13,601 results match your criteria Hyponatremia
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2018 Dec 3:1-28. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
1 Department of Nutrition, Dietetics and Food, Monash University, Notting Hill, Victoria, Australia.
There is little information describing how endurance athletes perceive sodium intake in relation to training and competition. Using an online questionnaire, this study assessed the beliefs, information sources and intended practices regarding sodium ingestion for training and competition. Endurance athletes (n= 344) from six English-speaking countries completed the questionnaire and were included for analysis. Read More
Eur J Pediatr 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.
Paediatric Intensive Care, Hôpital Femme Mère Enfant, Nantes, France.
Feeding difficulties are common in young infants presenting with acute bronchiolitis, but limited data is available to guide clinicians adapting nutritional management. We aimed to assess paediatricians' nutritional practices among Western Europe French speaking countries. A survey was disseminated to describe advice given to parents for at home nutritional support, in hospital nutritional management, and preferred methods for enteral nutrition and for intravenous fluid management. Read More
Pediatr Rev 2018 Dec;39(12):620-622
Nashaway Pediatrics UMass Memorial Medical Group, Sterling, MA.
An Pediatr (Barc) 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Unidad Móvil de Emergencias de la GUETS, Motilla del Palancar, Cuenca, España.
Introduction: Isotonic fluids, in most cases, are the safest way to dispense fluids intravenously. The aim of this study was to determine the prescription of maintenance intravenous fluids and to study possible associated factors.
Material And Method: A descriptive, cross-sectional, multi-centre study was performed. Read More
Gastric Cancer 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.
Merck Serono Co., Ltd, Tokyo, Japan.
Background: Avelumab is a human anti-PD-L1 IgG1 monoclonal antibody that has shown antitumor activity in several advanced cancers. We report results from JAVELIN Solid Tumor JPN, a phase 1 trial of avelumab in Japanese patients with advanced solid tumors with expansion in patients with advanced gastric cancer/gastroesophageal junction cancer.
Methods: In the dose-escalation part, eligible patients had various previously treated metastatic or advanced solid tumors. Read More
Biomed Res Int 2018 1;2018:9812041. Epub 2018 Nov 1.
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Anyang-si, Republic of Korea.
Background: Delirium is a common and serious syndrome in elderly patients. The hypoactive type of delirium is known to have different characteristics, but further studies are needed to define the specificities of these characteristics. Our study aims at finding specific risk factors, especially estimated blood loss during operations of hyper- and hypoactive delirium in orthopedic elderly patients. Read More
Med Arch 2018 Oct;72(4):303-305
Department of Internal Medicine, Amalia Fleming General Hospital, Athens, 15127, Greece.
Introduction: Oxcarbazepine is a carbamazepine pre-drug with less drug interactions. Its adverse effects, including hyponatremia, somnolence and ataxia, are dose dependent. Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug most commonly used to manage psychoses and symptoms of irritability and aggressive behavior. Read More
Eur J Intern Med 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.
Department of Clinical Science and Education at Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Background: Antipsychotics have been claimed to cause hyponatremia. The risk associated with individual antipsychotics, or groups (first-generation [FGAs] or second-generation [SGAs] antipsychotics), is not well-documented. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between antipsychotics and hospitalization due to hyponatremia. Read More
Rev Prat 2016 Feb;66(2):153-157
Clinique des maladies mentales et de l'encéphale, hôpital Sainte-Anne, Paris, France.
Medical complications of anorexia nervosa. Anorexia nervosa causes acute or chronic medical complications that can affect most organs: dermatologic complications, gastrointestinal complications (including constipation, delayed gastric emptying, rarely hepatitis), endocrine and bone (amenorrhea, infertility, hypoglycemia, delayed puberty, arrested growth, osteoporosis.. Read More
Rev Esp Enferm Dig 2018 Dec 4;111. Epub 2018 Dec 4.
UCI , Clínica Mompía, ESPAÑA.
The number of colonoscopies performed in Spain has been progressively increasing in recent years with the program of early detection of colon cancer. The preparation for this test is the key to greater profitability and the choice of the solution to be administered, decisive. The adverse effects that we can observe; usually are mild, but they can entail other more serious ones, like electrolytic imbalances as we present in this case. Read More
Cureus 2018 Aug 29;10(8):e3226. Epub 2018 Aug 29.
