluate the rate of IPF in patients with fibrotic ILD and to determine the clinical-laboratory features of patients with and without IPF that would provide the differential diagnosis of IPF.

Material And Methods: The study included the patients with the usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern or possible UIP pattern on thorax high-resolution computed tomography, and/or UIP pattern, probable UIP or possible UIP pattern at lung biopsy according to the 2011 ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT guidelines. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Illustration of a number of atypical computed tomography manifestations of active pulmonary tuberculosis.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2021 Apr;11(4):1651-1667

Department of Tuberculosis, Dalian Tuberculosis Hospital, Dalian, China.

Tuberculosis is a serious public health challenge facing mankind and one of the top ten causes of death. Diagnostic imaging plays an important role, particularly for the diagnosis and treatment planning of tuberculosis patients with negative microbiology results. This article illustrates a number of atypical computed tomography (CT) appearances of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), including (I) clustered micronodules (CMNs) sign; (II) reversed halo sign (RHS); (III) tuberculous pneumatocele; (IV) hematogenously disseminated PTB with predominantly diffuse ground glass opacity manifestation; (V) hematogenously disseminated PTB with randomly distributed non-miliary nodules; (VI) PTB changes occur on the background of emphysema or honeycomb changes of interstitial pneumonia; and (VII) PTB manifesting as organizing pneumonia. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Impact of lung morphology on clinical outcomes with riociguat in patients with pulmonary hypertension and idiopathic interstitial pneumonia: A post hoc subgroup analysis of the RISE-IIP study.

J Heart Lung Transplant 2021 Jun 19;40(6):494-503. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Interstitial Lung Disease Unit, Royal Brompton Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Riociguat in Patients with Symptomatic Pulmonary Hypertension associated with Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias (RISE-IIP), a randomized, controlled, phase 2b trial of riociguat for pulmonary hypertension associated with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, was terminated early due to increased mortality in riociguat-treated patients. Baseline characteristics of enrolled patients demonstrated a low diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DL) with preserved lung volumes at baseline, suggesting the presence of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) in some patients. This post hoc analysis of RISE-IIP was undertaken to explore lung morphology, assessed by high-resolution computed tomography, and associated clinical outcomes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

An unusual tracheal foreign body in a middle-aged male with a 15-year history of coal use: a case report.

BMC Med Imaging 2021 02 23;21(1):35. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Radiology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University (Gener Hospital), Chongqing, 401120, People's Republic of China.

Background: Long-term exposure to coal dust causes respiratory disease. In chest computer tomography (CT), pulmonary nodules, pulmonary interstitial fibrosis and emphysema manifest themselves. However, tracheal foreign bodies caused by coal dust are rarely reported. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

The Emerging Role of Quantification of Imaging for Assessing the Severity and Disease Activity of Emphysema, Airway Disease, and Interstitial Lung Disease.

Respiration 2021;100(4):277-290. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Radiological Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA,

There has been an explosion of use for quantitative image analysis in the setting of lung disease due to advances in acquisition protocols and postprocessing technology, including machine and deep learning. Despite the plethora of published papers, it is important to understand which approach has clinical validation and can be used in clinical practice. This paper provides an introduction to quantitative image analysis techniques being used in the investigation of lung disease and focusses on the techniques that have a reasonable clinical validation for being used in clinical trials and patient care. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Structural alteration of lung parenchyma in patients with NF1: a phenotyping study using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT).

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2021 01 14;16(1):29. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: Diffuse interstitial lung disease have been described in Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), but its diversity and prevalence remain unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of (NF1)-associated lung manifestations in a large single-center study using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and to evaluate the smoking history, patients' age, genetics, and the presence of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) as potential influencing factors for lung pathologies.

Methods: In this retrospective study, 71 patients with NF1 were evaluated for the presence of distinctive lung manifestations like reticulations, consolidations, type of emphysema, pulmonary nodules and cysts. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Machine learning for lung CT texture analysis: Improvement of inter-observer agreement for radiological finding classification in patients with pulmonary diseases.

Eur J Radiol 2021 Jan 12;134:109410. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Radiology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan.

