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    New Basal Insulins: a Clinical Perspective of Their Use in the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes and Novel Treatment Options Beyond Basal Insulin.
    Curr Diab Rep 2017 Aug 18;17(10):91. Epub 2017 Aug 18.
    National Research Institute, 2010 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 302, Los Angeles, CA, 90057, USA.
    Purpose Of Review: The purpose of this review was to review advances in basal insulin formulations and new treatment options for patients with type 2 diabetes not achieving glycemic targets despite optimized basal insulin therapy.

    Recent Findings: Advances in basal insulin formulations have resulted in products with increasingly favorable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, including flatter, peakless action profiles, less inter- and intra-patient variability, and longer duration of activity. These properties have translated to significantly reduced risk of hypoglycemia (particularly during the night) compared with previous generation basal insulins. Read More

    Insulin delivery and nocturnal glucose control in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.
    Expert Opin Drug Deliv 2017 Aug 18:1-11. Epub 2017 Aug 18.
    a Wellcome Trust-MRC Institute of Metabolic Science , University of Cambridge , Cambridge , UK.
    Introduction: Nocturnal glucose control remains challenging in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes due to highly variable overnight insulin requirements. The issue may be addressed by glucose responsive insulin delivery based on real-time continuous glucose measurements. Areas covered: This review outlines recent developments of glucose responsive insulin delivery systems from a paediatric perspective. Read More

    Metformin - a new old drug.
    Endokrynol Pol 2017 ;68(4):482-496
    Department of Internal Medicine, Diabetology and Cardiometabolic Disorders, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry in Zabrze,Medical University of Silesia, Zabrze, Poland.
    For many years metformin has been the gold standard in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. According to recommendations of the most important diabetes associations, this is the first-choice drug for use as monotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Metformin is also recommended in combined treatment when monotherapy is no longer effective. Read More

    Addison's disease concomitant with corticotropin deficiency and pituitary CRH resistance - a case report.
    Endokrynol Pol 2017 ;68(4):468-471
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Polish Mother's Memorial Hospital - Research Institute, Lodz, Poland, Poland; Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland, Poland.
    A 36-year-old woman was found to have a low morning ACTH concentration despite a history of Addison's disease. Past medical history: At the age of 23 years the subject developed Graves's disease, which was treated with radioiodine. At about the same time, she claimed to have two episodes of pancreatitis treated with cholecystectomy. Read More

    Maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy at 39 weeks and beyond with mild gestational diabetes mellitus.
    Ginekol Pol 2017 ;88(7):366-371
    the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University.
    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively analyze maternal and neonatal outcomes in pregnant women with mild gestational diabetes mellitus at 39 weeks compared to 40 weeks.

    Material And Methods: Clinical data of 372 cases of mild gestational diabetes mellitus form First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University were analyzed retrospectively. There were 108 mild GDM patients that delivered at 40-40+6 weeks in our research group, and 264 patients that delivered in 39-39+6 weeks in the control group. Read More

    Efficacy and Safety of Linagliptin in 2681 Asian Patients Stratified by Age, Obesity, and Renal Function: A Pooled Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials.
    Adv Ther 2017 Aug 17. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Hong Kong Institute of Diabetes and Obesity, Hong Kong, China.
    Introduction: Asian patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are younger, leaner, and more likely to develop renal dysfunction than White populations. In this multiethnic analysis of data from phase 3 trials, we investigated the efficacy and safety of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor linagliptin in Asians stratified by these subphenotypes.

