671 results match your criteria Hypersomnia Primary

Epidemiological characteristics, routine laboratory diagnosis, clinical signs and risk factors for hand, -foot -and -mouth disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2022 28;17(4):e0267716. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Background: For the past few years, only a few monovalent EV71 vaccines have been developed, while other enterovirus vaccines are in short supply. We conducted a quantitative meta-analysis to explore the epidemiological characteristics, routine laboratory diagnosis, clinical signs and risk factors for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD).

Methods: PubMed, Embase and the Web of Science were searched for eligible reports published before April 16, 2021, with no publication time or language restrictions. Read More

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Autoimmune conditions following mRNA (BNT162b2) and inactivated (CoronaVac) COVID-19 vaccination: A descriptive cohort study among 1.1 million vaccinated people in Hong Kong.

J Autoimmun 2022 Jun 14;130:102830. Epub 2022 Apr 14.

Centre for Safe Medication Practice and Research, Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacy, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; Laboratory of Data Discovery for Health (D(2)4H), Hong Kong Science and Technology Park, Sha Tin, Hong Kong, China; Research Department of Practice and Policy, School of Pharmacy, University College London, United Kingdom; Expert Committee on Clinical Events Assessment Following COVID-19 Immunization, Department of Health, The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Hong Kong, China. Electronic address:

Background: Concerns regarding the autoimmune safety of COVID-19 vaccines may negatively impact vaccine uptake. We aimed to describe the incidence of autoimmune conditions following BNT162b2 and CoronaVac vaccination and compare these with age-standardized incidence rates in non-vaccinated individuals.

Methods: This is a descriptive cohort study conducted in public healthcare service settings. Read More

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Effect of FT218, a Once-Nightly Sodium Oxybate Formulation, on Disrupted Nighttime Sleep in Patients with Narcolepsy: Results from the Randomized Phase III REST-ON Trial.

CNS Drugs 2022 04 5;36(4):377-387. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

Clinical Development and Medical Affairs, Avadel Pharmaceuticals, 16640 Chesterfield Grove Road, Suite 200, Chesterfield, MO, 63005, USA.

Background: Sodium oxybate has been recognized as a gold standard for the treatment of disrupted nighttime sleep due to narcolepsy. Its short half-life and immediate-release formulation require patients to awaken 2.5-4 h after their bedtime dose to take a second dose. Read More

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Clinical and neuroradiological correlates of sleep in myotonic dystrophy type 1.

Neuromuscul Disord 2022 May 14;32(5):377-389. Epub 2022 Feb 14.

Institute of Molecular, Cell and Systems Biology, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK.

Abnormalities of sleep are common in myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), but few previous studies have combined polysomnography with detailed clinical measures and brain imaging. In the present study, domiciliary polysomnography, symptom questionnaires and cognitive evaluation were undertaken in 39 DM1-affected individuals. Structural brain MRI was completed in those without contra-indication (n = 32). Read More

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Case Report: Dysfunction of the Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus Area Induces Hypersomnia in Patients.

Front Neurosci 2022 14;16:830474. Epub 2022 Mar 14.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Science, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Hypersomnia is a common and highly impairing symptom marked by pathological excessive sleepiness, which induces suboptimal functioning and poor quality of life. Hypersomnia can be both a primary (e.g. Read More

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Sleep Disturbances, Degree of Disability and the Quality of Life in Multiple Sclerosis Patients.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 03 10;19(6). Epub 2022 Mar 10.

Department of Neurology, Wroclaw Medical University, 50-556 Wroclaw, Poland.

Sleep disturbances are pervasive in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), with incidence about four times higher compared to the general population. The most frequent primary sleep problems include insomnia, restless leg syndrome, sleep-related movement disorders, and sleep-disordered breathing. This study aims to assess the relationships between sleeping problems and the quality of life (QoL) in MS patients. Read More

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Optimal dose determination of enerisant (TS-091) for patients with narcolepsy: two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials.

BMC Psychiatry 2022 02 22;22(1):141. Epub 2022 Feb 22.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Kurume University School of Medicine, 67 Asahi-machi, Kurume, Fukuoka, 830-0011, Japan.

