8,522 results match your criteria Hypoparathyroidism


Standards of Care for Hypoparathyroidism in Adults.

Eur J Endocrinol 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

B Clarke, Medicine, Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA, Rochester, United States.

Purpose: To provide practice recommendations for the diagnosis and management of hypoparathyroidism in adults Methods: Key questions pertaining to the diagnosis and management of hypoparathyroidism were addressed following a literature review. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases from January 2000 to March 2018 using keywords "hypoparathyroidism, diagnosis, treatment, calcium, PTH, calcidiol, calcitriol, hydrochlorothiazide and pregnancy". Only English language papers involving humans were included. Read More

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December 2018

Increased risk of postoperative complications after total thyroidectomy with Graves' disease.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Surgery, Ewha Womans University Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: The effect of Graves' disease on the risk of postoperative complications in patients undergoing total thyroidectomy is unclear.

Methods: The incidence of recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury and hypoparathyroidism were analyzed between 165 patients with Graves' disease (GD group) and 1:1 matched patients with euthyroid states (control group).

Results: The matched cohorts did not differ in age, sex, body mass index, pathologic diagnosis, and extent of operation. Read More

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December 2018

A rare case of deafness and renal abnormalities in HDR syndrome caused by a de novo mutation in the GATA3 gene.

Genet Mol Biol 2018 Nov 14. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Laboratório de Genética Molecular Humana, Centro de Engenharia Molecular e Genética, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp), Campinas, SP, Brazil.

HDR syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the GATA3 gene and characterized by hypoparathyroidism, sensorineural deafness and renal abnormalities. Here we report a Brazilian family, from which the proband, his mother and his grandfather were diagnosed with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Molecular screening of the GJB2, GJB6 and MTRNR1 genes in the proband showed no alterations; however, whole exome sequencing detected a heterozygous mutation, c. Read More

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November 2018

Early experience of transoral thyroidectomy: Comparison of robotic and endoscopic procedures.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and early surgical outcomes of transoral thyroidectomy and to compare robotic and endoscopic procedures.

Methods: A total of 37 patients underwent robotic (23 cases) or endoscopic (14 cases) transoral thyroidectomy. We compared the outcomes of the two procedures. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Unexpected discrepancies in hospital administrative databases can impact the accuracy of monitoring thyroid surgery outcomes in France.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208416. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of General and Endocrine Surgery, Lyon Sud Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Pierre-Bénite, France.

Objective: To determine the validity of hospital administrative databases compared to prospective collection of medical data assessing thyroid surgery complications.

Background: Administrative data are increasingly used to track surgical outcomes.

Methods: All patients undergoing thyroid surgery at three French university hospitals between April 2008 and April 2009 were prospectively included. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

A Case of Seizure Revealing Fahr's Syndrome with Primary Hypoparathyroidism.

Am J Case Rep 2018 Dec 1;19:1430-1433. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Internal Medicine, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan, South Korea.

BACKGROUND Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification, also known as Fahr's disease or Fahr's syndrome, is a rare neurological disorder characterized by abnormal calcified deposits in the basal ganglia. Here, we report a case of Fahr's syndrome with calcification of the basal ganglia due to hypoparathyroidism in a patient with seizures. CASE REPORT A 52-year-old male patient visited our clinic with seizures. Read More

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December 2018

Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis in Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome Type 1.

Front Immunol 2018 19;9:2570. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department Parasitology-Mycology, CHU, Lille, France.

Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene, characterized by the clinical triad of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC), hypoparathyroidism, and adrenal insufficiency. CMC can be complicated by systemic candidiasis or oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and may lead to death. The role of chronic infection in the etiopathogenesis of oral SCC is unclear. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

A new classification of parathyroid glands to evaluate in situ preservation or autotransplantation during thyroid surgery.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Nov;97(48):e13231

Department of Thyroid Surgery,West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China.

The indication for autotransplantation of parathyroid glands is still controversial. A new classification of parathyroid glands based on the positional relationship among parathyroid glands, thyroid gland and thymus was created to decide in situ preservation or autotransplantation during thyroid surgery.A retrospective study included patients with papillary thyroid cancer who underwent total thyroidectomy with bilateral central lymph node dissection between November 2014 and November 2016. Read More

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November 2018

Bone Matrix Mineralization in Patients with Gain-of-Function Calcium-Sensing Receptor Mutations is Distinctly Different from that in Postsurgical Hypoparathyroidism.