    Methods: Data from randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials evaluating linagliptin (as monotherapy, add-on therapy to metformin ± sulfonylurea, combined with pioglitazone or added to insulin) were pooled with efficacy data from 11 randomized trials of at least 24 weeks and safety data from 15 trials of various durations. Read More

    Clinical signs, profound acidemia, hypoglycemia, and hypernatremia are predictive of mortality in 1,400 critically ill neonatal calves with diarrhea.
    PLoS One 2017 17;12(8):e0182938. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, United States of America.
    Profound acidemia impairs cellular and organ function and consequently should be associated with an increased risk of mortality in critically ill humans and animals. Neonatal diarrhea in calves can result in potentially serious metabolic derangements including profound acidemia due to strong ion (metabolic) acidosis, hyper-D-lactatemia, hyper-L-lactatemia, azotemia, hypoglycemia, hyperkalemia and hyponatremia. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the prognostic relevance of clinical and laboratory findings in 1,400 critically ill neonatal calves with diarrhea admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital. Read More

    Hypoglycemia Risk Related to Double Dose Is Markedly Reduced with Basal Insulin Peglispro Versus Insulin Glargine in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a Randomized Trial: IMAGINE 8.
    Diabetes Technol Ther 2017 Aug;19(8):463-470
    1 Eli Lilly and Company , Indianapolis, Indiana, USA .
    Background: Basal insulin peglispro (BIL) has a peripheral-to-hepatic distribution of action that resembles endogenous insulin and a prolonged duration of action with a flat pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile at steady state, characteristics that tend to reduce hypoglycemia risk compared to insulin glargine (GL). The primary objective was to demonstrate that clinically significant hypoglycemia (blood glucose ≤54 mg/dL [3.0 mmol/L] or symptoms of severe hypoglycemia) occurred less frequently within 84 h after a double dose (DD) of BIL than a DD of GL. Read More

    Comparative effectiveness and costs of insulin pump therapy for diabetes.
    Am J Manag Care 2017 Jun;23(6):353-359
    Northwestern University School of Medicine, 750 N Lake Shore Dr, Ste 680, Chicago, IL 60611. E-mail:
    Objectives: Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), or "insulin pump" therapy, is an alternative to multiple daily insulin injections (MDII) for management of diabetes. This study evaluates patterns of healthcare utilization, costs, and blood glucose control for patients with diabetes who initiate CSII.

    Study Design: Pre-post with propensity-matched comparison design involving commercially insured US adults (aged 18-64 years) with insulin-requiring diabetes who transitioned from MDII to CSII between July 1, 2009, and June 30, 2012 ("CSII initiators"; n = 2539), or who continued using MDI (n = 2539). Read More

    Effect of Once-weekly Dulaglutide on HbA1c and Fasting Blood Glucose in Patient Subpopulations by Gender, Duration of Diabetes, and Baseline HbA1c.
    Diabetes Obes Metab 2017 Aug 17. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy.
    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of dulaglutide 1.5 mg and 0.75 mg in type 2 diabetes patients by subgroups of gender, duration of diabetes, and baseline HbA1c in the dulaglutide clinical development program (AWARD-1 to -6 and -8 clinical trials). Read More

    COMPARING CLINICAL OUTCOMES AND COSTS FOR DIFFERENT TREATMENT INTENSIFICATION APPROACHES IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES UNCONTROLLED ON BASAL INSULIN: ADDING GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDE-1 RECEPTOR AGONISTS VS ADDING RAPID-ACTING INSULIN OR INCREASING BASAL INSULIN DOSE.
    Endocr Pract 2017 Aug 17. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    Truven Health Analytics Inc., an IBM Company, Ann Arbor, MI.
    Objective-Not all patients with type 2 diabetes achieve the recommended glycated hemoglobin A1c (A1C) levels after adequate titration of basal insulin (BI). Current intensification approaches include addition of rapid-acting insulin (RAI) or a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA), but it is not clear which strategy results in better long-term outcomes. Methods-This retrospective analysis of health insurance claims data in the US MarketScan database compared glycemic control and healthcare resource utilization and costs 12 months after adding GLP-1 RA to BI vs adding RAI or increasing BI doses. Read More

    Hypoglycemic episodes in cats with diabetes mellitus: 30 cases (2013-2015).
    J Feline Med Surg 2017 Aug 1:1098612X17722853. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Internal Medicine, BluePearl Overland Park, KS, USA.
    Objectives The purpose of this study was to review the characteristics of diabetic cats presenting to a specialty and emergency center for signs attributed to hypoglycemia and to identify the factors that may have contributed to the hypoglycemic episode, the patient's clinical signs and laboratory findings, and the response of hypoglycemic cats to therapy. Methods Twenty-eight cats were presented a total of 30 times for symptomatic hypoglycemia. Data were collected from cat owners at the time of presentation and from subsequent patient records. Read More

