534 results match your criteria Imaging Pulmonary Interstitial Emphysema


Chest High-Resolution CT Findings of Microscopic Polyangiitis: A Japanese First Nationwide Prospective Cohort Study.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 11:1-11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

1 Department of Respiratory Medicine, Toho University Omori Medical Center, Ota-ku Omori nisi 6-11-1, Tokyo 143-8541, Japan.

Objective: The lung is one of the organs possibly involved in microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) is commonly found in patients with MPA. The aim of this study was to assess pulmonary lesions in Japanese patients with MPA.

Subjects And Methods: This prospective study was based on 144 patients with MPA who were enrolled in the Remission Induction Therapy in Japanese Patients With ANCA-Associated Vasculitis and Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis Study and who underwent chest high-resolution CT (HRCT) imaging at the time of diagnosis during 2011-2014. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20967DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Pulmonary Acinus: Understanding the Computed Tomography Findings from an Acinar Perspective.

Lung 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Radiology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

The lung acinus is the most distal portion of the airway responsible for the gas exchange. The normal acini are not visible on conventional computed tomography (CT), but the advent of micro-CT improved the understanding of the microarchitecture of healthy acini. The comprehension of the acinar architecture is pivotal for the understanding of CT findings of diseases that involve the acini. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00408-019-00214-7DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Behavioral Characteristics and Medicolegal Identification of Infanticide.

Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi 2018 Jun 25;34(6):659-664. Epub 2018 Dec 25.

Institute of Criminal Science and Technology, Pudong Branch of Shanghai Public Security Bureau, Shanghai 220135, China.

Due to the concealment and incidence higher than reported statistics, infanticide should attract the attention of legal medical experts. The infanticide process has common behavioral characteristics. The perpetrators are most frequently biological mothers who are unmarried, with inferior education, and lack of routine pregnancy tests. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2018.06.000DOI Listing
June 2018
7 Reads

Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema characteristics in a Greek cohort.

ERJ Open Res 2019 Feb 18;5(1). Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Respiratory Medicine Dept, University of Thessaly, School of Medicine, Larissa, Greece.

Background: Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) has recently received great attention, with studies suggesting that it presents a distinct clinical entity while others have challenged this hypothesis. This nationwide study aimed to describe a large cohort of Greek CPFE patients and to examine potential prognostic factors for survival.

Methods: This retrospective study included 97 patients with CPFE. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/23120541.00014-2018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6421361PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Neurofibromatosis type 1: State-of-the-art review with emphasis on pulmonary involvement.

Respir Med 2019 Mar 17;149:9-15. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1), also known as von Recklinghausen's disease, is an autosomal dominant dysplasia of the ectoderm and mesoderm with a variable clinical expression, but near-complete penetrance before the age of 5 years. The estimated incidence is 1 in 3000 births. NF-1 is characterized by collections of neurofibromas, café-au-lait spots, axillary and inguinal freckling, and pigmented hamartomas in the iris (Lisch nodules). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2019.01.002DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Chest computed tomography imaging improves potential lung donor assessment.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2019 Apr 24;157(4):1711-1718.e1. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Miss. Electronic address:

Objective: Chest computed tomography (CT) imaging is being increasingly used for potential lung donor assessment. However, the efficacy of CT imaging in this setting remains unknown. We hypothesize that chest CT imaging independently affects the decision-making process in donor lung utilization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2018.11.038DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Clinical features of thirty-two patients with anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 antibodies.

Clin Exp Rheumatol 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Rheumatology and Immunology of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Objectives: To investigate the clinical characteristics of patients positive for anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) antibodies, and to analyse the potential pathogenesis of anti-MDA5 antibodies.

Methods: The clinical manifestations, serological tests, imaging features, treatments, and prognoses of 32 anti-MDA5 antibody-positive patients diagnosed in the Rheumatology and Immunology Department of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from September 2015 to August 2018 were analysed.

Results: Of the 32 anti-MDA5 antibody-positive patients, eleven patients were clinically diagnosed with interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features (IPAF), ten patients were diagnosed with clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis (CADM), six patients were diagnosed with dermatomyositis (DM) and five patients were diagnosed with anti-synthetase syndrome (ASS). Read More

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February 2019
4 Reads
2.724 Impact Factor

Comparative evaluation of ultrasonography with clinical respiratory score in diagnosis and prognosis of respiratory diseases in weaned dairy buffalo and cattle calves.

