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    Inherited, not acquired, Gitelman syndrome in a patient with Sjögren's syndrome: importance of genetic testing to distinguish the two forms.
    CEN Case Rep 2017 Aug 17. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    Division of Nephrology, Endocrinology, and Vascular Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan.
    Gitelman syndrome (GS) is an autosomal recessive, salt-losing renal tubulopathy caused by mutations in the SLC12A3 gene; however, it can also be acquired in patients with autoimmune disease, especially in those with Sjögren's syndrome. Differentiating between the inherited and acquired forms of GS is clinically difficult. We report a case of inherited, not acquired, GS in a patient with Sjögren's syndrome. Read More

    Inhibition of TRPM7 suppresses cell proliferation of colon adenocarcinoma in vitro and induces hypomagnesemia in vivo without affecting azoxymethane-induced early colon cancer in mice.
    Cell Commun Signal 2017 Aug 15;15(1):30. Epub 2017 Aug 15.
    Center for Biomedical Research, The Queen's Medical Center, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, 1301 Punchbowl St., Honolulu, HI, 96813, USA.
    Background: Magnesium (Mg(2+)) is an essential cation implicated in carcinogenesis, solid tumor progression and metastatic potential. The Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin Member 7 (TRPM7) is a divalent ion channel involved in cellular and systemic Mg(2+) homeostasis. Abnormal expression of TRPM7 is found in numerous cancers, including colon, implicating TRPM7 in this process. Read More

    Proton Pump Inhibitors: More Indigestion than Relief?
    Indian J Nephrol 2017 Jul-Aug;27(4):249-257
    Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Canada.
    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely prescribed to treat a number of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders due to excessive acid production. While effective and safe, adverse renal effects have been increasingly described in epidemiological literature. The most well-documented adverse renal outcome is acute interstitial nephritis; however, association with overall acute kidney injury has also been recently reported. Read More

    Gitelman syndrome: an analysis of the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms of acid-base and electrolyte abnormalities.
    Int Urol Nephrol 2017 Jul 25. Epub 2017 Jul 25.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110, Ioannina, Greece.
    Gitelman syndrome is the most common inherited tubular disease resulting from mutations of the SLC12A3 gene that encodes the thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter in the early distal convoluted tubules. The review presents the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms of acid-base and electrolyte abnormalities observed in patients with Gitelman syndrome. The syndrome is usually characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis in combination with hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria. Read More

    The effects of zoledronic acid on ECG: a prospective study on patients with bone metastatic cancer.
    Clin Cases Miner Bone Metab 2017 Jan-Apr;14(1):35-39. Epub 2017 May 30.
    Bulent Ecevit University, Zonguldak, Turkey.
    Introduction: There are controversial results in the risk of atrial fibrillation as well as arrhythmogenic potential of bis-phosphonates.

    Method: 37 patients and 40 healthy controls were evaluated prospectively with regard to the cardiac side effects related to the use of zoledronic acid (ZA) and its effects on electrocardiography (ECG) parameters.

    Result: As the basal ECG results of the patients diagnosed with cancer compared with the control group, it was determined that QT maximum was significantly lower, QT minimum was significantly higher. Read More

    Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy-Induced Gitelman-like Syndrome.
    Am J Kidney Dis 2017 Jul 21. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Emergency Department, IRCCS-Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova, Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is a molecular-targeted therapy in which a somatostatin analogue (a small peptide) is coupled with a radioligand so that the radiation dose is selectively administered to somatostatin receptor-expressing metastasized neuroendocrine tumors, particularly gastroenteropancreatic. Reported toxicities include myelotoxicity and nephrotoxicity, the latter manifesting as decreased kidney function, often developing months to years after treatment completion. We present a case of PRRT-induced kidney toxicity manifesting as a severe Gitelman-like tubulopathy with preserved kidney function. Read More

    Biological agents in gastrointestinal cancers: adverse effects and their management.
    J Gastrointest Oncol 2017 Jun;8(3):485-498
    Division of Hematology/Oncology, Springfield Clinic Cancer Center, Springfield, Illinois, USA.
    Biological therapy comprises agents that by virtue of their unique mechanisms of action, are able to specifically incite a response against or target malignant cells. They differ from conventional chemotherapy with regard to mechanisms of action, indications and side effect profile. Biologic agents have revolutionized therapy for a number of malignancies. Read More