    Proximal Neuropathy and Associated Skeletal Muscle Changes Resembling Denervation Atrophy in Hind Limbs of Chronic Hypoglycaemic Rats.
    Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2017 Aug 16. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    Department of Toxicology, Safety Pharm and Pathology, Novo Nordisk A/S, Maaloev, Denmark.
    Peripheral neuropathy is one of the most common complications of diabetic hyperglycaemia. Insulin-induced hypoglycaemia (IIH) might potentially exacerbate or contribute to neuropathy as hypoglycaemia also causes peripheral neuropathy. In rats, IIH induces neuropathy associated with skeletal muscle changes. Read More

    Isolation and characterization of non-sulfated and sulfated triterpenoid saponins from Fagonia indica.
    Phytochemistry 2017 Aug 13;143:151-159. Epub 2017 Aug 13.
    H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi, 75270, Pakistan. Electronic address:
    Seven previously undescribed, sulfated triterpenoid glycosides, named nayabin A-G along with a known triterpenoid glycoside were isolated from the whole plant of Fagonia indica. Their structures were elucidated through spectral studies including 1D- ((1)H and (13)C), 2D-NMR spectroscopy (HSQC, HMBC, COSY and NOESY), and mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). β-D-Glucopyranosyl 3β-hydroxy-23-O-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy-taraxast-20-en-28-oate, a known compound exerts glucose-dependent insulin secretory activity, which seems to exhibit a decreased risk of drug-induced hypoglycemia and may offer distinct advantages as anti-diabetic agent. Read More

    Retrospective review of SGLT2 inhibitor exposures reported to 13 poison centers.
    Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2017 Aug 16:1-5. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    f Louisiana Poison Center , Shreveport , LA , USA.
    Background: SGLT2 inhibitors are a new class of oral antidiabetics prescribed in the United States since 2013. They act by inhibiting reabsorption of glucose in the proximal convoluted tubule of the kidney, allowing excess glucose to be excreted. Little has been reported regarding effects of non-therapeutic exposure to this class of medication. Read More

    Effect of Sodium Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors With Low SGLT2/SGLT1 Selectivity on Circulating Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Levels in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
    J Clin Med Res 2017 Sep 27;9(9):745-753. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital, Koshigaya, Saitama, Japan.
    Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of antidiabetic drugs that improve glycemic control by inhibiting reabsorption of glucose filtered through the renal glomerulus. Use of drugs in this class has increased because of their effect of decreasing body weight and a low risk for hypoglycemia, in addition to a relatively strong glucose-lowering effect. SGLT2 inhibitors such as canagliflozin and sotagliflozin (a SGLT1/SGLT2 dual inhibitor) also have a mild or moderate intestinal and renal SGLT1 inhibitory effect because of their relatively weak selectivity for SGLT2 over SGLT1. Read More

    Impact of 24-hour helpline service for people with diabetes.
    Pak J Med Sci 2017 May-Jun;33(3):747-751
    Qutub Uddin, Diabetes Educator, Diet and Education Department, Baqai Institute of Diabetology and Endocrinology, Baqai Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan.
    Objective: To evaluate the impact and effectiveness of 24-hour helpline service in providing information and educating patients about self-management of diabetes.

    Method: The study was conducted at Baqai Institute of Diabetology & Endocrinology (BIDE), a tertiary diabetes care center, Karachi, Pakistan. People with diabetes attending the outpatient department from November 2012 to October 2014 were included in this study. Read More

    Role of Ramadan specific diabetes education (RSDE); A prospective study.
    Pak J Med Sci 2017 May-Jun;33(3):586-593
    Muhammad Saif ul Haque, MS (Diab & Endo), Registrar, Department of Medicine, Baqai Institute of Diabetology and Endocrinology, Baqai Medical University, Plot No. 1-2, II-B, Nazimabad No.2, Karachi, Pakistan.
    Objective: To observe the role of Ramadan Specific Diabetes Education (RSDE) in the management of fasting patients with diabetes.