Purpose: To evaluate the capability ML-based CT texture analysis for improving interobserver agreement and accuracy of radiological finding assessment in patients with COPD, interstitial lung diseases or infectious diseases.

Materials And Methods: Training cases (n = 28), validation cases (n = 17) and test cases (n = 89) who underwent thin-section CT at a 320-detector row CT with wide volume scan and two 64-detector row CTs with helical scan were enrolled in this study. From 89 CT data, a total of 350 computationally selected ROI including normal lung, emphysema, nodular lesion, ground-glass opacity, reticulation and honeycomb were evaluated by three radiologists as well as by the software. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema after noninvasive ventilation in a COVID-19 patient.

Adv Respir Med 2020 ;88(5):466-467

Department of Internal Medicine, C. Magati Hospital, Scandiano, AUSL Reggio Emilia, Italy.

Pneumomediastinum is an uncommon but well recognized complication of both invasive and non-invasive mechanical ventilation. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum has been observed in association with a variety of structural lung diseases including severe interstitial disorders. More recently it has been reported complicating the course of COVID-19 pneumonia. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020

Automated Lung Segmentation on Chest Computed Tomography Images with Extensive Lung Parenchymal Abnormalities Using a Deep Neural Network.

Korean J Radiol 2021 03 30;22(3):476-488. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Objective: We aimed to develop a deep neural network for segmenting lung parenchyma with extensive pathological conditions on non-contrast chest computed tomography (CT) images.

Materials And Methods: Thin-section non-contrast chest CT images from 203 patients (115 males, 88 females; age range, 31-89 years) between January 2017 and May 2017 were included in the study, of which 150 cases had extensive lung parenchymal disease involving more than 40% of the parenchymal area. Parenchymal diseases included interstitial lung disease (ILD), emphysema, nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease, tuberculous destroyed lung, pneumonia, lung cancer, and other diseases. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Content-Based Image Retrieval of Chest CT with Convolutional Neural Network for Diffuse Interstitial Lung Disease: Performance Assessment in Three Major Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias.

Korean J Radiol 2021 02 21;22(2):281-290. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Objective: To assess the performance of content-based image retrieval (CBIR) of chest CT for diffuse interstitial lung disease (DILD).

Materials And Methods: The database was comprised by 246 pairs of chest CTs (initial and follow-up CTs within two years) from 246 patients with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP, n = 100), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP, n = 101), and cryptogenic organic pneumonia (COP, n = 45). Sixty cases (30-UIP, 20-NSIP, and 10-COP) were selected as the queries. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Imaging findings of pulmonary manifestations of chronic granulomatous disease in a large single center from Shanghai, China (1999-2018).

Sci Rep 2020 11 9;10(1):19349. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, 201102, China.

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is characterized by recurrent infections and granuloma formation in multiple organs, especially the lung. We aimed to investigate pulmonary manifestations by computed tomography (CT). In total, 100 patients with 117 episodes of pulmonary infection were included. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020

Chest imaging findings of chronic respiratory disease in HIV-infected adolescents on combined anti retro viral therapy.

Paediatr Respir Rev 2021 Jun 26;38:16-23. Epub 2020 Sep 26.

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross Children's Hospital and SA-Medical Research Council Unit on Child & Adolescent Health, USA.

Early treatment with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has improved survival of children perinatally infected with HIV into adolescence. This population is at risk of long term complications related to HIV infection, particularly chronic respiratory disease. Limited data on chest imaging findings in HIV-infected adolescents, suggest that the predominant disease is of small and large airways: predominantly bronchiolitis obliterans or bronchiectasis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF


Harefuah 2020 Oct;159(10):735-738

Department of Neonatal Intensive Care, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tikva, Israel.

Introduction: Cystic diseases of the lung are a rare spectrum of anomalies, commonly diagnosed prenatally. We present a case of a newborn twin, born at 29 weeks gestational. The infant was diagnosed with respiratory distress syndrome shortly after birth, treated with surfactant by the INSURE method (intubation, surfactant administration, extubation) and required only short-term non-invasive ventilation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2020

Fatal outcome of anti-MDA5 juvenile dermatomyositis in a paediatric COVID-19 patient: a case report.

