30,409 results match your criteria Hypersensitivity Reactions Delayed

Antileishmanial potential of immunomodulator gallic acid against experimental murine visceral leishmaniasis.

Parasite Immunol 2021 Aug 4:e12875. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Parasitology Laboratory, Department of Zoology (UGC-CAS), Panjab University, Chandigarh, 160014, India.

The menace of the enfeebling disease leishmaniasis prevails due to the inaccessibility of effective vaccine and chemotherapy. Hence in the pursuit of finding novel alternative options with reasonable efficacy, immune-modulation, leishmanicidal activity, and fewer side effects, screening of compounds from natural sources are needed. This study was focused on in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial screening of gallic acid (GA) against Leishmania donovani infection in BALB/c mice. Read More

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Systemic Contact Dermatitis: The Routes of Allergen Entry.

Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China.

Systemic contact dermatitis (SCD) is a generalized reactivation of type IV hypersensitivity skin diseases in individuals with previous sensitization after a contact allergen is administered systemically. Patients with SCD may consider their dermatitis unpredictable and recalcitrant since the causative allergens are difficult to find. If a patient has a pattern of dermatitis suggestive of SCD but fails to improve with conventional treatment, SCD should be taken into consideration. Read More

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Antitumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-) Infliximab-Induced Pleural Effusion and Pericarditis in Crohn's Disease.

Case Rep Pediatr 2021 12;2021:9989729. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Nicklaus Children's Hospital, Miami, FL, USA.

Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disease that can be associated with intestinal and extraintestinal manifestations. Some patients are treated with infliximab, an antitumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-) agent, to help them achieve and maintain clinical and biochemical remission. However, some patients with CD can present severe adverse effects such as drug-induced lupus and rarely present with pleural space and pericardium involvement. Read More

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Hypersensitivity reactions to monoclonal antibodies: Classification and treatment approach (Review).

Exp Ther Med 2021 Sep 3;22(3):949. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Allergy Department, 'Professor Doctor Octavian Fodor' Regional Institute of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 400000 Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

The present paper aims to review the topic of adverse reactions to biological agents, in terms of the incriminating mechanisms and therapeutic approach. As a result of immunomodulatory therapy, the last decade has achieved spectacular results in the targeted treatment of inflammatory, autoimmune, and neoplastic diseases, to name a few. The widespread use of biological agents is, however, associated with an increase in the number of observed adverse drug reactions ranging from local erythema to systemic reactions, including life-threatening immunologically mediated events, which justifies the need for a deeper understanding of this subject. Read More

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September 2021

Management of Eosinophilic Esophagitis During Oral Immunotherapy.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Emory University School of Medicine and Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, Ga. Electronic address:

Food allergies are antigen-driven diseases that can lead to IgE-mediated reactions of immediate hypersensitivity (eg, anaphylaxis triggered by a single food) or non-IgE reactions of delayed hypersensitivity such as eosinophilic esophagitis (eg, inability to eat multiple foods manifesting as abdominal pain, choking, dysphagia, vomiting, reflux, food impaction). Although both types of disease have their own unique set of challenges in diagnosis and management, it is a particularly vexing problem when a patient is afflicted by both conditions. This situation can happen when individuals with IgE-mediated food allergy undergo desensitization using currently available forms of oral immunotherapy. Read More

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Hypersensitivity and Immune-related Adverse Events in Biologic Therapy.

Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Immunology, UNC School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Biologic medications are an expanding field of therapeutics for various medical conditions including cancer and inflammatory diseases. Due to their targeted approach to therapy, biologics can be less toxic than traditional systemic medications. However, as use becomes more widespread, adverse effects from biologic administration have also become apparent. Read More

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Carbamazepine-associated Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms Syndrome.

J Pediatr Neurosci 2021 Jan-Mar;16(1):55-57. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Anaesthesiology, Maharishi Markandeshwar Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Mullana (Ambala), Haryana, India.

Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome is a severe type IV (delayed T-cell-dependent reaction) hypersensitivity reaction, characterized by fever, mucocutaneous eruptions, eosinophilia, and systemic inflammatory involvement. It usually begins a few weeks after the exposure to offending drug. Commonly implicated drugs are aromatic anticonvulsants (phenytoin, phenobarbitone, and carbamazepine) and sulfa drugs (sulfonamides, sulfasalazine, and dapsone). Read More

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Epicutaneous Patch Testing in Type IV Allergy Diagnostics: State of the Art and Best Practice Recommendations.

