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    1 OF 268

    Heparin free dialysis in critically sick children using sustained low efficiency dialysis (SLEDD-f): A new hybrid therapy for dialysis in developing world.
    PLoS One 2018 26;13(4):e0195536. Epub 2018 Apr 26.
    Pediatric Nephrology, Akron Children's Hospital, Akron, Ohio, United States of America.
    Background: In critically sick adults, sustained low efficiency dialysis [SLED] appears to be better tolerated hemodynamically and outcomes seem to be comparable to CRRT. However, there is paucity of data in critically sick children. In children, two recent studies from Taiwan (n = 11) and India (n = 68) showed benefits of SLED in critically sick children. Read More

    Cylindrospermopsin toxicity in mice following a 90-d oral exposure.
    J Toxicol Environ Health A 2018 Apr 25:1-18. Epub 2018 Apr 25.
    a National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory , US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development , Research Triangle Park , NC , USA.
    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a toxin associated with numerous species of freshwater cyanobacteria throughout the world. It is postulated to have caused an episode of serious illnesses in Australia through treated drinking water, as well as lethal effects in livestock exposed to water from farm ponds. Toxicity included effects indicative of both hepatic and renal dysfunction. Read More

    Uremic encephalopathy in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta): A case report and a brief review of the veterinary literature.
    J Med Primatol 2018 Apr 25. Epub 2018 Apr 25.
    Southwest National Primate Research Center, Texas Biomedical Research Institute, San Antonio, TX, USA.
    Background: Uremic encephalopathy is uncommon yet is one of the most severe complications of renal failure. We present a case of acute renal failure and associated cerebral and vascular lesions consistent with uremic encephalopathy in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    Methods: A 14-year-old, female, specific-pathogen-free rhesus macaque presented in lateral recumbency, obtunded, severely dehydrated, and hypothermic, with severe azotemia, mild hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, increased anion gap, and hypercholesterolemia. Read More

    Tolvaptan for Primary Aldosteronism and Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: A Case Report.
    Case Rep Nephrol Dial 2018 Jan-Apr;8(1):62-69. Epub 2018 Mar 28.
    Nephrology Center, Toranomon Hospital Kajigaya, Kawasaki, Japan.
    A 59-year-old Japanese woman was admitted for evaluation of muscle weakness. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease had been diagnosed at the age of 47 years, followed by primary aldosteronism at 53 years. At the age of 58, tolvaptan was started (60 mg/day) to treat her renal disease. Read More

    Uncommon reasons of the digestive tract-related paraneoplastic syndromes in children with neuroblastic tumors: three case reports.
    Contemp Oncol (Pozn) 2018 3;22(1):42-46. Epub 2018 Apr 3.
    Department of Pediatrics, Oncology, Hematology and Diabetology, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.
    Aim Of The Study: presentation of the uncommon paraneoplastic syndromes related to the gastrointestinal tract that may occur in children with neuroblastic tumors and their impact on the disease course.

    Material And Methods: Retrospective analysis of three cases of patients mainly with digestive tract-related symptoms, who were originally admitted to the gastroenterology department from 2013 to 2016 and were finally diagnosed with neuroblastic tumors.

    Results: The clinical data analysis showed that the symptoms from gastrointestinal tract were dominant in analyzed subjects. Read More

    Ventricular tachycardia in a primigravida with Hyperemesis Gravidarum.
    J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2018 Apr 24. Epub 2018 Apr 24.
    Elixir Fertility Centre, New Delhi, India.
    Hyperemesis gravidarum is persistent vomiting, seen more often in the first trimester of pregnancy, when the patient is unable to maintain adequate hydration. Intractable vomiting can lead to severe electrolyte imbalance, which may cause electrocardiogram abnormalities. Occasionally, ventricular tachycardia can complicate a pregnancy. Read More