J Bone Miner Res 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Osteology at the Hanusch Hospital of WGKK and AUVA Trauma Centre Meidling, 1st Medical Dept. at the Hanusch Hospital, Vienna, Austria.

The role of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) as a regulator of parathyroid hormone secretion is well established, but its function in bone is less well defined. In an effort to elucidate the CaSR's skeletal role, bone tissue and material characteristics from patients with autosomal dominant hypocalcemia (ADH), a genetic form of primary hypoparathyroidism caused by CASR gain-of-function mutations, were compared to patients with postsurgical hypoparathyroidism (PSH). Bone structure and formation/resorption indices and mineralization density distribution (BMDD), were examined in transiliac biopsy samples from PSH (n = 13) and ADH (n = 6) patients by histomorphometry and quantitative backscatter electron imaging, respectively. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Is there a need for an emergency card in hypoparathyroidism?

J Intern Med 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.

Background: Patients with hypoparathyroidism are at risk of both hypocalcemic and hypercalcemic crisis. Patients report that health professionals do not always respond adequately in an acute situation. The extent and handling of severe hypo- and hypercalcemia in hypoparathyroidism is unknown. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Application of indocyanine green in the parathyroid detection and protection: Report of 3 cases.

Am J Otolaryngol 2018 Nov 7. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

The Second Department of General Surgery, Zhuhai People's Hospital, No. 79 of Kangning Road, Xiangzhou District, Zhuhai City, Guangdong Province 519000, China. Electronic address:

Background: It was thought that identifying the parathyroid gland during surgery was difficult for surgeons. It may be critical to locate the parathyroid for surgeons during thyroidectomy or parathyroidectomy due to the significant function of the parathyroid in calcium balance. According to recent reports, intrinsic fluorescence of the parathyroid has been found. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Intraoperative carbon nanoparticles mapping in secondary total thyroidectomy for recurrent thyroid nodules: Results of a 8-criterion case-match study (case control study).

Int J Surg 2018 Nov 23;60:210-215. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of General Surgery, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200025, China. Electronic address:

Background: The extent of total thyroidectomy in the management of multinodular goiter remains unclear. Compared to primary thyroidectomy, secondary total thyroidectomy is more difficult to perform and carries a significantly higher risk of postoperative complications such as recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) palsy or hypoparathyroidism. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intraoperative carbon nanoparticle (CN) mapping in patients undergoing secondary total thyroidectomy. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Long-Term Parathyroid Hormone 1-34 Replacement Therapy in Children with Hypoparathyroidism.

J Pediatr 2018 Dec;203:391-399.e1

Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.

Objective: To determine whether multiple daily injections of parathyroid hormone (PTH) 1-34 are safe and effective as long-term therapy for children with hypoparathyroidism.

Study Design: Linear growth, bone accrual, renal function, and mineral homeostasis were studied in a long-term observational study of PTH 1-34 injection therapy in 14 children.

Methods: Subjects were 14 children with hypoparathyroidism attributable to autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 (N = 5, ages 7-12 years) or calcium receptor mutation (N = 9, ages 7-16 years). Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Skeletal Manifestations of Hypoparathyroidism.

Authors:
Mishaela R Rubin

Bone 2018 Nov 19. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Metabolic Bone Disease Unit, Columbia University College of P&S, PH8W-864, 630 W. 168th St, New York, NY 10032, United States of America. Electronic address:

Chronic PTH deficiency has a marked effect on the skeleton, leading to characteristic decreases in bone remodeling and increases in bone mass. An effect on fracture risk has not been demonstrated, although biochemical, imaging, and histomorphometric data indicate abnormalities in skeletal properties. Replacement with PTH leads to a new skeletal state that is maintained with long-term treatment. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy by vestibular approach (TOETVA): initial experience in Brazil.

Rev Col Bras Cir 2018 Nov 14;45(5):e1951. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Universidad de Antioquia, Fundación Colombiana de Cancerología, Clínica Vida, Departamento de Cirugia, Medellin, Antioquia, Colômbia.

