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    Familial hyperaldosteronism type III.
    J Hum Hypertens 2017 Apr 27. Epub 2017 Apr 27.
    Division of Internal Medicine and Hypertension Unit, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Torino, Torino, Italy.
    Primary aldosteronism is the most common form of endocrine hypertension. This disorder comprises both sporadic and familial forms. Four familial forms of primary aldosteronism (FH-I to FH-IV) have been described. Read More

    Novel mutation in the SLC12A3 gene in a Sri Lankan family with Gitelman syndrome & coexistent diabetes: a case report.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Apr 26;18(1):140. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    Human Genetics Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Kynsey Road, Colombo 8, Sri Lanka.
    Background: Gitelman syndrome (GS) is a rare autosomal recessively inherited salt-wasting tubulopathy associated with mutations in the SLC12A3 gene, which encodes for NaCl cotransporter (NCC) in the kidney.

    Case Presentation: In this report, we describe two siblings from a Sri Lankan non-consanguineous family presenting with hypokalaemia associated with renal potassium wasting, hypomagnesemia, hypocalciuria and hypereninemic hyperaldosteronism with normal blood pressure. Genetic testing showed that both were homozygotes for a novel missense mutation in exon 10 of the SLC12A3 gene [NM_000339. Read More

    Phosphate imbalance in patients with heart failure.
    Heart Fail Rev 2017 Apr 22. Epub 2017 Apr 22.
    Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Ioannina, 451 10, Ioannina, Greece.
    Patients with heart failure often exhibit electrolyte abnormalities, such as hyponatremia or hypokalemia/hyperkalemia. Although not as common as the other electrolyte disturbances observed in patients with heart failure, phosphate imbalance is also of high importance in this population. The aim of this review is to present the mechanisms of low or high phosphate serum levels in patients with heart failure and its role in the pathogenesis and progression of heart dysfunction. Read More

    Postpartum Hypertension: Etiology, Diagnosis, and Management.
    Obstet Gynecol Surv 2017 Apr;72(4):248-252
    Chair of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA.
    Importance: Postpartum hypertension complicates approximately 2% of pregnancies and, similar to antepartum severe hypertension, can have devastating consequences including maternal death.

    Objective: This review aims to increase the knowledge and skills of women's health care providers in understanding, diagnosing, and managing hypertension in the postpartum period.

    Results: Hypertension complicating pregnancy, including postpartum, is defined as systolic blood pressure 140 mm Hg or greater and/or diastolic blood pressure 90 mm Hg or greater on 2 or more occasions at least 4 hours apart. Read More

    Hypokalemia-induced cardiac arrest in a Duchenne muscular dystrophy patient.
    Hippokratia 2016 Apr-Jun;20(2):163-165
    Department of Intensive Care Unit, University Hospital of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece.
    Background: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive myopathic disorder, inherited as X-linked recessive traits, in which muscle weakness is the primary symptom. Correlation between DMD and hypokalemia is reported in only three case reports. Recent investigations have focused on the nutritional management of patients with DMD. Read More

    A phase 1 study of the CXCR4 antagonist plerixafor in combination with high-dose cytarabine and etoposide in children with relapsed or refractory acute leukemias or myelodysplastic syndrome: A Pediatric Oncology Experimental Therapeutics Investigators' Consortium study (POE 10-03).
    Pediatr Blood Cancer 2017 Apr 14. Epub 2017 Apr 14.
    The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.
    Background: Plerixafor, a reversible CXCR4 antagonist, inhibits interactions between leukemic blasts and the bone marrow stromal microenvironment and may enhance chemosensitivity. A phase 1 trial of plerixafor in combination with intensive chemotherapy in children and young adults with relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) was performed to determine a tolerable and biologically active dose.