    Predictors and outcome of invasive mechanical ventilation in hospitalized patients with sepsis: data from National Inpatient Sample.
    J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect 2018 17;8(2):49-52. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Reading Health System, West Reading, PA, USA.
    Sepsis is a significant cause of mechanical ventilation in hospitalized patients. The aim of our study was to recognize the demographic and clinical characteristics associated with an increased need for invasive mechanical ventilation in hospitalized sepsis patients. We used National Inpatient Sample database from the years 2009-2011 to identify sepsis patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. Read More

    Vanadate-Induced Renal cAMP and Malondialdehyde Accumulation Suppresses Alpha 1 Sodium Potassium Adenosine Triphosphatase Protein Levels.
    Toxicol Res 2018 Apr 15;34(2):143-150. Epub 2018 Apr 15.
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.
    It has been demonstrated that vanadate causes nephrotoxicity. Vanadate inhibits renal sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na, K-ATPase) activity and this is more pronounced in injured renal tissues. Cardiac cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is enhanced by vanadate, while increased cAMP suppresses Na, K-ATPase action in renal tubular cells. Read More

    Salbutamol-induced electrophysiological changes show no correlation with electrophysiological changes during hyperinsulinaemic-hypoglycaemic clamp in young people with Type 1 diabetes.
    Diabet Med 2018 Apr 23. Epub 2018 Apr 23.
    Department of Oncology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield.
    Aims: Hypoglycaemia causes QT-interval prolongation and appears pro-arrhythmogenic. Salbutamol, a β -adrenoreceptor agonist also causes QT-interval prolongation. We hypothesized that the magnitude of electrophysiological changes induced by salbutamol and hypoglycaemia might relate to each other and that salbutamol could be used as a non-invasive screening tool for predicting an individual's electrophysiological response to hypoglycaemia. Read More

    Association of Abnormal Serum Potassium Levels with Arrhythmias and Cardiovascular Mortality: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.
    Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 2018 Apr 20. Epub 2018 Apr 20.
    Network Aging Research, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Purpose: To provide the first systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies on the association of abnormal serum potassium and cardiovascular outcomes.

    Methods: Medline and ISI Web of Knowledge were systematically searched from inception until November 24, 2017. Data synthesis of relevant studies was performed using random effects model meta-analyses. Read More

    Licorice-induced apparent mineralocorticoid excess compounded by excessive use of terbutaline and high water intake.
    BMJ Case Rep 2018 Apr 19;2018. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Department of Endocrinology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.
    This case highlights the clinical course of a 54-year-old male patient presenting with hypertension and long-term refractory hypokalaemia. He reported long-term malaise, fatigue and physical discomfort. Diarrhoea, vomiting, over-the-counter drugs, dietary supplements and any kind of medical abuse were all denied. Read More

    Role of WNK4 and kidney-specific WNK1 in mediating the effect of high dietary K+ intake on ROMK channel in the distal convoluted tubule.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2018 Apr 18. Epub 2018 Apr 18.
    Dept of Pharmacology, New York Medical College, United States.
    With-no-lysine kinase 4 (WNK4) and kidney-Specific (KS)-WNK1 regulate ROMK (Kir1.1) channels in a variety of cell models. We now explore the role of WNK4 and KS-WNK1 in regulating ROMK in the native distal convoluted tubule (DCT)/connecting tubule (CNT) by measuring TPNQ (ROMK inhibitor)-sensitive K+ currents with whole-cell recording. Read More

    [Hypophosphatemia in preterm infants: a bimodal disorder].
    Rev Chil Pediatr 2018 Feb;89(1):10-17
    Complejo Asistencial Dr. Sótero del Río, Santiago, Chile.
    New nutritional approaches to treat extreme premature babies have demonstrated relevant eviden ce of metabolic disturbances with early hypophosphatemia, especially in patients with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). They have shown late hypophosphatemia, as well, which is characteristic in the metabolic bone disease. A sytematic search of literature describing metabolic disturbances of phosphorus in preterm newborns is presented, related to the use of early parenteral nutrition and also in the context of metabolic bone disease. Read More

    Refractory hypokalemia from syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess on low-dose posaconazole.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2018 Apr 16. Epub 2018 Apr 16.
    Section of Hematology/Oncology, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.
    A 67-year-old woman with acute myeloid leukemia experienced refractory hypokalemia while taking low-dose posaconazole.…. Read More

    Clinical findings and diagnostic procedures in 270 small ruminants with obstructive urolithiasis.
    J Vet Intern Med 2018 Apr 16. Epub 2018 Apr 16.
    Clinic for Ruminants, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bremgartenstrasse 109a, Bern 3012, Switzerland.
    Background: Details of the clinical signs of obstructive urolithiasis in male small ruminants have not been documented in a large population.