Objective: to present the initial experience in Brazil with transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy by vestibular approach (TOETVA).

Methods: prospective study of patients undergoing TOETVA in the Department of Head and Neck Surgery of Hospital Regional do Oeste, Chapecó, Santa Catarina. Patients between 18 and 65 years of age, ASA I and II, with maximum glandular volume of 35cm3 and nodules up to 4cm were candidates for the study. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

Transoral vestibule approach for thyroid disease: a systematic review.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, 218 Jixi Road, Hefei, 230032, Anhui, People's Republic of China.

Objectives: Transoral endoscopic/robotic thyroidectomy vestibule approach (TOETVA/TORTVA) is a novel technology that has been proposed for the treatment of thyroid disease. Its adoption has increased because of its satisfying cosmetic effects. The primary aim of this systematic review was to assess the feasibility and safety of this approach, and the secondary aim was to discuss the indications for this technology. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Hypocalcemic disorders.

Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2018 10 28;32(5):639-656. Epub 2018 May 28.

Endocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Thier 1101, 50 Blossom St, Boston, MA, 02114, USA. Electronic address:

Calcium is vital for life, and extracellular calcium concentrations must constantly be maintained within a precise concentration range. Low serum calcium (hypocalcemia) occurs in conjunction with multiple disorders and can be life-threatening if severe. Symptoms of acute hypocalcemia include neuromuscular irritability, tetany, and seizures, which are rapidly resolved with intravenous administration of calcium gluconate. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Hypoparathyroidism in Pregnancy: Review and Evidence Based Recommendations for Management.

Eur J Endocrinol 2018 Nov 1. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

M Brandi, Department of Surgery and Translational Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, 50139, Italy.

Purpose: review calcium homeostasis in pregnancy and provide evidence based best practice recommendations for the management of hypoparathyroidism in pregnancy Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases from January 2000 to April 1, 2018. A total of 65 articles were included in the final review.

Conclusions: During pregnancy calcitriol levels increase by 2-3 fold resulting in enhanced intestinal calcium absorption. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Application of a Fluorescence Imaging System with Indocyanine Green to Protect the Parathyroid Gland Intraoperatively and to Predict Postoperative Parathyroidism.

Adv Ther 2018 Dec 15;35(12):2167-2175. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

The Second Department of General Surgery, Zhuhai People's Hospital, No. 79 Kangning Road, Xiangzhou District, Zhuhai, 519000, Guangdong, China.

Introduction: Identifying the parathyroid gland during surgery may be difficult for surgeons. It is critical for them to be able to locate it during thyroidectomy or parathyroidectomy because of the significant function of the parathyroid in the calcium balance. According to recent reports, intrinsic fluorescence of the parathyroid has been found. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Fahr's syndrome in Southern Tunisia: A broad spectrum of clinical and etiological features.

Tunis Med 2018 Aug - Sep;96(8-09):490-494

Aim: We describe the clinical and etiological profile of patients with Fahr's syndrome (FS).

Methods: Charts of sixteen patients diagnosed with FS between 1999 and 2014 were retrospectively assessed.

Results:   The mean age at diagnosis was 44. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Hypoparathyroidism in children: a study of eight cases.

Tunis Med 2018 Aug - Sep;96(8-09):472-476

Background: Hypoparathyroidism is a rare pediatric endocrine disease, which is caused by low circulating levels of PTH or insensitivity to its action in the target tissues.

Aim: To report the clinical and biochemical characteristics and theoutcome of 8 patients with hypoparathyroidism.

Methods: We analyzed retrospectively the results of clinical, biochemical, radiological findings of patients with hypoparathyroidism diagnosed in pediatric department of Hedi Chaker Hospital during the period 1994-2013. Read More

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November 2018
8 Reads

Presumptive Glucocorticoid-Induced Refractory Hypocalcemia in a Dog with Idiopathic Immune-Mediated Hypoparathyroidism, Thrombocytopenia, and Hemolytic Anemia.

J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2018 Nov 14. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

From the Department of Veterinary Medicine & Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri (J.J., A.D.); Lauderdale Veterinary Specialists, Fort Lauderdale, Florida (A.C., L.T.); and Bronson Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Kissimmee, Florida (J.H.).