Background: The histamine H3 receptor has emerged as one of the most promising targets of novel pharmacotherapy for narcolepsy. Studies now aim to investigate the optimal dose of enerisant, a novel H3 antagonist/inverse agonist, for the treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness in patients with narcolepsy.

Methods: We conducted two phase 2, fixed-dose, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials in patients with narcolepsy. Read More

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February 2022

Oral antihistamine-decongestant-analgesic combinations for the common cold.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2022 01 21;1:CD004976. Epub 2022 Jan 21.

Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Background: Although combination formulas containing antihistamines, decongestants, and/or analgesics are sold over-the-counter in large quantities for the common cold, the evidence for their effectiveness is limited. This is an update of a review first published in 2012.

Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of antihistamine-decongestant-analgesic combinations compared with placebo or other active controls (excluding antibiotics) in reducing the duration of symptoms and alleviating symptoms (general feeling of illness, nasal congestion, rhinorrhoea, sneezing, and cough) in children and adults with the common cold. Read More

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January 2022

Objective sleep profile in LGI1/CASPR2 autoimmunity.

Sleep 2022 02;45(2)

Mayo Clinic Center for Sleep Medicine, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, MN, USA.

Study Objectives: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and other sleep disturbances are frequent in leucine-rich, glioma inactivated protein 1-IgG (LGI1) and contactin-associated protein 2-IgG (CASPR2) autoimmunity, yet polysomnographic analyses of these disorders remain limited. We aimed to characterize clinical presentations and analyze polysomnographic manifestations, especially quantitative REM sleep without atonia (RSWA) in LGI1/CASPR2-IgG seropositive (LGI/CASPR2+) patients.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed clinical and polysomnographic features and quantitative RSWA between LGI1+/CASPR2+ patients and age-sex matched controls. Read More

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February 2022

Safety and efficacy of lower-sodium oxybate in adults with idiopathic hypersomnia: a phase 3, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomised withdrawal study.

Lancet Neurol 2022 01;21(1):53-65

University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC, USA.

Background: Idiopathic hypersomnia is a central hypersomnolence disorder mainly characterised by excessive daytime sleepiness, with prolonged night-time sleep and pronounced sleep inertia. Until August, 2021, no medication had regulatory approval for the treatment of idiopathic hypersomnia. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of lower-sodium oxybate in idiopathic hypersomnia. Read More

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January 2022

Alzheimer's disease and sleep disorders: Insights into the possible disease connections and the potential therapeutic targets.

Asian J Psychiatr 2022 Feb 2;68:102961. Epub 2021 Dec 2.

Smt. Kishoritai Bhoyar College of Pharmacy, New Kamptee, 441002 Nagpur, Maharashtra, India. Electronic address:

One of the comorbid conditions in an individual with Alzheimer's disease is a sleep disorder. Clinical features of sleep disorders involve various sleep disturbances such as Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSAS), Excessive Daytime Sleepiness (EDS), Rapid Eye Movement (REM), Breathing Disorders, Periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS), etc. The primary tools used for the identification of such disturbances are Polysomnography (PSG) and Wrist actigraphy. Read More

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February 2022

The prevalence of the restless legs Syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease among teenagers, its clinical characteristics and impact on everyday functioning.

Sleep Med 2022 01 28;89:48-54. Epub 2021 Oct 28.

Department of Neurology, St. Adalbert Hospital, Gdańsk, Poland; Department of Neurological-Psychiatric Nursing, Medical University of Gdańsk, Poland.

Background And Aims: The data on the prevalence of the Restless Legs Syndrome/Willis -Ekbom disease (RLS/WED) in the population of teenagers is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine RLS/WED occurrence in adolescents, its diagnostic accuracy, family history, clinical characteristics and impact on everyday functioning.

Material And Methods: A group of 2379 pupils (aged 13-18 y. Read More

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January 2022

Different components of excessive daytime sleepiness and the change with positive airway pressure treatment in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: Results from the Icelandic Sleep Apnea Cohort (ISAC).

J Sleep Res 2022 06 3;31(3):e13528. Epub 2021 Dec 3.