    Objective: To describe the clinical presentation and diagnostic procedures in a large group of small ruminants with urolithiasis.

    Animals: Two hundred and seventy small ruminants (158 sheep and 112 goats). Read More

    Ectopic Cushing syndrome: Report of 9 cases.
    Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr 2018 Apr 11. Epub 2018 Apr 11.
    Servicio de Endocrinología y Nutrición, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro, Majadahonda, Madrid, España.
    Introduction: Ectopic Cushing's syndrome (ECS) is a rare condition caused by ACTH secretion by extrapituitary tumors. Its low frequency makes it difficult to acquire experience in its management. The aim of this study was to describe patients with ECS seen at the endocrinology department of a tertiary hospital over 15 years. Read More

    Pretreatment of enteral nutrition with sodium polystyrene sulfonate: effective, but beware the high prevalence of electrolyte derangements in clinical practice.
    Clin Kidney J 2018 Apr 21;11(2):166-171. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    Division of Nephrology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Background: Current treatment options for chronic hyperkalemia in children with chronic kidney disease include dietary restrictions or enteral sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS); however, dietary restrictions may compromise adequate nutrition and enteral SPS may be limited by palatability, adverse effects and feeding tube obstruction. A potentially safer alternative is to pretreat enteral nutrition (EN) with SPS prior to consumption. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pretreating EN with SPS in pediatric patients with hyperkalemia. Read More

    Spectrum of complications of severe DKA in children in pediatric Intensive Care Unit.
    Pak J Med Sci 2018 Jan-Feb;34(1):106-109
    Dr. Khadija Nuzhat Humayun, FCPS. Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.
    Objectives: To describe the spectrum of complications of Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) observed in children admitted with severe DKA.

    Methods: Retrospective review of the medical records of all children admitted with the diagnosis of severe DKA in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) of the Aga Khan University Hospital, from January 2010 to December 2015 was done. Data was collected on a structured proforma and descriptive statistics were applied. Read More

    Outcome of Mainz II Pouch Urinary Diversion after Radical Cystectomy in Patients with Muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer: Our Experience.
    Niger J Surg 2018 Jan-Jun;24(1):12-15
    Department of Surgery, Urology Division, Lagos State University College of Medicine, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria.
    Introduction: Mainz II pouch urinary diversion in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer is one of the options of continent urinary diversion following radical cystectomy (RC). We aim to report our experience and the outcome of our patients who had this procedure.

    Patients And Methods: Patients who had RC and Mainz II pouch urinary diversion for muscle-invasive bladder cancer in our institution from 2007 to 2016 were evaluated. Read More

    Regional anesthesia is safe and effective for lower limb orthopedic surgery in patient with renal tubular acidosis and hypokalemia.
    J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol 2018 Jan-Mar;34(1):117-119
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
    Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) with hypokalemia may precipitate acute respiratory failure and potentially fatal arrhythmias like ventricular fibrillation. Though there are random reports of respiratory failure needing mechanical ventilation and sudden death in patients with RTA and hypokalemia, the anesthetic management of these patients has not been clearly elucidated. Acidosis and hypokalemia have significant interactions with both general and local anesthetics and alter their effect substantially. Read More

    [Maximal androgen deprivation with abiraterone acetate in hormone sensitive prostate cancer.]
    Arch Esp Urol 2018 03;71(3):267-275
    Servicio de Urología. Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre. Madrid. España.
    Objectives: The treatment of metastatic prostate cancer has remained unchanged for more than 70 years, based on androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). In 2015, following the CHAARTED and STAMPEDE trials, it was established that the addition of 6 cycles of docetaxel to ADT was associated with significantly increased survival. In June 2017, the LATITUDE trial and the G arm of the STAMPEDE trial showed that the addition of Abiraterone with Prednisone (5 mg/day) to ADT was also associated with a significant increase in survival in metastatic patients. Read More