Clinically relevant hypocalcemia is a well-documented complication of glucocorticoid administration in people with hypoparathyroidism. The current report describes the phenomenon in a dog. A 7 yr old neutered male Pomeranian was diagnosed with immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, immune-mediated hemolytic anemia, and primary hypoparathyroidism. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Feasibility of using colloidal gold immunochromatography for point-of-care identification of parathyroid glands during thyroidectomy.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2018 Dec 10;507(1-4):110-113. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Department of General Surgery, Fujian Province Hospital, Fujian, 350001, China.

Aim: To determine the feasibility of using colloidal gold immunochromatography for rapid identification of parathyroid glands during thyroidectomy.

Material And Methods: 127 patients undergoing thyroidectomy were randomly divided into PTH-ICGT group (64 cases) and conventional naked eye group (63 cases). The rate of identification of parathyroid glands and the incidence of hypoparathyroidism were compared between the two groups. Read More

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December 2018
6 Reads

Severe Liver Iron Concentrations (LIC) in 24 Patients with β-Thalassemia Major: Correlations with Serum Ferritin, Liver Enzymes and Endocrine Complications.

Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis 2018 1;10(1):e2018062. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Hematology Section, National Center for Cancer Care and Research, Hamad Medical Corporation, (HMC), Doha, Qatar.

Introduction: Chronic blood transfusion is the mainstay of care for individuals with β-thalassemia major (BTM). However, it causes iron-overload that requires monitoring and management by long-term iron chelation therapy to prevent endocrinopathies and cardiomyopathies, which can be fatal. Hepatic R2 MRI method (FerriScan®) has been validated as the gold standard for evaluation and monitoring liver iron concentration (LIC) that reflects the total body iron-overload. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Hypocalcemia in Pregnancy: A Clinical Review Update.

Oman Med J 2018 Nov;33(6):453-462

Obesity, Endocrine and Metabolism Centre, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Though hypocalcemia in pregnancy is not often reported in the literature, it occurs in cases of hypoparathyroidism and in mothers with severe dietary inadequacy. Hypocalcemia during pregnancy can pose numerous problems to the mother and fetus. It is associated with hypertensive disorders and can increase the risk of numerous problems such as preeclampsia and fetal growth disorders. Read More

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November 2018
8 Reads

Long-term complications in patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism: a cross-sectional study.

Eur J Endocrinol 2018 Nov 1. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

B Decallonne, Department of Endocrinology, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, 3000, Belgium.

Objective: Chronic hypoparathyroidism and its treatment may lead to symptoms and complications affecting quality of life. We determined complications in chronic hypoparathyroid patients.

Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study of patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism treated with active vitamin D supplements in a tertiary care centre during the year 2015. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

Novel mutations associated with inherited human calcium-sensing receptor disorders: a clinical genetic study.

Eur J Endocrinol 2018 Nov 1. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

L Castaño, Endocrinology and Diabetes Research Group,Cruces University Hospital, CIBERDEM, CIBERER, UPV-EHU, BioCruces Health Research Institute, Barakaldo, Spain.

Objective: Molecular diagnosis is a useful diagnostic tool in calcium metabolism disorders. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is known to play a central role in the regulation of extracellular calcium homeostasis. We performed clinical, biochemical and genetic characterization of sequence anomalies in this receptor in a cohort of 130 individuals from 82 families with suspected alterations in the CASR gene, one of the largest series described. Read More

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November 2018
7 Reads

Familial congenital choanal atresia with GATA3 associated hypoparathyroidism-deafness-renal dysplasia syndrome unidentified on auditory brainstem response.

Auris Nasus Larynx 2018 Nov 2. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Shizuoka Prefectural Hospital Organization, Department of Medical Genetics, Shizuoka, Japan.

Hypoparathyroidism-deafness-renal dysplasia (HDR) syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder primarily caused by GATA3 haploinsufficiency and is challenging to diagnose in early childhood. We report a Japanese family with HDR syndrome and congenital choanal atresia. The 6-year-old female proband was diagnosed with epilepsy at the age of three. Read More

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November 2018
7 Reads

Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy as a new complication of post-surgical chronic hypoparathyroidism.

