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    1 OF 266

    Poverty as an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality in community-acquired pneumonia: A study in a developing country population.
    Int J Clin Pract 2018 Apr 17:e13085. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Clinical Microbiology Research Centre, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Background: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the most severe lower respiratory tract infections with a high in-hospital mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the socioeconomic and medical risk factors affecting the prognosis of acute pneumonia. The results of this study can mention the value of socioeconomic backgrounds like poverty and illiteracy in clinical practice, even in a well-known biological phenomenon (eg acute pneumonia). Read More

    Hospital-acquired hyponatremia: Does the type of fluid therapy affect children admitted to intensive care?
    Rev Chil Pediatr 2018 Feb;89(1):42-50
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain.
    Introduction: The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between the type of initial fluid therapy used (isotonic or hypotonic solutions) and the development of hyponatremia, the plas ma chlorine values and the tolerance of venous access.

    Patients And Method: Retrospective cohort study in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) of a high complexity hospital. There were included children younger than 15 years old hospitalized during the first semester of 2010 and 2013 who recei ved intravenous maintenance fluid therapy, excluding patients undergoing cardiac surgery, kidney transplant and admissions that lasted less than 24 hours. Read More

    Hyponatremia and activation of vasopressin secretion are both independently associated with 30-day mortality: results of a multicenter, observational study.
    J Intern Med 2018 Apr 17. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Division of General Internal and Emergency Medicine, University Department of Medicine, Kantonsspital Aarau, Switzerland.
    Background: Hyponatremia is a common feature of acute illness and associated with increased mortality. This may be explained by a stress-mediated activation of the vasopressin system with an increase in free-water reabsorption.

    Objectives: To investigate whether the association of hyponatremia and mortality could be explained by activation of the vasopressin system. Read More

    Clinical findings and diagnostic procedures in 270 small ruminants with obstructive urolithiasis.
    J Vet Intern Med 2018 Apr 16. Epub 2018 Apr 16.
    Clinic for Ruminants, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bremgartenstrasse 109a, Bern 3012, Switzerland.
    Background: Details of the clinical signs of obstructive urolithiasis in male small ruminants have not been documented in a large population.

    Objective: To describe the clinical presentation and diagnostic procedures in a large group of small ruminants with urolithiasis.

    Animals: Two hundred and seventy small ruminants (158 sheep and 112 goats). Read More

    Hyponatraemia is independently associated with in-hospital mortality in patients with pneumonia.
    Eur J Intern Med 2018 Apr 13. Epub 2018 Apr 13.
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:
    Background: Hyponatraemia on hospital admission has been shown to be a risk factor for illness severity in critically ill patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether hyponatraemia on emergency department (ED) admission independently influences in-hospital mortality, ICU admission, and/or length of hospitalisation in patients with pneumonia.

    Methods: 610 patients (64. Read More

    Efficacy and Safety of SER120 Nasal Spray in Nocturia Patients Pooled Analysis of 2 Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Phase 3 Trials.
    J Urol 2018 Apr 11. Epub 2018 Apr 11.
    University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
    Purpose: SER120 is the first FDA-approved pharmacotherapy for nocturia. SER120 efficacy/safety was evaluated in 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies (DB3 and DB4).

    Materials And Methods: Patients aged ≥50 years with ≥ 2. Read More

    Hyponatremia in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders: Literature review.
    Acta Neurol Scand 2018 Apr 14. Epub 2018 Apr 14.
    Department of Neurology, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.
    Hyponatremia is a potentially serious electrolyte abnormality observed in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs), and its most common cause is syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Another potential cause of hyponatremia is cerebral salt-wasting syndrome (CSWS), although CSWS has not previously been reported in NMOSDs. Accurate and early differentiation between SIADH and CSWS is difficult. Read More

    The ROME (Retrospective Observational Multicenter study on Eslicarbazepine) study: Efficacy and behavioural effects of Eslicarbazepine acetate as adjunctive therapy for adults with partial onset seizures in real life.
    Seizure 2018 Mar 30;58:35-40. Epub 2018 Mar 30.
    Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza University, Policlinico Umberto I Hospital, Rome, Italy.
    Purpose: Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is a third-generation member of the dibenzazepine family approved in 2009 by the European Medicines Agency with the indication of adjunctive therapy in adult people with partial-onset seizures (PPOS). We aimed at assessing the ESL impact on seizure frequency and quality of life in PPOS with a particular attention to sleepiness and depression.