    Electrolyte disorders with platinum-based chemotherapy: mechanisms, manifestations and management.
    Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2017 Jul 20. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, 8901 Wisconsin Ave, Bethesda, MD, 20889, USA.
    Platinum chemotherapy, particularly cisplatin, is commonly associated with electrolyte imbalances, including hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia, hypophosphatemia, hypocalcemia and hyponatremia. The corpus of literature on these dyselectrolytemias is large; the objective of this review is to synthesize the literature and summarize the mechanisms responsible for these particular electrolyte disturbances in the context of platinum-based treatment as well as to present the clinical manifestations and current management strategies for oncologists and primary care physicians, since the latter are increasingly called on to provide care for cancer patients with medical comorbidities. Correct diagnosis and effective treatment are essential to improved patient outcomes. Read More

    Gastroenterol Nurs 2017 Jul 19. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    Emrah Posul, MD, Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu, Turkey. Guray Can, MD, Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu, Turkey. Vildan Tekelioglu, MD, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu, Turkey. Bulent Yilmaz, MD, Department of Gastroenterology, Bolu Izzet Baysal State Hospital, Bolu, Turkey. Ugur Korkmaz, MD, is Associate Professor, Department of Gastroenterology, Bolu Izzet Baysal State Hospital, Bolu, Turkey. Gulzade Ozyalvacli, MD, is Assistant Professor, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu, Turkey. Asuman Kilitci, MD, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu, Turkey. Mevlut Kurt, MD, is Associate Professor, Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu, Turkey.

    Hypomagnesemia and cause-specific mortality in hemodialysis patients: 5-year follow-up analysis.
    Int J Artif Organs 2017 Jul 1. Epub 2017 Jul 1.
    University Clinic of Nephrology, Saints Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje - Republic of Macedonia.
    Introduction: The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the association between serum magnesium (Mg) and mortality, in particular the cause-specific mortality of Mg and other risk factors in hemodialysis (HD) patients.

    Methods: We studied a cohort of 185 HD patients receiving thrice-weekly HD treatment, on a dialysate Mg concentration of 0.5 mmol/L. Read More

    Effectiveness and Safety of Magnesium Replacement in Critically Ill Patients Admitted to the Medical Intensive Care Unit in an Academic Medical Center: A Retrospective, Cohort Study.
    J Intensive Care Med 2017 Jan 1:885066617720631. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    3 Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences College of Pharmacy, Chicago, IL, USA.
    Background: "Rules of thumb" for the replacement of electrolytes, including magnesium, in critical care settings are used, despite minimal empirical validation of their ability to achieve a target serum concentration. This study's purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety surrounding magnesium replacement in medically, critically ill patients with mild-to-moderate hypomagnesemia.

    Methods: This was a single-center, retrospective, observational evaluation of episodes of intravenous magnesium replacement ordered for patients with mild-to-moderate hypomagnesemia (1. Read More

    Is endothelin gene polymorphism associated with postoperative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting?
    Ann Card Anaesth 2017 Jul-Sep;20(3):341-347
    Department of Biostatistics, All Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    Background: The mechanism of development of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has not been clearly defined, and the involvement of multiple factors such as advanced age, withdrawal of β-blockers, inadequate atrial protection, and electrolyte imbalance, particularly hypomagnesemia has been documented by several authors. Despite all the available pharmacologic prophylaxis, incidence of AF still remains high in this group of patients. This unexplained cause could be genetic inheritance of endothelin-1 (ET-1) gene which is thought to have a pro-arrhythmogenic effect. Read More

    [Magnesium in daily practice].
    Rev Med Suisse 2016 Oct;12(535):1761-1765
    Service de médecine interne générale, Département de médecine interne, réhabilitation et gériatrie, HUG, 1211 Genève 14.
    The magnesium is the 4th cation in the human body behind sodium, potassium and calcium. It is often referred to as the forgotten cation of modern medicine because of a lack of knowledge about its physiology and its potential medical use. Recent medical literature has shown renewed interest for the magnesium with publications about its role in diversified fields from prevention of muscular cramps, cardiovascular risk factors prevention trough to neuroprotection in stroke. Read More