    Combined effect of renal function and serum potassium level in sudden cardiac death in aging hypertensive subjects.
    Hypertens Res 2018 Apr 9. Epub 2018 Apr 9.
    Pharmacie, Hospices Civils de Lyon- EMR3738 Ciblage thérapeutique en oncologie, Université C Bernard Lyon 1, Lyon, France.
    In patients with chronic kidney disease, serum potassium level is a factor influencing sudden cardiac death (SCD). The aim of our analysis was to study the combined effect of serum potassium level and renal function on the onset of SCD in elderly hypertensive subjects. Data from the 3620 hypertensive patients aged over 70 years were extracted from three randomized clinical trials included in the INDANA database. Read More

    Primary aldosteronism in the primary care setting.
    Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2018 Apr 7. Epub 2018 Apr 7.
    Division of Internal Medicine and Hypertension Unit, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Torino, Turin, Italy.
    Purpose Of Review: The aim of the present manuscript is to provide an overview of the most updated studies on the prevalence of primary aldosteronism in primary care and to compare these figures with the actual rate of diagnosis in clinical practice and with the prevalence of primary aldosteronism in specific subgroup of patients.

    Recent Findings: Over the last 20 years the clinical spectrum of low renin hypertension and primary aldosteronism has changed dramatically. Once considered only in the presence of severe hypertension and hypokalemia, it is now well known that primary aldosteronism is not uncommon even in patients with mild forms of hypertension and/or normokalemia. Read More

    The Two-Bag Method for Treatment of Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Adults.
    J Emerg Med 2018 Apr 5. Epub 2018 Apr 5.
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Michigan Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan; Division of Emergency Critical Care, Michigan Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan; Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Michigan Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
    Background: The "two-bag method" of management of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) allows for titration of dextrose delivery by adjusting the infusions of two i.v. fluid bags of varying dextrose concentrations while keeping fluid, electrolyte, and insulin infusion rates constant. Read More

    Evaluation and Management of Dehydration in Children.
    Emerg Med Clin North Am 2018 May 10;36(2):259-273. Epub 2018 Feb 10.
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 1200 North State Street, GH Room 1011, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA. Electronic address:
    The article discusses the evaluation of dehydration in children and reviews the literature on physical findings of dehydration. Pediatric dehydration is a common problem in emergency departments and wide practice variation in treatment exists. Dehydration can be treated with oral, nasogastric, subcutaneous, or intravenous fluids. Read More

    Prevalence and prognostic significance of prolonged QTc interval in emergency medical patients: A prospective observational study.
    Int J Crit Illn Inj Sci 2018 Jan-Mar;8(1):28-35
    Department of Internal Medicine, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.
    Introduction: QTc interval is affected by many factors and prolongation of same may have prognostic significance. A significant number of patients admitted in medical emergency are acutely ill, have multiple comorbidities and are on medications, all of these factors might affect QTc interval and prognosis.

    Materials And Methods: Single-center, prospective, observational study was carried out on 279 patients of different illnesses recruited from emergency medical services attached to the Department of Internal Medicine at Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India, a tertiary care hospital. Read More

    Hypomagnesemia in critically ill patients.
    J Intensive Care 2018 27;6:21. Epub 2018 Mar 27.
    2Section for Endocrinology, Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Background: Magnesium (Mg) is essential for life and plays a crucial role in several biochemical and physiological processes in the human body. Hypomagnesemia is common in all hospitalized patients, especially in critically ill patients with coexisting electrolyte abnormalities. Hypomagnesemia may cause severe and potential fatal complications if not timely diagnosed and properly treated, and associate with increased mortality. Read More