    Procedure: Plerixafor was administered daily for 5 days at four dose levels (6, 9, 12, and 15 mg/m(2) /dose) followed 4 hr later by high-dose cytarabine (every 12 hr) and etoposide (daily). Read More

    [Clinical features of hereditary distal renal tubular acidosis and SLC4A1 gene mutation].
    Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2017 Apr;19(4):381-384
    Department of Endocrinology/Key Laboratory of Endocrinology, Ministry of Health, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, China.
    Objective: To study the clinical features of two families with distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) and mutations in the pathogenic gene SLC4A1.

    Methods: Family investigation, medical history collection, and measurement of biochemical parameters were performed to analyze the clinical phenotype and genetic characteristics of dRTA. Direct sequencing was used to detect SLC4A1 gene mutations. Read More

    Con: Mesoamerican nephropathy: is the problem dehydration or rehydration?
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 2017 Apr;32(4):603-606
    In recent years, an increasing number of inhabitants of Central America have developed a form of chronic kidney disease, now named Mesoamerican nephropathy. This disease is characterized by minimal proteinuria, hyperuricemia, hypokalemia and reduced glomerular filtration rate. Histologically the kidneys manifest tubulointerstitial nephritis. Read More

    Severe hypokalemia due to a possible drug-drug interaction between vinblastine and antiretrovirals in a HIV-infected patient with Hodgkin's lymphoma.
    Int J STD AIDS 2017 Jan 1:956462417703026. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    1 Infectious Diseases Unit, Hospital Cosme Argerich, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    A 60-year-old HIV-1 infected woman on antiretroviral therapy (emtricitabine/tenofovir, and ritonavir-boosted atazanavir) developed Hodgkin's lymphoma. The patient initiated ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine) chemotherapy and presented with neutropenia and severe hypokalemia. Hypokalemia was considered as part of a proximal tubular renal dysfunction, and other causes of hypokalemia were excluded. Read More

    Efficacy and Safety of Patiromer in Hyperkalemia.
    J Pharm Pract 2017 Jan 1:897190017692921. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    2 Department of Biostatistics, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Background: Patients at the highest risk of hyperkalemia are those with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 3 and 4.

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of patiromer in hyperkalemia in patients with heart failure or CKD.

    Methods: The Cochrane Renal Group's Specialized Register was searched through contact with the Trials' Search Coordinator. Read More

    Transient Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis in Organophosphate Poisoning.
    Indian J Crit Care Med 2017 Mar;21(3):170-171
    Department of General Medicine, MES Medical College, Perinthalmanna, Kerala, India.
    Renal complications due to organophosphate poisoning are very rare. We are presenting a unique case of transient distal renal tubular acidosis due to organophosphate poisoning, which to the best of our knowledge is the first of its kind. An elderly female after deliberate self-harm with ingestion of chlorpyrifos had multiple ventricular arrhythmias due to hypokalemia secondary to distal renal tubular acidosis which improved completely after treatment. Read More

    Management of Liddle Syndrome in Pregnancy: A Case Report and Literature Review.
    Case Rep Obstet Gynecol 2017 15;2017:6279460. Epub 2017 Mar 15.
    Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Internal Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit Medical Center, Detroit, MI, USA.
    Liddle syndrome is an autosomal dominant genetic condition that causes hypertension and hypokalemia due to a gain-of-function mutation in the SCNN1B or SCNN1G genes which code for the epithelial sodium channel in the kidney. This leads to increased sodium and water reabsorption causing hypertension. We report a case of a 27-year-old pregnant woman who was admitted for hypertension and hypokalemia and later diagnosed and treated for Liddle syndrome using amiloride. Read More

    Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography: Impact of Abnormal Blood Potassium Levels on Cardiac Arrhythmias.
    J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2017 Apr 7. Epub 2017 Apr 7.
    Division of Cardiovascular Ultrasound, Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Electronic address:
    Background: Guidelines suggest that an abnormal blood potassium level is a relative contraindication to performing dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE). However, this has not been previously studied.