    Methods: We evaluated 50 adult PPOS (>18 years; 48 ± 14 years-old; 23 males) treated with adjunctive ESL for ≥2months with a retrospective multi-centric design. Read More

    Malignant ureteric obstruction decompression: how much gain for how much pain? A narrative review.
    J R Soc Med 2018 Apr;111(4):125-135
    1 Department of Urology, Queen Elizabeth University Hospital Campus, Glasgow G51 4TF, UK.
    Over the last thirty years, the management of Malignant Ureteric Obstruction (MUO) has evolved from a single disciplinary decision to a multi-disciplinary approach. Careful consideration must be given to the risks and benefits of decompression of hydronephrosis for an individual patient. There is a lack of consensus of opinion as well as strong evidence to support the decision process. Read More

    Spectrum of complications of severe DKA in children in pediatric Intensive Care Unit.
    Pak J Med Sci 2018 Jan-Feb;34(1):106-109
    Dr. Khadija Nuzhat Humayun, FCPS. Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.
    Objectives: To describe the spectrum of complications of Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) observed in children admitted with severe DKA.

    Methods: Retrospective review of the medical records of all children admitted with the diagnosis of severe DKA in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) of the Aga Khan University Hospital, from January 2010 to December 2015 was done. Data was collected on a structured proforma and descriptive statistics were applied. Read More

    Split-dose bowel cleansing with picosulphate is safe and better tolerated than 2-l polyethylene glycol solution.
    Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Apr 10. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Background: In physically less fit patients and patients requiring repeated exams, adequate bowel preparation for colonoscopy remains problematic, particularly because patients need to drink large volumes of unpleasant-tasting fluids. A further concern is potential unwarranted fluid shifts.

    Aims: This study aimed to compare the safety and burden of a small-volume sodium picosulphate/magnesium citrate preparation (SPS-MC) with a 2-l ascorbic-acid-enriched polyethylene glycol solution plus bisacodyl pretreatment (PEG-Asc+B). Read More

    Clinical and Molecular Features of Thiazide-Induced Hyponatremia.
    Curr Hypertens Rep 2018 Apr 10;20(4):31. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    Division of Respiratory Medicine, Queen's Medical Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, UK.
    Purpose Of Review: Hypertension affects more than 30% of the world's adult population and thiazide (and thiazide-like) diuretics are amongst the most widely used, effective, and least costly treatments available, with all-cause mortality benefits equivalent to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or calcium channel antagonists. A minority of patients develop thiazide-induced hyponatremia (TIH) and this is largely unpredictable at the point of thiazide prescription. In some cases, TIH can cause debilitating symptoms and require hospital admission. Read More

    Thiazide diuretic-caused hyponatremia in the elderly hypertensive: will a bottle of Nepro a day keep hyponatremia and the doctor away? Study protocol for a proof-of-concept feasibility trial.
    Pilot Feasibility Stud 2018 6;4:71. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
    1Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, The Ottawa Hospital, 1967 Riverside Drive, Ottawa, K1H 7W9 Canada.
    Background: Hypertension is the most common modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, with an increasing prevalence with age, but with easily available medications to control it. Adverse effects of these medications do limit their use, in particular hyponatremia due to thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics. This is more common in the elderly patients due to a combination of inadequate protein intake and impaired urinary dilution capability, made worse by additional thiazide use. Read More

    Hypovolemia due to cerebral salt wasting may contribute to stroke in tuberculous meningitis.
    QJM 2018 Apr 9. Epub 2018 Apr 9.
    Department of Radiology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India.
    Background: Both stroke and cerebral salt wasting (CSW) are common in tuberculous meningitis (TBM), but there is paucity of studies evaluating their combined effect.

    Aim: The present study has been undertaken to evaluate the spectrum of stroke in TBM and its relation to CSW.

