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    Population Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamic Target Attainment of Ampicillin in Neonates with Hypoxemic-Ischemic Encephalopathy in the Setting of Controlled Hypothermia.
    Pharmacotherapy 2017 Feb 22. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    St. Christopher's Hospital for Children, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Study Objective: To describe the population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic target attainment of ampicillin in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) undergoing controlled hypothermia (CH).

    Design: Prospective, open-label pharmacokinetic study.

    Setting: 189-bed, freestanding children's tertiary care teaching hospital. Read More

    Neuroprotective Effects of Acetyl-L-Carnitine on Neonatal Hypoxia Ischemia-Induced Brain Injury in Rats.
    Dev Neurosci 2017 Feb 23;38(5):384-396. Epub 2017 Feb 23.
    Perinatal hypoxia ischemia (HI) is a significant cause of brain injury in surviving infants. Although hypothermia improves outcomes in some infants, additional therapies are needed since about 40% of infants still have a poor outcome. Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR), an acetylated derivative of L-carnitine, protected against early changes in brain metabolites and mitochondrial function after HI on postnatal day (PND) 7 in a rat pup model of near-term HI injury. Read More

    Effects of focal brain cooling on extracellular concentrations of neurotransmitters in patients with epilepsy.
    Epilepsia 2017 Feb 22. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Yamaguchi University School of Medicine, Ube, Japan.
    Objective: Brain hypothermia controls epileptic discharge and reduces extracellular concentrations of glutamate (Glu), an excitatory neurotransmitter. We aimed to determine the effects of focal brain cooling (FBC) on levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter. The relationship between Glu or GABA concentrations and the severity of epileptic symptoms was also analyzed. Read More

    Letter by Kohlhauer et al Regarding Article, "Induction of Therapeutic Hypothermia During Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Using a Rapid Infusion of Cold Saline: The RINSE Trial (Rapid Infusion of Cold Normal Saline)".
    Circulation 2017 Feb;135(8):e94-e95
    From Inserm, Créteil, France (M.K., N.M., R.T.); Université Paris -Est, UPEC, Créteil, France (M.K., N.M., R.T.); Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, Maisons-Alfort, France (M.K., N.M., R.T.).

    Letter by Ma et al Regarding Article, "Induction of Therapeutic Hypothermia During Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Using a Rapid Infusion of Cold Saline: The RINSE Trial (Rapid Infusion of Cold Normal Saline)".
    Circulation 2017 Feb;135(8):e92-e93
    From Shanghai Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases and Institute of Panvascular Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China (L.-L.M., J.-B.G., A.-J.S.); and Department of Critical Care Medicine, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, Hangzhou, China (L.-L.M.). School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China (J.-B.G.).

    Impact of Early Vasopressor Administration on Neurological Outcomes after Prolonged Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest.
    Prehosp Disaster Med 2017 Feb 22:1-8. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    2Center for Educational Excellence,Duke Clinical Research Institute,Durham,North CarolinaUSA.
    Introduction Vasopressors are associated with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), but no long-term benefit has been demonstrated in randomized trials. However, these trials did not control for the timing of vasopressor administration which may influence outcomes. Consequently, the objective of this study was to develop a model describing the likelihood of favorable neurological outcome (cerebral performance category [CPC] 1 or 2) as a function of the public safety answering point call receipt (PSAP)-to-pressor-interval (PPI) in prolonged out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Read More

    Survey of the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to new-onset refractory status epilepticus.
    Seizure 2017 Feb 9;46:24-30. Epub 2017 Feb 9.
    University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States. Electronic address:
    Purpose: We conducted a survey of providers to assess for practice patterns in diagnosing and treating new-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE). NORSE is the occurrence of prolonged seizures that are not responsive to initial therapies in otherwise healthy individuals without obvious cause on initial presentation. This entity is thought to have multiple etiologies, including autoimmune. Read More

    The influence of targeted temperature management on the pharmacokinetics of drugs administered during and after cardiac arrest: a systematic review.
    Acta Clin Belg 2017 Feb 21:1-7. Epub 2017 Feb 21.
    a Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences , Ghent University , Ghent , Belgium.
    Objective: Pharmacokinetic parameters of drugs are widely investigated under normothermic conditions and normal hemodynamic parameters. The European Resuscitation Council recommends the use of targeted temperature management (TTM) with a target temperature of 34 °C in cardiac arrest (CA) patients. The aim of this literature review is to investigate the influence of CA combined with TTM on the pharmacokinetics of drugs. Read More