    Phase II Trial of Sorafenib in Combination with Capecitabine in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma: INST 08-20.
    Oncologist 2017 Jul 7. Epub 2017 Jul 7.
    Department of Hematology/oncology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA.
    Lessons Learned: There continues to be a lack of systemic options for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); sorafenib and, very recently, regorafenib are the only approved options. There exists a potential to combine sorafenib with chemotherapeutic agents shown to be active in HCC, such as capecitabine, safely.Good tumor response was observed, with objective improvement in a few patients seldom seen by single agent sorafenib; however, because of the limited number of patients, meaningful conclusions on survival cannot be drawn. Read More

    Ionized magnesium in plasma and erythrocytes for the assessment of low magnesium status in alcohol dependent patients.
    Drug Alcohol Depend 2017 Sep 24;178:271-276. Epub 2017 Jun 24.
    Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland.
    Background: Studies on the homeostasis of magnesium in alcohol-dependent patients have often been characterized by low hypomagnesemia detection rates. This may be due to the fact that the content of magnesium in blood serum constitutes only 1% of the average magnesium level within the human body. However, the concentration of ionized magnesium is more physiologically important and makes up 67% of the total magnesium within a human organism. Read More

    Long-lasting response to oral therapy in a young male with monogenic diabetes as part of HNF1B-related disease.
    Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2017 23;2017. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Endocrinologists in Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Albacete, Castilla La ManchaSpain.
    Mutations in hepatocyte nuclear factor 1β gene (HNF1B) are responsible for a multisystemic syndrome where monogenic diabetes (classically known as MODY 5) and renal anomalies, mostly cysts, are the most characteristic findings. Urogenital malformations, altered liver function tests, hypomagnesemia or hyperuricemia and gout are also part of the syndrome. Diabetes in these patients usually requires early insulinization. Read More

    Magnesium Counteracts Vascular Calcification: Passive Interference or Active Modulation?
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2017 Aug 29;37(8):1431-1445. Epub 2017 Jun 29.
    From the Department of Physiology, Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands (A.D.t.B., J.H.F.d.B.); Cardiovascular Division, BHF Centre of Research Excellence, James Black Centre, King's College, London, United Kingdom (C.M.S.); and Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, United Kingdom (J.H.F.d.B.).
    Over the last decade, an increasing number of studies report a close relationship between serum magnesium concentration and cardiovascular disease risk in the general population. In end-stage renal disease, an association was found between serum magnesium and survival. Hypomagnesemia was identified as a strong predictor for cardiovascular disease in these patients. Read More

    Cardiac Dysrhythmias and Neurological Dysregulation: Manifestations of Profound Hypomagnesemia.
    Case Rep Cardiol 2017 5;2017:6250312. Epub 2017 Jun 5.
    Heart & Vascular Institute, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI, USA.
    Magnesium is the second most common intracellular cation and serves as an important metabolic cofactor to over 300 enzymatic reactions throughout the human body. Among its various roles, magnesium modulates calcium entry and release from sarcoplasmic reticulum and regulates ATP pumps in myocytes and neurons, thereby regulating cardiac and neuronal excitability. Therefore, deficiency of this essential mineral may result in serious cardiovascular and neurologic derangements. Read More

    A Trial of Itraconazole or Amphotericin B for HIV-Associated Talaromycosis.
    N Engl J Med 2017 06;376(24):2329-2340
    From Wellcome Trust Major Overseas Programme, Oxford University Clinical Research Unit (T.L., N.T.T., T.P.T., N.T.H., H.B.L., H.T.N., H.F.L.W., J.N.D., J.F., G.T., M.W.), and the Hospital for Tropical Diseases (N.T.K.C., N.L.N.T., N.V.V.C.), Ho Chi Minh City, the National Hospital for Tropical Diseases (N.V.K., N.T.L.) and Bach Mai Hospital (P.T.T.T., D.D.C.), Hanoi, Viet Tiep Hospital, Hai Phong (P.T.H.P., V.H.V.), and Vietnam-Sweden Uong Bi Hospital, Quang Ninh (D.T.H.H., V.V.T.) - all in Vietnam; the Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health (T.L., J.N.D., G.T., M.W.), and the Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network (L.M.), University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; the Department of Medical Microbiology, Radboudumc, Nijmegen, the Netherlands (H.F.L.W.); and the Hawaii Center for AIDS, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu (T.L., C.S.).
    Background: Talaromyces marneffei infection is a major cause of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related death in South and Southeast Asia. Guidelines recommend initial treatment with amphotericin B deoxycholate, but this drug has substantial side effects, a high cost, and limited availability. Itraconazole is available in oral form, is associated with fewer unacceptable side effects than amphotericin, and is widely used in place of amphotericin; however, clinical trials comparing these two treatments are lacking. Read More