Neurological Surgery, George Washington University, Washington DC, USA.
Epidermoid cysts account for a small fraction of intracranial brain tumors, most commonly found in the cerebellopontine angle and parasellar cisterns. Here we present a rare case of an epidermoid cyst located in the suprasellar region, specifically originating from the infundibulum. Only one additional case with an epidermoid cyst originating within the pituitary stalk has been previously reported in the literature. Read More
J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.
Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.
Background: Hyponatremia is associated with development of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), but the nature of the relationship between serum sodium and HE incidence is unknown. We examined the association between serum sodium, changes in serum sodium, and HE incidence using data from three randomised trials of satavaptan in cirrhosis patients with ascites.
Methods: During follow-up, patients were examined for HE, and serum sodium was measured regularly. Read More
Lancet 2018 Nov;392(10160):2213
Department of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.
Mymensingh Med J 2018 Oct;27(4):723-729
Dr Mrinal Kanti Das, Assistant Registrar, Department of Paediatrics, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital (MMCH), Mymensingh, Bangladesh.
Complication of perinatal asphyxia is a major cause of neonatal mortality & morbidity in developing countries. This comparative cross sectional study was conducted in Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh, Bangladesh from May 2012 to September 2012 to determine electrolytes & renal function status in perinatal asphyxia & their impact on outcome. Thirty term normal birth weight babies with perinatal asphyxia in neonatal ward were included as a case group and thirty term normal birth weight neonates of same gestational age, without perinatal asphyxia in the department of Gynae & Obs were enrolled as a control group. Read More
Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2018 Oct 28;39(5):556-565. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Department of Critical Care Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, Arizona.
The liver and kidney are key organs of metabolic homeostasis in the body and display complex interactions. Liver diseases often have direct and immediate effects on renal physiology and function. Conversely, acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common problem in patients with both acute and chronic liver diseases. Read More
Neurocrit Care 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.
Epilepsy Center, Hauenstein Neurosciences Mercy Health Saint Mary's, Grand Rapids, MI, USA.
Background: Status, refractory status and super refractory status epilepticus are common neurologic emergencies. The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility, safety and effectiveness of a ketogenic diet (KD) for refractory status epilepticus (RSE) in adults in the intensive care unit (ICU).
Methods: We performed a retrospective, single-center study of patients between ages 18 and 80 years with RSE treated with a KD treatment algorithm from November 2016 through April 2018. Read More
Praxis (Bern 1994) 2018 Nov;107(24):1309-1315
1 Innere Medizin/Endokrinologie und Diabetologie, Luzerner Kantonsspital.
CME: Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes Abstract. Paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes are caused by ectopic hormone production by malignant tumor cells. Knowledge of paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes may allow a timely diagnosis of the underlying cancer at a treatable stage and, on the other hand, appropriate treatment of the endocrine manifestations reduces morbidity and mortality of the affected patients. Read More
Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2018 Nov 22;2018. Epub 2018 Nov 22.
Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism Department, Centro Hospitalar e Universitario de Coimbra EPE, Coimbra, Portugal.
Addison's disease (AD) is the most common endocrine manifestation of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), but it remains a very rare complication of the syndrome. It is caused by adrenal venous thrombosis and consequent hemorrhagic infarction or by spontaneous (without thrombosis) adrenal hemorrhage, usually occurring after surgery or anticoagulant therapy. We present a clinical case of a 36-year-old female patient with a previous diagnosis of APS. Read More
Int J Eat Disord 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Adolescent Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.
This is the case of an 18-year-old young adult woman with anorexia nervosa (AN) who presented to the emergency department with complications from AN and was found to be hyponatremic. The hyponatremia was prioritized and corrected with fluids on hospital day one. The consulting adolescent medicine team recommended the primary inpatient medical team initiate the malnutrition protocol. Read More
Pediatrics 2018 Dec;142(6)
Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Maintenance intravenous fluids (IVFs) are used to provide critical supportive care for children who are acutely ill. IVFs are required if sufficient fluids cannot be provided by using enteral administration for reasons such as gastrointestinal illness, respiratory compromise, neurologic impairment, a perioperative state, or being moribund from an acute or chronic illness. Despite the common use of maintenance IVFs, there is high variability in fluid prescribing practices and a lack of guidelines for fluid composition administration and electrolyte monitoring. Read More
J Assoc Physicians India 2018 May;66(5):48-56
Professor and Head, Department of Medicine, LTM Medical College and General Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra.
