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    Melanogenesis inhibition in mice using a low-fluence 1064-nm Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser: a pilot study.
    Lasers Med Sci 2017 Apr 20. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    Department of Dermatology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.
    A low-fluence 1064-nm Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser, or laser toning, has yielded favorable outcomes in various benign pigmented disorders. However, the exact mechanism of action of laser toning has not been fully elucidated. We sought to determine the inhibitory effect of laser toning on melanogenesis and to assess how laser passes influence the outcomes. Read More

    Focal Scalp Hair Heterochromia in an Infant.
    Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J 2017 Feb 30;17(1):e116-e118. Epub 2017 Mar 30.
    Department of Dermatology, Saham Hospital, Saham, Oman.
    Hair heterochromia involves the presence of two different non-artificially induced colours of hair in the same individual which can be due to either iron deficiency anaemia, genetic mutations or mosaicism. We report a six-month old male infant who presented to the Department of Dermatology, Saham Hospital, Saham, Oman, in 2013 with focal scalp hair heterochromia without any detectable underlying abnormalities. The area of heterochromia was still noticeable at a one-year follow-up. Read More

    Surgical suturing-induced melanocytic nevi. A new type of eruptive melanocytic nevi?
    J Dermatol Case Rep 2016 Nov 30;10(3):49-52. Epub 2016 Nov 30.
    2nd Department of Dermatology and Venereology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Medical School, "Attikon" University General Hospital, 1 Rimini str, 12462, Chaidari, Athens, Greece.
    Background: Nevogenesis is a complex process involving several pathogenetic mechanisms, including genetic factors, hormonal influences and UV-radiation. Trauma has been described as a triggering factor for an alternative pathway of nevogenesis. Eruptive melanocytic nevi (EMN), related either to immunosuppression or to blistering disorders, represent a special type of nevi probably induced by the disruption of the dermo-epidermal junction and consequent proliferation of quiescent pigment cells during re-epithelization. Read More

    UCHL1 Regulates Melanogenesis through Controlling MITF Stability in Human Melanocytes.
    J Invest Dermatol 2017 Apr 6. Epub 2017 Apr 6.
    Department of Dermatology, Seoul National University College of Medicine; Institute of Human-Environmental Interface Biology, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University; Deparment of Biomedical Science, Seoul National University Graduate School, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) is involved in many signaling pathways via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. UCHL1 is expressed in the human skin and serves as a neuronal marker; however, its functions in melanogenesis remain unknown. Here, we investigated the role of UCHL1 in melanogenesis, and elucidated the underlying mechanism using human melanocytes. Read More

    Polymyxin B-Induced Diffuse Cutaneous Hyperpigmentation.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2017 Feb 1;11(2):FD01-FD02. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
    Post Graduate Trainee, Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research , Kolkata, West Bengal, India .
    Polymyxin B is a polypeptide-antibiotic, primarily used for resistant Gram-negative infections, first obtained from bacterium Bacillus polymyxa in the late 1940s. Antibiotic spectrum are restricted to mainly gram negative bacterias like Enterobacter, E. coli, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Pasteurella, Bordetella, Shigella; and particularly organisms like Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii, which are extremely potent to acquire antibiotic resistance. Read More

    Genetic and Histopathologic Inter-Tumor Heterogeneity in Primary Aldosteronism.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 Mar 24. Epub 2017 Mar 24.
    Center for Adrenal Disorders, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Hypertension, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 221 Longwood Ave, RFB 287, 02115 Boston, MA, USA.
    Context: Whether primary aldosteronism (PA) is the consequence of a monoclonal or multiclonal process is unclear.

    Case Description: A 48-year-old man with severe bilateral PA refractory to medical therapy underwent unilateral adrenalectomy of the dominant adrenal. Although computed tomography (CT) showed three left-sided cortical nodules, post-surgical histopathology and genetic analysis revealed five different adrenocortical adenomas. Read More

    The lactoferricin B-derived peptide, LfB17-34, induces melanogenesis in B16F10 cells.
    Int J Mol Med 2017 Feb 9. Epub 2017 Feb 9.
    Graduate Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei 100, Taiwan, R.O.C.
    Lactoferricin B (LfcinB), a peptide of bovine lactoferrin (LfB), exhibits multiple biological functions, including antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities. However, the role of LfcinB-related peptides in melanogenesis remains unclear. In this study, a set of five LfcinB-related peptides was examined. Read More