    Design: Hospital based prospective cohort study. Read More

    Intraoperative Use of Desmopressin for Treatment of Profound Hyponatremia in the Setting of Emergency Surgery: A Case Report.
    A A Pract 2018 Feb 14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    From the Department of Anesthesiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.
    Correction of profound hyponatremia requires careful planning and close monitoring to reduce the risks of neurologic injury. Although there are various suggested treatment strategies in the setting of a medical ward or intensive care unit, reports of intraoperative management to prevent rapid increases in serum sodium are lacking. We present a case of profound hyponatremia of 102 mmol/L in a patient who required emergent operative repair for bowel obstruction. Read More

    Antiepileptic drugs-induced hyponatremia: Review and analysis of 560 hospitalized patients.
    Epilepsy Res 2018 Mar 30;143:7-10. Epub 2018 Mar 30.
    Epilepsy Center Kork, Landstraße 1, 77694 Kehl-Kork, Germany.
    Recent evidence suggests that eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) might be an appropriate alternative to carbamazepine (CBZ) and oxcarbazepine (OXC) due to its better safety profile. Hyponatremia may be one of the limiting safety problems in CBZ and OXC whereas it has been indicated that ESL is less sensitive for the adverse event. Since our clinical experience is different we investigated the incidence of hyponatremia in 560 consecutive adult inpatients treated at our center in 2015 by reviewing their medical records. Read More

    Safety and Efficacy of Tolvaptan in Korean Patients with Hyponatremia Caused by the Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone.
    J Korean Med Sci 2018 Apr 9;33(15):e112. Epub 2018 Apr 9.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Hanyang University Guri Hospital, Guri, Korea.
    Background: The aim of this multicenter study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of tolvaptan (TLV) in Korean patients with the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH).

    Methods: Of 51 enrolled patients with SIADH, 39 patients (16 female patients, aged 70.8 ± 11. Read More

    Hyponatremia is associated with occurrence of atrial fibrillation in outpatients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction.
    Hellenic J Cardiol 2018 Apr 3. Epub 2018 Apr 3.
    Cumhuriyet University Medical School, Departments of Cardiology, Sivas, Turkey.
    Objectives: Hyponatremia and atrial fibrillation (AF) have been established as strong predictors for worse clinical outcomes for patients with heart failure (HF). However, less is known about the hyponatremia in relation to the occurrence of AF. This study aims to investigate the possible relationship between hyponatremia and AF in patients with chronic HF and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Read More

    New-onset insulin-dependent diabetes due to nivolumab.
    Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2018 28;2018. Epub 2018 Mar 28.
    Divisions of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida, USA.
    Nivolumab, a monoclonal antibody against programmed cell death-1 receptor, is increasingly used in advanced cancers. While nivolumab use enhances cancer therapy, it is associated with increased immune-related adverse events. We describe an elderly man who presented in ketoacidosis after receiving nivolumab for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Read More

    Clinical and laboratory characteristics of short-term mortality in Egyptian patients with acute heart failure.
    Egypt Heart J 2017 Sep 7;69(3):201-208. Epub 2017 Mar 7.
    Anasethia and Intensive Care Department, Suez Canal University, Egypt.
    Objective: To identify the clinical and laboratory predictors of short-term mortality in patients with acute heart failure (AHF).

    Subjects And Methods: We conducted a prospective, single center study on 120 consecutive patients presented with acute heart failure to the emergency department. All patients had clinical, laboratory, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic evaluation. Read More

    Evaluation and Management of Dehydration in Children.
    Emerg Med Clin North Am 2018 May 10;36(2):259-273. Epub 2018 Feb 10.
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 1200 North State Street, GH Room 1011, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA. Electronic address:
    The article discusses the evaluation of dehydration in children and reviews the literature on physical findings of dehydration. Pediatric dehydration is a common problem in emergency departments and wide practice variation in treatment exists. Dehydration can be treated with oral, nasogastric, subcutaneous, or intravenous fluids. Read More

    Preoperative Hyponatremia Is Associated with Reoperation and Prolonged Length of Hospital Stay following Total Knee Arthroplasty.
    J Knee Surg 2018 Apr 4. Epub 2018 Apr 4.
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, MetroHealth Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio.
    Hyponatremia is a risk factor for adverse surgical outcomes, but limited information is available on the prognosis of hyponatremic patients who undergo total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this investigation was to compare the incidence of major morbidity (MM), 30-day readmission, 30-day reoperation, and length of hospital stay (LOS) between normonatremic and hypontremic TKA patients.The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was used to identify all primary TKA procedures. Read More