Background: :Hyponatremia is defined as serum sodium level <135 meq/L. It is the most common electrolyte abnormality seen in hospital admissions worldwide. The proportion is even higher in the ICU setting. Read More
Mol Genet Metab 2018 Nov 8. Epub 2018 Nov 8.
Division of Metabolic Disorders, CHOC Children's Hospital, Orange, CA 92868, USA; Department of Pediatrics, University of California Irvine, Orange, CA 92868, USA. Electronic address:
Primary mitochondrial complex I deficiency is the most common defect of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. It is caused by defects in structural components and assembly factors of this large protein complex. Mutations in the assembly factor NDUFAF5 are rare, with only five families reported to date. Read More
Paediatr Anaesth 2018 Nov 25. Epub 2018 Nov 25.
School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.
Background: Plasma-Lyte 148 is a balanced, crystalloid intravenous (IV) fluid which is both calcium-free and isotonic. It prevents the hyperchloraemic metabolic acidosis and iatrogenic hyponatraemia seen with use of 0.9% sodium chloride and hypotonic solutions respectively. Read More
J Endocrinol Invest 2018 Nov 23. Epub 2018 Nov 23.
Department of Human Pathology of Adulthood and Childhood "Gaetano Barresi", University of Messina, Messina, Italy.
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are novel anticancer agents, recently introduced with the aim of boosting the immune response against tumors. ICIs are monoclonal autoantibodies that specifically target inhibitory receptors on T cells: cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4), programmed death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-1L). ICIs also generate peculiar dysimmune toxicities, called immune-related adverse events (irAEs), that can potentially affect any tissue, and some may be life-threatening if not promptly recognized. Read More
Am J Kidney Dis 2018 Dec;72(6):A12-A14
Division of Nephrology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. Electronic address:
J Clin Med 2018 Nov 21;7(11). Epub 2018 Nov 21.
Department of Cardiothoracic Anesthesiology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) causes an acute lung ischemia-reperfusion injury, which can develop to pulmonary dysfunction postoperatively. This sub-study of the Pulmonary Protection Trial aimed to elucidate changes in arterial blood gas analyses, inflammatory protein interleukin-6, and metabolites of 90 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients following two lung protective regimens of pulmonary artery perfusion with either hypothermic histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK) solution or normothermic oxygenated blood during CPB, compared to the standard CPB with no pulmonary perfusion. Blood was collected at six time points before, during, and up to 20 h post-CPB. Read More
Hepatology 2018 Nov 23. Epub 2018 Nov 23.
Liver Unit, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
Natural history of cirrhosis is characterized by the progression from a compensated to a decompensated state, which is defined by the development of several complications of the disease (1). Ascites is the most frequent complication of patients with decompensated cirrhosis, but other common complications include hepatic encephalopathy, GI bleeding, bacterial infections, kidney failure and hyponatremia. Decompensated cirrhosis is not only associated with poor outcome, with median survival of approximately 2 years, but also with impaired health-related quality of life and high economic burden due to frequent hospital admissions and use of health-care resources. Read More
World Neurosurg 2018 Nov 19. Epub 2018 Nov 19.
Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea 03080. Electronic address:
Objective: Delayed hyponatremia can occur after transsphenoidal pituitary tumor surgery, resulting in unexpected readmission. Predictive factors for delayed hyponatremia after this type of surgery are not well established. In this retrospective study, predictive factors for delayed hyponatremia were investigated in patients undergoing transsphenoidal pituitary tumor surgery. Read More
Pediatric Health Med Ther 2018 26;9:135-145. Epub 2018 Oct 26.
Department of Surgery, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA, USA,
Perforated appendicitis, as defined by a visible hole in the appendix or an appendicolith free within the abdomen, carries significant morbidity in the pediatric population. Accurate diagnosis is challenging as there is no single symptom or sign that accurately predicts perforated appendicitis. Younger patients and those with increased duration of symptoms are at higher risk of perforated appendicitis. Read More
Rev Med Suisse 2018 Nov;14(628):2116-2120
Service de médecine interne, CHUV, 1011 Lausanne.
