810 results match your criteria Hyperviscosity Syndrome

The New Entity of Subacute Thyroiditis amid the COVID-19 Pandemic: From Infection to Vaccine.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2022 Apr 12;12(4). Epub 2022 Apr 12.

Department of Bacteriology-Virology-Parasitology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, 200349 Craiova, Romania.

This is a review of full-length articles strictly concerning subacute thyroiditis (SAT) in relation to the SARS-CoV-2 virus infection (SVI) and COVID-19 vaccine (COV) that were published between the 1st of March 2020 and the 21st of March 2022 in PubMed-indexed journals. A total of 161 cases were reported as follows: 81 cases of SAT-SVI (2 retrospective studies, 5 case series, and 29 case reports), 80 respective cases of SAT-COV (1 longitudinal study, 14 case series, 17 case reports; also, 1 prospective study included 12 patients, with 6 patients in each category). To our knowledge, this represents the largest cohort of reported cases until the present time. Read More

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Transient stress-related hyperviscosity and endothelial dysfunction in Takotsubo syndrome: a time course study.

Heart Vessels 2022 Apr 22. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

General Cardiology Unit, Department of Cardiac Thoracic and Vascular Medicine, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, Viale Morgagni, 85, 50141, Florence, Italy.

Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is an acute and usually reversible heart failure syndrome, frequently associated with emotional or physical stress. Its pathophysiology remains largely unclear, although several mechanisms related to catecholaminergic storm have been proposed. In this study we analyzed during the acute phase of TTS and at follow-up both hemorheological parameters and biomarkers of endothelial damage, whose time course has never been fully explored. Read More

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An updated narrative review on the management of the most common oncological and hematological emergencies.

Ali Issani

Dis Mon 2022 Apr 1:101355. Epub 2022 Apr 1.

Baqai Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Oncological emergencies are defined as an acute life-threatening event in a patient with a tumor occurring as part of their complex treatment regimen or secondarily to their underlying malignancy. These events can occur at any time from the initial diagnosis of their cancer to end-stage disease. These oncological emergencies are broadly classified into four major categories; metabolic, structural, hematological and treatment-related causes; and can be encountered in any clinical setting, ranging from primary care physician and emergency department visits to a variety of subspecialty environments. Read More

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T-cell prolymphocytic leukaemia associated with immune checkpoint inhibitor (pembrolizumab).

BMJ Case Rep 2022 Mar 29;15(3). Epub 2022 Mar 29.

Internal Medicine Department, Albany Medical Center Hospital, Albany, New York, USA.

We describe the case of a man in his 60s with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung with brain metastasis treated with pembrolizumab who subsequently developed T-cell prolymphocytic leukaemia. He was transferred to our hospital with worsening dyspnoea, suspected hyperviscosity syndrome and tumour lysis syndrome. He was intubated and admitted to our critical care unit. Read More

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The wide spectrum of cryoglobulinemic vasculitis and an overview of therapeutic advancements.

Clin Exp Med 2022 Mar 28. Epub 2022 Mar 28.

Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, University of Bari "Aldo Moro" Medical School, Polyclinic, Piazza Giulio Cesare, 11, 70124, Bari, Italy.

Immunoglobulins that reversibly precipitate at temperatures below 37 °C are called cryoglobulins (CGs). Cryoglobulinemia often manifests as cryoglobulinemic vasculitis (CV), whose symptoms range in severity from purpuric eruptions to life-threatening features. The majority of CV patients are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), whereas lymphoproliferative disorders or connective tissue diseases (CTD) are commonly diagnosed among patients with CV of non-infectious origin. Read More

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Simple headache revealed a rare lymphoma: Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia with unique markers: a case report and review of the literature.

J Egypt Natl Canc Inst 2022 Mar 7;34(1):10. Epub 2022 Mar 7.

American University of the Caribbean, School of Medicine, Philipsburg, St. Maarten, SXM.