    Intracellular Chloride and Scaffold Protein Mo25 Cooperatively Regulate Transepithelial Ion Transport through WNK Signaling in the Malpighian Tubule.
    J Am Soc Nephrol 2018 Mar 30. Epub 2018 Mar 30.
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine and
    With No Lysine kinase (WNK) signaling regulates mammalian renal epithelial ion transport to maintain electrolyte and BP homeostasis. Our previous studies showed a conserved role for WNK in the regulation of transepithelial ion transport in the Malpighian tubule. Using assays and transgenic lines, we examined two potential WNK regulators, chloride ion and the scaffold protein mouse protein 25 (Mo25), in the stimulation of transepithelial ion flux. Read More

    Spironolactone to increase natriuresis in congestive heart failure with cardiorenal syndrome.
    Acta Cardiol 2018 Mar 27:1-8. Epub 2018 Mar 27.
    a Department of Cardiology , Ziekenhuis Oost-Limburg , Genk , Belgium.
    Background: Signs and symptoms of volume overload are the most frequent reason for hospital admission in acute heart failure (AHF). Diuretics are mainstay treatment, but their optimal type and dose regimen remain unclear, especially in patients with cardiorenal syndrome.

    Methods: This prospective study aimed to include 80 AHF patients with volume overload and cardiorenal syndrome. Read More

    Steroids and Thyrotoxicosis Precipitate Periodic Paralysis.
    Cureus 2018 Jan 23;10(1):e2106. Epub 2018 Jan 23.
    Internal Medicine, St. Joseph Mercy Oakland Hospital.
    Thyrotoxic Periodic Paralysis (TPP) belongs to a group of muscle diseases called channelopathies, which present with painless generalized muscle weakness without exertion. TPP can be precipitated by a large carbohydrate meal, stress, strenuous exercise, alcohol, a high-salt diet, menstruation, and cold temperatures. Rarely, steroids such as dexamethasone can also precipitate a TPP attack. Read More

    When muscle Ca channels carry monovalent cations through gating pores: insights into the pathophysiology of type 1 hypokalaemic periodic paralysis.
    J Physiol 2018 Mar 23. Epub 2018 Mar 23.
    Institut NeuroMyoGene, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, UMR CNRS 5310, Inserm U1217, 43 bd du 11 Novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne, France.
    Patients suffering from type 1 hypokalaemic periodic paralysis (HypoPP1) experience attacks of muscle paralysis associated with hypokalaemia. The disease arises from missense mutations in the gene encoding the α1 subunit of the dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR), a protein complex anchored in the tubular membrane of skeletal muscle fibres which controls the release of Ca from sarcoplasmic reticulum and also functions as a Ca channel. The vast majority of mutations consist of the replacement of one of the outer arginines in S4 segments of the α1 subunit by neutral residues. Read More

    Two cases of hypokalaemic rhabdomyolysis: same but different.
    BMJ Case Rep 2018 Mar 22;2018. Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    Fourth Department of Medicine, Klinikum Wels-Grieskirchen, Wels, Austria.
    In this paper, we present two women with hypokalaemic rhabdomyolysis in the context of increased diuretic intake and gastroenteritis, respectively. While their clinical manifestations and laboratory results were strikingly similar, two different underlying disorders were subsequently unveiled. The first patient was diagnosed with Conn syndrome, and adrenalectomy led to significant improvement of hypertension and sustained normokalaemia. Read More

    Incident Hyperkalemia, Hypokalemia, and Clinical Outcomes during Spironolactone Treatment of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: Analysis of the TOPCAT Trial.
    J Card Fail 2018 Mar 20. Epub 2018 Mar 20.
    Cardiovascular Division, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI.
    Background: In patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HF-PEF) randomized in the Americas (but not Russia and Georgia) as part of the TOPCAT trial, treatment with spironolactone enhanced the risk of hyperkalemia but reduced the risk of hypokalemia. We examined the clinical correlates and prognostic implications of incident hypo- and hyperkalemia during study follow up.