    Methods: We reviewed a consecutive series of patients who had potassium testing within 48 hours of undergoing DSE for the evaluation of myocardial ischemia over a 10-year period (N = 13,198). Read More

    Supraventricular tachycardia and acute confusion following ingestion of e-cigarette fluid containing AB-FUBINACA and ADB-FUBINACA: a case report with quantitative analysis of serum drug concentrations.
    Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2017 Apr 10:1-6. Epub 2017 Apr 10.
    b Hospital Authority Toxicology Reference Laboratory , Princess Margaret Hospital, Lai Chi Kok , Hong Kong Special Administrative Region , China.
    Background: AB-FUBINACA and ADB-FUBINACA are structurally similar synthetic cannabinoids with potent CB1 receptor agonistic effects. Very little is known about their pharmacology and toxicology.

    Objective: To report a case of supraventricular tachycardia and acute confusion after ingestion of e-cigarette fluid containing AB-FUBINACA and ADB-FUBINACA, with quantitative analysis of the serum drug concentrations. Read More

    An unusual cause of ventilatory failure in motor neurone disease.
    Respir Med Case Rep 2017 27;21:59-61. Epub 2017 Mar 27.
    Papworth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge, UK.
    A patient previously diagnosed with motor neurone disease (MND) and gastrostomy-fed was under surveillance for ventilatory decline via our respiratory centre. At a planned review she was found to be hypercapnic, which would usually prompt an offer of non-invasive ventilation for home use. However, she was alkalotic and not acidotic as we might expect. Read More

    HELLP syndrome in a pregnant patient with Gitelman syndrome.
    Kidney Res Clin Pract 2017 Mar 31;36(1):95-99. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Konyang University College of Medicine, Daejeon, Korea.
    Gitelman syndrome is characterized by hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, hypocalciuria, and hypomagnesemia. The clinical course of Gitelman syndrome in pregnant women remains unclear, but it is thought to be benign. We report here the first Korean case of atypical eclampsia in a 31-year-old who was diagnosed with Gitelman syndrome incidentally during an antenatal screening test. Read More

    An Unusual Case of Resistant Hypokalaemia in a Patient with Large Bowel Obstruction Secondary to Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Prostate.
    Case Rep Surg 2017 13;2017:2394365. Epub 2017 Mar 13.
    Department of General Surgery, St Helier Hospital, Carshalton SM5 1AA, UK.
    Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Prostate (NECP) is rare and only few cases have been reported, constituting less than 0.5% of prostatic malignancies. We report a rare case of large bowel obstruction from NECP posing a further challenge in management due to resistant hypokalaemia. Read More

    Spironolactone effect on potassium supplementation in paediatric cardiac intensive care patients.
    J Clin Pharm Ther 2017 Apr 5. Epub 2017 Apr 5.
    Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.
    What Is Known: Spironolactone is used in paediatric patients with heart disease, yet few data are available regarding the impact on potassium supplementation.

    Objective: We sought to determine the effect of spironolactone on potassium supplementation in paediatric cardiac intensive care patients.

    Methods: A retrospective, propensity matched cohort study was designed. Read More

    Acquired Fanconi syndrome in two dogs following long-term consumption of pet jerky treats in Japan: case report.
    J Vet Med Sci 2017 Apr 1. Epub 2017 Apr 1.
    Laboratory of Clinical Pathology, Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kagoshima University.
    Renal Fanconi syndrome has recently been associated with the ingestion of pet jerky treats from China in mostly small breed dogs in North America, Australia and Europe. We report here about two dogs with Fanconi syndrome following pet jerky treats exposure in Japan. A mixed-breed dog and a French bulldog showed weight loss, polyuria and polydipsia. Read More