Mod Rheumatol Case Rep 2021 01 20;5(1):101-107. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Pediatric Rheumatology Department, La Paz Children´s Hospital, Madrid, Spain.

Anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 juvenile dermatomyositis (anti-MDA5 JDM) is associated with high risk of developing rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease (RP-ILD). Here we report an 11-year-old girl with anti-MDA5 JDM and RP-ILD which led to a fatal outcome, further aggravated by SARS-CoV-2 infection. She was referred to our hospital after being diagnosed with anti-MDA5 JDM and respiratory failure due to RP-ILD. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Impact of Glucose Uptake of Noncancerous Lung Area in Respiratory Events for Lung Cancer Patients.

Ann Thorac Surg 2021 05 28;111(5):1666-1674. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Department of Surgery, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Postoperative severe respiratory adverse events (SRAEs) are the major cause of perioperative morbidity in patients after thoracic surgery. In particular, SRAEs often occur in lung cancer patients concomitant with chronic inflammatory lung diseases (CILDs) such as interstitial lung disease, emphysema, infectious disease, and asthma. We aimed to clarify whether the measurement of the maximum of standardized uptake value in the noncancerous lung area (NCA-SUVmax) and CILDs on high-resolution computed tomography were useful for predicting the risk of SRAEs. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Framingham Heart Study: Populational CT-based phenotyping in the lungs and mediastinum.

Eur J Radiol Open 2020 11;7:100260. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

The Framingham Heart Study (FHS) is one of the largest and established longitudinal populational cohorts. CT cohorts of the FHS since 2002 provided a unique opportunity to assess non-cardiac thoracic imaging findings. This review deals with image-based phenotyping studies from recent major publications regarding interstitial lung abnormalities (ILAs), pulmonary cysts, emphysema, pulmonary nodules, pleural plaques, normal spectrum of the thymus, and anterior mediastinal masses, concluding with the discussion of future directions of FHS CT cohorts studies in the era of radiomics and artificial intelligence. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2020

Distinguishing Smoking-Related Lung Disease Phenotypes Via Imaging and Molecular Features.

Chest 2021 Feb 16;159(2):549-563. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA; Applied Chest Imaging Laboratory, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA.

Background: Chronic tobacco smoke exposure results in a broad range of lung pathologies including emphysema, airway disease and parenchymal fibrosis as well as a multitude of extra-pulmonary comorbidities. Prior work using CT imaging has identified several clinically relevant subgroups of smoking related lung disease, but these investigations have generally lacked organ specific molecular correlates.

Research Question: Can CT imaging be used to identify clinical phenotypes of smoking related lung disease that have specific bronchial epithelial gene expression patterns to better understand disease pathogenesis?

Study Design And Methods: Using K-means clustering, we clustered participants from the COPDGene study (n = 5,273) based on CT imaging characteristics and then evaluated their clinical phenotypes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Objective quantitative multidetector computed tomography assessments in patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis with emphysema: Relationship with pulmonary function and clinical events.

PLoS One 2020 17;15(9):e0239066. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba-city, Chiba, Japan.

Background: Combined pulmonary fibrosis with emphysema (CPFE) is a clinically meaningful syndrome characterized by coexisting upper-lobe emphysema and lower-lobe interstitial fibrosis. However, ambiguous diagnostic criteria and, particularly, the absence of objective methods to quantify emphysematous/fibrotic lesions in patients with CPFE confound the interpretation of the pathophysiology of this syndrome. We analyzed the relationship between objectively quantified computed tomography (CT) measurements and the results of pulmonary function testing (PFT) and clinical events in CPFE patients. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020

Computed tomography appearances of the lung parenchyma in pulmonary hypertension.

Br J Radiol 2021 Jan 11;94(1117):20200830. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Department of Radiology, Royal United Hospitals Bath NHS Foundation Trust, Combe Park, Avon, Bath, United Kingdom.

