9,418 results match your criteria Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy

Cesarean delivery at term for non-reassuring fetal heart rate tracing: risk factors and predictability.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 May 9:1-7. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, McGovern Medical School, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA.

Objective: To delineate risk factors for adverse outcomes among those who underwent cesarean delivery (CD) for non-reassuring fetal heart rate tracing (NRFHT) and ascertain whether neonatal or maternal morbidity can be predicted accurately.

Methods: The Consortium on Safe Labor Database was utilized for this secondary analysis. Inclusion criteria were non-anomalous, singleton gestations between 37. Read More

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COVID-19 - neuropathological point of view, pathobiology, and dilemmas after the first year of the pandemic struggle.

Folia Neuropathol 2021 ;59(1):1-16

Department of Pathology and Neuropathology, Medical University of Gdansk, Poland.

This article constitutes a summary of the knowledge on the involvement of the nervous system in COVID-19, concerning its general pathobiology, clinical presentation and neuropathological features as well as the future directions of investigation. Variable definitions, selection bias, mainly retrospective analyses of hospitalized patients and different methodologies are implemented in the research of this new disease. Central nervous system (CNS) pathology presents most frequently features of non-specific neuroinflammation with microglial activation and lymphoid infiltrations, ischemic/hypoxic encephalopathy, acute cerebrovascular disease, and microthrombi. Read More

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January 2021

Systems Biology Model of Cerebral Oxygen Delivery and Metabolism During Therapeutic Hypothermia: Application to the Piglet Model.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1269:31-38

Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, London, UK.

Hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a significant cause of death and disability. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is the only available standard of treatment, but 45-55% of cases still result in death or neurodevelopmental disability following TH. This work has focussed on developing a new brain tissue physiology and biochemistry systems biology model that includes temperature effects, as well as a Bayesian framework for analysis of model parameter estimation. Read More

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Multimodal Measurements of Brain Tissue Metabolism and Perfusion in a Neonatal Model of Hypoxic-Ischaemic Injury.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1269:203-208

Biomedical Optics Research Laboratory, University College London, London, UK.

This is the first multimodal study of cerebral tissue metabolism and perfusion post-hypoxic-ischaemic (HI) brain injury using broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (bNIRS), diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS), positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). In seven piglet preclinical models of neonatal HI, we measured cerebral tissue saturation (StO), cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO), changes in the mitochondrial oxidation state of cytochrome c oxidase (oxCCO), cerebral glucose metabolism (CMRglc) and tissue biochemistry (Lac+Thr/tNAA). At baseline, the parameters measured in the piglets that experience HI (not controls) were 64 ± 6% StO, 35 ± 11 ml/100 g/min CBF and 2. Read More

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Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 related microglial activation in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: morphological consideration.

Am J Pathol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Mental Retardation and Birth Defect Research, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira. Electronic address:

Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (nHIE) is a major neonatal brain injury. Despite therapeutic hypothermia, mortality and sequelae remain severe. The lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) was associated with the pathophysiology of nHIE. Read More

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Neurotoxicity of Unconjugated Bilirubin in Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury .

Front Pediatr 2021 20;9:659477. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Neurosciences, Psychology, Drug Research and Child Health, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

The pathophysiology of bilirubin neurotoxicity in course of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in term and preterm infants is still poorly understood. We hypothesized that oxidative stress may be a common mechanism that link hyperbilirubinemia and HIE. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) may enhance the HI brain injury by increasing oxidative stress and to test pioglitazone and allopurinol as new antioxidant therapeutic drugs . Read More

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Outcomes of the First Pregnancy After Fertility-Sparing Surgery for Early-Stage Ovarian Cancer.

Obstet Gynecol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Gynecologic Oncology and Reproductive Medicine, the Department of Health Services Research, Division of Cancer Prevention and Population Sciences, and the Department of Breast Medical Oncology, the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas; the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, Texas; and the Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, and the Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, New York.

Objective: To evaluate the outcomes of the first pregnancy after fertility-sparing surgery in patients treated for early-stage ovarian cancer.

Methods: We performed a retrospective study of women aged 18-45 years with a history of stage IA or IC ovarian cancer reported to the California Cancer Registry for the years 2000-2012. These data were linked to the 2000-2012 California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development birth and discharge data sets to ascertain oncologic characteristics and obstetric outcomes. Read More

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Tracheostomy on infants born in the periviable period: Outcomes at discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Apr 27;146:110746. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology H & N Surgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine and University of Maryland Children's Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Objectives: Advances in neonatal intensive care have allowed successful resuscitation of children born at the border of viability. However, there has been little change in the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and anatomical upper airway obstruction which may require a tracheostomy in that group. The benefits of the procedure are accompanied by sequelae that impact outcomes. Read More

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Multi-Parametric Evaluation of Cerebral Hemodynamics in Neonatal Piglets Using Non-Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Methods.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Background: Disruption of brain oxygen delivery and consumption after hypoxic-ischemic injury contributes to neonatal mortality and neurological impairment. Measuring cerebral hemodynamic parameters, including cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO ), is clinically important.