Division of Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Excessive daytime sleepiness includes both an inability to stay awake during the day and a general feeling of sleepiness. We describe different dimensions of daytime sleepiness in adults with moderate-severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) before and after 2 years of positive airway pressure (PAP) treatment. Using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (score >10 defined as "risk of dozing") and Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire (feeling sleepy ≥3 times/week defined as "feeling sleepy"), participants were categorised into sleepiness phenotypes labelled non-sleepy, risk of dozing only, feeling sleepy only, or both symptoms. Read More

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Efficacy of Pitolisant 20 mg in Reducing Excessive Daytime Sleepiness and Fatigue in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome: An Individual Patient Data Meta-analysis.

Philippe Lehert

Clin Drug Investig 2022 Jan 2;42(1):65-74. Epub 2021 Dec 2.

Faculty of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia.

Background And Objective: Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and fatigue are major complaints in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) syndrome. Pitolisant is an orally active selective histamine H3 receptor (H3R) antagonist/inverse agonist, which enhances histaminergic transmissions in the brain and thereby elicits strong wake-promoting effects. This article assesses the efficacy and safety of pitolisant 20 mg in patients with OSA, based on existing randomised controlled studies. Read More

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January 2022

Is the Epworth Sleepiness Scale Sufficient to Identify the Excessively Sleepy Subtype of OSA?

Chest 2022 02 28;161(2):557-561. Epub 2021 Oct 28.

Department of Medicine, Division of Sleep Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA.

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February 2022

Treatment of central disorders of hypersomnolence: an American Academy of Sleep Medicine clinical practice guideline.

J Clin Sleep Med 2021 09;17(9):1881-1893

Department of Neurology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington.

Introduction: This guideline establishes clinical practice recommendations for the treatment of central disorders of hypersomnolence in adults and children.

Methods: The American Academy of Sleep Medicine commissioned a task force of experts in sleep medicine to develop recommendations and assign strengths to each recommendation, based on a systematic review of the literature and an assessment of the evidence using the GRADE process. The task force provided a summary of the relevant literature and the quality of evidence, the balance of benefits and harms, patient values and preferences, and resource use considerations that support the recommendations. Read More

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September 2021

THN 102 for Excessive Daytime Sleepiness Associated with Parkinson's Disease: A Phase 2a Trial.

Mov Disord 2022 02 28;37(2):410-415. Epub 2021 Oct 28.

Departments of Neurology and Clinical Pharmacology, Centre of Clinique Investigations, NS-Park/FCRIN Network, Centre of Excellence for Neurodegenerative Disorders (COEN) of Toulouse, CHU de Toulouse, Toulouse 3 University, NS-PARK/FCRIN Network, Toulouse, France.

Background: Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is a frequent and disabling symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD) without approved treatment. THN102 is a novel combination drug of modafinil and low-dose flecainide.

Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of THN102 in PD patients with EDS. Read More

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February 2022

H3K23/H3K36 hypoacetylation and HDAC1 up-regulation are associated with adverse consequences in obstructive sleep apnea patients.

Sci Rep 2021 10 19;11(1):20697. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, 123, Ta-Pei Rd, Niao-Sung District, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan.

The aim of this study is to determine the roles of global histone acetylation (Ac)/methylation (me), their modifying enzymes, and gene-specific histone enrichment in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Global histone modifications, and their modifying enzyme expressions were assessed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 56 patients with OSA and 16 matched subjects with primary snoring (PS). HIF-1α gene promoter-specific H3K36Ac enrichment was assessed in another cohort (28 OSA, 8 PS). Read More

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October 2021

Peer-driven intervention to help patients resume CPAP therapy following discontinuation: a multicentre, randomised clinical trial with patient involvement.

BMJ Open 2021 10 14;11(10):e053996. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Agir à dom, Meylan, France.

Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is one of the most common chronic diseases. It may be associated with symptoms of excessive daytime sleepiness and neurocognitive and cardiovascular complications. First line therapy for OSAS involves home continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), however, nearly half of patients do not adhere with this treatment over the long term. Read More

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October 2021

Narcolepsy treatment in Sweden: An observational study.