    Paracrine Secreted Frizzled-Related Protein 4 Inhibits Melanocytes Differentiation in Hair Follicle.
    Stem Cells Int 2017 27;2017:2857478. Epub 2017 Feb 27.
    Department of Cell Biology, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China; Chongqing Stem Cell Therapy Engineering Technical Center, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400014, China.
    Wnt signaling plays crucial role in regulating melanocyte stem cells/melanocyte differentiation in the hair follicle. However, how the Wnt signaling is balanced to be overactivated to control follicular melanocytes behavior remains unknown. Here, by using immunofluorescence staining, we showed that secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (sFRP4) is preferentially expressed in the skin epidermal cells rather than in melanocytes. Read More

    Cutaneous Mastocytosis With Atypical Mast Cells in a 7-Year-Old Girl.
    Am J Dermatopathol 2017 Apr;39(4):310-312
    *Department of Dermatology, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario Insular Materno-Infantil, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain;†Department of Pathology and Dermatology, Wake Forest Baptist Health, Winston-Salem, NC; and‡Department of Pathology, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario Insular Materno-Infantil, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain.
    Cutaneous mastocytosis is defined by the presence of mast cells within the skin in the absence of other criteria for the diagnosis of systemic mastocytosis. Mast cells are characterized by an abundant granular cytoplasm and a round to oval or spindle-shaped nuclei. The presence of mast cells with bilobed and multilobed nuclei in cutaneous mastocytosis is a rare phenomenon and has been rarely reported in the literature. Read More

    Depigmentation Therapies for Vitiligo.
    Dermatol Clin 2017 Apr;35(2):219-227
    Vitiligo & Pigmentation Institute of Southern California, 5670 Wilshire Boulevard #650, Los Angeles, CA 90036, USA.
    The general goals of medical management of vitiligo are to repigment vitiliginous areas of skin and to stabilize the progression of depigmentation. However, for some patients with vitiligo affecting extensive body surface areas who are unresponsive to repigmentation therapies, depigmentation of the remaining normal skin may be a better choice. Candidates for depigmentation therapy should be carefully screened and patient education is essential. Read More

    Anti-cryptococcal activity of ethanol crude extract and hexane fraction from Ocimum basilicum var. Maria bonita: mechanisms of action and synergism with amphotericin B and Ocimum basilicum essential oil.
    Pharm Biol 2017 Dec;55(1):1380-1388
    a Department of General Microbiology , Institute of Microbiology Paulo de Góes, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro , Rio de Janeiro , Brazil.
    Context: Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) has been used in folk medicine to treat headaches, kidney disorders, and intestinal worms.

    Objective: This study evaluates the anti-cryptococcal activity of ethanol crude extract and hexane fraction obtained from O. Read More

    [Piebaldism: a pigmentary anomaly to recognize: about a case and review of the literature].
    Pan Afr Med J 2016 14;25:155. Epub 2016 Nov 14.
    Service des Urgences Médicales Pédiatriques, Hôpital d'Enfants Rabat, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Université Mohammed V, Rabat, Maroc.
    Piebaldism is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by an abnormal congenital skin pigmentation causing hypopigmented areas. It is due to an abnormal melanocytes development. It usually affects only the skin, but it may be associated with other anomalies or confused with other differential diagnoses. Read More

    Alexithymia in different dermatologic patients.
    Asian J Psychiatr 2017 Feb 12;25:42-45. Epub 2016 Oct 12.
    Department of Industrial Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by difficulties in differentiating and describing feelings. Research indicates that alexithymia can be considered as a possible risk factor for a variety of medical conditions. The purpose of our study was to compare and assess the prevalence of alexithymia in patients with psoriasis, alopecia areata, vitiligo and acne vulgaris. Read More

    Retina 2017 Feb 23. Epub 2017 Feb 23.
    *University College London Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, London, United Kingdom; †Medical Retina Service, Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, United Kingdom; ‡Section of Ophthalmology & Neuroscience, Leeds Institute of Biomedical & Clinical Sciences, St James' University Hospital, Leeds, United Kingdom; §NIHR BioResource-Rare Diseases, Cambridge University Hospitals, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, United Kingdom; ¶Department of Haematology, University of Cambridge, NHS Blood and Transplant Centre, Cambridge, United Kingdom; **Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom; and ††Department of Ophthalmology, University of California San Francisco Medical School, San Francisco, California.
    Background: Albinism refers to a group of disorders primarily characterized by hypopigmentation. Affected individuals usually manifest both ocular and cutaneous features of the disease, but occasionally hair and skin pigmentation may appear normal. This is the case in ocular albinism, an X chromosome linked disorder resulting from mutation of GPR143. Read More