    Targeted temperature management after intraoperative cardiac arrest: a multicenter retrospective study.
    Intensive Care Med 2017 Feb 20. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    Medical-Surgical Intensive Care Unit, Intensive Care Department, Centre Hospitalier de Versailles-Site André Mignot, 177 rue de Versailles, 78150, Le Chesnay Cedex, France.
    Purpose: Few outcome data are available about temperature management after intraoperative cardiac arrest (IOCA). We describe targeted temperature management (TTM) (32-34 °C) modalities, adverse events, and association with 1-year functional outcome in patients with IOCA.

    Methods: Patients admitted to 11 ICUs after IOCA in 2008-2013 were studied retrospectively. Read More

    New World's old disease: cardiac hydatid disease and surgical principles.
    Cardiovasc J Afr 2017 Feb 20;28:1-5. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Meram Medicine Faculty, Necmettin Erbakan University, Konya, Turkey.
    Background: Hydatid cyst is a parasitic disease caused by infection with the Echinococcus granulosus tapeworm larva. It is a major public health problem in endemic regions. Cardiac involvement of the disease is rare. Read More

    Oxygen or cooling, to make a decision after acute ischemia stroke.
    Med Gas Res 2016 Oct-Dec;6(4):206-211. Epub 2016 Dec 30.
    Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Translational Research and Therapy for Neuro-Psycho-Diseases and Institute of Neuroscience, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China.
    The presence of a salvageable penumbra, a region of ischemic brain tissue with sufficient energy for short-term survival, has been widely agreed as the premise for thrombolytic therapy with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), which remains the only United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved treatment for acute ischemia stroke. However, the use of tPA has been profoundly constrained due to its narrow therapeutic time window and the increased risk of potentially deadly hemorrhagic transformation (HT). Blood brain barrier (BBB) damage within the thrombolytic time window is an indicator for tPA-induced HT and both normobaric hyperoxia (NBO) and hypothermia have been shown to protect the BBB from ischemia/reperfusion injury. Read More

    Value of electroencephalographic monitoring in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy treated with hypothermia.
    J Pediatr Neurosci 2016 Oct-Dec;11(4):309-315
    Department of Radiology, Benha University, Banha, Egypt.
    Background: The values of electroencephalography (EEG) in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) during therapeutic hypothermia (TH) are still uncertain.

    Aims: The aim of this study is to detect EEG background, the prevalence of seizures during cooling, and to determine different EEG patterns that can predict brain injury in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

    Patients And Methods: Thirty-nine newborns with HIE were subjected to TH. Read More

    Effect of pre-warming on perioperative hypothermia and anesthetic recovery in small breed dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy.
    Can Vet J 2017 Feb;58(2):175-179
    Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, 601 Vernon L. Tharp Sreet, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.
    This study compared perianesthetic body temperatures and times to recovery from general anesthesia in small dogs that were either warmed for 20 minutes prior to anesthesia or not warmed. Twenty-eight client-owned dogs that were presented for ovariohysterectomy were included in the study. Small (<10 kg body weight) dogs with normal circulatory status were randomly assigned to receive pre-warming for 20 minutes or no treatment. Read More

    Early kit mortality and growth in farmed mink are affected by litter size rather than nest climate.
    Animal 2017 Feb 20:1-9. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    Department of Animal Science,Aarhus University,Blichers Allé 20,8830 Tjele,Denmark.
    We investigated the effects of nest box climate on early mink kit mortality and growth. We hypothesised that litters in warm nest boxes experience less hypothermia-induced mortality and higher growth rates during the 1st week of life. This study included data from 749, 1-year-old breeding dams with access to nesting materials. Read More

    Use of imaging studies for determination of brain death in South Australian intensive care units.
    Crit Care Resusc 2017 Mar;19(1):57-63
    Intensive and Critical Care Unit, Flinders Medical Centre, Adelaide, SA, Australia.
    Objectives: To describe the use of imaging studies (four-vessel angiography or radionuclide scan) for brain death determination in South Australian intensive care units, and to determine the rates of adherence with The ANZICS statement on death and organ donation of the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society (ANZICS).