    Clinical aspects of magnesium physiology in patients on dialysis.
    Semin Dial 2017 Jun 13. Epub 2017 Jun 13.
    Division of Nephrology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.
    Magnesium balance is infrequently discussed in the dialysis population, and the clinical consequences of derangements in magnesium homeostasis are incompletely understood. There is an association between hypomagnesemia and adverse outcomes including increases in cardiovascular disease and mortality, while elevated magnesium levels have also been linked with complications such as osteomalacia. In this review, we discuss the features of magnesium physiology relevant to dialysis patients and provide an updated summary of the literature linking magnesium derangements with bone disease, cardiovascular disease, sudden cardiac death, and mortality. Read More

    Claudin Loss-of-Function Disrupts Tight Junctions and Impairs Amelogenesis.
    Front Physiol 2017 24;8:326. Epub 2017 May 24.
    Laboratory Orofacial Pathologies, Imaging and Biotherapies, Dental School, Paris Descartes University, Sorbonne Paris CitéParis, France.
    Claudins are a family of proteins that forms paracellular barriers and pores determining tight junctions (TJ) permeability. Claudin-16 and -19 are pore forming TJ proteins allowing calcium and magnesium reabsorption in the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (TAL). Loss-of-function mutations in the encoding genes, initially identified to cause Familial Hypomagnesemia with Hypercalciuria and Nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC), were recently shown to be also involved in Amelogenesis Imperfecta (AI). Read More

    Multicenter Phase II Study of Panitumumab in Platinum Pretreated, Advanced Head and Neck Squamous Cell Cancer.
    Oncologist 2017 Jul 7;22(7):782-e70. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
    Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, San Giovanni Hospital, Bellinzona, Switzerland.
    Lessons Learned: Panitumumab shows activity in terms of disease control rate and preventing disease progression but not for tumor shrinkage in head and neck squamous cell cancer for second-line treatment. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) copy number gain, a property of tumor cells that theoretically could identify patients more likely to experience disease response, was common among patients having disease control.Our trial, given the lower toxicity with an every-2-week schedule, provides guidance for future trials, for example, in combinations of immune therapies and anti-EGFR-antibodies. Read More

    Loss of transcriptional activation of the potassium channel Kir5.1 by HNF1β drives autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease.
    Kidney Int 2017 May 31. Epub 2017 May 31.
    Department of Physiology, Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, Netherlands. Electronic address:
    Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 homeobox B (HNF1β) is an essential transcription factor for the development and functioning of the kidney. Mutations in HNF1β cause autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease characterized by renal cysts and maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY). Moreover, these patients suffer from a severe electrolyte phenotype consisting of hypomagnesemia and hypokalemia. Read More

    Pharmacoepidemiology of tacrolimus in pediatric liver transplantation.
    Pediatr Transplant 2017 Aug 2;21(5). Epub 2017 Jun 2.
    Liver Transplantation, Hospital de Pediatría J.P. Garrahan, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    AEs during immunosuppressive treatment with tacrolimus are very common. We retrospectively evaluated FK safety and efficacy in a large pediatric liver transplant cohort in Latin America. During 2-year follow-up, we analyzed data from patients who underwent liver transplantation over the period 2010-2012 and recorded FK exposure, AEs, and AR episodes. Read More

    Pharmacogenetic analysis of irreversible severe cisplatin-induced nephropathy: a case report of a 27-year-old woman.
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 2017 Sep 31;83(9):2120-2122. Epub 2017 May 31.
    Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Catharina Hospital, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    In this report we describe a young patient diagnosed with bulky FIGO stage IIIb squamous cell cervix carcinoma with severe and irreversible nephropathy after three weekly low-doses of cisplatin. Besides several known risk factors such as hypomagnesemia and hypoalbuminemia, the patient also proved to be homozygously polymorphic for two polymorphisms within the COMT gene (c.615 + 310C>T and c. Read More