    Disruption of the Photoreceptor Inner Segment-Outer Segment Junction in a 6-Year-Old Girl with Joubert Syndrome.
    Neuroophthalmology 2017 Feb 19;41(1):19-23. Epub 2016 Oct 19.
    Department of Child Neurology, National Center Hospital, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP) , Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Joubert syndrome (JS) is a spectrum of genetic disorders characterised by cerebellar and brainstem malformation called "molar tooth sign", resulting in hypotonia, developmental delay, and intellectual disability. Here we describe a young female JS patient with "salt-and-pepper" fundus and inner segment-outer segment junction (IS/OS line) discontinuity, with a lack of external limiting membrane. Ocular coherence tomography (OCT) detected blurred external retinal layers in the macula centre. Read More

    Post-Finasteride Adverse Effects in Male Androgenic Alopecia: A Case Report of Vitiligo.
    Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2017 22;30(1):42-45. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    Department of Surgery/Dermatology, Carol Davila University, Bucharest, Romania.
    Finasteride has proved to be relatively safe and effective in the therapeutic management of male androgenic alopecia. However, literature data report several endocrine imbalances inducing various adverse effects, which often persist after treatment cessation in the form of post-finasteride syndrome. Here we present the case of a 52-year-old man receiving finasteride (1 mg/day) who developed an uncommon adverse effect represented by generalized vitiligo 2 months after finasteride discontinuation. Read More

    Reduced immunohistochemical expression of adhesion molecules in vitiligo skin biopsies.
    Pathol Res Pract 2017 Mar 30;213(3):199-204. Epub 2016 Dec 30.
    Experimental Pathology Laboratory, School of Medicine, Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná, Rua Imaculada Conceição, 1155 - Prado Velho, Curitiba, PR, CEP 80215-901, Brazil.
    Because defects in adhesion impairment seem to be involved in the etiopathogenesis of vitiligo, this study aimed to compare the immunohistochemical expression of several adhesion molecules in the epidermis of vitiligo and non lesional vitiligo skin. Sixty-six specimens of lesional and non lesional skin from 33 volunteers with vitiligo were evaluated by immunohistochemistry using anti-beta-catenin, anti-E-cadherin, anti-laminin, anti-beta1 integrin, anti-collagen IV, anti-ICAM-1 and anti-VCAM-1 antibodies. Biopsies of vitiligo skin demonstrated a significant reduction in the expression of laminin and integrin. Read More

    African ancestry is associated with facial melasma in women: a cross-sectional study.
    BMC Med Genet 2017 Feb 17;18(1):17. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
    Department of Dermatology, FMB-Unesp, Botucatu, SP, Brazil.
    Background: Melasma is a chronic acquired focal hypermelanosis affecting photoexposed areas, especially for women during fertile age. Several factors contribute to its development: sun exposure, sex steroids, medicines, and family history. Melanic pigmentation pathway discloses several SNPs in different populations. Read More

    Influence of Pregnancy on Vitiligo Activity.
    J Clin Aesthet Dermatol 2016 Dec 1;9(12):21-25. Epub 2016 Dec 1.
    Department of Dermatology, Loyola University, Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, Illinois.
    Background: Vitiligo vulgaris, an acquired disease related to autoimmune activity directed against melanocytes, is a common disorder of pigmentation affecting up to one percent of the population. Several autoimmune disorders are reported to improve during pregnancy-a state of relative immunosuppression. Objectives: To assess self-reported changes in vitiligo disease activity that occurred during pregnancy. Read More

    The lactoferricin B-derived peptide, LfB17-34, induces melanogenesis in B16F10 cells.
    Int J Mol Med 2017 Mar 9;39(3):595-602. Epub 2017 Feb 9.
    Graduate Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei 100, Taiwan, R.O.C.
    Lactoferricin B (LfcinB), a peptide of bovine lactoferrin (LfB), exhibits multiple biological functions, including antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities. However, the role of LfcinB-related peptides in melanogenesis remains unclear. In this study, a set of five LfcinB-related peptides was examined. Read More