    Design, Patients And Setting: Retrospective case-note review of 190 South Australian adult patients (≥ 18 years) who were brain dead and were organ donors (actual and intended), from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2014.

    Main Outcome Measures: We compared brain death determination by clinical examination and by imaging, and identified, using logistic regression, the independent predictors of brain death determination by imaging (and for imaging without a documented indication). Read More

    The combined effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and selected substituted methcathinones on measures of neurotoxicity.
    Neurotoxicol Teratol 2017 Feb 14. Epub 2017 Feb 14.
    Research Service, VA Portland Health Care System, Portland, OR, USA; Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA; The Methamphetamine Abuse Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA; Department of Psychiatry, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA. Electronic address:
    The rise in popularity of substituted methcathinones (aka "bath salts") has increased the focus on their neurotoxic effects. Two commonly abused methcathinones, 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone, MDMC) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), are often concomitantly ingested with the illicit drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). To examine potential neurotoxic effects of these drug combinations, C57BL/6J mice were administered 4 i. Read More

    Clinical characteristics predicting abnormal brain magnetic resonance image findings in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy infants.
    Minerva Pediatr 2017 Feb 17. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
    Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea -
    Background: The aim of this study was to elucidate the specific clinical characteristics associated with abnormal brain magnetic resonance image(MRI) findings in hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy(HIE) infants in order to discern how to predict poorer outcomes more accurately.

    Methods: A retrospective data analysis of HIE infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital was performed. Baseline perinatal information and physical and neurological findings were compared in HIE infants according to the presence of abnormal brain MRI findings. Read More

    Factors that influence effective perioperative temperature management by anesthesiologists: a qualitative study using the Theoretical Domains Framework.
    Can J Anaesth 2017 Feb 16. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Clinical Epidemiology Program, The Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
    Purpose: Inadvertent perioperative hypothermia (IPH) is associated with a range of adverse outcomes. Safe and effective warming techniques exist to prevent IPH; however, IPH remains common. This study aimed to identify factors that anesthesiologists perceive may influence temperature management during the perioperative period. Read More

    Complete Recovery from Cardiac Arrest Caused by Risperidone-induced Hypothermia.
    Innov Clin Neurosci 2016 Nov-Dec;13(11-12):28-31. Epub 2016 Dec 1.
    Department of Psychiatric Internal Medicine, Sunlight Brain Research Center, 4-13-18 Jiyugaoka, Hofu City, Yamaguchi, 747-0066, Japan.
    Hypothermia is a rare adverse effect of risperidone and is associated with ventricular arrhythmias, which may lead to intensive care unit admission and sometimes death. We describe a patient with schizophrenia who was taking risperidone and who, after falling into a hypothermic state, suffered cardiac arrest. Observations of the case and a brief literature review are provided. Read More

    Potential role of the gut microbiota in synthetic torpor and therapeutic hypothermia.
    World J Gastroenterol 2017 Jan;23(3):406-413
    Claudia Sisa, Roberto Amici, Matteo Cerri, Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy.
    Therapeutic hypothermia is today used in several clinical settings, among them the gut related diseases that are influenced by ischemia/reperfusion injury. This perspective paved the way to the study of hibernation physiology, in natural hibernators, highlighting an unexpected importance of the gut microbial ecosystem in hibernation and torpor. In natural hibernators, intestinal microbes adaptively reorganize their structural configuration during torpor, and maintain a mutualistic configuration regardless of long periods of fasting and cold temperatures. Read More

    Inadvertent hypothermia and mortality in critically ill adults: Systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Aust Crit Care 2017 Feb 13. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Patras University Hospital, Patras, Greece.
    Objective: Considering that inadvertent hypothermia (IH) is common in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients and can be followed by severe complications, this systematic review identified, appraised and synthesized the published literature about the association between IH and mortality in adults admitted to the ICU.

    Data Sources: By using key terms, literature searches were conducted in Pubmed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and EMBASE.