    The Clinical Value of D-dimer level in Patients with Non-aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.
    World Neurosurg 2018 Mar 31. Epub 2018 Mar 31.
    Department of Neurosurgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, NO.1 of Youyi Rd, Yuzhong District, Chongqing, China. Electronic address:
    Objective: A growing number of non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (NaSAH) were found in clinical practice. However, the precise mechanisms in which D-dimer level is associated with clinical condition in patients with NaSAH remain unclear. But even more, the data assessing the risk of clinical course in the patients with NaSAH are scarce. Read More

    To salt or not to salt? - That is the question in liver cirrhosis.
    Liver Int 2018 Apr 2. Epub 2018 Apr 2.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Medical University of Graz.
    Ascites is the most common complication of patients with liver cirrhosis, resulting from portal hypertension and vasodilatation. It is associated with an increased risk for the development of hyponatremia, renal failure and has a high mortality rate of 20% per year. The development of ascites represents a baleful sign in the course of disease in liver cirrhosis. Read More

    Association between the Serum Sodium Levels and the Response to Tolvaptan in Liver Cirrhosis Patients with Ascites and Hyponatremia.
    Intern Med 2018 Mar 30. Epub 2018 Mar 30.
    Department of Gastroenterology, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Japan.
    Objective Hyponatremia is closely associated with the pathophysiology of cirrhosis. However, the association between the serum sodium level and the response to tolvaptan is unclear. This study evaluated the factors related to the tolvaptan response and the prognosis in cirrhosis patients with ascites and hyponatremia. Read More

    A Novel Diagnostic Scoring System to Differentiate between Legionella pneumophila Pneumonia and Streptococcus pneumoniae Pneumonia.
    Intern Med 2018 Mar 30. Epub 2018 Mar 30.
    Kyorin University School of Medicine, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Japan.
    Objective We investigated a novel diagnostic scoring system to differentiate Legionella pneumophila pneumonia from Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of 62 patients with L. pneumophila pneumonia (L-group) and 70 patients with S. Read More

    [Which biological parameters for volemic status estimation?]
    Nephrol Ther 2018 Apr;14 Suppl 1:S83-S88
    Service des explorations fonctionnelles physiologiques, hôpital de Rangueil, CHU de Toulouse, 1, avenue du Professeur-Jean-Poulhès, TSA 50032, 31059 Toulouse cedex 9, France.
    Introduction: Estimation of volemic status can be useful in the diagnosis of some hydro-electrolytic disorders such as hyponatremia and dyskalemia. As a matter of fact, clinical examination and classical biological parameters are not discriminant enough. The aim of this study was to determine the biological parameters that are better correlated to volemic status. Read More

    Hyponatraemia, hyperglycaemia and worsening renal function at first blood sample on emergency department admission as predictors of in-hospital death in patients with dyspnoea with suspected acute heart failure: retrospective observational analysis of the PARADISE cohort.
    BMJ Open 2018 Mar 30;8(3):e019557. Epub 2018 Mar 30.
    Faculté de Médecine, INSERM, Centre d'Investigations Cliniques Plurithématique 1433, Institut Lorrain du Cœur et des Vaisseaux, Vandoeuvre les Nancy France Groupe choc, INSERM U1116, Nancy, France.
    Objectives: To assess the prognostic value of hyponatraemia, hyperglycaemia and impaired estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in predicting in-hospital death in patients with acute heart failure (AHF) admitted for acute dyspnoea in the emergency department.

    Design: Retrospective observational study.

    Setting: Emergency Department of the University Hospital of Nancy. Read More

    Survival rate and predictors of mortality in patients hospitalised with heart failure: a cohort study on the data of Persian registry of cardiovascular disease (PROVE).
    Postgrad Med J 2018 Mar 30. Epub 2018 Mar 30.
    Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
    Objectives: Heart failure (HF) has a high rate of hospitalisation and mortality. We examined its risk factors, survival rate and the predictors.

    Methods: In this prospective cohort study, demographic, clinical and treatment data of 1223 patients hospitalised with HF were extracted from the Persian Registry Of cardio Vascular diseasE (PROVE)/HF registry. Read More

    A case report of a man on peritoneal dialysis having intractable hyponatremia.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Mar;97(13):e0230
    Renal Division, Peking University First Hospital, Peking University Institute of Nephrology, Key Laboratory of Renal Disease, Ministry of Health of China, and Key Laboratory of Chronic Kidney Disease Prevention and Treatment (Peking University), Ministry of Education, Beijing, China.
    Rationale: Hyponatremia is one of the most common electrolyte disorders in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). It can be associated with severe consequences, higher morbidity and mortality. Therefore, hyponatremia should be assessed and monitored more carefully in these patients. Read More