    Common Skin Conditions in Children: Noninfectious Rashes.
    FP Essent 2017 Feb;453:18-25
    University of North Carolina Chapel Hill School of Medicine Dermatology Residency Program, 410 Market St. Suite 400 CB#7715, Chapel Hill, NC 27516.
    Cutaneous adverse drug reactions are among the most common noninfectious rashes of childhood. Cutaneous adverse drug reactions are classified as morbilliform, urticarial, bullous, pustular, or psoriasiform. Atopic dermatitis is one of the most common inflammatory cutaneous eruptions, and is characterized by pruritus and flexural distribution. Read More

    Translucent appearance of middle cerebral artery bifurcation aneurysms is a risk factor for intraoperative aneurysm rupture during clipping.
    World Neurosurg 2017 Feb 8. Epub 2017 Feb 8.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, P. R. China; China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Beijing, P. R. China; Center of Stroke, Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Beijing, P. R. China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Translational Medicine for Cerebrovascular Disease, Beijing, P. R. China.
    Introduction: The rupture rate of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIA) is influenced by certain angioarchitectural and hemodynamic characteristics. Recently the translucent appearance of aneurysm was described as a possible risk factor for aneurysm rupture. In this study, we investigate the intraoperative rupture risk of surgically clipped unruptured translucent aneurysms (TA). Read More

    The synergistic effect of maltose enhances the anti-melanogenic activity of acarbose.
    Arch Dermatol Res 2017 Apr 9;309(3):217-223. Epub 2017 Feb 9.
    AmorePacific Corporation R&D Center, Yongin, Gyeonggi-do, 446-729, South Korea.
    Melanocytes play an important role in maintaining epidermal homeostasis by producing melanin and protecting the skin from harmful environmental factors. However, excessive up- or down-regulation of melanin production often causes hyper- or hypo-pigmented disorders, respectively, which affect the patient's quality of life. Therefore, various strategies for modulating melanin levels have been developed by the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Read More

    Assessment of skin pigmentation by confocal microscopy: Influence of solar exposure and protection habits on cutaneous hyperchromias.
    J Cosmet Dermatol 2017 Feb 3. Epub 2017 Feb 3.
    Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.
    Background: Cutaneous hyperchromias are disorders of skin pigmentation involving an increase of melanin production and its irregular accumulation in skin cells. It is known that the use of sunscreens helps to prevent changes in the skin pigmentation pattern, but the structural and morphological alterations that occur in the different types of hyperpigmentations need better elucidation.

    Objective: To assess the influence of solar exposure and protection habits on the pattern of skin pigmentation using reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM). Read More

    Effect of Procedural-Related Variables on Melanocyte-Keratinocyte Suspension Transplantation in Nonsegmental Stable Vitiligo: A Clinical and Immunocytochemical Study.
    Dermatol Surg 2017 Feb;43(2):226-235
    Departments of *Dermatology, †Histology, and ‡Clinical Pathology, Kasr El-Ainy Teaching Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cario, Egypt.
    Background: Melanocyte-keratinocyte suspension (M-K susp) is gaining popularity for vitiligo treatment. Few studies have addressed procedure-related variables.

    Objective: To assess the effect of different M-K susp procedure-related variables on the clinical outcome in stable vitiligo. Read More

    Ultrathin Skin Grafting in Resistant Stable Vitiligo: A Follow-up Study of 8 Years in 370 Patients.
    Dermatol Surg 2017 Feb;43(2):218-225
    *All authors are affiliated with the CUTIS Institute of Dermatology, Srinagar, India.
    Background: Ultrathin skin grafting (UTSG) is a tissue grafting technique used in resistant stable vitiligo.

    Objective: To assess long-term follow-up results achieved with UTSG in vitiligo.

    Methods: Over a span of 8 years, a total of 415 patients with stable vitiligo were treated with UTSG at the authors' institute. Read More

    Large Intragenic Deletion in DSTYK Underlies Autosomal-Recessive Complicated Spastic Paraparesis, SPG23.
    Am J Hum Genet 2017 Feb;100(2):364-370
    St John's Institute of Dermatology, King's College London (Guy's Campus), London SE1 9RT, UK; Centre for Dermatology and Genetic Medicine, Division of Molecular Medicine, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, UK. Electronic address:
    SPG23 is an autosomal-recessive neurodegenerative subtype of lower limb spastic paraparesis with additional diffuse skin and hair dyspigmentation at birth followed by further patchy pigment loss during childhood. Previously, genome-wide linkage in an Arab-Israeli pedigree mapped the gene to an approximately 25 cM locus on chromosome 1q24-q32. By using whole-exome sequencing in a further Palestinian-Jordanian SPG23 pedigree, we identified a complex homozygous 4-kb deletion/20-bp insertion in DSTYK (dual serine-threonine and tyrosine protein kinase) in all four affected family members. Read More