Background: Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (WM) is a rare lymphoma with an incidence rate of 3 per million people per year, with approximately 1000 to 1500 new cases diagnosed each year in the USA. It is primarily seen in Caucasian males with a median age of 70 years old. Patients are most often asymptomatic, but WM can manifest itself with constitutional symptoms such as lethargy, bleeding, organomegaly, and neurological or fundoscopic abnormalities. Read More

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Med Clin (Barc) 2022 May 22;158(10):478-487. Epub 2022 Feb 22.

Servicio de Enfermedades Autoinmunes, ICMiD, Hospital Clínic, Barcelona, España; Departamento de Medicina, Universitad de Barcelona, Barcelona, España. Electronic address:

Cryoglobulins are immunoglobulins that precipitate in vitro at temperatures below 37 ̊C. Cryoglobulin-associated disease is heterogeneous, as not all patients present with it, includes various syndromic presentations (vasculitis is the most common, hyperviscosity syndrome is more exceptional), and can be associated with acute clinical pictures with high mortality. Until the appearance of specific antiviral treatments, the main aetiology has been chronic HCV infection, and currently it is mainly associated with systemic autoimmune diseases, malignant neoplasms and cases with no identified aetiology (essential cryoglobulinemia). Read More

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Therapeutic Plasma Exchange: For Cancer Patients.

Cancer Manag Res 2022 2;14:411-425. Epub 2022 Feb 2.

Department of Oncology, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, 646000, People's Republic of China.

Therapeutic plasma exchange is used as a trial method for the treatment of cancer patients. Therapeutic plasma exchange uses in vitro technology to remove pathogenic factors in the plasma, returning the replacement and remaining components to the patient to facilitate cure. In the effort to explore new methods of cancer treatment, the introduction of therapeutic plasma exchange brings new hope for cancer treatment; however, the current evidence supporting therapeutic plasma exchange is controversial, and most of the evidence comes from observational studies, lacking large prospective randomized trials. Read More

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February 2022

Blasting Into Acute Coronary Syndrome.

Cureus 2021 Nov 15;13(11):e19589. Epub 2021 Nov 15.

Internal Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, USA.

Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a condition that develops from reduced blood flow and oxygen delivery through the coronary arteries which leads to cardiac ischemia. In the case presented here, the patient's ACS was precipitated by his underlying condition of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Several complications can arise in patients with CML, one of them being blast crisis. Read More

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November 2021

Waldenström macroglobulinemia.

Klin Onkol 2021 ;34(6):428-433

Background: Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a hematological malignancy; it is a monoclonal gammopathy, a disease characterized by presence of a monoclonal immunoglobulin in serum and/or urine. The median age at dia-gnosis is 71 years. WM is not an aggres-sive disease and patients with this dia-gnosis can live for several years. Read More

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The effect of rheopheresis treatment on the cytokine profile in diabetic foot syndrome with hyperviscosity in the aspect of clinical changes: A preliminary study.

Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 2022 ;80(2):117-125

Division of Angiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary.

Background: Rheopheresis is a selective extracorporal double cascade filtration treatment, which can extract high molecular weight proteins being responsible for hyperviscosity. As the whole blood and plasma viscosity decrease microcirculation improves.

Objective: In this preliminary study we aimed to analyze additional beneficial effects of rheopheresis treatment with changes of pro-inflammantory cytokine levels in diabetic foot syndrome patients. Read More

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February 2022

Symptomatic Carotid Artery Thrombosis in a Patient Recently Recovered From a COVID-19 Infection.

Cureus 2021 Oct 9;13(10):e18626. Epub 2021 Oct 9.

General Surgery, Al Imam Abdulrahman Alfaisal Hospital, Riyadh, SAU.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was initially discovered in December 2019 in China and rapidly spread all over the world to become a pandemic. The most common symptoms of a disease are fever, cough, generalized body ache, weakness, dyspnoea, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Among vascular complications of COVID-19, the venous thrombotic complications, like pulmonary embolism and lower limb deep veins thrombosis, are not uncommon. Read More

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October 2021

Therapeutic plasma exchange for life-threatening pediatric disorders.