J Bone Miner Res 2018 Nov 5. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Unit of Endocrinology and Diabetes, University Campus Bio-Medico, Rome, Italy.

Post-surgical hypoparathyroidism (hypoPT) increases fatigue and seems to affect the risk of mortality. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is an impairment of the cardiovascular autonomic system, a cause of increased mortality and associated with increased fatigability. The aim of this study is to evaluate CAN in hypoPT and its relationship with hypocalcemia, PTH levels and hyperphosphatemia. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Serum levels of intact parathyroid hormone on the first day after total thyroidectomy as predictor of permanent hypoparathyroidism.

Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr 2018 Nov 1. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Servicio de Cirugía General y Aparato Digestivo, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro, Majadahonda, Madrid, España.

Background: Permanent hypoparathyroidism is the most common long-term complication after total thyroidectomy, causing significant morbidity and requiring long-term replacement therapy. Our study objective was to assess whether intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels on the first day after total thyroidectomy are a good predictor of permanent hypoparathyroidism.

Patients And Methods: A retrospective observational study of all patients undergoing total thyroidectomy between January 2009 and December 2014. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

The Coming of Age of Hypoparathyroidism: Novel Insights into Causation, Innovative Options for Management.

Authors:
Michael A Levine

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2018 12;47(4):xv-xvi

Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, University of Pennsylvania, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Abramson Research Building, 510A, 3615 Civic Center Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address:

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December 2018
1 Read

Hypoparathyroidism.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2018 12;47(4):xiii

Emory University School of Medicine, 1365 B Clifton Road, Northeast, B6209, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. Electronic address:

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December 2018
2 Reads

New Directions in Treatment of Hypoparathyroidism.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2018 12;47(4):901-915

Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 630 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA. Electronic address:

The history of parathyroid hormone (PTH) replacement therapy for hypoparathyroidism begins in 1929. In 2015, the Food and Drug Administration approved recombinant human PTH(1-84) [rhPTH(1-84)] as a treatment for hypoparathyroidism. Long-term studies of rhPTH(1-84), up to 6 years, have demonstrated continued efficacy of this replacement agent. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Conventional Treatment of Hypoparathyroidism.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2018 12;47(4):889-900

Endocrine Research Unit, Department of Medicine, San Francisco Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, 111N, 1700 Owens Street, 3rd Floor Room 369, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. Electronic address:

Conventional therapy of hypoparathyroidism consists of oral calcium and either activated vitamin D or vitamin D supplements at varying doses. Although adjusting dosing of calcium and/or activated vitamin D or vitamin D itself, the serum calcium should be obtained weekly or monthly depending on the clinical situation. Calcium supplementation in hypoparathyroidism usually consists of calcium carbonate because it is 40% elemental calcium by weight. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Quality of Life in Hypoparathyroidism.

Authors:
Tamara J Vokes

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2018 12 11;47(4):855-864. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Section of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland, MC1027, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. Electronic address:

Patients with hypoparathyroidism have a multitude of physical, emotional, and cognitive complaints consistent with reduced quality of life (QOL). Impaired QOL in patients treated with conventional therapy with calcium and active vitamin D has been documented in epidemiologic (registry) studies, case-controlled studies, and surveys, and at baseline in clinical trials of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Treatment with PTH has been shown to improve QOL in some but not all studies. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Hypoparathyroidism and the Kidney.

Authors:
Munro Peacock

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2018 12 11;47(4):839-853. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Indiana University School of Medicine, 1120 West Michigan Street Cl 365, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA. Electronic address:

Hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia are the pathognomonic biochemical features of hypoparathyroidism, and result directly from lack of parathyroid hormone (PTH) action on the kidney. In the absence of PTH action, the renal mechanisms transporting calcium and phosphate reabsorption deregulate, resulting in hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. Circulating calcium negatively regulates PTH secretion. Read More

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December 2018
5 Reads

Skeletal Manifestations of Hypoparathyroidism.