Acta Neurol Scand 2022 Feb 6;145(2):185-192. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.

Objectives: To describe the pharmacological treatments (2005-2017) and the healthcare utilization (1997-2016) for patients with narcolepsy in Sweden in order to create a framework for future organizational and economic analyses.

Material & Methods: Patients of all ages with a diagnosis of narcolepsy registered in the National Patient Registry in specialist care in Sweden were included and information on treatments for narcolepsy was retrieved from The Swedish Prescribed Drug Register.

Results: We collected 2508 patients with narcolepsy, 43,3% men and 56,7% women and 47,9% were prescribed modafenil, 33,8% metylphenidate and 26,2% amphetamine. Read More

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February 2022

Immunopathogenesis and proposed clinical score for identifying Kelch-like protein-11 encephalitis.

Brain Commun 2021 26;3(3):fcab185. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

French Reference Center for Paraneoplastic Neurological Syndromes and Autoimmune Encephalitis, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Neurologique, 69677 Bron, France.

In this study, we report the clinical features of Kelch-like protein 11 antibody-associated paraneoplastic neurological syndrome, design and validate a clinical score to facilitate the identification of patients that should be tested for Kelch-like protein 11 antibodies, and examine in detail the nature of the immune response in both the brain and the tumour samples for a better characterization of the immunopathogenesis of this condition. The presence of Kelch-like protein 11 antibodies was retrospectively assessed in patients referred to the French Reference Center for paraneoplastic neurological syndrome and autoimmune encephalitis with (i) antibody-negative paraneoplastic neurological syndrome [limbic encephalitis ( = 105), cerebellar degeneration ( = 33)] and (ii) antibody-positive paraneoplastic neurological syndrome [Ma2-Ab encephalitis ( = 34), antibodies targeting N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis with teratoma ( = 49)]. Additionally, since 1 January 2020, patients were prospectively screened for Kelch-like protein 11 antibodies as new usual clinical practice. Read More

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Test-retest reliability of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale in clinical trial settings.

J Sleep Res 2022 04 20;31(2):e13476. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Stanford Center for Sleep Sciences and Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, USA.

The present analysis examined the test-retest reliability of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale in participants with excessive daytime sleepiness associated with narcolepsy or obstructive sleep apnea in three clinical trials. Intraclass correlation coefficient estimates for Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores from two solriamfetol 12-week placebo-controlled trials (one narcolepsy, one obstructive sleep apnea) and one long-term open-label extension trial (narcolepsy or obstructive sleep apnea) were calculated using postbaseline time-point pairs for the overall population in each trial, by treatment, and by primary obstructive sleep apnea therapy adherence. In the 12-week narcolepsy trial, intraclass correlation coefficients (95% confidence intervals) were 0. Read More

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Primary versus Specialist Care for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Systematic Review and Individual-Participant Data-Level Meta-Analysis.

Ann Am Thorac Soc 2022 04;19(4):668-677

Hospital University Arnau de Vilanova, Biomedical Research Institute of Lleida, Lleida, Spain.

Primary care clinicians may be well placed to play a greater role in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) management. To evaluate the outcomes and cost-effectiveness of sleep apnea management in primary versus specialist care, using an individual-participant data meta-analysis to determine whether age, sex, severity of OSA, and daytime sleepiness impacted outcomes. Data sources were the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE Ovid SP, Scopus, ProQuest, U. Read More

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Pitolisant, a wake-promoting agent devoid of psychostimulant properties: Preclinical comparison with amphetamine, modafinil, and solriamfetol.

Pharmacol Res Perspect 2021 10;9(5):e00855

Bioprojet-Biotech, Saint-Grégoire, France.

Several therapeutic options are currently available to treat excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in patients suffering from narcolepsy or obstructive sleep apnea. However, there are no comparisons between the various wake-promoting agents in terms of mechanism of action, efficacy, or safety. The goal of this study was to compare amphetamine, modafinil, solriamfetol, and pitolisant at their known primary pharmacological targets, histamine H3 receptors (H3R), dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin transporters, and in various in vivo preclinical models in relation to neurochemistry, locomotion, behavioral sensitization, and food intake. Read More

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October 2021

Sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness in women with Premenstrual Syndrome.