    Methods: We defined the region-specific incidence of hypokalemia (potassium [K]<3. Read More

    Furosemide-induced tubular dysfunction responding to prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor therapy in a child with nephrotic syndrome.
    CEN Case Rep 2018 Mar 22. Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    Department of Pediatrics, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, 160012, India.
    Furosemide is one of the most common drug used to treat anasarca in childhood nephrotic syndrome. It has minimal side effects on short-term usage, but prolonged use can result in polyuria, hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis. This pseudo-bartter complication can be treated by discontinuation of the drug with adequate potassium replacement. Read More

    Transcription factor HNF1β regulates expression of the calcium-sensing receptor in the thick ascending limb of the kidney.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2018 Mar 21. Epub 2018 Mar 21.
    Physiology, Radboud university medical centre, Netherlands.
    Mutations in HNF1β cause autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease (ADTKD-HNF1β), and patients tend to develop renal cysts, maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), and suffer from electrolyte disturbances, including hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia and hypocalciuria. Previous HNF1β research focused on the renal distal convoluted tubule (DCT) to elucidate the ADTKD-HNF1β electrolyte phenotype, although 70% of Mg2+ is reabsorbed in the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (TAL). An important regulator of Mg2+ reabsorption in the TAL is the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR). Read More

    Fanconi Syndrome in Irish Wolfhound Siblings.
    J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2018 May/Jun;54(3):173-178. Epub 2018 Mar 20.
    From the Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush Veterinary Centre, Roslin, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Three juvenile male Irish wolfhound littermates presented with marked polyuria and polydipsia. The four female siblings were apparently unaffected. Diagnostic testing revealed glucosuria with normoglycemia, generalized aminoaciduria, hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis consistent with Fanconi syndrome. Read More

    Non-islet-cell tumour hypoglycaemia (NICTH): About a series of 6 cases.
    Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2018 Mar 16. Epub 2018 Mar 16.
    Department of endocrinology and metabolism, CHRU Lille, 59037 Lille, France; UMR 1190 translational research in diabetes, Inserm, 59000 Lille, France; EGID (European Genomic Institute for Diabetes), university Lille, 59000 Lille, France. Electronic address:
    The purpose of this study was to analyse the characteristics of 6 patients managed in a university hospital between 1996 and 2016 for non-islet cell tumor hypoglycemia (NICTH), a form of hypoglycaemia due to the paraneoplastic secretion of IGF-2 or its related substances.

    Results: Three of these 6 patients (50%), aged over 69 years, including 2 with acromegaloid phenotype, presented with a pleural solitary fibrous tumor (SFT), with median diameter 20 cm (interquartile range, 12.5-20. Read More

    Thai-Lepto-on-admission probability (THAI-LEPTO) score as an early tool for initial diagnosis of leptospirosis: Result from Thai-Lepto AKI study group.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Mar 19;12(3):e0006319. Epub 2018 Mar 19.
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, and King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand.
    Background: Leptospirosis is one of the most important zoonosis in the tropics. Currently, specific laboratory diagnostic test for leptospirosis such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or direct culture cannot be applied at the primary care setting especially in the resource- limited countries. Therefore, clinical presentation and laboratory examination are still the primary diagnostic tools for leptospirosis. Read More

    Spironolactone-Induced Unilateral Gynecomastia.
    Int J Appl Basic Med Res 2018 Jan-Mar;8(1):45-47
    Department of Pharmacology, Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College, Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research, Kolar, Karnataka, India.
    Gynecomastia is benign enlargement of male breast, drug-induced gynecomastia accounts for about 25%. We are reporting a case of spironolactone-induced unilateral gynecomastia. A 52-year-old male patient receiving multiple antihypertensives including hydrochlorothiazide presented with muscle weakness and easy fatigability. Read More