    Methods: This prospective study was carried out at out-patients department (OPD) of Baqai Institute of Diabetology & Endocrinology (BIDE), in 2012. Recruitment of patients started a month prior to Ramadan. Read More

    Effect of an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention on Glycemic Control in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
    JAMA 2017 Aug;318(7):637-646
    Centre of Inflammation and Metabolism, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Importance: It is unclear whether a lifestyle intervention can maintain glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Objective: To test whether an intensive lifestyle intervention results in equivalent glycemic control compared with standard care and, secondarily, leads to a reduction in glucose-lowering medication in participants with type 2 diabetes.

    Design, Setting, And Participants: Randomized, assessor-blinded, single-center study within Region Zealand and the Capital Region of Denmark (April 2015-August 2016). Read More

    Algorithm for Screening of Adrenal Function in Stable Patients with Cirrhosis.
    Ann Hepatol 2017 Aug;16(5):788-796
    Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey, Mexico Gastroenterology Division, Hospital Universitario "Dr. José Eleuterio González".
    Introduction And Aims: Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is common in patients with cirrhosis. We aimed to assess the presence of AI in stable patients with cirrhosis using the gold-standard insulin tolerance test (ITT) and to propose an algorithm for screening AI in these patients.

    Material And Methods: We studied 40 stable patients with cirrhosis. Read More

    Software-guided versus nurse-directed blood glucose control in critically ill patients: the LOGIC-2 multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial.
    Crit Care 2017 Aug 14;21(1):212. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    Clinical Division and Laboratory of Intensive Care Medicine, Academic Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, KU Leuven, University Hospitals Leuven, Herestraat 49, B-3000, Leuven, Belgium.
    Background: Blood glucose control in the intensive care unit (ICU) has the potential to save lives. However, maintaining blood glucose concentrations within a chosen target range is difficult in clinical practice and holds risk of potentially harmful hypoglycemia. Clinically validated computer algorithms to guide insulin dosing by nurses have been advocated for better and safer blood glucose control. Read More

    Budget impact of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes who experience severe recurrent hypoglycemic episodes in Spain.
    Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr 2017 Aug - Sep;64(7):377-383. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
    Unidad de Diabetes, Servicio de Endocrinología y Nutrición, ICMDiM, Hospital Clínic i Universitari de Barcelona, IDIBAPS, Barcelona, España.
    Objective: Hypoglycemia is one of the most common complications to achieve a good metabolic control, and has been listed by several scientific associations as a common indication to start treatment with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). Use of CSII is still residual in Spain as compared to neighbouring countries, and cost of acquisition cost is one of the main reasons. This study estimates the budget impact of treatment with CSII, as compared to multiple daily insulin injections, of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who experience recurrent severe hypoglycemia episodes from the National Healthcare System perspective. Read More

    Gut microbiome response to short-term dietary interventions in reactive hypoglycemia subjects.
    Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2017 Aug 14. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Background: Reactive hypoglycemia (RH) is a metabolic disorder that provokes severe hypoglycemic episodes after meal. Over recent years, the gut microbiota (GM) has been recognized as potential target for the control of metabolic diseases, and the possibility to correct GM dysbioses through diet, favoring the recovery of metabolic homeostasis, has been considered.

    Methods: We investigate the impact of two short-term (3-day) nutritional interventions, based on the macrobiotic Ma-Pi 2 diet and a control Mediterranean diet, on the structure and functionality of the GM in 12 patients affected by RH. Read More

    A novel free fatty acid receptor 1 (GPR40/FFAR1) agonist, MR1704, enhances glucose-dependent insulin secretion and improves glucose homeostasis in rats.
    Pharmacol Res Perspect 2017 Aug;5(4)
    Research Center, Mochida Pharmaceutical Company Limited, Shizuoka, Japan.
    Activation of G protein-coupled receptor 40/Free fatty acid receptor 1 (GPR40/FFAR1), which is highly expressed in pancreatic β cells, is considered an important pharmacologic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of MR1704, a novel GPR40/FFAR1 agonist, on glucose homeostasis in rats. MR1704 is a highly potent and selective, orally bioavailable agonist with similar in vitro potencies among humans, mice, and rats. Read More