    JAK inhibitors in dermatology: The promise of a new drug class.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2017 Apr 28;76(4):736-744. Epub 2017 Jan 28.
    Department of Dermatology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut. Electronic address:
    New molecularly targeted therapeutics are changing dermatologic therapy. Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) is an intracellular signaling pathway upon which many different proinflammatory signaling pathways converge. Numerous inflammatory dermatoses are driven by soluble inflammatory mediators, which rely on JAK-STAT signaling, and inhibition of this pathway using JAK inhibitors might be a useful therapeutic strategy for these diseases. Read More

    Misbalanced CXCL12 and CCL5 Chemotactic Signals in Vitiligo Onset and Progression.
    J Invest Dermatol 2017 May 26;137(5):1126-1134. Epub 2017 Jan 26.
    Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Biology, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Electronic address:
    Generalized nonsegmental vitiligo is often associated with the activation of melanocyte-specific autoimmunity. Because chemokines play an important role in the maintenance of immune responses, we examined chemotactic signatures in cultured vitiligo melanocytes and skin samples of early (≤2 months) and advanced (≥6 months) vitiligo. Analysis showed that melanocytes in early lesions have altered expression of several chemotaxis-associated molecules, including elevated secretion of CXCL12 and CCL5. Read More

    Cutan Ocul Toxicol 2017 Jan 25:1-14. Epub 2017 Jan 25.
    a Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine , Nanjing , China.
    BACKGROUD Acquired, bilateral nevus of Ota-like macules (ABNOM) is one of the most common dermal melanocytoses. Although there are some literatures on ABNOM, its clinical features and etiopathogenetic factors have not been fully understood. OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence and characteristics of ABNOM among the Chinese patients. Read More

    Comparative efficacy of topical application of tacrolimus and clotrimazole in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor: A single blind, randomised clinical trial.
    Mycoses 2017 May 25;60(5):338-342. Epub 2017 Jan 25.
    Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
    Background: Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is a common superficial fungal disease. Possibility of emergence of resistant strains to azoles, and difficulty in differentiation of hypopigmented PV and early vitiligo, encouraged us to evaluate the efficacy of topical tacrolimus (a calcineurin inhibitor agent with proven in vitro anti-Malassezia effect) for PV treatment generally and its effect on PV-induced hypopigmentation specifically.

    Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of topical tacrolimus on pityriasis versicolor. Read More

    Two types of albino mutants in desert and migratory locusts are caused by gene defects in the same signaling pathway.
    Gene 2017 Apr 21;608:41-48. Epub 2017 Jan 21.
    National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8634, Japan.
    Albinism is caused by mutations in the genes involved in melanin production. Albino nymphs of Locusta migratoria and Schistocerca gregaria reared under crowded conditions are uniformly creamy-white in color. However, nothing is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon in locusts. Read More

    Minocycline-Induced Hyperpigmentation Mimicking Aortic Dissection.
    Ann Thorac Surg 2017 Feb;103(2):e121-e122
    Department of Pathology, Hartford Hospital, Hartford, Connecticut.
    Minocycline-induced hyperpigmentation of tissues has been documented previously, but extensive cardiovascular involvement is rarely described in literature. We report a case of marked cardiovascular hyperpigmentation resulting from approximately 4 years of minocycline exposure. We will highlight how intraoperative differentiation of minocycline-induced hyperpigmentation from more sinister causes of discoloration led to the appropriate surgical management. Read More

    Patient and medical barriers preclude uptake of tamoxifen preventative therapy in women with a strong family history.
    Breast 2017 Apr 18;32:93-97. Epub 2017 Jan 18.
    Breast Tumor Stream, Victorian Comprehensive Cancer Centre, Australia; Department of Surgery, The University of Melbourne, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Australia; Familial Cancer Centre, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Australia.
    Aims: To assess the eligibility, uptake and impediments to tamoxifen use in high-risk women attending a risk management clinic due to family history.