    Patterns and Correlates of Serum Magnesium Levels in Subsets of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Nigeria.
    Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2017 May-Jun;21(3):439-442
    Department of Medicine, Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Nigeria.
    Background: Magnesium (Mg) is the 4(th) most common mineral and the 2(nd) most abundant intracellular cation in the body. It plays major roles in various physiological activities and has been implicated in many disease states.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to study the patterns and correlates of serum Mg in cohorts of type 2 diabetic patients in Nigeria. Read More

    Hypomagnesemia predicts postoperative biochemical hypocalcemia after thyroidectomy.
    BMC Surg 2017 May 25;17(1):62. Epub 2017 May 25.
    Department of Thyroid & Parathyroid surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Guoxue Alley 37#, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610041, People's Republic of China.
    Background: To investigate the role of magnesium in biochemical and symptomatic hypocalcemia, a retrospective study was conducted.

    Methods: Less-than-total thyroidectomy patients were excluded from the final analysis. Identified the risk factors of biochemical and symptomatic hypocalcemia, and investigated the correlation by logistic regression and correlation test respectively. Read More

    Magnesium Supplementation and the Effects on Wound Healing and Metabolic Status in Patients with Diabetic Foot Ulcer: a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.
    Biol Trace Elem Res 2017 May 24. Epub 2017 May 24.
    Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR, Iran.
    Hypomagnesemia is associated with the development of neuropathy and abnormal platelet activity, both of which are risk factors for diabetic foot ulcer (DFU). This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of magnesium administration on wound healing and metabolic status in subjects with DFU. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed among 70 subjects with grade 3 DFU. Read More

    Magnesium attenuates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by regulating the expression of renal transporters.
    Eur J Pharmacol 2017 May 18. Epub 2017 May 18.
    Department of Pharmacy, Hokkaido University Hospital, Kita 14-jo, Nishi 5-chome, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8648, Japan; Laboratory of Clinical Pharmaceutics & Therapeutics, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita 12-jo, Nishi 6-chome, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0812, Japan. Electronic address:
    Cisplatin (CDDP)-induced nephrotoxicity (CIN) is one of the most serious toxicities caused by this potent antitumor agent. It has been reported that Mg premedication attenuates CIN in clinical trials; however, the mechanism underlying its nephroprotection is not fully understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether Mg administration affects CDDP accumulation by regulating the expression level of renal transporters. Read More

    Effect of magnesium supplementation on insulin resistance in humans: A systematic review.
    Nutrition 2017 Jun 2;38:54-60. Epub 2017 Feb 2.
    Department of Nutrition, Federal University of Piaui, Campus Minister Petrônio Portela, Ininga, Teresina, Piaui, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Objectives: Recent studies have demonstrated that minerals play a role in glucose metabolism disorders in humans. Magnesium, in particular, is an extensively studied mineral that has been shown to function in the management of hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance (IR) action. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of magnesium supplementation on IR in humans via systematic review of the available clinical trials. Read More

    Juvenile nephronophthisis and dysthyroidism: a rare association.
    CEN Case Rep 2017 May 13;6(1):98-104. Epub 2017 Mar 13.
    Shahrak of Gharb (Qods) pathologic and genetic center, Tehran, Iran.
    Nephronophthisis, an autosomal recessive kidney disease, represents the most frequent genetic cause of end-stage kidney disease in the first three decades of life. A 27-year-old male was presented with gait imbalance, sever pruritus since 10 days prior time of admission. In past medical history, he had bilateral cataract, torsional nystagmus, and bilateral optic nerve atrophy since 2 years of age. Read More

    Seizures Related to Hypomagnesemia: A Case Series and Review of the Literature.
    Child Neurol Open 2016 Jan-Dec;3:2329048X16674834. Epub 2016 Oct 27.
    Department of Pediatrics, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.
    Objective: Childhood seizures have various nonneurological etiologies. The patient's magnesium levels should be measured when evaluating afebrile seizures. The purpose of the current case series is to describe a systematic approach for diagnosing hypomagnesemia using 3 recent patient cases. Read More