Purpose: Phase-contrast (PC), velocity-selective arterial spin labeling (VSASL), and T -relaxation-under-phase-contrast (TRUPC) are magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques that have shown promising results in assessing cerebral hemodynamics in humans. Read More

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Multitarget neuroprotection by Quercetin: changes in gene expression in two perinatal asphyxia models".

Neurochem Int 2021 May 2:105064. Epub 2021 May 2.

Sección Genética Evolutiva, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la República, Iguá 4225, 11400 Montevideo, Uruguay. Electronic address:

Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) causes mortality and long-term neurologic morbidities in newborns, affecting pathways related to energy failure, excitotoxicity and oxidative stress that often lead to cell death. The whole process of HIE injury is coupled to changes in the expression of a great array of proteins. A nanoliposomal preparation of the flavonoid quercetin has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects in perinatal asphyxia models. Read More

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Structural Changes in the Cortico-Ponto-Cerebellar Axis at Birth are Associated with Abnormal Neurological Outcomes in Childhood.

Clin Neuroradiol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Croatian Institute for Brain Research, Centre of Excellence for Basic, Clinical and Translational Neuroscience, University of Zagreb, School of Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia.

White matter lesions in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) are considered to be the important substrate of frequent neurological consequences in preterm infants. The aim of the study was to analyze volumes and tractographic parameters of the cortico-ponto-cerebellar axis to assess alterations in the periventricular fiber system and crossroads, corticopontine and corticospinal pathways and prospective transsynaptic changes of the cerebellum.Term infants (control), premature infants without (normotypic) and with perinatal HIE (HIE) underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging at term-equivalent age (TEA) and at 2 years. Read More

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Cerebral Palsy and Criteria Implicating Intrapartum Hypoxia in Neonatal Encephalopathy - An Obstetric Perspective for the South African Setting.

S Afr Med J 2021 Mar 31;111(3b):280-288. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

University of KwaZulu-Natal College of Health Sciences.

The science surrounding cerebral palsy indicates  that it is a complex medical condition with multiple contributing variables and factors, and causal pathways are often extremely difficult to delineate. The pathophysiological processes are often juxtaposed on antenatal factors, genetics, toxins, fetal priming, failure of neuroscientific autoregulatory mechanisms, abnormal biochemistry and abnormal metabolic pathways. Placing this primed compromised compensated brain through the stresses of an intrapartum process could be the final straw in the pathway  to brain injury and later CP. Read More

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An Observational Study of Sleep in Childhood Post-Neonatal Encephalopathy.

Acta Paediatr 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Discipline of Paediatrics, Trinity College, University of Dublin.

Aim: Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) is associated with altered cognitive, motor, sensory abilities and behavioural outcomes. This case-control study aimed to assess whether Quality of Life (QoL) and sleep disorders are affected in older children following NE compared to age-matched controls.

Methods: Children at school-age post-NE were recruited and compared to age-matched controls. Read More

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Centre-specific differences in short-term outcomes in neonates with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.

Swiss Med Wkly 2021 Mar 5;151:w20489. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Clinic of Neonatology, Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Switzerland.

Aims Of The Study: To investigate and compare the centre-specific short-term outcome indicators seizures, arterial hypotension, infection and mortality during therapeutic hypothermia until discharge from the neonatal/paediatric intensive care unit in term and near-term neonates with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) registered in the Swiss National Asphyxia and Cooling Register between 2011 and 2018.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected national register data between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2018. Pregnancy, maternal, delivery and neonatal characteristics were compared between the centres. Read More

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Treadmill Exercise during Pregnancy Decreased Vulnerability to Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia through Reducing Inflammation and Increasing Antiapoptotic Gene Expressions and Antioxidant Capacity in Rats.

Stroke Res Treat 2021 14;2021:5512745. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.

Background: The purpose of present study was to assess the impact of maternal treadmill exercise during pregnancy on inflammation, oxidative stress, expression of Bax and Bcl-2 genes, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level in neonatal rat brain after the hypoxia-ischemia injury. . A total of 24 female Wistar rats were utilized in this research. Read More

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Brain MRI after therapeutic hypothermia in asphyxiated newborns: Predictive value at one year of imaging features.