J Anim Sci Technol 2018 3;60:29. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

2Klinik für Klauentiere, Freie Universität Berlin, 14163 Berlin, Germany.

Background: Respiratory troubles have economic impacts in countries where livestock industry is an important segment of the agricultural sector, as well as these problems may cause significant economic losses for bovine producers. Various practical methods are used to assess diseases that affect the bovine respiratory system. Ultrasonography is a noninvasive tool that has been used frequently in diagnosis of various animal diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40781-018-0187-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6276192PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Lobectomy with ECMO Support in an Infant Who Developed Pulmonary Interstitial Emphysema Following Repair of Hypoplastic Aortic Arch.

Braz J Cardiovasc Surg 2018 Sep-Oct;33(5):528-530

Department of Surgery; Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery; Pediatric and Congenital Cardiac Surgery Section Jackson Memorial Hospital - University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, USA.

Pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE) is a common problem in premature neonates with respiratory distress syndrome. This condition is often related to barotrauma caused by mechanical ventilation or continuous positive airway pressure applied to low birth weight neonates. The clinical diagnosis can be challenging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21470/1678-9741-2018-0135DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6257528PMC
March 2019
4 Reads

Interstitial Lung Abnormalities in the Queensland Lung Cancer Screening Study: Prevalence and Progression Over Two Years of Surveillance.

Intern Med J 2018 Oct 22. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

University of Queensland Thoracic Research Centre, Department of Thoracic Medicine, The Prince Charles Hospital, Rode Road, Chermside Queensland, Australia, 4032.

Background: We report the prevalence and progression of incidentally-detected interstitial lung abnormalities (ILA) in the Queensland Lung Cancer Screening Study (QLCSS) cohort.

Methods: 256 volunteers aged 60-74, with ≥30 pack years smoking history and FEV1≥50% predicted underwent low dose Computed Tomography (CT) chest screening. Electronic search of baseline (T0) and two year follow-up (T2) CT reports identified candidate cases using Fleischner Society interstitial terminology. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/imj.14148
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imj.14148DOI Listing
October 2018
24 Reads

Imaging Advances in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Insights from the Genetic Epidemiology of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPDGene) Study.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2019 Feb;199(3):286-301

7 Department of Radiology, National Jewish Health, Denver, Colorado.

The Genetic Epidemiology of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPDGene) study, which began in 2007, is an ongoing multicenter observational cohort study of more than 10,000 current and former smokers. The study is aimed at understanding the etiology, progression, and heterogeneity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In addition to genetic analysis, the participants have been extensively characterized by clinical questionnaires, spirometry, volumetric inspiratory and expiratory computed tomography, and longitudinal follow-up, including follow-up computed tomography at 5 years after enrollment. Read More

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https://www.atsjournals.org/doi/10.1164/rccm.201807-1351SO
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201807-1351SODOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6363977PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

Pathologic features of smoking-related lung diseases, with emphasis on smoking-related interstitial fibrosis and a consideration of differential diagnoses.

Authors:
Mark R Wick

Semin Diagn Pathol 2018 Sep 10;35(5):315-323. Epub 2018 Aug 10.

Division of Surgical Pathology & Cytopathology, University of Virginia Medical Center, Charlottesville, VA, USA. Electronic address:

Smoking-related interstitial fibrosis (SRIF) is frequently-seen and morphologically-distinctive finding in the lung tissue of cigarette smokers. It can be distinguished histologically from the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias and other causes of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis. SRIF is typified by dense thickening of the alveolar septa by thick collagen bundles with a hyalinized appearance, with the common admixture of bands of hyperplastic smooth muscle. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.semdp.2018.08.002DOI Listing
September 2018
9 Reads

Spontaneous pneumomediastinum in limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis and myositis overlap.

BMJ Case Rep 2018 Jul 30;2018. Epub 2018 Jul 30.

Rheumatology, Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

A 58-year-old man with limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis and myositis overlap complicated by interstitial lung disease presented with several months of progressive dyspnoea and weakness. CT chest revealed extensive pneumomediastinum that was not present on imaging 6 months before this study and appeared to be spontaneous, with no preceding trauma, infection or invasive procedures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2018-224591DOI Listing
July 2018
25 Reads

Radiological Report of Pilot Study for the Korean Lung Cancer Screening (K-LUCAS) Project: Feasibility of Implementing Lung Imaging Reporting and Data System.