    Oxcarbazepine Therapy for Complete Central Diabetes Insipidus.
    Case Rep Nephrol Dial 2018 Jan-Apr;8(1):20-24. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    aDepartment of Medicine, Baystate Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Springfield, Massachusetts, USA.
    Oxcarbazepine and carbamazepine cause hyponatremia by unknown mechanisms. We describe a patient with complete central diabetes insipidus and seizures who developed worsening hyponatremia when her dose of oxcarbazepine was increased. The patient maintained a normal serum sodium level and has had appropriately concentrated urine for 5 years on just oxcarbazepine, despite undetectable antidiuretic hormone (ADH) levels. Read More

    The Role of Desmopressin in the Management of Severe, Hypovolemic Hyponatremia: A Single-Center, Comparative Analysis.
    Can J Kidney Health Dis 2018 21;5:2054358118761051. Epub 2018 Mar 21.
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Background: The role of desmopressin (DDAVP) to prevent or treat rapid serum sodium concentration ([Na]s) correction during hyponatremia management remains unclear.

    Objective: To assess DDAVP use during the first 48 hours of severe, hypovolemic hyponatremia management. The primary study hypothesis was that the use of DDAVP would slow the rate of [Na]s correction compared with those not receiving DDAVP. Read More

    Nanomolar-Potency 1,2,4-Triazoloquinoxaline Inhibitors of the Kidney Urea Transporter UT-A1.
    J Med Chem 2018 Apr 3;61(7):3209-3217. Epub 2018 Apr 3.
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry , San Francisco State University , San Francisco , California 94132-1722 , United States.
    Urea transporter A (UT-A) isoforms encoded by the Slc14a2 gene are expressed in kidney tubule epithelial cells, where they facilitate urinary concentration. UT-A1 inhibition is predicted to produce a unique salt-sparing diuretic action in edema and hyponatremia. Here we report the discovery of 1,2,4-triazoloquinoxalines and the analysis of 37 synthesized analogues. Read More

    Molecular genetic studies in a case series of isolated hypoaldosteronism due to biosynthesis defects or aldosterone resistance.
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2018 Mar 27. Epub 2018 Mar 27.
    Faculty of Medicine, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey.
    Background And Aim: Hypoaldosteronism is associated with either insufficient aldosterone production or aldosterone resistance (pseudohypoaldosteronism). Patients with aldosterone defects typically present with similar symptoms and findings, which include failure to thrive, vomiting, hyponatremia, hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis. Accurate diagnosis of these clinical conditions therefore can be challenging. Read More

    Seizure outcomes of supratentorial brain tumor resection in pediatric patients.
    Neuro Oncol 2018 Mar 20. Epub 2018 Mar 20.
    Division of Neurosurgery, Children's Hospital of Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California.
    Background: This study aims to identify the prevalence of and risk factors for seizure development after supratentorial brain tumor resection in pediatric patients. This could be used to guide the postoperative management and usage of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs).

    Methods: Retrospective study was conducted for patients between 0 and 21 years with supratentorial tumor resection between 2005 and 2015 at a single institution. Read More

    [Curative resection with minilaparotomy approach in the treatment of rectal cancer].
    Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi 2018 Mar;21(3):305-311
    Department of Colorectal Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Naval Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China.
    Objective: To compare the surgical safety and short-term efficacy of minilaparotomy and laparoscopic approach for curative resection of rectal cancer.

    Methods: The retrospective cohort study was adopted. A review of patients scheduled to undergo a curative resection of rectal cancer via minilaparotomy or laparoscopic approach at Department of Colorectal Surgery of Changhai Hospital from June 2016 to May 2017 was carried out. Read More

    Congenital sodium diarrhea and chorioretinal coloboma with optic disc coloboma in a patient with biallelic SPINT2 mutations, including p.(Tyr163Cys).
    Am J Med Genet A 2018 Apr;176(4):997-1000
    Division of Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California.
    Congenital sodium diarrhea is a rare and life-threatening disorder characterized by a severe, secretory diarrhea containing high concentrations of sodium, leading to hyponatremia and metabolic acidosis. It may occur in isolation or in association with systemic features such as facial dysmorphism, choanal atresia, imperforate anus, and corneal erosions. Mutations in the serine protease inhibitor, Kunitz-Type 2 (SPINT2) gene have been associated with congenital sodium diarrhea and additional syndromic features. Read More

    Acute cardiac events in severe community-acquired pneumonia: A multicenter study.
    Clin Respir J 2018 Mar 23. Epub 2018 Mar 23.
    Department of Respiratory Diseases, Akdeniz University, School of Medicine, Antalya, Turkey.
    Introduction: An increased risk of cardiovascular complications has been defined in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), but limited data is available for patients with severe CAP.