    Towards Bridging Translational Gap in Cardiotoxicity Prediction: an Application of Progressive Cardiac Risk Assessment Strategy in TdP Risk Assessment of Moxifloxacin.
    AAPS J 2018 Mar 14;20(3):47. Epub 2018 Mar 14.
    Simcyp Limited, a Certara Company, Blades Enterprise Centre, John Street, S2, 4SU, Sheffield, UK.
    Drug-induced cardiac arrhythmia, especially occurrence of torsade de pointes (TdP), has been a leading cause of attrition and post-approval re-labeling and withdrawal of many drugs. TdP is a multifactorial event, reflecting more than just drug-induced cardiac ion channel inhibition and QT interval prolongation. This presents a translational gap in extrapolating pre-clinical and clinical cardiac safety assessment to estimate TdP risk reliably, especially when the drug of interest is used in combination with other QT-prolonging drugs for treatment of diseases such as tuberculosis. Read More

    Hypokalemia: a clinical update.
    Endocr Connect 2018 Apr 14;7(4):R135-R146. Epub 2018 Mar 14.
    Department of Endocrinology and DiabetesHellenic Red Cross Hospital, Athens, Greece
    Hypokalemia is a common electrolyte disturbance, especially in hospitalized patients. It can have various causes, including endocrine ones. Sometimes, hypokalemia requires urgent medical attention. Read More

    Hypertensive crisis with 2 target organ impairment induced by glycyrrhizin: A case report.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Mar;97(11):e0073
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism.
    Rationale: Glycyrrhizin is the main active component of licorice. Licorice and glycyrrhizin induced hypertension has been widely reported, yet licorice and glycyrrhizin induced hypertensive crisis has been rarely known.

    Patient Concerns: The case of this report was a 47-year-old woman, who took 225 mg of glycyrrhizin daily for 3 years due to primary biliary cholangitis. Read More

    Liddle Syndrome: Review of the Literature and Description of a New Case.
    Int J Mol Sci 2018 Mar 11;19(3). Epub 2018 Mar 11.
    Division of Internal Medicine and Hypertension Unit, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Torino, Via Genova 3, 10126 Torino, Italy.
    Liddle syndrome is an inherited form of low-renin hypertension, transmitted with an autosomal dominant pattern. The molecular basis of Liddle syndrome resides in germline mutations of the , and genes, encoding the α, β, and γ-subunits of the epithelial Na⁺ channel (ENaC), respectively. To date, 31 different causative mutations have been reported in 72 families from four continents. Read More

    Posaconazole-Induced Pseudohyperaldosteronism.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2018 Mar 12. Epub 2018 Mar 12.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN.
    A woman in her late 60s with disseminated histoplasmosis was treated with posaconazole since first-line therapies were not tolerated. She subsequently presented with decompensated heart failure, hypertension, and hypokalemia. Labs revealed low renin and aldosterone levels. Read More

    Management of Diarrhoeal Dehydration in Childhood: A Review for Clinicians in Developing Countries.
    Front Pediatr 2018 23;6:28. Epub 2018 Feb 23.
    Nephrology Unit, Department of Paediatrics, College of Health Sciences, University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria.
    The survival of a child with severe volume depletion at the emergency department depends on the competency of the first responder to recognize and promptly treat hypovolemic shock. Although the basic principles on fluid and electrolytes therapy have been investigated for decades, the topic remains a challenge, as consensus on clinical management protocol is difficult to reach, and more adverse events are reported from fluid administration than for any other drug. While the old principles proposed by Holliday and Segar, and Finberg have stood the test of time, recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses have highlighted the risk of hyponatraemia, and hyponatraemic encephalopathy in some children treated with hypotonic fluids. Read More

    Bartter Syndrome Type 1 Presenting as Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus.
    Case Rep Pediatr 2018 21;2018:9175271. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Medical Genetics Laboratory, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Mangiagalli e Regina Elena, Milan, Italy.
    Bartter syndrome (BS) type 1 (OMIM #601678) is a hereditary salt-losing renal tubular disorder characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, polyuria, recurrent vomiting, and growth retardation. It is caused by loss-of-function mutations of the gene, encoding the furosemide-sensitive Na-K-Cl cotransporter. Recently, a phenotypic variability has been observed in patients with genetically determined BS, including absence of nephrocalcinosis, hypokalemia, and/or metabolic alkalosis in the first year of life as well as persistent metabolic acidosis mimicking distal renal tubular acidosis. Read More

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