    Patients And Methods: All patients with a germline mutation in a cancer predisposing gene or at high genetic risk (based on family history) attending a Breast and Ovarian cancer risk management clinic from February 2014 to May 2015 received both verbal and written evidence-based information on preventive therapy and were recommended to consider endocrine prevention if not contraindicated. Endocrine therapy initiation, use and cessation were captured. Read More

    Mechanisms of silver_nanoparticles induced hypopigmentation in embryonic zebrafish.
    Aquat Toxicol 2017 Mar 12;184:49-60. Epub 2017 Jan 12.
    College of Fisheries, Key Laboratory of Freshwater Animal Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China; Collaborative Innovation Center for Efficient and Health Production of Fisheries in Hunan Province, Hunan, Changde, 415000, China. Electronic address:
    Silver_nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been reported to inhibit specification of erythroid cells and to induce spinal cord deformities and cardiac arrhythmia in vertebrates, but have not been implicated in development of neural crest (NC) and pigment cells in an in vivo model yet. In current study, down-regulated expressions of NC genes pax7 and foxd3, melanophore genes mitfa and dct, and xanthophore gene gch2 in AgNPs-exposed embryos were revealed by microarray, qRT-PCR and whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH). Then, the down-regulated expressions of melanophore genes mitfa and dct but not xanthophore gene gch2 in AgNPs-exposed embryos were found to be recovered by melanogenesis agonists palmitic acid and dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP). Read More

    Prospect of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Crest Stem Cells in Clinical Application.
    Stem Cells Int 2016 20;2016:7695836. Epub 2016 Dec 20.
    Faculty of Dentistry, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119083; National University of Singapore Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117456; National University of Singapore Tissue Engineering Program (NUSTEP), Life Sciences Institute, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117510.
    Neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) represent a transient and multipotent cell population that contributes to numerous anatomical structures such as peripheral nervous system, teeth, and cornea. NCSC maldevelopment is related to various human diseases including pigmentation abnormalities, disorders affecting autonomic nervous system, and malformations of teeth, eyes, and hearts. As human pluripotent stem cells including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can serve as an unlimited cell source to generate NCSCs, hESC/hiPSC-derived NCSCs can be a valuable tool to study the underlying mechanisms of NCSC-associated diseases, which paves the way for future therapies for these abnormalities. Read More

    The Clinical Characteristics of Obese Patients with Acanthosis Nigricans and Its Independent Risk Factors.
    Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2017 Mar 12;125(3):191-195. Epub 2017 Jan 12.
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.
    Objective: This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics and risk factors for acanthosis nigricans (AN) in obese patients. Methods: 80 obese patients without AN (OB group) and 128 obese patients with AN (AN group) were included in this study. Clinical data for each patients were collected. Read More

    Senescence in the lesional fibroblasts of non-segmental vitiligo patients.
    Arch Dermatol Res 2017 Mar 11;309(2):123-132. Epub 2017 Jan 11.
    Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, 160014, India.
    Dermal fibroblasts secrete various growth factors which are important for skin pigmentation. Imbalance in the synchronization of epidermal and dermal cells in the skin can play vital role in the pathogenesis of pigmentary disorder vitiligo. Therefore, our objective was to check the lesional fibroblasts for any abnormality and senescence in non-segmental vitiligo patients (NSV). Read More

    Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Afamelanotide and its Clinical Use in Treating Dermatologic Disorders.
    Clin Pharmacokinet 2017 Jan 6. Epub 2017 Jan 6.
    Stadtspital Triemli, Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Afamelanotide, the first α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) analogue, synthesized in 1980, was broadly investigated in all aspects of pigmentation because its activity and stability were higher than the natural hormone. Afamelanotide binds to the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), and MC1R signaling increases melanin synthesis, induces antioxidant activities, enhances DNA repair processes and modulates inflammation. The loss-of-function variants of the MC1R present in fair-skinned Caucasians are less effectively activated by the natural hormone. Read More

    A Common Variant in the MC1R Gene (p.V92M) is associated with Alzheimer's Disease Risk.
    J Alzheimers Dis 2017 ;56(3):1065-1074
    Dermatology Department, Melanoma Unit, Hospital Clinic & IDIBAPS (Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer), Barcelona, Spain.
    Despite the recent identification of some novel risk genes for Alzheimer's disease (AD), the genetic etiology of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) remains largely unknown. The inclusion of these novel risk genes to the risk attributable to the APOE gene accounts for roughly half of the total genetic variance in LOAD. The evidence indicates that undiscovered genetic factors may contribute to AD susceptibility. Read More