    Clinical and Genetic Spectrum of Bartter Syndrome Type 3.
    J Am Soc Nephrol 2017 Apr 5. Epub 2017 Apr 5.
    Department of Genetics and.
    Bartter syndrome type 3 is a clinically heterogeneous hereditary salt-losing tubulopathy caused by mutations of the chloride voltage-gated channel Kb gene (CLCNKB), which encodes the ClC-Kb chloride channel involved in NaCl reabsorption in the renal tubule. To study phenotype/genotype correlations, we performed genetic analyses by direct sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and retrospectively analyzed medical charts for 115 patients with CLCNKB mutations. Functional analyses were performed in Xenopus laevis oocytes for eight missense and two nonsense mutations. Read More

    Adrenal Vein Sampling for Primary Aldosteronism: A 2-Week Protocol for Withdrawal of Renin-Stimulating Antihypertensives.
    Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2017 Apr 4. Epub 2017 Apr 4.
    Department of Radiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, 1 Silverstein, 3400 Spruce St, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.
    Objective: For evaluation of primary aldosteronism, international guidelines recommend a 4-6 week withdrawal of spironolactone, eplerenone, and amiloride prior to adrenal vein sampling (AVS). It is not always feasible to withdraw these drugs in patients with severe hypertension and hypokalemia. We present our experience evaluating the efficacy and clinical outcomes of a 2-week protocol for withdrawal of renin-stimulating antihypertensives prior to AVS. Read More

    Potassium regulation in the neonate.
    Pediatr Nephrol 2017 Apr 4. Epub 2017 Apr 4.
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus, PO Box 365067, San Juan, Puerto Rico, 00936-5067.
    Potassium, the major cation in intracelluar fluids, is essential for vital biological functions. Neonates maintain a net positive potassium balance, which is fundamental to ensure somatic growth but places these infants, especially those born prematurely, at risk for life-threatening disturbances in potassium concentration [K(+)] in the extracellular fluid compartment. Potassium conservation is achieved by maximizing gastrointestinal absorption and minimizing renal losses. Read More

    Therapeutic efficacy of nutritional support by percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in critically ill patients: A self-control clinical trial.
    Pak J Med Sci 2017 Jan-Feb;33(1):75-80
    Yi-Qun Hu Departments of Gastroenterology, Zhongshan Hospital Affiliated to Xiamen University, Xiamen 361004, Fujian, China.
    Background & Objective: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is a procedure to provide enteral nutrition for critically ill patients. It is commonly used in clinical practice; however, the widespread use of PEG is controversial. Our objective was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of nutritional support by PEG in these critically ill patients. Read More

    Are the results from the 2014 UK national survey on the management of diabetic ketoacidosis applicable to individual centres?
    Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2017 Mar 19;127:140-146. Epub 2017 Mar 19.
    Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, Norfolk NR4 7TJ, UK; Norfolk and Norwich University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Colney Lane, Norfolk NR4 7UY, UK. Electronic address:
    Background: In 2013 the Joint British Diabetes Societies published an update to their 2010 guideline on the management of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). In 2014 a national survey was conducted to assess the management of DKA across the UK using the JBDS or local guidelines. Hospitals were invited to submit data on 5 people presenting with DKA. Read More

    Race, Serum Potassium, and Associations With ESRD and Mortality.
    Am J Kidney Dis 2017 Mar 28. Epub 2017 Mar 28.
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD; Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD. Electronic address:
    Background: Recent studies suggest that potassium levels may differ by race. The basis for these differences and whether associations between potassium levels and adverse outcomes differ by race are unknown.

    Study Design: Observational study. Read More

    Cytolethal distending toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains causing severe diarrhoea in young Mexican children.
    JMM Case Rep 2017 Feb 28;4(2):e005079. Epub 2017 Feb 28.
    Department of Molecular Biomedicine, CINVESTAV-IPN , Mexico City , Mexico.
    Introduction. Cytolethal distending toxins (CDTs), encoded by cdt genes, have DNase activity leading to cellular and nuclear distension, resulting in irreversible cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of target cells. cdt-positive Escherichia coli strains have been isolated from children with diarrhoea. Read More

    Delayed recognition of fatal invasive meningococcal disease in adults.
    JMM Case Rep 2016 Jun 28;3(3):e005027. Epub 2016 Jun 28.
    New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene , New York, NY , United States.
    Introduction: Invasive meningococcal disease can be difficult to detect early in its course when patients may appear well and the severity of their illness is obscured by non-specific complaints.