Eur J Radiol 2021 Apr 15;139:109724. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Service d'imagerie anténatale, de l'enfant et de la femme, Hôpital Pellegrin, place Amélie Raba-Léon, F-33076, Bordeaux, France; CRMSB, UMR5536 CNRS/Univ. Bordeaux, F-33076, Bordeaux, France. Electronic address:

Purpose: To compare early brain MRI using a composite imaging score and outcome at one year in asphyxiated newborns treated by hypothermia.

Methods: This retrospective study included for two years consecutive asphyxiated term newborns treated by hypothermia for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, and who had brain MRI before day 8. Therapeutic hypothermia was initiated within the first 6 h of life and continued for 72 h. Read More

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Ten years of uterine rupture in an Australian tertiary hospital.

Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Aims: Complete uterine rupture is a rare and serious complication of pregnancy. Although most commonly associated with attempted vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC), rupture also occurs in atypical/non-VBAC cases. This retrospective, single-tertiary-institution observational study aimed to assess the prevalence and morbidity of complete uterine rupture during 2010-2020. Read More

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Efferocytosis Mediated Modulation of Injury after Neonatal Brain Hypoxia-Ischemia.

Cells 2021 Apr 27;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.

Neonatal brain hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is a leading cause of morbidity and long-term disabilities in children. While we have made significant progress in describing HI mechanisms, the limited therapies currently offered for HI treatment in the clinical setting stress the importance of discovering new targetable pathways. Efferocytosis is an immunoregulatory and homeostatic process of clearance of apoptotic cells (AC) and cellular debris, best described in the brain during neurodevelopment. Read More

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Non-Tumorigenic Pluripotent Reparative Muse Cells Provide a New Therapeutic Approach for Neurologic Diseases.

Cells 2021 Apr 20;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Stem Cell Biology and Histology, School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8575, Japan.

Muse cells are non-tumorigenic endogenous reparative pluripotent cells with high therapeutic potential. They are identified as cells positive for the pluripotent surface marker SSEA-3 in the bone marrow, peripheral blood, and connective tissue. Muse cells also express other pluripotent stem cell markers, are able to differentiate into cells representative of all three germ layers, self-renew from a single cell, and are stress tolerant. Read More

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Effect of Neuroprotective Magnesium Sulfate Treatment on Brain Transcription Response to Hypoxia Ischemia in Neonate Mice.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 20;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

INSERM-UMR1245, Team 4, Epigenetics and Physiopathology of Neurodevelopmental Brain Lesions, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Normandie Université Rouen, 22 Boulevard Gambetta, 76183 Rouen, France.

MgSO is widely used in the prevention of preterm neurological disabilities but its modes of action remain poorly established. We used a co-hybridization approach using the transcriptome in 5-day old mice treated with a single dose of MgSO (600 mg/kg), and/or exposed to hypoxia-ischemia (HI). The transcription of hundreds of genes was altered in all the groups. Read More

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Moderately Inducing Autophagy Reduces Tertiary Brain Injury after Perinatal Hypoxia-Ischemia.

Cells 2021 Apr 14;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Neuroscience, Rutgers-New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ 07103, USA.

Recent studies of cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI) have highlighted slowly progressive neurodegeneration whose mechanisms remain elusive, but if blocked, could considerably improve long-term neurological function. We previously established that the cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF)β1 is highly elevated following HI and that delivering an antagonist for TGFβ receptor activin-like kinase 5 (ALK5)-SB505124-three days after injury in a rat model of moderate pre-term HI significantly preserved the structural integrity of the thalamus and hippocampus as well as neurological functions associated with those brain structures. To elucidate the mechanism whereby ALK5 inhibition reduces cell death, we assessed levels of autophagy markers in neurons and found that SB505124 increased numbers of autophagosomes and levels of lipidated light chain 3 (LC3), a key protein known to mediate autophagy. Read More

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Forensic Analysis of Umbilical and Newborn Blood Gas Values for Infants at Risk of Cerebral Palsy.

Michael G Ross

J Clin Med 2021 Apr 14;10(8). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Torrance, CA 90509, USA.

Cerebral palsy litigation cases account for the highest claims involving obstetricians/gynecologists, a specialty that ranks among the highest liability medical professions. Although epidemiologic studies indicate that only a small proportion of cerebral palsy (10-20%) is due to birth asphyxia, negligent obstetrical care is often alleged to be the etiologic factor, resulting in contentious medical-legal conflicts. Defense and plaintiff expert opinions regarding the etiology and timing of injury are often polarized, as there is a lack of established methodology for analysis. Read More

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[Paying attention to cerebral/central visual impairment].