    Review Methods: According to PRISMA guidelines, articles published between 1980-2016 in English-language, peer-reviewed journals were considered. Read More

    Plasma metabolite score correlates with Hypoxia time in a newly born piglet model for asphyxia.
    Redox Biol 2017 Feb 7;12:1-7. Epub 2017 Feb 7.
    Neonatal Research Group, Health Research Institute Hospital La Fe, Avenida Fernando Abril Martorell 106, Valencia, Spain; Division of Neonatology, University & Polytechnic Hospital La Fe, Avenida Fernando Abril Martorell 106, Valencia, Spain. Electronic address:
    Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) secondary to perinatal asphyxia is a leading cause of mortality and acquired long-term neurologic co-morbidities in the neonate. The most successful intervention for the treatment of moderate to severe HIE is moderate whole body hypothermia initiated within 6h from birth. The objective and prompt identification of infants who are at risk of developing moderate to severe HIE in the critical first hours still remains a challenge. Read More

    Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices in Infants Receiving Skin to Skin Care at Birth: Follow-up of Randomized Cohort.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2016 Dec 1;10(12):SC09-SC12. Epub 2016 Dec 1.
    Manager, Central Research Services, Charutar Arogya Mandal , Karamsad, Gujarat, India .
    Introduction: Skin to Skin Care (SSC) in neonatal period influences immediate breastfeeding outcomes in early childhood, especially the duration of exclusive breastfeeding.

    Aim: We investigated influence of 17 hours of SSC given from day one of life on Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) practices through one year of life.

    Materials And Methods: Follow-up of a Superiority Randomized Control Trial (RCT) (CTRI/2013/06/003790) conducted in a teaching hospital located in central Gujarat. Read More

    A Comparison of the Thompson Encephalopathy Score and Amplitude-Integrated Electroencephalography in Infants with Perinatal Asphyxia and Therapeutic Hypothermia.
    Neonatology 2017 Feb 17;112(1):24-29. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
    Department of Neonatology, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Background: In previous studies clinical signs or amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG)-based signs of encephalopathy were used to select infants with perinatal asphyxia for treatment with hypothermia.

    Aim: The objective of this study was to compare Thompson encephalopathy scores and aEEG, and relate both to outcome.

    Subjects And Methods: Thompson scores, aEEG, and outcome were compared in 122 infants with perinatal asphyxia and therapeutic hypothermia. Read More

    Hypothermia Inhibits Endothelium-Independent Vascular Contractility via Rho-kinase Inhibition.
    Biomol Ther (Seoul) 2017 Feb 17. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
    Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon 14662, Republic of Korea.
    The present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of hypothermia on endothelium-independent vascular smooth muscle contractility and to determine the mechanism underlying the relaxation. Denuded aortic rings from male rats were used and isometric contractions were recorded and combined with molecular experiments. Hypothermia significantly inhibited fluoride-, thromboxane A₂-, phenylephrine-, and phorbol ester-induced vascular contractions regardless of endothelial nitric oxide synthesis, suggesting that another pathway had a direct effect on vascular smooth muscle. Read More

    Early EEG power predicts MRI injury in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.
    J Perinatol 2017 Feb 16. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Division of Newborn Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA.
    Objective: Early identification of infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy who have adverse outcomes despite neuroprotection with therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is urgently needed. Recent studies have found limited value of amplitude integrated EEG (aEEG) for predicting short-term outcomes in this population. Other quantitative electroencephalography (EEG) variables reflecting EEG amplitude, such as EEG power, could provide early stratification of a high-risk cohort in this population. Read More

    Perioperative hypothermia during hip fracture surgery: An observational study.
    J Eval Clin Pract 2017 Feb 16. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Nursing Research and Practice Development Centre, The Prince Charles Hospital, Brisbane, Australia.
    Rationale: Elderly patients are at high risk of accidental perioperative hypothermia. The primary objective of this study was to measure the changes in body temperature and the incidence of hypothermia in elderly patients undergoing hip fracture surgery.

    Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study on all adult patients undergoing surgery for fractured neck of femur between December 2013 and July 2014. Read More

    Therapeutic hypothermia attenuates brain edema in a pig model of cardiac arrest: Possible role of the angiopoietin-Tie-2 system.
    Am J Emerg Med 2017 Feb 6. Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    Beijing Key Laboratory of Cardiopulmonary-Cerebral Resuscitation, Department of Emergency Medicine, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.
    Objective: This study aimed to clarify whether therapeutic hypothermia protects against cerebral edema following cardiac arrest (CA) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in a porcine model via regulating the angiopoietin-Tie-2 ligand-receptor system.