The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is defined by euvolemic hyponatremia due to an inappropriate retention of free water under the effect of antidiuretic hormone. It is underdiagnosed despite well-defined criteria. Diagnosis involves a precise evaluation of volemia and the elimination of differential diagnoses. Read More
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2018 Nov 19. Epub 2018 Nov 19.
Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
Context: Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disturbance in hospitalized patients. Known risk factors are heart or renal failure, excessive drinking or the use of diuretics. The incidence of hyponatremia may also be influenced by climate. Read More
CEN Case Rep 2018 Nov 19. Epub 2018 Nov 19.
Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-Ku, Fukuoka, 812-8582, Japan.
A 57-year-old woman with pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) was hospitalized because of fever and fatigue. On admission, increased inflammatory response and pyuria with bacteriuria were observed. Pyelonephritis was successfully treated with antibiotics, whereas her fatigue continued and she developed progressive hypercalcemia and hyponatremia; serum sodium level, 116 mEq/L and corrected serum calcium level, 13. Read More
Pediatr Clin North Am 2019 Feb;66(1):209-226
Pediatric Nephrology, Pediatric Dialysis, Division of Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, UPMC Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 4401 Penn Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15224, USA. Electronic address:
The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD) is a common cause of hyponatremia in hospitalized children. SIAD refers to euvolemic hyponatremia due to nonphysiologic stimuli for arginine vasopressin production in the absence of renal or endocrine dysfunction. SIAD can be broadly classified as a result of tumors, pulmonary or central nervous system disorders, medications, or other causes such as infection, inflammation, and the postoperative state. Read More
J Clin Neurosci 2018 Dec 25;58:192-199. Epub 2018 Oct 25.
Department of Neurosurgery, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel; Department of Neurosurgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA. Electronic address:
Cerebral edema leading to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) is a fundamental concern after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), stroke, and severe acute hyponatremia. We describe a swine model of water intoxication and its cerebral histological and physiological sequela. We studied female swine weighing 35-45 kg. Read More
Neurosurg Focus 2018 Nov;45(5):E8
OBJECTIVEPituitary adenomas occur in a heterogeneous patient population with diverse perioperative risk factors, endocrinopathies, and other tumor-related comorbidities. This heterogeneity makes predicting postoperative outcomes challenging when using traditional scoring systems. Modern machine learning algorithms can automatically identify the most predictive risk factors and learn complex risk-factor interactions using training data to build a robust predictive model that can generalize to new patient cohorts. Read More
BMC Emerg Med 2018 Nov 15;18(1):41. Epub 2018 Nov 15.
Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Internal Medicine, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, 2-16-1 Sugao, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan.
Background: Hyponatremia is one of the most commonly encountered electrolyte disorders in emergency department (ED). Seasonal fluctuations of the prevalence of hyponatremia has been reported. We investigated the impact of age on the seasonal prevalence of hyponatremia in the emergency department in Japan. Read More
Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Nov;97(46):e13178
Department of Psychiatry, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Key Laboratory of Mental Disorder's Management of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.
Rationale: Hyponatremia following duloxetine treatment has been reported in patients with major depressive disorder, fibromyalgia, diabetic neuropathy, or sciatic pain. The manifestations of duloxetine-induced hyponatremia are varying in different individuals. The overall prognosis for this type of hyponatremia is favorable if properly managed. Read More
Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Nov;97(46):e13080
Department of Liver Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu.
Laparoscopic left hemihepatectomy (LLH) followed by biliary tract exploration is used to treat left-sided hepatolithiasis (LSH). The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of 2 methods of biliary tract exploration in LLH:biliary tract exploration through a common bile duct (CBD) incision (with T-tube drainage) or through the left hepatic duct (LHD) stump (without T-tube drainage).LSH patients (113 patients) were recruited retrospectively in our hospital from December 2008 to January 2016. Read More
World J Clin Cases 2018 Nov;6(13):694-702
Department of Respiratory Medicine, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004, Liaoning Province, China.
We report a case of natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma with concomitant syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). The patient was a 64-year-old woman with a history of nasopharyngeal carcinoma of over 30 years. She was admitted with a chief complaint of intermittent fever for 2 mo. Read More
BMC Pulm Med 2018 Nov 14;18(1):169. Epub 2018 Nov 14.
Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Arrowhead Regional Medical Center, Colton, California, USA.
Background: Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) is one of the deadliest forms of lung cancer due to its poor prognosis upon diagnosis, rapid doubling time, and affinity for metastasis. As 60-70% of patients with SCLC have disseminated disease upon presentation, it is imperative to determine the extent of disease burden for treatment. As a neuroendocrine carcinoma, clinicians must pay close attention to abnormal findings in a smoker that could lead to earlier diagnosis and better prognostication. Read More
Clin Chem Lab Med 2018 Nov 14. Epub 2018 Nov 14.
Endocrinology Unit, Department of Medicine DIMED, University-Hospital of Padova, Via Ospedale Civile, Padova, Italy.
Background Central adrenal insufficiency (CAI) is characterized by impaired adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) secretion because of a disease or injury to the hypothalamus or the pituitary, leading to a reduced cortisol production. CAI suspicion arises more frequently in patients with pituitary tumors, cranial irradiation/surgery/injury/infections, as well as after exogenous glucocorticoid withdrawal. Nevertheless, a late diagnosis is not uncommon because CAI may present with nonspecific signs or symptoms, as fatigue or hyponatremia. Read More
S Afr Med J 2018 Oct 2;108(10):847-851. Epub 2018 Oct 2.
Discipline of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban; and Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital, Durban, South Africa.
Background: Abnormal preoperative serum sodium measurements have been shown to be associated with increased postoperative mortality in US and European surgical populations. It is possible that such measurements are also associated with increased postoperative mortality in a South African (SA) setting, but this is yet to be confirmed. Establishing whether preoperative serum sodium measurements are associated with postoperative mortality could have implications for perioperative risk stratification in SA settings. Read More
Cureus 2018 Sep 4;10(9):e3252. Epub 2018 Sep 4.
Internal Medicine, Shifa College of Medicine, Rawalpindi, PAK.
Central pontine myelinolysis is a rare condition arising from the myelinolysis of white matter tracts in the pons, most commonly in response to iatrogenic hypertonic stress caused by the rapid correction of hyponatremia. Here, we present an interesting case of central pontine myelinolysis subsequent to normal saline infusion despite strict adherence to the guideline protocol. Read More
Am J Case Rep 2018 Nov 12;19:1345-1349. Epub 2018 Nov 12.
Department of Nephrology, University of São Paulo, School of Medicine, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
BACKGROUND Corpus callosum agenesis (CCA) is one of the most common congenital brain abnormalities, and is associated with neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. In CCA, defects in osmoregulation have been reported. This report presents a rare case of chronic hyponatremia associated with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD) in a woman with CCA. Read More
PLoS One 2018 8;13(11):e0207242. Epub 2018 Nov 8.
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.
Introduction: Heart failure (HF), a major cardiovascular disorder, remains a grievous clinical condition regardless of advances in medical care. Hyponatremia is classified as a serum sodium concentration of <135 mEq/L, and the prevalence, clinical impact and prognostic factor of hyponatremia in heart failure patients varies widely. The current study was conducted with the aim of assessing the prevalence of hyponatremia in patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of HF and comparing baseline clinical characteristic of HF patients based on their sodium status. Read More
Support Care Cancer 2018 Nov 8. Epub 2018 Nov 8.
Clinica Oncologica, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Ospedali Riuniti Umberto I - GM Lancisi - G Salesi di Ancona, Via Conca 71, 60126, Ancona, Italy.
Purpose: Hyponatremia and bone metastasis (BMs) are known as negative prognostic factors in patients affected by metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Hyponatremia is associated with higher risk of osteoporosis and bone fracture, but no data are available about the relationship between hyponatremia and bone metastasis. This study aims to analyze the prognostic impact of hyponatremia in NSCLC patients with bone metastases. Read More
Indian J Crit Care Med 2018 Oct;22(10):746-748
Department of Anesthesiology, IMS BHU, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Hyponatremia causing seizure is a common cause for admission in the critical care unit. Here, we describe a peculiar case of seizure due to hyponatremia, associated with anti-voltage-gated potassium channel antibody syndrome. This case emphasizes that how a proper workup can unveil unusual but potentially treatable causes of hyponatremia. Read More