Korean J Radiol 2018 Jul-Aug;19(4):803-808. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Cancer Early Detection Branch, National Cancer Control Institute, National Cancer Center, Goyang 10408, Korea.

Objective: To report the radiological results of a pilot study for the Korean Lung Cancer Screening project conducted to evaluate the feasibility of lung cancer screening using low-dose chest computed tomography (LDCT) in Korea.

Materials And Methods: The National Cancer Center and three regional cancer centers participated in this study. Asymptomatic current or ex-smokers aged 55-74 years with a smoking history of at least 30 pack-years who had used tobacco within the last 15 years were considered eligible. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3348/kjr.2018.19.4.803DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6005960PMC
April 2019
5 Reads

Pneumomediastinum Post EBUS-TBNA in Interstitial Lung Disease.

J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol 2018 07;25(3):e32-e33

Liverpool Heart and Chest Hospital, Thomas Drive, Liverpool, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/LBR.0000000000000457DOI Listing
July 2018
2 Reads

Incidental extensive adenocarcinoma in lungs explanted from a transplant recipient with an idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis flare-up: A clinical dilemma.

Respir Med Case Rep 2018 12;25:45-48. Epub 2018 Jun 12.

Norton Thoracic Institute, St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ, USA.

Patients under consideration for lung transplantation as treatment for end-stage lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) often have risk factors such as a history of smoking or concomitant emphysema, both of which can predispose the patient to lung cancer. In fact, IPF itself increases the risk of lung cancer development by 6.8% to 20%. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rmcr.2018.06.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6011045PMC
June 2018
2 Reads

Interstitial Features at Chest CT Enhance the Deleterious Effects of Emphysema in the COPDGene Cohort.

Radiology 2018 08 5;288(2):600-609. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

From the Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine (S.Y.A., A.A.D., F.N.R., R.K.P., G.M.H., I.O.R., G.R.W.), Laboratory of Mathematics in Imaging, Department of Radiology (R.H., J.C.R., G.V.S., J.O.O., R.S.J.E.), and Department of Radiology (H.H.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, 75 Francis St, PBB CA-3, Boston, MA 02115; Department of Medicine, Weil Cornell Medical College, New York, NY (F.J.M., A.M.C.); Departments of Medicine (R.P.B.) and Radiology (D.A.L.), National Jewish Health, Denver, Colo; and Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Ala (S.P.B., M.T.D., J.M.W.).

Purpose To determine if interstitial features at chest CT enhance the effect of emphysema on clinical disease severity in smokers without clinical pulmonary fibrosis. Materials and Methods In this retrospective cohort study, an objective CT analysis tool was used to measure interstitial features (reticular changes, honeycombing, centrilobular nodules, linear scar, nodular changes, subpleural lines, and ground-glass opacities) and emphysema in 8266 participants in a study of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) called COPDGene (recruited between October 2006 and January 2011). Additive differences in patients with emphysema with interstitial features and in those without interstitial features were analyzed by using t tests, multivariable linear regression, and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2018172688DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6069608PMC
August 2018
11 Reads

Pneumoperitoneum in a neonate weighing less than 500 g. What do we really know about it?

BMJ Case Rep 2018 May 16;2018. Epub 2018 May 16.

Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.

Pneumoperitoneum in preterm infants is a surgical emergency as it is usually indicative of intestinal perforation. Rare cases of idiopathic pneumoperitoneum have been described in the literature, the underlying causes and pathophysiology of which remain uncertain. We present a case of pneumoperitoneum in an extremely preterm infant with severe growth restriction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2018-224398DOI Listing
May 2018
5 Reads

Functional associations of pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis and emphysema with hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

Respir Med 2018 05 30;138:95-101. Epub 2018 Mar 30.

Interstitial Lung Disease Unit, Royal Brompton Hospital, Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Background: Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) has been described in hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) yet its functional implications are unclear. Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) has occasionally been described in never-smokers with HP, but epidemiological data regarding its prevalence is sparse. CTs in a large HP cohort were therefore examined to identify the prevalence and effects of PPFE and emphysema. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09546111183010
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2018.03.031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5948318PMC
May 2018
12 Reads
3.090 Impact Factor

Unexpected case of pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema: primary or secondary aetiology?

BMJ Case Rep 2018 Apr 19;2018. Epub 2018 Apr 19.

Radiology, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.