    Lipopolysaccharide inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis in rats: the role of immune cells.
    J Diabetes Investig 2017 Aug 14. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Tezukayama-gakuin University, Osaka, Japan.
    Aims/introduction: Bacterial septicemia has diverse clinical symptoms including severe hypoglycemia. However, sepsis-induced hypoglycemia has not yet been examined in detail. The aim of the present study is to investigate the mechanisms underlying hypoglycemia in sepsis. Read More

    The influence of D-chiro-inositol and D-myo-inositol in pregnant women with glucose intolerance.
    Biomed Rep 2017 Aug 4;7(2):169-172. Epub 2017 Jul 4.
    Unit of Cytogenetic and Molecular Genetics, 'Madonna delle Grazie' Hospital, 75100 Matera, Italy.
    The aim of the present study was to demonstrate that the use of inositol and folic acid from the first trimester of pregnancy, counteracts the onset of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in women at risk, preserving the infants from macrosomia, hypoglycemia and preterm delivery. The authors collected data from the pregnant women at the laboratory (Unit of Cytogenic and Molecular Genetics), from January 2014 to April 2016, all with first trimester fasting plasma glucose (FPG) >92 mg/dl. A total of 40 women were treated with 250 mg/day D-chiro-inositol, 1. Read More

    Clinical practice guidelines for congenital hyperinsulinism.
    Clin Pediatr Endocrinol 2017 27;26(3):127-152. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Department of Pediatric Surgery, Tohoku University, Miyagi, Japan.
    Congenital hyperinsulinism is a rare condition, and following recent advances in diagnosis and treatment, it was considered necessary to formulate evidence-based clinical practice guidelines reflecting the most recent progress, to guide the practice of neonatologists, pediatric endocrinologists, general pediatricians, and pediatric surgeons. These guidelines cover a range of aspects, including general features of congenital hyperinsulinism, diagnostic criteria and tools for diagnosis, first- and second-line medical treatment, criteria for and details of surgical treatment, and future perspectives. These guidelines were generated as a collaborative effort between The Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and The Japanese Society of Pediatric Surgeons, and followed the official procedures of guideline generation to identify important clinical questions, perform a systematic literature review (April 2016), assess the evidence level of each paper, formulate the guidelines, and obtain public comments. Read More

    TITRATION: A Randomized Study to Assess 2 Treatment Algorithms with New Insulin Glargine 300 units/mL.
    Can J Diabetes 2017 Aug 10. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    Department of Family Medicine, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:
    Objective: It was uncertain whether an algorithm that involves increasing insulin dosages by 1 unit/day may cause more hypoglycemia with the longer-acting insulin glargine 300 units/mL (GLA-300). The objective of this study was to compare safety and efficacy of 2 titration algorithms, INSIGHT and EDITION, for GLA-300 in people with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus, mainly in a primary care setting.

    Methods: This was a 12-week, open-label, randomized, multicentre pilot study. Read More

    Does hypoglycaemia affect the improvement in QoL after the transition to insulin in people with type 2 diabetes?
    J Endocrinol Invest 2017 Aug 12. Epub 2017 Aug 12.
    Department of Medical Psychology, VU University Medical Center (VUMC), De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Purpose: Quality of Life (QoL) of insulin-naïve people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) improves after transition to insulin. Little is known about the role of hypoglycaemia in this context. Secondary analyses of the Study of the Psychological Impact in Real care of Initiating insulin glargine Treatment (SPIRIT) aimed to investigate the relationship between hypoglycaemia and QoL when transitioning to insulin. Read More