W Zhang

Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2021 May;57(5):321-325

Tianjin Eye Hospital, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Nankai University Affiliated Eye Hospital,Clinical College of Ophthalmology of Tianjin Medical University,Tianjin Eye Institute,Tianjin 300020, China.

Cerebral/central visual impairment (CVI) has a wide range of features owing to central visual pathway disorders. It is currently the most common type of visual impairment in children in developed countries and is increasing in the developing world. The major cause of CVI is hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in premature children. Read More

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Enteral Nutrition during therapeutic hypothermia for neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy: the need for more evidence.

Acta Paediatr 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Neonatal Intensive Care, Universita degli Studi della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy.

The use of minimal enteral nutrition (MEN) in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) receiving therapeutic hypothermia (TH) represents a much-debated topic in neonatology. A recent survey among UK neonatal units reported that only 31% of the responding units had feeding guidelines in HIE and 37% of them are used to providing intravenous dextrose fluids without feeds.(1) At present, it is common practice to withhold enteral feeding due to the risk of developing feeding intolerance or necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), the foremost gastrointestinal complication. Read More

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Metabolic adaptations to hypoxia in the neonatal mouse forebrain can occur independently of the transporters SLC7A5 and SLC3A2.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 27;11(1):9092. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

University/British Heart Foundation Centre for Cardiovascular Science, University of Edinburgh, The Queen's Medical Research Institute, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, EH16 4TJ, UK.

Neonatal encephalopathy due to hypoxia-ischemia is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental effects. The involvement of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) in this is largely unexplored. Transport of BCAAs at the plasma membrane is facilitated by SLC7A5/SLC3A2, which increase with hypoxia. Read More

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Neuroimaging Patterns in Patients with COVID-19-Associated Neurological Complications: A Review.

Neurol India 2021 Mar-Apr;69(2):260-271

Department of Neurology, King George Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Background: A variety of neuroimaging abnormalities in COVID-19 have been described.

Objectives: In this article, we reviewed the varied neuroimaging patterns in patients with COVID-19-associated neurological complications.

Methods: We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus and preprint databases (medRxiv and bioRxiv). Read More

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Optimization of behavioral testing in a long-term rat model of hypoxic ischemic brain injury.

Behav Brain Res 2021 Apr 24;409:113322. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

The Ritchie Centre, Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Hypoxic ischemic (HI) brain injury is a significant cause of childhood neurological deficits. Preclinical rodent models are often used to study these deficits; however, no preclinical study has determined which behavioral tests are most appropriate for long-term follow up after neonatal HI.

Methods: HI brain injury was induced in postnatal day (PND) 10 rat pups using the Rice-Vannucci method of unilateral carotid artery ligation. Read More

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Trends and predictors of in-hospital mortality among babies with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria: A retrospective cohort study.

PLoS One 2021 26;16(4):e0250633. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Neonatology Unit, Department of Paediatrics, College of Medicine University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.

Background: Globally, approximately 9 million neonates develop perinatal asphyxia annually of which about 1.2 million die. Majority of the morbidity and mortality occur in Low and middle-income countries. Read More

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Role of Optical Neuromonitoring in Neonatal Encephalopathy-Current State and Recent Advances.

Front Pediatr 2021 9;9:653676. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Neonatology, EGA Institute for Women's Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) in term and near-term infants is a significant global health problem; the worldwide burden of disease remains high despite the introduction of therapeutic hypothermia. Assessment of injury severity and effective management in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) relies on multiple monitoring modalities from systemic to brain-specific. Current neuromonitoring tools provide information utilized for seizure management, injury stratification, and prognostication, whilst systemic monitoring ensures multi-organ dysfunction is recognized early and supported wherever needed. Read More

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Neuro-imaging manifestations of COVID-19: Predilection for PICA infarcts.

IDCases 2021 20;24:e01131. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Radiology, Sheikh Khalifa Medical City, PO BOX: 51900, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

COVID-19 has been an ever-evolving viral pandemic which can cause systemic disturbance especially in some of the critically ill patients. Neurologic or Neuro-imaging manifestations of COVID-19 are being increasingly reported in these patients and mainly consist of ischemic strokes, hypoxic ischemic injury and non-specific encephalopathy. Ischemic strokes as expected more commonly afflict major vascular territories, likely due to accentuated hypercoagulability in these patients. Read More

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