A 77-year-old man was admitted with a relapse of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive vasculitis with pulmonary involvement and acute kidney injury. There was a background of pulmonary fibrosis (non-specific interstitial pneumonia type pattern) and superadded pulmonary haemorrhage, acute pulmonary oedema and sepsis. The patient was intubated for 4 days and remained dependent on high flow oxygen and continuous positive airway pressure after extubation. Read More

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http://casereports.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/bcr-2018-22452
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2018-224528DOI Listing
April 2018
6 Reads

Pulmonary interstitial emphysema in fatal asthma: case report and histopathological review.

BMC Pulm Med 2018 Mar 20;18(1):50. Epub 2018 Mar 20.

Department of Pathology, São Paulo University Medical School, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Mortality related to asthma has decreased worldwide since the introduction of inhaled corticosteroid therapy in the past decades. However, there are still some asthma fatalities identified mainly in populations with less access to regular treatment. Pulmonary interstitial emphysema due to alveolar rupture has been rarely described as a complication of an acute severe asthma attack, and its identification in pathological analysis can be difficult. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12890-018-0615-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5859394PMC
March 2018
6 Reads

Quantitative computed tomography applied to interstitial lung diseases.

Eur J Radiol 2018 Mar 31;100:99-107. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

Department of Radiology, University Hospital Giessen, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Klinikstrasse 33, 35392 Giessen, Germany Members of The German Center for Lung Research (DZL e. V.).

Objectives: To evaluate a new image marker that retrieves information from computed tomography (CT) density histograms, with respect to classification properties between different lung parenchyma groups. Furthermore, to conduct a comparison of the new image marker with conventional markers.

Materials And Methods: Density histograms from 220 different subjects (normal = 71; emphysema = 73; fibrotic = 76) were used to compare the conventionally applied emphysema index (EI), 15 percentile value (PV), mean value (MV), variance (V), skewness (S), kurtosis (K), with a new histogram's functional shape (HFS) method. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2018.01.018DOI Listing
March 2018
2 Reads

Prevalence and Effects of Emphysema in Never-Smokers with Rheumatoid Arthritis Interstitial Lung Disease.

EBioMedicine 2018 Feb 31;28:303-310. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

Interstitial Lung Disease Unit, Royal Brompton Hospital, Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Aims: Autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis-related interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) have been linked to the existence of emphysema in never-smokers. We aimed to quantify emphysema prevalence in RA-ILD never-smokers and investigate whether combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) results in a worsened prognosis independent of baseline disease extent.

Methods: RA-ILD patients presenting to the Royal Brompton Hospital (n=90) and Asan Medical Center (n=155) had CT's evaluated for a definite usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern, and visual extents of emphysema and ILD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2018.01.038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5835571PMC
February 2018
6 Reads

Several high-resolution computed tomography findings associate with survival and clinical features in rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease.

Respir Med 2018 01 24;134:24-30. Epub 2017 Nov 24.

Respiratory Medicine, Research Unit of Internal Medicine, Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, POB 20, 90029 Oulu, Finland.

Objective: To compare the presence and extent of several high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) observations in different subtypes of rheumatoid arthritis-related interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) and to examine associations between radiological findings, hospitalization, age, RA duration, pulmonary function tests (PFT) and survival.

Materials And Methods: HRCTs from 60 RA-ILD patients were independently evaluated and re-categorized into usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), organizing pneumonia (OP), diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) and unclassified subtypes by two radiologists. The presence and extent, which was reported using a semi-quantitative scoring system, of e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2017.11.013DOI Listing
January 2018
13 Reads

Emphysematous change with scleroderma-associated interstitial lung disease: the potential contribution of vasculopathy?

BMC Pulm Med 2018 Jan 30;18(1):25. Epub 2018 Jan 30.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Kanagawa Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center, 6-16-1 Tomioka-higashi, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, 236-0051, Japan.

Background: Pulmonary emphysema combined with systemic sclerosis (SSc)-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD) occurs more often in smokers but also in never-smokers. This study aimed to describe a new finding characterized by peculiar emphysematous change with SSc-associated ILD (SSc-ILD).

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of 21 consecutive patients with SSc-ILD diagnosed by surgical lung biopsy and focused on the radio-pathological correlation of the emphysematous change. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12890-018-0591-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5791248PMC
January 2018
7 Reads

Thin-section computed tomography-determined usual interstitial pneumonia pattern affects the decision-making process for resection in newly diagnosed lung cancer patients: a retrospective study.