    Methods: Male pigs were randomized into the therapeutic hypothermia group, the normothermia group or the sham control group. CA was induced in pigs by untreated ventricular fibrillation for 8min. Read More

    Should capnography be used as a guide for choosing a ventilation strategy in circulatory shock caused by severe hypothermia? Observational case-series study.
    Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 2017 Feb 15;25(1):15. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    Severe Accidental Hypothermia Center, Cracow, Poland.
    Background: Severe accidental hypothermia can cause circulatory disturbances ranging from cardiac arrhythmias through circulatory shock to cardiac arrest. Severity of shock, pulmonary hypoperfusion and ventilation-perfusion mismatch are reflected by a discrepancy between measurements of CO2 levels in end-tidal air (EtCO2) and partial CO2 pressure in arterial blood (PaCO2). This disparity can pose a problem in the choice of an optimal ventilation strategy for accidental hypothermia victims, particularly in the prehospital period. Read More

    Effect of Temperature on Heart Rate Variability in Neonatal ICU Patients With Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy.
    Pediatr Crit Care Med 2017 Feb 14. Epub 2017 Feb 14.
    1Division of Neonatology, Children's National Health System, Washington, DC. 2Division of Fetal and Transitional Medicine, Children's National Health System, Washington, DC. 3Pediatric Residency Program, Children's National Health System, Washington, DC. 4Division of Biostatistics and Study Methodology, Children's National Health System, Washington, DC. 5The George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington DC.
    Objective: To determine whether measures of heart rate variability are related to changes in temperature during rewarming after therapeutic hypothermia for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

    Design: Prospective observational study.

    Setting: Level 4 neonatal ICU in a free-standing academic children's hospital. Read More

    Outcome of Noncardiac Surgical Patients Admitted to a Multidisciplinary Intensive Care Unit.
    Indian J Crit Care Med 2017 Jan;21(1):17-22
    Department of Critical Care Medicine, Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Context: Surgical procedures carry significant morbidity and mortality depending on the type of surgery and patients. There is a dearth of evidence from India on the outcome of surgical patients admitted to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU).

    Aims: We aimed to describe the incidence and risk factors of postoperative complications and mortality in noncardiac surgical patients admitted to the ICU. Read More

    Therapeutic Hypothermia Provides Variable Protection against Behavioral Deficits after Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia: A Potential Role for Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor.
    Dev Neurosci 2017 Feb 15. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    Division of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Background: Despite treatment with therapeutic hypothermia (TH), infants who survive hypoxic ischemic (HI) encephalopathy (HIE) have persistent neurological abnormalities at school age. Protection by TH against HI brain injury is variable in both humans and animal models. Our current preclinical model of hypoxia-ischemia (HI) and TH displays this variability of outcomes in neuropathological and neuroimaging end points with some sexual dimorphism. Read More

    Cannabidiol reduces ethanol consumption, motivation and relapse in mice.
    Addict Biol 2017 Feb 13. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    Instituto de Neurociencias, Universidad Miguel Hernández-CSIC, Spain.
    This study evaluated the effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on ethanol reinforcement, motivation and relapse in C57BL/6 J mice. The effects of CBD (60 mg/kg, i.p. Read More

    Characterization of Death in Neonatal Encephalopathy in the Hypothermia Era.
    J Child Neurol 2017 Mar 20;32(4):360-365. Epub 2016 Dec 20.
    6 Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.
    This study aimed to characterize the circumstances of death in encephalopathic neonates treated with therapeutic hypothermia. Patients who died after or during treatment with therapeutic hypothermia between 2007-2014 were identified. Patient circumstance of death was characterized using an established paradigm. Read More

    Neurologic complications of acute environmental injuries.
    Handb Clin Neurol 2017 ;141:685-704
    Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA. Electronic address:
    Environmental injuries can result in serious neurologic morbidity. This chapter reviews neurologic complications of thermal burns, smoke inhalation, lightning strikes, electric injury, near drowning, decompression illness, as well as heat stroke and accidental hypothermia. Knowing the pathophysiology and clinical presentation of such injuries is essential to proper management of primary and secondary medical complications. Read More