    K(+) and Mg(2+) Dyshomeostasis in Acute Hyperadrenergic Stressor States.
    Am J Med Sci 2017 May 7;353(5):422-424. Epub 2017 Jan 7.
    Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, Memphis, Tennessee. Electronic address:
    Acute stressor states are linked to neurohormonal activation that includes the adrenergic nervous system. Elevations in circulating epinephrine and norepinephrine unmask an interdependency that exists between K(+) and Mg(2+) based on their regulation of a large number of Mg(2+)-dependent Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase pumps present in skeletal muscle. The hyperadrenergic state accounts for a sudden translocation of cations into muscle with the rapid appearance of hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia. Read More

    Colistin use in critically ill neonates: A case-control study.
    Pediatr Neonatol 2017 Mar 27. Epub 2017 Mar 27.
    Department of Microbiology, Maternity and Children's Hospital, Diyarbakir, Turkey. Electronic address:
    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of colistin use in critically ill neonates.

    Methods: This was a case-control study that included newborn infants with proven or suspected nosocomial infections between January 2012 and October 2015, at two centers in Diyarbakir, Turkey. The clinical and laboratory characteristics and outcomes of patients who received colistin therapy were reviewed and compared to patients who were treated with antimicrobial agents other than colistin during the same period. Read More

    Hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypocalciuria, and recurrent tetany: Gitelman syndrome in a Chinese pedigree and literature review.
    Clin Case Rep 2017 May 17;5(5):578-586. Epub 2017 Mar 17.
    Department of Endocrinology and MetabolismZhongshan HospitalFudan UniversityShanghaiChina.
    Gitelman syndrome is an autosomal recessive disease mostly associated with loss-of-function mutations of the SLC12A3 gene and featured by clinical hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypocalciuria, and histologically hypertrophy of the juxtaglomerular apparatus. A novel homozygous mutation (p.Arg399Pro) at the extracellular domain of SLC12A3 was found and correlated with the severe clinical manifestations. Read More

    Serum Magnesium and Related Factors in Long-Term Renal Transplant Recipients: An Observational Study.
    Transplant Proc 2017 May;49(4):799-802
    Department of Nephrology and Renal Transplantation, Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Norte, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Background: Low serum magnesium (MgS) is a known risk factor for cardiovascular and mineral bone disease. In renal transplant recipients (RTRs), low MgS levels have been related to higher glomerular filtration rates (GFR) and with calcineurin inhibitors, particularly tacrolimus. We aimed to evaluate MgS in renal transplant recipients with over 1 year of follow-up to establish related risk factors and the impact of the use of cyclosporine versus tacrolimus. Read More

    Novel mutation in the SLC12A3 gene in a Sri Lankan family with Gitelman syndrome & coexistent diabetes: a case report.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Apr 26;18(1):140. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    Human Genetics Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Kynsey Road, Colombo 8, Sri Lanka.
    Background: Gitelman syndrome (GS) is a rare autosomal recessively inherited salt-wasting tubulopathy associated with mutations in the SLC12A3 gene, which encodes for NaCl cotransporter (NCC) in the kidney.

    Case Presentation: In this report, we describe two siblings from a Sri Lankan non-consanguineous family presenting with hypokalaemia associated with renal potassium wasting, hypomagnesemia, hypocalciuria and hypereninemic hyperaldosteronism with normal blood pressure. Genetic testing showed that both were homozygotes for a novel missense mutation in exon 10 of the SLC12A3 gene [NM_000339. Read More

    Magnesium improves cisplatin-mediated tumor killing while protecting against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Aug 19;313(2):F339-F350. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    Elmezzi Graduate School of Molecular Medicine, Northwell Health, Manhasset, New York;
    Approximately 30% of all cancer patients treated with cisplatin, a widely used broad-spectrum chemotherapeutic agent, experience acute kidney injury (AKI). Almost all patients receiving cisplatin have magnesium (Mg) losses, which are proposed to aggravate AKI. Currently, there are no methods to successfully treat or prevent cisplatin-AKI. Read More

    Oral magnesium supplementation reduces the incidence of gastrointestinal complications following cardiac surgery: a randomized clinical trial.
    Magnes Res 2017 Feb;30(1):28-34
    Nursing Faculty, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Gastrointestinal complications are common after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. These complications are ranged from nausea and vomiting to mesenteric ischemia and liver failure. It seems that nausea, vomiting, and constipation are related to magnesium deficiency. Read More