BMC Pulm Med 2018 Jan 5;18(1). Epub 2018 Jan 5.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, 466-8550, Japan.

Background: There is only limited information on the impact of thin-section computed tomography (TSCT)-determined usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern in the decision-making for resection in newly diagnosed lung cancer patients.

Methods: In this retrospective analysis, data were reviewed from 499 newly diagnosed lung cancer patients who received bronchoscopy between 2010 and 2014. The clinical impact of TSCT-determined UIP pattern on the decision-making process for resection in this cohort was evaluated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12890-017-0565-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5756392PMC
January 2018
14 Reads

IPF and CPFE - the two different entities or two different presentations of the same disease?

Adv Respir Med 2018 29;86(1):23-26. Epub 2017 Dec 29.

Pneumonology Ward, Medical University of Lodz, Kopcinskiego 22, 90-153 Lodz, Poland.

In this article the co-existence of pulmonary emphysema with lung fibrosis of typical pattern and distribution for usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) was compared with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) alone. Author discusses the etiopathogenesis of these diseases, differences in signaling pathways and the role of senescent cells. Moreover, clinical course, pulmonary function tests as well as main complications are reviewed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/ARM.a2017.0049DOI Listing
September 2018
3 Reads

Likelihood of pulmonary hypertension in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema.

Respirology 2018 06 13;23(6):593-599. Epub 2017 Dec 13.

Interstitial Lung Disease Unit, Royal Brompton Hospital, Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Background And Objective: This study evaluated whether patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) have an increased likelihood of pulmonary hypertension (PHT) when compared with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients without emphysema.

Methods: Two consecutive IPF populations having undergone transthoracic echocardiography were examined (n = 223 and n = 162). Emphysema and interstitial lung disease (ILD) extent were quantified visually; ILD extent was also quantified by a software tool, CALIPER. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/resp.13231DOI Listing
June 2018
13 Reads
3.500 Impact Factor

Screening for Lung Cancer: Incidental Pulmonary Parenchymal Findings.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Mar 12;210(3):503-513. Epub 2017 Dec 12.

2 Department of Radiology, National Jewish Health, Denver, CO.

Objective: Incidental pulmonary findings are commonly detected at lung cancer screening chest CT. Though most of these findings are clinically insignificant, it is difficult to prospectively determine which are potentially important to clinical care. The purpose of this review is to discuss the incidental pulmonary findings commonly detected at lung cancer screening chest CT. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.17.19003DOI Listing
March 2018
7 Reads

Current Concepts in Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Management of Smoking-Related Interstitial Lung Diseases.

Chest 2018 Aug 5;154(2):394-408. Epub 2017 Dec 5.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Rochester, MN.

Tobacco exposure results in various changes to the airways and lung parenchyma. Although emphysema represents the more common injury pattern, in some individuals, cigarette smoke injures alveolar epithelial cells and other lung cells, resulting in diffuse infiltrates and parenchymal fibrosis. Smoking can trigger interstitial injury patterns mediated via recruitment and inappropriate persistence of myeloid and other immune cells, including eosinophils. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2017.11.023DOI Listing
August 2018
68 Reads

Imaging aspects of interstitial lung disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: Literature review.

Autoimmun Rev 2018 Feb 28;17(2):87-93. Epub 2017 Nov 28.

Pulmonary Institute, Rambam Health Care Campus, Israel; Rappaport Faculty of Medicine-Technion, Israeli Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.

Objective: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a frequent and severe complication of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), resulting in pulmonary fibrosis (PF) and respiratory failure.

Methods: Chest computed tomography (CT-c) or high resolution CT (HRCT) is the main modality for assessment of ILD. We performed a systematic literature review on CT-c/HRCT findings in patients with ILD-RA, using the MEDLINE database for the period from 1991 to 2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2017.09.013DOI Listing
February 2018
5 Reads

The extent of ground-glass attenuation is a risk factor of chemotherapy-related exacerbation of interstitial lung disease in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2018 01 15;81(1):131-139. Epub 2017 Nov 15.

Department of Respiratory Internal Medicine, Hiroshima University Hospital, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima, 734-8551, Japan.