J Clin Apher 2021 Dec 1;36(6):823-830. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Hôpital Necker Enfants Malades, Paris, France.

Introduction: Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is acknowledged to be an effective treatment in life-threatening pediatric disorders. Apheresis for pediatric diseases has been poorly investigated, and most studies to date featured small numbers of patients and lacked control groups. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the tolerance of TPE in pediatric patients. Read More

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December 2021

Multiple Myeloma, Hyperviscosity, Hemodialysis Filter Clogging, and Antigen Excess Artifact: A Case Report.

Kidney Med 2021 Jul-Aug;3(4):649-652. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Nephrology, Ochsner Medical Center, New Orleans, LA.

Kidney involvement in multiple myeloma can result in kidney failure. Unlike Waldenström macroglobulinemia, hyperviscosity syndrome is a rare occurrence in multiple myeloma. Timely detection of hyperviscosity syndrome and initiation of plasma exchange to remove paraproteins can significantly alter the clinical course and be potentially lifesaving. Read More

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A 9-year-old male with Barth syndrome and cardiac transplant presenting with hyperviscosity syndrome caused by EBV-negative plasmacytoid posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2021 12 2;68(12):e29264. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Division of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology, Transplant and Cellular Therapy, Children's Hospital at Montefiore, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA.

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December 2021

Hyperviscosity Retinopathy and Immunogammopathy Maculopahy as New Onset of Multiple Myeloma.

Case Rep Ophthalmol 2021 May-Aug;12(2):578-584. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Ophthalmology, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

The purpose is to report a case of immunogammopathy maculopathy and hyperviscosity retinopathy as the presenting feature of new-onset multiple myeloma (MM) in an otherwise healthy man. A 50-years-old man presented with painless visual changes in both eyes for 2 months. Ocular examination revealed bilateral CRVO-like associated with macular edema (ME) and an inferior serous detachment. Read More

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Fulminant type I cryoglobulinemic glomerulonephritis with unique ultrastructural plugs: a case report.

Int J Hematol 2021 Nov 24;114(5):620-625. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Nephrology, Institute of Nephrology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, 197 Ruijin Er Road, Shanghai, 200025, China.

Introduction:  Type I cryoglobulinemia is a rare disease which affects the skin, central nervous system and kidneys. It is usually associated with lymphoproliferative disorders such as multiple myeloma, lymphoma and monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance. Proteinuria and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis are the most common renal manifestations; Case presentation: Here we report the case of a female patient in her late 40 s who had proteinuria accompanied by Raynaud's phenomenon, high blood and plasma viscosity, hearing loss, and cardiac and central nervous system involvement. Read More

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November 2021

The Spectrum of Ocular Manifestations in Patients with Waldenström's Macroglobulinemia.

Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2021 Jul 16:1-10. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, University of Bari "Aldo Moro", Medical School, Bari, Italy.

: To investigate the ocular manifestations in 91 Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM) patients.: Retrospective, cross-sectional, observational analysis.: Ocular impairments, detected in 19 patients, included flame-shaped hemorrhages, venous sausaging, papilledema, macular detachments, or central retinal vein occlusion in 16 patients; paraproteinemic keratopathy in 2; and a CANOMAD syndrome in 1. Read More

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Hyperviscosity syndrome in IgA multiple myeloma.

QJM 2022 Jan;115(1):30-31

From the Internal Medicine Department, Medstar Washington Hospital Center, 110 Irving Street NW, Washington, DC 20010, USA.

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January 2022

Managing complications secondary to Waldenström's macroglobulinemia.