Authors:
Mishaela R Rubin

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2018 12;47(4):825-837

Metabolic Bone Disease Unit, Columbia University College of P&S, PH8W-864, 630 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA. Electronic address:

Chronic parathyroid hormone (PTH) deficiency has a marked effect on the skeleton, leading to characteristic decreases in bone remodeling and increases in bone mass. Numerous lines of evidence using biochemical, imaging, and histomorphometric methodologies have demonstrated that the skeleton is altered when PTH is absent and that these abnormalities might be reversed with PTH treatment. More evidence is needed to determine whether fracture risk is altered in hypoparathyroidism. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Genetic Disorders of Parathyroid Development and Function.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2018 12 12;47(4):809-823. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, The Center for Bone Health, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, 3615 Civic Center Boulevard, Abramson Research Building, Room 510A, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

Hypoparathyroidism is characterized by hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia and is due to insufficient levels of circulating parathyroid hormone. Hypoparathyroidism may be an isolated condition or a component of a complex syndrome. Although genetic disorders are not the most common cause of hypoparathyroidism, molecular analyses have identified a growing number of genes that when defective result in impaired formation of the parathyroid glands, disordered synthesis or secretion of parathyroid hormone, or postnatal destruction of the parathyroid glands. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Medical Hypoparathyroidism.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2018 12 11;47(4):797-808. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Calcium Disorders Clinic, McMaster University, 50 Charlton Ave East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 4A6, Canada. Electronic address:

Hypoparathyroidism is a metabolic disorder characterized by hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and inadequate levels of or function of parathyroid hormone (PTH). The authors review the nonsurgical or medical causes of hypoparathyroidism. The most common of the nonsurgical causes is autoimmune destruction of the parathyroid. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Surgical Hypoparathyroidism.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2018 12 12;47(4):783-796. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Department of Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, Suite S320, Box 0104, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA. Electronic address:

Surgical hypoparathyroidism is the most common cause of hypoparathyroidism and the result of intentional or inadvertent extirpation, trauma, or devascularization of the parathyroid glands. Surgical hypoparathyroidism may present as a medical emergency. Pediatric patients, those with Graves disease, and those undergoing extensive neck dissections or reoperative neck surgery are at particular risk for this complication. Read More

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December 2018
7 Reads

Epidemiology and Complications of Hypoparathyroidism.

Authors:
Bart L Clarke

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2018 12 11;47(4):771-782. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Metabolism, and Nutrition, Mayo Clinic, E18-A, 200 1st Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. Electronic address:

Until recently, very few studies have described the epidemiology of this rare disorder. Several large population-based studies have recently been published describing the prevalence and incidence of hypoparathyroidism in various countries. Some of these studies have described the epidemiology of both postsurgical and nonsurgical hypoparathyroidism. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Signs and Symptoms of Hypoparathyroidism.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2018 12;47(4):759-770

Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, 630 West 168th Street, PH 8W-864, New York, NY 10032, USA.

Hypoparathyroidism is associated with a spectrum of clinical manifestations in the acute and chronic settings, from mild to debilitating. Although the acute symptoms of hypocalcemia are primarily due to neuromuscular irritability, the chronic manifestations of hypoparathyroidism may be due to the disease itself or to complications of therapy or to both. The chronic complications of hypoparathyroidism can affect multiple organ systems, including the renal, neurologic, neuropsychiatric, skeletal, and immune systems. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Physiology of Parathyroid Hormone.

Authors:
David Goltzman

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2018 12 11;47(4):743-758. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Department of Medicine and Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, 1001 Decarie Boulevard, Montreal, Quebec H4A 3J1, Canada; Departments of Medicine and of Physiology, McGill University, 845 Sherbrooke St West, Montreal, Quebec H3A 0B9, Canada. Electronic address:

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the major secretory product of the parathyroid glands, and in hypocalcemic conditions, can enhance renal calcium reabsorption, increase active vitamin D production to increase intestinal calcium absorption, and mobilize calcium from bone by increasing turnover, mainly but not exclusively in cortical bone. PTH has therefore found clinical use as replacement therapy in hypoparathyroidism. PTH also may have a physiologic role in augmenting bone formation, particularly in trabecular and to some extent in cortical bone. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

The First Report of Robotic Bilateral Modified Radical Neck Dissection Through the Bilateral Axillo-breast Approach for Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma With Bilateral Lateral Neck Metastasis.

Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 2018 Oct 31. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Surgery, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine.

Background: Robotic unilateral modified radical neck dissection (MRND) has been reported to be safe and achieves good oncologic results. However, there is no report of successful robotic bilateral MRND to date. We report the first case series of robotic bilateral MRND through the bilateral axillo-breast approach (BABA). Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Calcium-Sensing Receptor Autoantibodies in Patients with Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome Type 1: Epitopes, Specificity, Functional Affinity, IgG Subclass, and Effects on Receptor Activity.

J Immunol 2018 Dec 31;201(11):3175-3183. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Oncology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2RX, United Kingdom;

A major manifestation of autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS1) is hypoparathyroidism, which is suggested to result from aberrant immune responses against the parathyroid glands. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), which plays a pivotal role in maintaining calcium homeostasis by sensing blood calcium levels and regulating release of parathyroid hormone (PTH), is an autoantibody target in APS1. In this study, the aim was to characterize the binding sites, specificity, functional affinity, IgG subclass, and functional effects of CaSR autoantibodies using phage-display technology, ELISA, and bioassays. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Increased mortality and morbidity in patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism: A population-based study.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2018 Oct 30. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Department of Medicine, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK.

Objectives: A population-based study was undertaken to determine the mortality and morbidity for people with hypoparathyroidism compared to the general population.

Methods: In this study, patients identified with chronic hypoparathyroidism using data linkage from regional datasets were compared with five age- and gender-matched controls from the general population. Data from biochemistry, hospital admissions, prescribing and the demographic dataset were linked. Read More

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October 2018
4 Reads

The Management of Permanent Primary Hypoparathyroidism in Children and Adolescents: A Complex Task.

Pediatr Endocrinol Rev 2018 Sep;16(1):194-202

First Department of Paediatrics "Agia Sophia" Children's Hospital, National Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Management of hypoparathyroidism (hypoPT), depends on the etiology and the severity of hypocalcemia. Treatment goals include control of hypocalcemic symptoms preserving serum calcium in the low-normal range and phosphate in the high normal range. While correction of serum calcium to low-normal range does not fully correct mineral and bone metabolism it may be associated with increased risk of complications such as nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis and soft tissue calcifications. Read More

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September 2018
2 Reads

Feasibility of Endoscopic Thyroidectomy via Axilla and Breast Approaches for Larger Goiters: Widening the Horizons.

J Thyroid Res 2018 2;2018:4057542. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Department of Endocrine Surgery, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences (SGPGIMS), Lucknow 226014, India.

Scarless (in the neck) endoscopic thyroidectomy (SET) has evolved into a cosmetically preferred alternative to conventional thyroidectomy (ConT). Recently many of our patients are demanding SET; however their goitres are larger than the recommended size of 4-6 cm. Our aim was to compare the outcomes of ET for small (<6 cm) vs large (≥6 cm) goitres and determine its feasibility in such cases. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Transoral video assisted thyroidectomy: a systematic review.

G Chir 2018 Sep-Oct;39(5):276-283

Introduction: The aim of this study is to perform a review of the English-language international literature concerning thyroid surgery performed through the transoral vestibular approach, to evaluate its flessibility and safety in terms of complications.

Materials And Method: The review was carried out on 17 studies of 17 different Authors. The following variables were taken into consideration: first Author's name, nationality, year of publication, number of cases, hospital stay, conversion rate, type of surgical approach, total number of total thyroidectomies and loboisthmectomies, operative time range, intraoperative blood loss range, number and percentage of complications. Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads

Prophylactic thyroidectomy in multiple endocrine neoplasia 2 (MEN2) patients with the C634Y mutation: A long-term follow-up in a large single-center cohort.

Eur J Surg Oncol 2018 Oct 17. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

General Surgery Service, Endocrine Surgery Unit, Instituto Murciano de Investigaciones Biomédicas (IMIB), Virgen de la Arrixaca University Hospital, Murcia, CP 30120, Spain.

Background: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is the main cause of death in multiple endocrine neoplasia 2A (MEN2A) patients. It is therefore important to treat this disease at an early stage. The mutation in codon 634 is considered to be associated with an aggressive clinical course, whereas the C634Y mutation may result in a more indolent course. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read