Computed tomography (CT) is a valuable tool in the workup of patients under investigation for pulmonary hypertension (PH) and may be the first test to suggest the diagnosis. CT parenchymal lung changes can help to differentiate the aetiology of PH. CT can demonstrate interstitial lung disease, emphysema associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, features of left heart failure (including interstitial oedema), and changes secondary to miscellaneous conditions such as sarcoidosis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

The potential utility of anterior upper lobe honeycomb-like lesion in interstitial lung disease associated with connective tissue disease.

Respir Med 2020 10 21;172:106125. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Saitama Red Cross Hospital, 1-5 Shintoshin, Chuo-ku, Saitama, 330-8553, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is associated with high morbidity and mortality in patients with connective tissue disease (CTD). Because some patients with CTD overlap present with ILD first, with CTD diagnosed later, specific radiologic signs are needed to help differentiate each CTD or CTD-ILD from idiopathic ILD.

Objectives: To determine whether specific CT findings can help differentiate CTD as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic sclerosis (SSc), or polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2020

Pneumothorax as a late complication of COVID-19.

Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2020 31;62:e61. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Hospital Unimed Resende, Resende, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

In late 2019, a novel coronavirus initially related to a cluster of severe pneumonia cases in China was identified. COVID-19 cases have rapidly spread to multiple countries worldwide. We present a typical laboratory confirmed case of COVID-19 pneumonia, that was hospitalized due to hypoxemia but did not require mechanical ventilation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2020

Interstitial Lung Fibrosis Imaging Reporting and Data System: What Radiologist Wants to Know?

J Comput Assist Tomogr 2020 Sep/Oct;44(5):656-666

From the Department of Diagnostic Radiology.

The aim of this work is to review interstitial lung fibrosis Imaging Reporting and Data System (ILF-RADS) that was designed for reporting of interstitial lung fibrosis (ILF). Findings include pulmonary and extrapulmonary findings and is subsequently designed into 4 categories. Pulmonary findings included lung volume, reticulations, traction bronchiectasis, honeycomb, nodules, cysts, ground glass, consolidation, mosaic attenuation and emphysema, and distribution of pulmonary lesions; axial (central, peripheral and diffuse), and zonal distribution (upper, middle, and lower zones). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2020

Vascular Pruning on CT and Interstitial Lung Abnormalities in the Framingham Heart Study.

Chest 2021 Feb 14;159(2):663-672. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Background: Pulmonary vascular disease is associated with poor outcomes in individuals affected by interstitial lung disease. The pulmonary vessels can be quantified with noninvasive imaging, but whether radiographic indicators of vasculopathy are associated with early interstitial changes is not known.

Research Question: Are pulmonary vascular volumes, quantified from CT scans, associated with interstitial lung abnormalities (ILA) in a community-based sample with a low burden of lung disease?

Study Design And Methods: In 2,386 participants of the Framingham Heart Study, we used CT imaging to calculate pulmonary vascular volumes, including the small vessel fraction (a surrogate of vascular pruning). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Combined Emphysema and Interstitial Lung Disease as a Rare Presentation of Pulmonary Involvement in a Patient with Chronic Visceral Acid Sphingomyelinase Deficiency (Niemann-Pick Disease Type B).

Am J Case Rep 2020 Aug 6;21:e923394. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

1st Department of Lung Diseases, National Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases Research Institute, Warsaw, Poland.

BACKGROUND Niemann-Pick disease is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1 gene. It results in acid sphingomyelinase deficiency (ASMD) and sphingomyelin intracellular accumulation. Lung disease is diagnosed mostly in chronic visceral ASMD. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Quantitative analysis of pulmonary vasculature in systemic sclerosis at spirometry-gated chest CT.

Ann Rheum Dis 2020 09 30;79(9):1210-1217. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Dept Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

Objective: To prospectively investigate whether differences in pulmonary vasculature exist in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and how they are distributed in patients with different pulmonary function.

Methods: Seventy-four patients with SSc undergoing chest CT scan for interstitial lung disease (ILD) screening or follow-up were prospectively enrolled. A thorough clinical, laboratory and functional evaluation was performed the same day. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2020