Objectives: Chemotherapy-related acute exacerbation (AE) of interstitial lung disease (ILD) is observed in certain patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who have ILD. Although the prognosis of AE-ILD is extremely poor, there are no established risk factors for its occurrence. Therefore, we retrospectively investigated whether high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings could identify risk factors for AE-ILD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-017-3476-5DOI Listing
January 2018
3 Reads

Smoking-Related Interstitial Fibrosis: Evidence of Radiologic Regression with Advancing Age and Smoking Cessation.

COPD 2017 Dec 18;14(6):603-609. Epub 2017 Oct 18.

e Department of Respiratory Medicine , St Vincent's University Hospital and University College Dublin School of Medicine , Dublin , 4 , Ireland.

More data are needed regarding the radiology, co-morbidities and natural history of smoking-related interstitial fibrosis (SRIF), a common pathological finding, mainly described heretofore in association with lung cancer, where respiratory bronchiolitis (RB) usually co-exists. We prospectively acquired high resolution CT scan data (edge-enhancing lung reconstructions) to detect any radiologic interstitial lung abnormality (ILA) in individuals who ultimately underwent surgical lobectomy for lung cancer (n = 20), for radiologic/pathologic correlation. We also re-examined other smoking-related benign histologic cases: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD lung explants, n = 20), alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (A1AT, explanted lungs n = 20), combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE, n = 8) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, n = 10). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15412555.2017.1378631DOI Listing
December 2017
26 Reads

Comparison of Shallow and Deep Learning Methods on Classifying the Regional Pattern of Diffuse Lung Disease.

J Digit Imaging 2018 Aug;31(4):415-424

Department of Radiology, National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, CO, USA.

This study aimed to compare shallow and deep learning of classifying the patterns of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). Using high-resolution computed tomography images, two experienced radiologists marked 1200 regions of interest (ROIs), in which 600 ROIs were each acquired using a GE or Siemens scanner and each group of 600 ROIs consisted of 100 ROIs for subregions that included normal and five regional pulmonary disease patterns (ground-glass opacity, consolidation, reticular opacity, emphysema, and honeycombing). We employed the convolution neural network (CNN) with six learnable layers that consisted of four convolution layers and two fully connected layers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10278-017-0028-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6113148PMC
August 2018
10 Reads

Serial automated quantitative CT analysis in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: functional correlations and comparison with changes in visual CT scores.

Eur Radiol 2018 Mar 29;28(3):1318-1327. Epub 2017 Sep 29.

Interstitial Lung Disease Unit, Royal Brompton Hospital, Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Objectives: To determine whether computer-based CT quantitation of change can improve on visual change quantification of parenchymal features in IPF.

Methods: Sixty-six IPF patients with serial CT imaging (6-24 months apart) had CT features scored visually and with a computer software tool: ground glass opacity, reticulation and honeycombing (all three variables summed as interstitial lung disease extent [ILD]) and emphysema. Pulmonary vessel volume (PVV) was estimated by computer only. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-017-5053-zDOI Listing
March 2018
15 Reads
4.010 Impact Factor

Quantitative evaluation of interstitial pneumonia using 3D-curved high-resolution CT imaging parallel to the chest wall: A pilot study.

PLoS One 2017 28;12(9):e0185532. Epub 2017 Sep 28.

Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan.

Objectives: To quantify the imaging findings of patients with interstitial pneumonia (IP) and emphysema using three-dimensional curved high-resolution computed tomography (3D-cHRCT) at a constant depth from the chest wall, and compare the results to visual assessment of IP and each patient's diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLco).

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the axial CT findings and pulmonary function test results of 95 patients with lung cancer (72 men and 23 women, aged 45-84 years) with or without IP, as follows: non-IP (n = 47), mild IP (n = 31), and moderate IP (n = 17). The 3D-cHRCT images of the lung at a 1-cm depth from the chest wall were reconstructed automatically using original software; total area (TA), high-attenuation area (HAA) >-500 HU, and low-attenuation area (LAA) <-950 HU were calculated on a workstation. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0185532PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5619786PMC
October 2017
9 Reads

The Modern Art of Reading Computed Tomography Images of the Lungs: Quantitative CT.

Respiration 2018;95(1):8-17. Epub 2017 Sep 16.

Department of Pulmonology and Critical Care Medicine, Thoraxklinik, Heidelberg, Germany.