Expert Rev Hematol 2021 07 2;14(7):621-632. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Clinical Therapeutics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

: Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM) is a rare lymphoma characterized by the accumulation of IgM-secreting lymphoplasmacytic cells in the bone marrow and other organs. Clinical sequelae relate to direct tissue infiltration by malignant cells but also to the physicochemical and immunological properties of the monoclonal IgM, resulting in a variety of disease-related complications.: This narrative review, following a thorough Pubmed search of pertinent published literature, discusses complications secondary to WM, related to direct tumor infiltration, monoclonal IgM circulation, and deposition, as well as other less common ones. Read More

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In silico biophysics and hemorheology of blood hyperviscosity syndrome.

Biophys J 2021 07 2;120(13):2723-2733. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address:

Hyperviscosity syndrome (HVS) is characterized by an increase of the blood viscosity by up to seven times the normal blood viscosity, resulting in disturbances to the circulation in the vasculature system. HVS is commonly associated with an increase of large plasma proteins and abnormalities in the properties of red blood cells, such as cell interactions, cell stiffness, and increased hematocrit. Here, we perform a systematic study of the effect of each biophysical factor on the viscosity of blood by employing the dissipative particle dynamic method. Read More

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Case Report: The Use of Intravenous SMOFlipid Infusion to Treat Severe Asparaginase-Induced Hypertriglyceridemia in Two Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Patients.

Front Pediatr 2021 22;9:660627. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Unit, Department of Pediatrics, UKM Medical Centre, Faculty of Medicine, The National University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Asparaginase-induced hypertriglyceridemia can have a spectrum of clinical presentations, from being asymptomatic to having life-threatening thrombosis or hyperviscosity syndrome. At present, there is no recommendation on routine lipid monitoring during asparaginase-containing treatment phase, nor a standardized guideline on its management. Two cases are presented here to illustrate the effects of concurrent infection on asparaginase-induced hypertriglyceridemia in patients with high-risk ALL and the use of SMOFlipid infusion as a treatment option in an acute situation. Read More

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The utility of therapeutic plasma exchange in Hyperviscosity syndrome associated with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: A case report.

J Clin Apher 2021 Aug 4;36(4):658-663. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Pathology, Division of Transfusion Medicine and Hemostasis, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA.

Hyperviscosity syndrome (HVS) is a life-threatening syndrome caused by high concentrations of large plasma proteins like IgM, rheumatoid factor, and other immune complexes, leading to increased blood viscosity and symptoms such as visual abnormalities, neurological impairment, bleeding diathesis, and thrombosis. While Waldenström's macroglobulinemia accounts for 80% to 90% of cases, HVS may develop in other clinical settings characterized by elevations in plasma proteins. Limited evidence currently exists describing the safety and efficacy of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) for the management of HVS secondary to non-neoplastic conditions. Read More

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Successful Treatment of Pediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome Temporally Associated with COVID-19 (PIMS-TS) with Split Doses of Immunoglobulin G and Estimation of PIMS-TS Incidence in a County District in Southern Germany.

Healthcare (Basel) 2021 Apr 18;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Pediatrics, Hospital Ostallgäu-Kaufbeuren, 87600 Kaufbeuren, Germany.

Pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS Cov2 (PIMS-TS) is a newly encountered disease in children sharing clinical features with Kawasaki disease, toxic shock syndrome, or macrophage-activating syndrome. Pathogenically, it is associated with immune-mediated post-infectious hyperinflammation leading to short-term myocardial injury with yet unknown long-term outcome. We herein present three cases of PIMS-TS treated in our institution with divided doses of immunoglobulins and high dose acetyl salicylic acid, according to existing Kawasaki disease guidelines. Read More

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Polyclonal hypergammaglobulinaemia: assessment, clinical interpretation, and management.