    Discovery of cycloalkyl-fused N-thiazol-2-yl-benzamides as tissue non-specific glucokinase activators: Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation.
    Eur J Med Chem 2017 Jul 25;139:128-152. Epub 2017 Jul 25.
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 555 Zu Chong Zhi Road, Shanghai 201203, PR China. Electronic address:
    Glucokinase (GK) activators are being developed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, existing GK activators have risks of hypoglycemia caused by over-activation of GK in islet cells and dyslipidemia caused by over-activation of intrahepatic GK. In the effort to mitigate risks of hypoglycemia and dyslipidemia while maintaining the promising efficacy of GK activator, we investigated a series of cycloalkyl-fused N-thiazol-2-yl-benzamides as tissue non-specific partial GK activators, which led to the identification of compound 72 that showed a good balance between in vitro potency and enzyme kinetic parameters, and protected β-cells from streptozotocin-induced apoptosis. Read More

    Pharmacology and Perioperative Considerations for Diabetes Mellitus Medications.
    Curr Clin Pharmacol 2017 Aug 10. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    Division of General Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida. United States.
    Background: Given the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in modern society, health care providers are frequently tasked with managing glucose control in the perioperative period. When determining perioperative diabetes management, the clinician must balance the need to maintain relative euglycemia at the time of surgery with preventing hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia in a fasting surgical patient. This balance requires an understanding of the pharmacology of these medications, the type of surgery, and the patient's degree of diabetic control. Read More

    The Clinical Use of a Fixed-Dose Combination of Insulin Degludec and Liraglutide (Xultophy 100/3.6) for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes.
    Ann Pharmacother 2017 Aug 1:1060028017726348. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    1 Wingate University School of Pharmacy, Wingate, NC, USA.
    Objective: To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of the fixed-dose combination of insulin degludec and the glucagon-like peptide-I receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA), liraglutide (IDegLira) in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

    Data Sources: A PubMed and MEDLINE search (1966 to July 2017) of the keywords insulin degludec, liraglutide, and type 2 diabetes mellitus was conducted. References were reviewed to identify additional citations. Read More

    Use of Freestyle Libre ProTM Flash Glucose Monitoring System in Different Clinical Situations at a Diabetes Centre.
    J Assoc Physicians India 2017 Aug;65(8):18-23
    President, Madras Diabetes Research Foundation and Chairman, Dr. Mohan's Diabetes Specialities Centre, Chennai, Tamil Nadu.
    Flash Glucose Monitoring (FGM) is a newly introduced Glucose Monitoring system. FGM provides both graphical representation of qualitative and quantitative changes in glucose levels occurring over 14-day period collapsed into single modal day graph as well as day by day graphs. In this report, we present our experience with FGM in different clinical situations. Read More

    REPOSE: repositioning insulin pump therapy in Type 1 diabetes.
    Diabet Med 2017 Aug 11. Epub 2017 Aug 11.
    Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Imperial College, London, UK.
    In 2008, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) technology appraisal of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII, insulin pump therapy) for people with Type 1 diabetes was published [1]. Implementation of this enables children under the age of 12 years to access CSII, and consideration of CSII for adults and children over 12 years with challenging hypo- or hyperglycaemia. In Scotland, the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) guidance for management of diabetes states that CSII therapy should be considered for people unable to achieve their glycaemic targets, for those who experience recurring episodes of severe hypoglycaemia, and in infants and very young children with very low basal insulin requirements, for whom even small doses of basal insulin analogue may result in hypoglycaemia [2]. Read More

    Maternal Diabetes Alters Expression of MicroRNAs that Regulate Genes Critical for Neural Tube Development.
    Front Mol Neurosci 2017 27;10:237. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Department of Anatomy, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System, National University of SingaporeSingapore, Singapore.
    Maternal diabetes is known to cause neural tube defects (NTDs) in embryos and neuropsychological deficits in infants. Several metabolic pathways and a plethora of genes have been identified to be deregulated in developing brain of embryos by maternal diabetes, although the exact mechanism remains unknown. Recently, miRNAs have been shown to regulate genes involved in brain development and maturation. Read More