Lung diseases are increasing in prevalence and overall burden worldwide. To stem the tide, more and more national and international guidelines are recommending the use of various diagnostic algorithms that are disease specific. There is growing consensus among the respiratory community that although patient histories and lung function testing are the minimum required for clinical examinations, these tests alone are not sufficient for disease characterization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000480435DOI Listing
October 2018
92 Reads

The outcome and risk factors for recurrence and extended hospitalization of secondary spontaneous pneumothorax.

Surg Today 2018 Mar 13;48(3):320-324. Epub 2017 Sep 13.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Akita Red Cross Hospital, Azainasirosawa222-1, Kamikitatesaruta, Akita, Akita, 010-1495, Japan.

Purpose: Secondary spontaneous pneumothorax (SSP) is difficult to treat by itself and due to its association with serious underlying diseases. It has a high rate of recurrence and often requires extended hospitalization. Therefore, we evaluated the outcome and risk factors associated with recurrence and extended hospitalization. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00595-017-1585-8
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00595-017-1585-8DOI Listing
March 2018
10 Reads

Pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis associated with a spectrum of neonatal pulmonary disorders.

Hum Pathol 2017 10 2;68:154-165. Epub 2017 Sep 2.

Division of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5T 1W7, Canada.

Primary or isolated pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis (PIG) is a rare disease presenting as tachypnea and hypoxemia during the perinatal period. A diffuse interstitial infiltrate with focal hyperinflation is visible on chest imaging. The biopsy findings include diffuse expansion of the interstitium by spindle-shaped cells with pale cytoplasm that, on electron microscopy (EM), are poorly differentiated mesenchymal cells containing abundant monoparticulate glycogen. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humpath.2017.06.026DOI Listing
October 2017
14 Reads
2.769 Impact Factor

Pulmonary fibrosis on the lateral chest radiograph: Kerley D lines revisited.

Insights Imaging 2017 Oct 7;8(5):483-489. Epub 2017 Aug 7.

Department of Radiology, New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical College, 525 E. 68th St, Box 141, New York, NY, 10065, USA.

The retrosternal clear space (RCS) is a lucent area on the lateral chest radiograph located directly behind the sternum. The two types of pathology classically addressed in the RCS are anterior mediastinal masses and emphysema. Diseases of the pulmonary interstitium are a third type of pathology that can be seen in the RCS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13244-017-0565-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5621990PMC
October 2017
2 Reads

Pulmonary Involvement in Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies (ANCA)-associated Vasculitis: The Influence of ANCA Subtype.

J Rheumatol 2017 Oct 1;44(10):1458-1467. Epub 2017 Aug 1.

From the Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Vasculitis and Lupus Clinic, and Department of Radiology, and Department of Respiratory Medicine, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.

Objective: To describe pulmonary involvement at time of diagnosis in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV), as defined by computed tomography (CT).

Methods: Patients with thoracic CT performed on or after the onset of AAV (n = 140; 75 women; granulomatosis with polyangiitis, n = 79; microscopic polyangiitis MPA, n = 61) followed at a tertiary referral center vasculitis clinic were studied. Radiological patterns of pulmonary involvement were evaluated from the CT studies using a predefined protocol, and compared to proteinase 3 (PR3)-ANCA and myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA specificity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3899/jrheum.161224DOI Listing
October 2017
24 Reads

Effect of Emphysema Extent on Serial Lung Function in Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2017 11;196(9):1162-1171

3 Interstitial Lung Disease Unit, Royal Brompton Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

Rationale: Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema may have artificially preserved lung volumes.

Objectives: In this post hoc analysis, we investigated the relationship between baseline emphysema and fibrosis extents, as well as pulmonary function changes, over 48 weeks.

Methods: Data were pooled from two phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of IFN-γ-1b in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (GIPF-001 [NCT00047645] and GIPF-007 [NCT00075998]). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201612-2492OCDOI Listing
November 2017
33 Reads

Radiologic features of precancerous areas of the lungs in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2017 30;12:1613-1624. Epub 2017 May 30.

Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo.

Background: Only a few studies have evaluated the radiologic features of pre-existing structural abnormalities where lung cancer may develop. This study aimed to analyze the computed tomography (CT) images of lung areas where new cancer developed in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients.

Patients And Methods: We conducted a multicenter, longitudinal cohort study, called the Keio COPD Comorbidity Research, to assess the incidence of lung cancer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S132709DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5459962PMC
April 2018
24 Reads

Pneumocystis carinii infection with severe pneumomediastinum and lymph node involvement in a Whippet mixed-breed dog.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2017 Sep 26;29(5):757-762. Epub 2017 May 26.

