Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2002 Dec;31(4):895-914
Department of Internal Medicine, Center for Mineral Metabolism and Clinical Research, Center of Human Nutrition, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Veteran Affairs Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.
Humans although a predominantly ureotylic organism, has preserved the ability to excrete nitrogen as uric acid and ammonia. An imbalance between these two secondary modes of nitrogen excretion has resulted in uric acid precipitation in human urine. Uric acid nephrolithiasis can arise from diverse etiologies all with distinct underlying defects converging to one or more of three defects of hyperuricosuria, acidic urine pH, and low urinary volume, originating from secondary, genetic or heretofore undefined (idiopathic) causes. Read More