Lancet Haematol 2021 May;8(5):e365-e375

Division of Hematology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Centre for Health Education Scholarship, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Department of Medicine, Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver, BC, Canada. Electronic address:

This Review outlines a practical approach to assessing and managing polyclonal hypergammaglobulinaemia in adults. Polyclonal hypergammaglobulinaemia is most commonly caused by liver disease, immune dysregulation, or inflammation, but can also provide an important diagnostic clue of rare diseases such as histiocyte disorders, autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome, Castleman disease, and IgG4-related disease. Causes of polyclonal hypergammaglobulinaemia can be divided into eight categories: liver disease, autoimmune disease and vasculitis, infection and inflammation, non-haematological malignancy, haematological disorders, IgG4-related disease, immunodeficiency syndromes, and iatrogenic (from immunoglobulin therapy). Read More

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Reflections on the unexpected laboratory finding of hemorheological alterations observed in some haematological disorders.

Microvasc Res 2021 07 20;136:104171. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Health Promotion and Child Care, Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Palermo, Italy. Electronic address:

Hyperviscosity syndrome is a clinical condition characterized by the slowing of blood flow through the vessels and it may be associated with several diseases. The nosographic classification of primary hyperviscosity conditions (Wells classification 1970) divided the primary hyperviscosity syndromes in polycythaemic, sclerocytemic and sieric. Recent and personal laboratory observations have highlighted an unexpected behaviour of the erythrocyte deformability observed in some haematological disorders such as polycythemia vera, multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. Read More

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Profound Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Hematologic Malignancy: A Case for Urgent Cochlear Implantation With Discussion and Systematic Review of the Literature.

Otol Neurotol 2021 08;42(7):e815-e824

Division of Neurotology & Lateral Skull Base Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Objective: To perform a systematic review of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in hematologic malignancy; to describe an illustrative case of urgent cochlear implantation for bilateral profound SNHL and vestibular hypofunction in hyperviscosity syndrome; to suggest an approach to management of hyperviscosity syndrome-associated deafness with cochlear implantation.

Data Sources: Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases was undertaken for articles detailing clinical information about SNHL caused directly by hematologic malignancies.

Results: A total of 37 studies from 1989 to 2020 were qualitatively reviewed, the majority of which were case studies or case series. Read More

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Case Report: Management of a Patient With Chylomicronemia Syndrome During Pregnancy With Medical Nutrition Therapy.

Front Nutr 2021 5;8:602938. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) during pregnancy may be accompanied by acute pancreatitis, hyperviscosity syndrome, and preeclampsia. HTG during pregnancy should be managed by a multidisciplinary team; however, no clinical guidelines exist for severe gestational HTG. We herein present a case of a 36-year-old in the first pregnancy (G1P0Ab0), with a history of severe HTG-induced necrotizing pancreatitis 9 years earlier. Read More

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Hyperviscosity-related retinopathy and serous macular detachment in Waldenström's macroglobulinemia: A mortal case in 5 years.

Eur J Ophthalmol 2021 Mar 15:11206721211002066. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

School of Medicine, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan.

Purpose: To present a 5-year mortal case of Waldenström's macroglobulinemia-related retinopathy and serous macular detachment.

Case Report: A 63-year-old man, with unremarkable medical history, presented with bilateral decreased vision for 2 months. Fundus examination revealed bilateral scattered retinal hemorrhages, exudates, venous tortuosity, and serous macular detachment. Read More

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Efficacy of plasmapheresis as treatment for bilateral hyperviscosity syndrome related retinopathy in multiple myeloma.

Eur J Ophthalmol 2021 Feb 18:1120672121997069. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Multizone Unit of Ophthalmology of Autonomous Province of Trento, Trento, Italy.

Purpose: To report a case of good clinical response to plasmapheresis as therapy for a bilateral hyperviscosity syndrome related retinopathy in a young patient with undiagnosed multiple myeloma (MM).

Methods: Case report.

Results: A 48-year-old caucasian man, previously diagnosed with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), presented for medical attention for back ache and vision decrease, worst in the left eye. Read More

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February 2021