    Case Presentation: We report five cases of meningococcal sepsis in adult patients who presented to an emergency department early in the course of their disease, but whose severity of illness was not recognized.

    Conclusion: Suspicion of meningococcal sepsis should be heightened in the setting of hypotension, tachycardia, elevated shock index, leukopaenia with left shift, thrombocytopaenia and hypokalaemia, prompting early sepsis care. Read More

    Plasma potassium, diuretic use and risk of developing chronic kidney disease in a predominantly White population.
    PLoS One 2017 27;12(3):e0174686. Epub 2017 Mar 27.
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.
    Objective: Both hypokalemia and hyperkalemia are associated with disease progression in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is unclear whether similar associations are present in the general population. Our aim was to examine the association of plasma potassium with risk of developing CKD and the role of diuretics in this association in a population-based cohort. Read More

    Therapeutic targeting of protein kinase CK2 gene expression in feline oral squamous cell carcinoma - a naturally occurring large animal model of head and neck cancer.
    Hum Gene Ther Clin Dev 2017 Mar 23. Epub 2017 Mar 23.
    University of Minnesota, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, School of Medicine, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States.
    Protein kinase CK2 (CK2) is a highly promising target for cancer therapy and anti-CK2 gene expression therapy has shown effectiveness in rodent models of human head and neck cancer (HNC). To date, there has been no large animal model of cancer in which to further explore anti-CK2 therapies. Feline oral squamous cell carcinoma (FOSCC) has been proposed as a large animal model for human HNC and we have previously shown that CK2 is a rational target in FOSCC. Read More

    Association of transient hyperthyroidism and severity of hyperemesis gravidarum.
    Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig 2017 Mar 23. Epub 2017 Mar 23.
    Background Transient non-immune hyperthyroidism in early pregnancy is hyperthyroidism diagnosed for the first time in early pregnancy, without evidence of thyroid autoimmunity or clinical findings of Grave's disease and resolved spontaneously as the pregnancy progressed. Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is the commonest cause with 66%-73% of women with severe HG were found to have elevated thyroid function. Materials and methods We conducted a cross sectional study to determine the prevalence of transient hyperthyroidism in patients with hyperemesis gravidarum and its relation to the severity of nausea and vomiting. Read More

    Signal Detection of Imipenem Compared to Other Drugs from Korea Adverse Event Reporting System Database.
    Yonsei Med J 2017 May;58(3):564-569
    Department of Preventive Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Purpose: To detect signals of adverse drug events after imipenem treatment using the Korea Institute of Drug Safety & Risk Management-Korea adverse event reporting system database (KIDS-KD).

    Materials And Methods: We performed data mining using KIDS-KD, which was constructed using spontaneously reported adverse event (AE) reports between December 1988 and June 2014. We detected signals calculated the proportional reporting ratio, reporting odds ratio, and information component of imipenem. Read More

    Cushing's syndrome in infancy due to ectopic ACTH secretion by a sacro-coccygeal teratoma.
    J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2017 Apr;30(4):475-478
    Department of Pediatrics, Endocrinology and Diabetes with a Cardiology Unit, Medical University in Bialystok, ul. Waszyngtona 17, 15-274 Białystok.
    Background: Adenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent Cushing's syndrome in infancy is extremely rare. We describe the case of a sacro-coccygeal ectopic ACTH-secreting immature teratoma in an infant who also presented the triad of defects characteristic of Currarino syndrome.