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to define the prevalence, characteristics, risk factors and impact on mortality of acute cardiac events in patients with severe CAP during short and long term.

    Method: This investigation was a multicenter, retrospective cohort sudy of patients with severe CAP. Read More

    Low serum sodium levels at hospital admission: Outcomes among 2.3 million hospitalized patients.
    PLoS One 2018 22;13(3):e0194379. Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States of America.
    Background: Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder among hospitalized patients. Controversies still exist over the relationship between hyponatremia and outcomes of hospitalized patients.

    Methods: To analyze the association of low serum sodium levels at hospital admission with in-hospital mortality and patient disposition and to compare the distribution of the risk of death associated with hyponatremia across the lifespan of hospitalized patients, we conducted an observational study of 2. Read More

    A case report of rapid-onset hyponatremia induced by low-dose olanzapine.
    J Family Med Prim Care 2017 Oct-Dec;6(4):878-880
    Department of Psychiatry, General Hospital, Ernakulam, Kerala, India.
    Hyponatremia has been reported with the use of psychotropic drugs. Olanzapine does not find much mention as a cause of hyponatremia in literature; however, it has been found to be the second most frequently reported atypical antipsychotic to cause it. We report a case of hyponatremia due to syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion which occurred at a rapid onset following the administration of low-dose olanzapine during inpatient treatment of a patient with bipolar disorder. Read More

    A study of atrial and brain natriuretic peptides in tuberculous meningitis and acute encephalitis.
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2018 Apr;22(4):452-457
    Department of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India.
    Objective: To report atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels in patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and acute encephalitis syndrome (AES), and evaluate their relationship with hyponatraemia.

    Methods: Consecutive patients with TBM and AES were included in the study. Hyponatraemia was categorised as cerebral salt wasting (CSW), syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) and a miscellaneous group based on clinical and laboratory criteria. Read More

    Arq Gastroenterol 2018 Jan-Mar;55(1):41-45
    Departamento de Gastroenterologia, GENE - Artificial Feeding Team, Hospital Garcia de Orta, Almada, Portugal.
    Background: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is a gold standard for long term enteral feeding. Neurologic dysphagia and head/neck cancer are the most common indications for PEG as they can lead to protein-energy malnutrition and serum electrolyte abnormalities, with potential negative impact on metabolic balance. Refeeding syndrome may also be related with severe electrolyte changes in PEG-fed patients and contribute to poor prognosis. Read More

    Closed-Eye Visualizations in the Setting of Hyponatremia.
    Case Rep Med 2018 11;2018:5127917. Epub 2018 Feb 11.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Reading Health System, Reading, PA, USA.
    Purpose: To report a case of closed-eye visualizations and to clarify the different types of hallucinations and their etiologies.

    Methods: Retrospective case report of a patient with closed-eye visualizations secondary to hyponatremia. Clinical findings, physical exam, laboratory assessment, treatment, and disease course from the patient's hospitalization were used in creating this report. Read More

    Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State: a pragmatic approach to properly manage sodium derangements.
    Curr Diabetes Rev 2018 Mar 19. Epub 2018 Mar 19.
    Department of Translational Medicine, Universita del Piemonte Orientale - Via Solaroli 17 28100 Novara. Italy.
    Introduction: Although hypovolemia remains the most relevant problem during acute decompensated diabetes in its clinical manifestations (diabetic ketoacidosis, DKA, and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state, HHS), the electrolyte derangements caused by the global hydroelectrolytic imbalance usually complicate the clinical picture at presentation and may be worsened by treatment itself.

    Aim: This review article is focused on the management of dysnatremias during hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state with the aim of providing clinicians a useful tool to early indentify the sodium derangement in order to address properly its treatment.

    Discussion: The plasma sodium concentration is modified by most of the therapeutic measures commonly required in such patients and the physician needs to consider these interactions when treating HHS. Read More

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