    Therapeutic hypothermia protocols.
    Handb Clin Neurol 2017 ;141:619-632
    Department of Neurology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:
    The application of targeted temperature management has become common practice in the neurocritical care setting. It is important to recognize the pathophysiologic mechanisms by which temperature control impacts acute neurologic injury, as well as the clinical limitations to its application. Nonetheless, when utilizing temperature modulation, an organized approach is required in order to avoid complications and minimize side-effects. Read More

    Neurology of cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
    Handb Clin Neurol 2017 ;141:593-617
    Neurosciences Critical Care Division, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine and Departments of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:
    This chapter aims to provide an up-to-date review of the science and clinical practice pertaining to neurologic injury after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The past two decades have seen a major shift in the science and practice of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, with a major emphasis on postresuscitation neurologic care. This chapter provides a nuanced and thoughtful historic and bench-to-bedside overview of the neurologic aspects of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Read More

    Principles of intracranial pressure monitoring and treatment.
    Handb Clin Neurol 2017 ;140:67-89
    Department for Anesthesia, Surgical Intensive Care, Prehospital Emergency Medicine and Pain Therapy, University Hospital of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Intracranial pressure (ICP) is governed by volumes of intracranial blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and brain tissue. Expansion of any of these volumes will trigger compensatory changes in the other compartments, resulting in initially limited change in ICP. Due to the rigid skull, once compensatory mechanisms are exhausted, ICP rises very rapidly. Read More

    [Hemorrhagic shock : General principles].
    Internist (Berl) 2017 Feb 9. Epub 2017 Feb 9.
    Klinik für Intensivmedizin, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246, Hamburg, Deutschland.
    Bleeding associated with hemorrhagic shock is often seen in emergency medical services or in the intensive care unit. Identifying the origin of the bleeding and additional disorders helps to determine the degree of the hemorrhagic shock. In order to be effective, the initial therapy until blood products are available needs to be differentiated to be effective in terms of hemodynamic stabilization and coagulation. Read More

    Observational study of haemostatic dysfunction and bleeding in neonates with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.
    BMJ Open 2017 Feb 9;7(2):e013787. Epub 2017 Feb 9.
    Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
    Objective: Evaluate the relationship between initial haemostatic parameters and the frequency and severity of bleeding in neonates with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE).

    Design: Retrospective observational cohort study.

    Setting: 2 academically affiliated level III neonatal intensive care units in Atlanta, Georgia. Read More

    Choreoathetotic syndrome following cardiac surgery.
    J Clin Anesth 2017 Feb 18;36:59-61. Epub 2016 Nov 18.
    Department of Neurology, Cliniques Universitaires UCL St-Luc, 10 avenue Hippocrate, 1200, Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address:
    Movement disorders following heart surgery are very unusual. Post-pump chorea is mainly a pediatric complication of heart surgery, typically manifesting after a latent period of normality and is usually related with long extracorporeal circulation time and deep hypothermia. We report a 73-year-old woman, without risk factors predisposing to paroxysmal movement disorders, presenting acute choreoathetoid movements 5 days after aortic valvular replacement with normal extracorporeal circulation time and perioperative normothermia. Read More

    Management of No-Reflow Phenomenon in the Catheterization Laboratory.
    JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2017 Feb;10(3):215-223
    Huntington Medical Research Institute, Pasadena, California; Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.
    At the conclusion of a primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, and after the cardiologist makes certain that there is no residual stenosis following stenting, assessment of coronary flow becomes the top priority. The presence of no-reflow is a serious prognostic sign. No-reflow can result in poor healing of the infarct and adverse left ventricular remodeling, increasing the risk for major adverse cardiac events, including congestive heart failure and death. Read More

    Cerebrospinal Fluid NLRP3 is Increased After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury in Infants and Children.
    Neurocrit Care 2017 Feb 8. Epub 2017 Feb 8.
    Department of Critical Care Medicine, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 4401 Penn Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA, 15224, USA.
    Background: Inflammasome-mediated neuroinflammation may cause secondary injury following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children. The pattern recognition receptors NACHT domain-, Leucine-rich repeat-, and PYD-containing Protein 1 (NLRP1) and NLRP3 are essential components of their respective inflammasome complexes. We sought to investigate whether NLRP1 and/or NLRP3 abundance is altered in children with severe TBI. Read More

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