    Novel PET tracer (68)Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT can be alternative imaging method in patients with insulinomas.
    J Nucl Med Technol 2017 Aug 10. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    Dicle University Faculty of Medicine Department of Endocrinology Diyarbakır, Turkey, Turkey.
    Insulinomas are the most common cause of hypoglycemia resulting from endogenous hyperinsulinism. The diagnosis of insulinoma is established by demonstrating inappropriately high serum insulin concentrations during a spontaneous or induced episode of hypoglycaemia. Most of the insulinomas are islet-cell tumors. Read More

    The Older Adult with Diabetes and The Busy Clinicians.
    Prim Care 2017 Sep;44(3):469-479
    Department of Family & Geriatric Medicine, University of Louisville, 1941 Bishop Lane, Suite 900, Louisville, KY 40218, USA. Electronic address:
    Busy primary care providers are in the frontline and see the bulk of older adults with diabetes. This vulnerable population is more prone to diabetic complications and hypoglycemia. In contrast to the younger patients with diabetes, lifestyle interventions are even more effective in older adults while the target A1c levels may need to be more relaxed for frail individuals. Read More

    [Investigation of pregestational diabetes mellitus in 15 hospitals in Guangdong province].
    Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi 2017 Jul;52(7):436-442
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China.
    Objective: To investigate the morbidity, diagnostic profile and perinatal outcome of pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM) in 15 hospitals in Guangdong province. Methods: A total of 41 338 women delivered in the 15 hospitals during the 6 months, 195 women with PGDM (PGDM group) and 195 women with normal glucose test result (control group) were recruited from these tertiary hospitals in Guangdong province from January 2016 to June 2016. The morbidity and diagnostic profile of PGDM were analyzed. Read More

    Factors Associated with Greater Benefit of a National Reimbursement Policy for Blood Glucose Test Strips in Adult Patients with Type 1 Diabetes: A Prospective Cohort Study.
    J Diabetes Investig 2017 Aug 10. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Aims/introduction: We aimed to identify factors independently associated with greater benefit of a national reimbursement policy for blood glucose test strips in adult patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), in terms of glycemic control and rate of severe hypoglycemia.

    Materials And Methods: This was a prospective cohort study of 466 adult patients with T1DM from five tertiary referral hospitals who registered for a national reimbursement program for blood glucose strips and were then followed-up for 12 months. Factors associated with a >5% reduction in HbA1c and decreased rate of severe hypoglycaemia (SH) at 12 months from baseline were evaluated. Read More

    Management of diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents: engaging in physical activity.
    Transl Pediatr 2017 Jul;6(3):215-224
    Section of Endocrinology, The Ohio State University, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH, USA.
    Regular physical activity is an important component in the management of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and T2DM), as it has the potential to improve glycemic control, delay cardiovascular complications, and increase overall well-being. Unfortunately, many children and adolescents with diabetes do not partake in regular exercise and physical activity for multiple reasons. This review identifies the barriers to participation from the aspect of the patient, caregiver, and the healthcare provider. Read More

    Overview of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists for the Treatment of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.
    Am Health Drug Benefits 2017 Jun;10(4):178-188
    Medical Director, Las Vegas Endocrinology, Clinical Associate Professor, Clinical Education, AZCOM, and Adjunct Associate Professor of Endocrinology, Touro University Nevada.
    Background: It is estimated that 29.1 million people or 9.3% of the US population have diabetes, which contributes to considerable medical and financial burden. Read More

    O-(2-(18)F-fluoroethyl)-l-tyrosine ((18)F-FET) uptake in insulinoma: first results from a xenograft mouse model and from human.
    Nucl Med Biol 2017 Jul 12;53:21-28. Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, IPHC, UMR 7178, F-67000, Strasbourg, France.
    Introduction: Herein we have evaluated the uptake of O-(2-(18)F-fluoroethyl)-l-tyrosine ((18)F-FET) in insulinoma in comparison with those of 6-(18)F-fluoro-3,4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine ((18)F-FDOPA) providing first data from both murine xenograft model and one patient with proved endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia.