Gynecol Endocrinol 2021 Oct 19;37(10):945-949. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde: Ginecologia e Obstetrícia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brasil.

Objective: Examine the relationship between Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) and sleep in different menstrual cycle phases.

Methods: Case-control survey conducted at the Primary Care Service and Clinical Research Center at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre with women aged between 18 and 45 years old. Women filled the Brazilian version of the Premenstrual Symptoms Screen Tool (PSST) for the screening of PMS; participants with positive screening completed the Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP) to confirm PMS diagnosis. Read More

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October 2021

Residual excessive daytime sleepiness in patients treated for obstructive sleep apnea: guidance for assessment, diagnosis, and management.

Postgrad Med 2021 Sep 22;133(7):772-783. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

HP2 Laboratory, Inserm U1042, Grenoble Alpes University, Research Department, Grenoble, France.

Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) affects approximately half of patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and can persist in some despite normalization of breathing, oxygenation, and sleep quality with primary OSA therapy, such as continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). EDS is often overlooked and under discussed in the primary care setting and in the follow-up of CPAP-treated patients due to difficult assessment of such a multi-dimensional symptom. This review aims to provide suggestions for procedures that can be implemented into routine clinical practice to identify, evaluate, and manage EDS in patients treated for OSA, including how to appropriately use various self-report and objective assessments along the clinical pathway and options for pharmacotherapy. Read More

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September 2021

Under-recognized toxicities of cranial irradiation.

Cancer Radiother 2021 Oct 14;25(6-7):713-722. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Radiotherapy, ICANS, Institut de Cancérologie Strasbourg Europe, 17, Rue Albert Calmette, 67200 Strasbourg Cedex, France.

Cranial irradiation of primary or metastatic lesions is frequent, historically with 3D-conformal radiation therapy and now with stereotactic radiosurgery and intensity modulation. Evolution of radiotherapy technique is concomitant to systemic treatment evolution permitting long time survival. Thus, physicians have to face underestimated toxicities on long-survivor patients and unknown toxicities from combination of cranial radiotherapy to new therapeutics as targeted therapies and immunotherapies. Read More

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October 2021

Sleep disorders and the hypothalamus.

Handb Clin Neurol 2021 ;182:369-385

Department of Neurology, James Cook University Hospital, Middlesbrough, United Kingdom.

As early as the 1920s, pathological studies of encephalitis lethargica allowed Von Economo to correctly identify hypothalamic damage as crucial for the profound associated sleep-related symptoms that helped define the condition. Only over the last 3 decades, however, has the key role of the hypothalamus in sleep-wake regulation become increasingly recognized. As a consequence, a close relation between abnormal sleep symptomatology and hypothalamic pathology is now widely accepted for a variety of medical disorders. Read More

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A longitudinal investigation of sleep and technology use in early adolescence: does parental control of technology use protect adolescent sleep?

Sleep Med 2021 08 15;84:368-379. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Centre for Emotional Health, Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Objective: A bi-directional relationship between technology use and adolescent sleep is likely, yet findings are mixed, and it is not known whether parental control of technology use can protect sleep. The current study examined bi-directionality between technology use on school nights and morning/eveningness, sleep duration and daytime sleepiness in early adolescents. We also examined whether time spent using technology mediated the relationship between parental control of technology and adolescent sleep. Read More

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The orexin/hypocretin system in neuropsychiatric disorders: Relation to signs and symptoms.

Handb Clin Neurol 2021 ;180:343-358

Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands; Sleep Wake Centre SEIN, Heemstede, The Netherlands.

Hypocretin-1 and 2 (or orexin A and B) are neuropeptides exclusively produced by a group of neurons in the lateral and dorsomedial hypothalamus that project throughout the brain. In accordance with this, the two different hypocretin receptors are also found throughout the brain. The hypocretin system is mainly involved in sleep-wake regulation, but also in reward mechanisms, food intake and metabolism, autonomic regulation including thermoregulation, and pain. Read More

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