    Case Presentation: A girl was born with a large immature teratoma in the sacro-coccygeal region associated with anal atresia. Read More

    A cola-induced hypokalemic rhabdomyolysis with electromyographic evaluation: A case report.
    SAGE Open Med Case Rep 2017 23;5:2050313X17695717. Epub 2017 Feb 23.
    Department of Neurorehabilitation and Neurological Service, "Moriggia - Pelascini" Hospital, Gravedona ed Uniti (Como), Italy; Fondazione Europea Ricerca Biomedica FERB, "S. Isidoro" Hospital, Bergamo, Italy.
    Objective: To report a rare case of hypokalemic rhabdomyolysis induced by the heavy and prolonged ingestion of cola-based beverages, and its uneventful recovery after kalemia normalization.

    Methods: We report a 38-year-old Caucasian male presented in our emergency room with a recent and progressive weakness of the lower limbs proximal muscles.

    Results: A dietary history revealed a prolonged ingestion of cola-based beverages. Read More

    Usefulness of laboratory and radiological investigations in the management of supraventricular tachycardia.
    Emerg Med Australas 2017 Mar 20. Epub 2017 Mar 20.
    Emergency Department, Austin Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Objective: Although ED patients presenting with supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) are commonly investigated, the value of these investigations has been questioned. We aimed to determine the frequency and utility of investigations in patients with SVT.

    Methods: We undertook an explicit retrospective medical record audit of patients with SVT who presented to a single ED (January 2004 to June 2014). Read More

    Juxtaglomerular cell tumor: Clinical and immunohistochemical features.
    J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2017 Mar 20. Epub 2017 Mar 20.
    Department of Endocrinology, Key Laboratory of Endocrinology, Ministry of Health, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Juxtaglomerular cell tumor (JGCT) is a rare tumor, with approximately 100 cases reported in the literature. The authors respectively studied the clinical data of 11 patients diagnosed with JGCT in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 2004 to 2014, and investigated the immunohistochemical profiles in 10 tumors. Nine of the 11 patients were diagnosed before the age of 40 years. Read More

    ACTH-producing neuroendocrine tumor of the pancreas: a case report and literature review.
    Ann Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg 2017 Feb 28;21(1):61-65. Epub 2017 Feb 28.
    Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.; Pancreaticobiliary Cancer Clinic, Yonsei Cancer Center, Severance Hospital, Seoul, Korea.
    Tumors that arise from the endocrine pancreas, or the islets of pancreas, are called pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Pancreatic NET have an incidence of <0.1 per one million persons, and can lead to secretion of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Read More

    Hypoxaemia and septic shock were independent risk factors for mechanical ventilation in Bangladeshi children hospitalised for diarrhoea.
    Acta Paediatr 2017 Mar 17. Epub 2017 Mar 17.
    Nutrition & Clinical Services Division (NCSD), International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Aim: In Bangladesh, approximately 6% of children under five years of age die due to diarrhoea. We evaluated the admission and hospitalisation risk factors for mechanical ventilation and outcomes in children with diarrhoea.

    Methods: This retrospective case-control chart analysis was conducted in the intensive care unit of Dhaka Hospital of International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh. Read More

    Gitelman Syndrome.
    J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2017 Mar;27(3):S30-S32
    Department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi.
    Gitelman syndrome (GS) is the most frequently inherited renal salt-wasting tubulointerstitial disease. It follows variable but usually asymptomatic benign course. We present a rare case of GS that remained clinical enigma. Read More

    A study of acute muscle dysfunction with particular reference to dengue myopathy.
    Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2017 Jan-Mar;20(1):13-22
    Department of Neurology, King George Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.
    Background: Acute myopathy is a common cause of acute motor quadriparesis which has various etiologies with different courses of illness and prognosis depending on the cause. Understanding this diversity helps us in proper approach toward diagnosis, predicting the prognosis, and possible complications and in improving the treatments that are being provided. This study was planned to study the clinical, electrophysiological, and etiological profile of patients presenting with acute myopathy. Read More

    Effectiveness and Tolerability of Conivaptan and Tolvaptan for the Treatment of Hyponatremia in Neurocritically Ill Patients.
    Pharmacotherapy 2017 Mar 12. Epub 2017 Mar 12.
    NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, Weill Cornell Medical Center, New York, New York.
    Study Objective: To describe the effectiveness and tolerability of conivaptan and tolvaptan for the correction of hyponatremia in neurocritically ill patients.