    Methods: Dynamic (18)F-FET and carbidopa-assisted (18)F-FDOPA PET were performed on tumor-bearing nude mice after subcutaneous injection of RIN-m5F murine beta cells and on a 30-year-old man with type-1 multiple endocrine neoplasia and hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia defined by a positive fasting test.

    Results: Seven and three nude mice bearing a RIN-m5F insulinoma xenograft were respectively studied by (18)F-FET and (18)F-FDOPA μPET. Read More

    Clinical characteristics of women with gestational diabetes - comparison of two cohorts enrolled 20 years apart in southern Brazil.
    Sao Paulo Med J 2017 Jul-Aug;135(4):376-382. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    MD, PhD. Professor, Postgraduate Program on Epidemiology, School of Medicine, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre (RS), Brazil.
    Context And Objective:: The prevalence and characteristics of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have changed over time, reflecting the nutritional transition and changes in diagnostic criteria. We aimed to evaluate characteristics of women with GDM over a 20-year interval.

    Design And Setting:: Comparison of two pregnancy cohorts enrolled in different periods, in university hospitals in Porto Alegre, Brazil: 1991 to 1993 (n = 216); and 2009 to 2013 (n = 375). Read More

    Addition of Insulin to Parenteral Nutrition for Control of Hyperglycemia.
    JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2017 Aug 1:148607117722750. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    1 Cambridge Intestinal Failure and Transplant, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Administration of parenteral nutrition (PN) may result in hyperglycemia in patients with preexisting diabetes or disease-related insulin resistance, and it can be associated with increased rates of complications. Treatment requires insulin therapy. Insulin can be administered subcutaneously, intravenously via a variable rate sliding scale, or by adding it directly to the PN. Read More

    Consensus on "Basal insulin in the management of Type 2 Diabetes: Which, When and How?"
    J Assoc Physicians India 2017 Jul;65(7):51-62
    Diabetes, Thyroid and Endocrine Centre, Galaxy Speciality Centre, Jaipur, Rajasthan.
    Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has attained epidemic proportions and continues to increase despite the availability of a number of oral antidiabetic medications and major advances made in insulin delivery since its discovery nearly a hundred years ago. One, amongst many other reasons responsible for the inability to achieve adequate glycaemic control in a substantial proportion of T2DM patients is the delayed initiation and inappropriate intensification of insulin treatment. Appropriate initiation and intensification of insulin is critical for the successful achievement of tight glycaemic control. Read More

    [The efficacy and safety of linagliptin in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes: a pooled analysis of eight placebo-controlled clinical trials].
    Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi 2017 Aug;56(8):588-594
    Department of Endocrinology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing100034, China.
    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, linagliptin, in subjects aged 60 years or older with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: Data from eight 24-week, multinational, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group studies were analyzed. Patients aged 60 years or older with T2DM were received oral linagliptin (5 mg/d) or placebo in combination with metformin, or metformin plus sulfonylurea. Read More

    Sirolimus in the treatment of three infants with diffuse congenital hyperinsulinism.
    J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2017 Aug 8. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    .
    Background: Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is a major cause of persistent hypoglycemia and brain damage. Therapeutic strategies to avoid near total pancreatectomy in patients who are unresponsive to maximum doses of diazoxide and octreotide remain to be identified, although sirolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, has been used successfully to treat diffuse type CHI.

    Case Presentation: We used sirolimus to treat three infants with diffuse CHI. Read More

    Efficacy and safety of teneligliptin added onto canagliflozin monotherapy in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group comparative study.
    Diabetes Obes Metab 2017 Aug 8. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation, Tokyo, Japan.
    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are frequently used in combination for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We examined the efficacy and safety of teneligliptin (a DPP-4 inhibitor) added onto canagliflozin (an SGLT2 inhibitor) monotherapy in Japanese patients with poorly controlled T2DM as part of the development of a fixed-dose combination of teneligliptin and canagliflozin. Japanese patients treated with canagliflozin (100 mg) for ≥12 weeks were randomised to receive add-on teneligliptin (20 mg; C + T group) or placebo (C + P group) for 24 weeks. Read More

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