    Recent Updates On Melanocyte Biology And The Use Of Promising Bioactive Compounds For The Treatment Of Hypopigmentary Disorders: A Review.
    Mini Rev Med Chem 2016 Dec 23. Epub 2016 Dec 23.
    Departments of Physiology and Biotechnology, Saifia Science College, Bhopal (MP)-462001, India.
    Skin pigmentation is a broadly appearing phenomenon in nature which plays an important task of determining the appearance and biology of all vertebrates including human beings. Skin color is a crucial attribute, determined by the synthesis of melanin pigment within melanocytes by the process of melanogenesis and is regulated by many extrinsic as well as intrinsic factors. Tyrosinase catalyzes the key step of melanogenesis, dysfunction of tyrosinase leads to reduce melanin production which results in severe clinical and aesthetical problems of hypopigmentation. Read More

    Dysfunction of Autophagy: A Possible Mechanism Involved in the Pathogenesis of Vitiligo by Breaking the Redox Balance of Melanocytes.
    Oxid Med Cell Longev 2016 29;2016:3401570. Epub 2016 Nov 29.
    Department of Dermatology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
    Vitiligo is a common chronic acquired pigmentation disorder characterized by loss of functional melanocytes from the epidermis and follicular reservoir. Among multiple hypotheses which have been proposed in the pathogenesis of vitiligo, autoimmunity and oxidative stress-mediated toxicity in melanocytes remain most widely accepted. Macroautophagy is a lysosome-dependent degradation pathway which widely exists in eukaryotic cells. Read More

    Georgian Med News 2016 Nov(Issue):52-57
    Tbilisi Medical University, Department of Dermatology and Venerology; "Georgian Assotiation of Vitiligo", Tbilisi, Georgia.
    Despite of numerous investigations, carried out practically in all countries of the world for the study of vitiligo and the search for its new effective therapies, pathogenic mechanisms of vitiligo are still poorly understood, and the proposed treatments are not perfect. One of the most accepted theories of the pathogenesis of vitiligo is an oxidative stress theory, according to which a series of biochemical anomalies cause oxidative stress, leading to accumulation of melanocytotoxic substances and inhibition of natural processes of detoxification with subsequent destruction of melanocytes in vitiligo focus. On the other hand, the use of antioxidants in combination with ultraviolet therapy of dermatological diseases, has been theoretically proved by biophysical studies, according to which- the antioxidants inhibit the oxidation of products, formed in the skin after ultraviolet irradiation and greatly reduce erythema sensitivity (1. Read More

    Specific skin signs as a cutaneous marker of diabetes mellitus and the prediabetic state - a systematic review.
    Dan Med J 2017 Jan;64(1)
    Introduction: Diabetes mellitus and the prediabetic state are associated with a number of skin manifestations. This study is a systematic review of the following manifestations: acanthosis nigricans (AN), skin tags (ST), diabetic dermopathy (DD), rubeosis faciei (RF), pruritus (PR), granuloma annulare (GA), necrobiosis lipoidica (NL), scleroedema diabeticorum (SD) and bullosis diabeticorum (BD). These conditions possibly relate to underlying diabetogenic mechanisms. Read More

    Coexistence of erythema dyschromicum perstans and vitiligo: a case report and review of the literature.
    Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat 2016 Dec;25(4):77-78
    Medical Park Hastanesi, Yenimahalle, Ankara, Turkey.
    Erythema dyschromicum perstans is a rare, chronic, pigmentary disorder with unknown etiology. It clinically presents with oval to round, gray, blue, or brown macules of various sizes. The etiology remains unknown; however, cobalt allergy, radio contrast media, intestinal parasites, human immunodeficiency virus, and hypothyroidism have been proposed as causative factors. Read More

    Melanoderma: uncommon presentation of a common condition.
    BMJ Case Rep 2016 Dec 20;2016. Epub 2016 Dec 20.
    Department of Endocrinology, Sundaram Medical Foundation Dr Rangarajan Memorial Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
    A 64-year-old man presented with blackish pigmentation of skin and tongue for more than 2 years that did not improve with local remedies. He had no history of comorbid medical or surgical illnesses. General examination showed severe hyperpigmentation of skin and mucosa and also showed anaemia. Read More

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