    Design: Retrospective cohort study.

    Setting: Neurointensive care units at two academic medical centers. Read More

    A Late Diagnosis of Primary Aldosteronism.
    High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev 2017 Mar 14. Epub 2017 Mar 14.
    Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Verona, Policlinico "G.B. Rossi", P.le L.A. Scuro 10, 37134, Verona, Italy.
    We report the case of a 41-year-old male patient with juvenile onset refractory hypertension while taking four drugs including a diuretic. Fourteen years before he underwent a complete investigation for secondary hypertension (including the aldosterone to renin ratio-ARR) that was negative. Since that, hypertension control gradually worsened, hypertensive organ damage aggravated and hypokalemia developed in spite of ACE inhibitor treatment. Read More

    Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis: A case report.
    Int J Health Sci (Qassim) 2017 Jan-Mar;11(1):1-2
    Department of Medicine, King Saud Hospital, Post Box No. 1306, Unaizah 51911, AI Qassim, Saudi Arabia.
    Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is a rare complication of hyperthyroidism characterized by episodes of muscle weakness and hypokalemia. TPP is typically present in young Asian men, female, and non-Asian ethnic group can also be affected. TPP is a curable cause of hypokalemic periodic paralysis, can often be the first manifestation of thyrotoxicosis. Read More

    Effects of bumetanide on neurobehavioral function in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders.
    Transl Psychiatry 2017 Mar 14;7(3):e1056. Epub 2017 Mar 14.
    CHU hoputal Le Cluzeau, Neurochlore Research Team, Marseille, France.
    In animal models of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the NKCC1 chloride-importer inhibitor bumetanide restores physiological (Cl(-))i levels, enhances GABAergic inhibition and attenuates electrical and behavioral symptoms of ASD. In an earlier phase 2 trial; bumetanide reduced the severity of ASD in children and adolescents (3-11 years old). Here we report the results of a multicenter phase 2B study primarily to assess dose/response and safety effects of bumetanide. Read More

    Renal Tubular Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase NEDD4-2 Is Required for Renal Adaptation during Long-Term Potassium Depletion.
    J Am Soc Nephrol 2017 Mar 13. Epub 2017 Mar 13.
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland;
    Adaptation of the organism to potassium (K(+)) deficiency requires precise coordination among organs involved in K(+) homeostasis, including muscle, liver, and kidney. How the latter performs functional and molecular changes to ensure K(+) retention is not well understood. Here, we investigated the role of ubiquitin-protein ligase NEDD4-2, which negatively regulates the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), Na(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC), and with no-lysine-kinase 1 (WNK1). Read More

    Hypokalemia and Pendrin Induction by Aldosterone.
    Hypertension 2017 May 13;69(5):855-862. Epub 2017 Mar 13.
    From the Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan (N.X., K.I., S.U., S.S.); Department of Nephrology, Tianjin First Central Hospital, China (N.X., W.X.C.); and Division of Clinical Epigenetics, Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology (D.H., T.F., S.S.) and Department of Clinical Laboratory, School of Medicine (T.S.), The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Aldosterone plays an important role in regulating Na-Cl reabsorption and blood pressure. Epithelial Na(+) channel, Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter, and Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchanger pendrin are the major mediators of Na-Cl transport in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron. Existing evidence also suggests that plasma K(+) concentration affects renal Na-Cl handling. Read More

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