Institute of Pathology and Forensic Veterinary Medicine (Weissenbacher-Lang, Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Klang, Weissenböck), University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

A 3.5-y-old Whippet mixed-breed dog was presented with a history of respiratory distress, exercise intolerance, and generalized demodicosis. Hematologic alterations included marked leukocytosis and neutrophilia. Read More

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http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1040638717710237
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1040638717710237DOI Listing
September 2017
55 Reads

Clinical and Genetic Associations of Objectively Identified Interstitial Changes in Smokers.

Chest 2017 10 12;152(4):780-791. Epub 2017 May 12.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Boston, MA.

Background: Smoking-related lung injury may manifest on CT scans as both emphysema and interstitial changes. We have developed an automated method to quantify interstitial changes and hypothesized that this measurement would be associated with lung function, quality of life, mortality, and a mucin 5B (MUC5B) polymorphism.

Methods: Using CT scans from the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD Study, we objectively labeled lung parenchyma as a tissue subtype. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2017.04.185DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5812756PMC
October 2017
32 Reads

Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis: identification of key prognostic determinants using automated CT analysis.

BMC Pulm Med 2017 May 4;17(1):81. Epub 2017 May 4.

Interstitial Lung Disease Unit, Royal Brompton Hospital, Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Background: Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (CHP) has a variable disease course. Computer analysis of CT features was used to identify a subset of CHP patients with an outcome similar to patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).

Methods: Consecutive patients with a multi-disciplinary team diagnosis of CHP (n = 116) had pulmonary function tests (FEV1, FVC, DLco, Kco, and a composite physiologic index [CPI]) and CT variables predictive of mortality evaluated by analysing visual and computer-based (CALIPER) parenchymal features: total interstitial lung disease (ILD) extent, honeycombing, reticular pattern, ground glass opacities, pulmonary vessel volume (PVV), emphysema, and traction bronchiectasis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12890-017-0418-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5418678PMC
May 2017
37 Reads

Quantitative analysis of hyperpolarized Xe gas transfer MRI.

Med Phys 2017 Jun 18;44(6):2415-2428. Epub 2017 May 18.

Center for In Vivo Microscopy, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, 27710, USA.

Purpose: Hyperpolarized Xe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using Dixon-based decomposition enables single-breath imaging of Xe in the airspaces, interstitial barrier tissues, and red blood cells (RBCs). However, methods to quantitatively visualize information from these images of pulmonary gas transfer are lacking. Here, we introduce a novel method to transform these data into quantitative maps of pulmonary ventilation, and Xe gas transfer to barrier and RBC compartments. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/mp.12264
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mp.12264DOI Listing
June 2017
16 Reads

Controversies in Fibrosis and Emphysema.

Arch Bronconeumol 2017 05 23;53(5):231-232. Epub 2017 Mar 23.

Interstitial Lung Disease Unit, Royal Brompton Hospital, London, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arbres.2017.02.003DOI Listing
May 2017
8 Reads

Bilateral congenital lobar emphysema: staged management.

J Pediatr Surg 2017 Sep 31;52(9):1442-1445. Epub 2017 Jan 31.

Division of Pediatric General, Thoracic and Fetal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 3401 Civic Center Blvd, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Only a few isolated cases in the literature exist to guide management of bilateral congenital lobar emphysema (CLE). Here, we review our experience in infants with bilateral CLE.

Methods: A case series of all infants presenting with bilateral CLE from 2014 to 2015 in a single institution. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2017.01.056DOI Listing
September 2017
24 Reads

Radiographic Differentiation of Advanced Fibrocystic Lung Diseases.

Authors:
Masanori Akira

Ann Am Thorac Soc 2017 Mar;14(3):432-440

Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization Kinki-Chuo Chest Medical Center, Sakai City, Osaka, Japan.

The concept of end-stage lung disease suggests a final common pathway for most diffuse parenchymal lung diseases. In accordance with this concept, end-stage disease is characterized radiographically and pathologically by the presence of extensive honeycombing. However, sequential computed tomographic (CT) scans obtained from patients with chronic diffuse lung disease evolve over time to show various advanced lung disease patterns other than honeycombing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1513/AnnalsATS.201611-883PSDOI Listing
March 2017
32 Reads