    HELLP syndrome in a pregnant patient with Gitelman syndrome.
    Kidney Res Clin Pract 2017 Mar 31;36(1):95-99. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Konyang University College of Medicine, Daejeon, Korea.
    Gitelman syndrome is characterized by hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, hypocalciuria, and hypomagnesemia. The clinical course of Gitelman syndrome in pregnant women remains unclear, but it is thought to be benign. We report here the first Korean case of atypical eclampsia in a 31-year-old who was diagnosed with Gitelman syndrome incidentally during an antenatal screening test. Read More

    Maternal hypomagnesemia alters hippocampal NMDAR subunit expression and programs anxiety-like behaviour in adult offspring.
    Behav Brain Res 2017 Jun 4;328:39-47. Epub 2017 Apr 4.
    School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia; School of Health and Biomedical Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia. Electronic address:
    It is well established that maternal undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies can lead to altered development and behaviour in offspring. However, few studies have explored the implications of maternal Mg deficiency and programmed behavioural and neurological outcomes in offspring. We used a model of Mg deficiency (prior to and during pregnancy and lactation) in CD1 mice to investigate if maternal Mg deficiency programmed changes in behaviour and NMDAR subunit expression in offspring. Read More

    Clinical and Genetic Spectrum of Bartter Syndrome Type 3.
    J Am Soc Nephrol 2017 Aug 5;28(8):2540-2552. Epub 2017 Apr 5.
    Department of Genetics and.
    Bartter syndrome type 3 is a clinically heterogeneous hereditary salt-losing tubulopathy caused by mutations of the chloride voltage-gated channel Kb gene (CLCNKB), which encodes the ClC-Kb chloride channel involved in NaCl reabsorption in the renal tubule. To study phenotype/genotype correlations, we performed genetic analyses by direct sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and retrospectively analyzed medical charts for 115 patients with CLCNKB mutations. Functional analyses were performed in Xenopus laevis oocytes for eight missense and two nonsense mutations. Read More

    Hungry bone syndrome.
    Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 2017 Jul;26(4):250-255
    aDivision of Nephrology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences bCentral Arkansas Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, Little Rock, Arkansas cOffice of Education, Central Alabama Veterans Healthcare System, Montgomery, Alabama, USA.
    Purpose Of Review: In the United States, the number of parathyroidectomies among patients with chronic dialysis has remained stable in the last decade. A fall in serum calcium concentration is common postparathyroidectomy in patients with hyperparathyroidism, which usually resolves in 2-4 days. A severe drop in serum total calcium concentration less than 2. Read More

    An Open-Label, Randomized, Controlled Phase II Study of Paclitaxel-Carboplatin Chemotherapy With Necitumumab Versus Paclitaxel-Carboplatin Alone in First-Line Treatment of Patients With Stage IV Squamous Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.
    Clin Lung Cancer 2017 Mar 2. Epub 2017 Mar 2.
    Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA.
    Background: The combination of necitumumab with gemcitabine-cisplatin significantly improved overall survival (OS) in patients with stage IV squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), in the phase III SQUamous NSCLC treatment with the Inhibitor of EGF REceptor (SQUIRE) trial. Paclitaxel-carboplatin was selected as an alternative standard of care in the current phase II study.

    Patients And Methods: Patients were randomized (stratified according to Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status and sex) 2:1 to ≤ six 3-week cycles (Q3W) of paclitaxel and carboplatin with or without necitumumab. Read More

    Hypomagnesemia and its relation with chronic low-grade inflammation in obesity.
    Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) 2017 Feb;63(2):156-163
    PhD Professor, Department of Nutrition, UFPI, Teresina, PI, Brazil.
    Introduction:: The accumulation of visceral fat in obesity is associated with excessive production of proinflammatory adipokines, which contributes to low-grade chronic inflammation state. Moreover, the literature has shown that mineral deficiency, in particular of magnesium, has important role in the pathogenesis of this metabolic disorder with relevant clinical repercussions.

    Objective:: To bring updated information about the participation of hypomagnesemia in the manifestation of low-grade chronic inflammation in obese individuals. Read More

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