Handb Exp Pharmacol 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, University of Erlangen/Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.

This chapter summarises all relevant aspects of patch testing, closely following recommendations outlined in a recent European, and a German S3 guideline on diagnostic patch testing with contact allergens and medicinal products (drugs). Patch testing is indicated in patients suspected of suffering, or having been suffering, from delayed-type hypersensitivity leading to allergic contact dermatitis or other skin and mucosal diseases. Sections of this chapter include detailed indications, reasons for possibly postponing the test, considerations on choosing haptens (contact allergens) to test, various aspects of the application of patch test allergen preparations (storage, dosing) and of testing with individual materials provided by the patients. Read More

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Safety of direct oral provocation testing using the Amoxicillin-2-step-challenge in children with history of non-immediate reactions to amoxicillin.

World Allergy Organ J 2021 Jul 9;14(7):100560. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand.

Background: Previous studies have shown that direct oral provocation tests, without prior skin testing, in children having delayed onset, benign rashes to beta-lactam antibiotic is safe and effective. Although, this test is useful in confirming drug hypersensitivity reactions, there is no standard protocol recommendation of drug provocation tests. This study aimed to evaluate the safety of the direct oral provocation test, using the Amoxicillin-2-step-challenge without prior skin testing, in children with history of non-immediate reactions to amoxicillin. Read More

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Diagnostic Tools and Biomarkers for Severe Drug Eruptions.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 14;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Dermatology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu 807-8555, Japan.

In accordance with the development of human technology, various medications have been speedily developed in the current decade. While they have beneficial impact on various diseases, these medications accidentally cause adverse reactions, especially drug eruption. This delayed hypersensitivity reaction in the skin sometimes causes a life-threatening adverse reaction, namely Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Read More

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A review of the leishmanin skin test: A neglected test for a neglected disease.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Jul 22;15(7):e0009531. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

The leishmanin skin test (LST) has been used for decades to detect exposure and immunity to the parasite Leishmania, the causative agent of the neglected tropical disease leishmaniasis. In the LST, Leishmania antigen (leishmanin) is intradermally injected into the forearm. In an individual who has been previously infected, a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction results in a measurable induration at the site of the injection, indicating that previous exposure to Leishmania has resulted in the development of cell-mediated immunity. Read More

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Clinical and Histopathological Spectrum of Delayed Adverse Cutaneous Reactions Following COVID-19 Vaccination.

J Cutan Pathol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

The Ronald O. Perelman Department of Dermatology, NYU Grossman School of Medicine, New York, New York.

Background: As more people become vaccinated against the SARS-CoV-2 virus, reports of delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions are beginning to emerge.

Methods: In this IRB-approved retrospective case series, biopsies of potential cutaneous adverse reactions from the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna mRNA vaccine were identified and reviewed. Clinical information was obtained through the requisition form, referring clinician, or medical chart review. Read More

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Delayed Hypersensitivity Reactions Following First Dose of the SARS-CoV2 mRNA Vaccines.

J Gen Intern Med 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA.

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Delayed localized hypersensitivity reactions to COVID-19 mRNA vaccines: A six-month retrospective study.

Clin Exp Dermatol 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

First Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.

The clinical trials of the two novel COVID-19 vaccines (Pfizer/BioNTech; Moderna) reported delayed local injection site reactions. Since vaccination rates increase, awareness of the adverse reactions is needed. This research letter reports a series of delayed localized hypersensitivity reactions to mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccines with histopathologic confirmation. Read More

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The Ability of AhR Ligands to Attenuate Delayed Type Hypersensitivity Reaction Is Associated With Alterations in the Gut Microbiota.

Front Immunol 2021 29;12:684727. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, United States.

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates T cell function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AhR ligands, 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and 6-Formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ), on gut-associated microbiota and T cell responses during delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction induced by methylated bovine serum albumin (mBSA) in a mouse model. Mice with DTH showed significant changes in gut microbiota including an increased abundance of and decreased at the phylum level. Read More

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Pharmacological prevention of delayed hypersensitivity reactions caused by iodinated contrast media.

World Allergy Organ J 2021 Jul 1;14(7):100561. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: Delayed hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) to radiocontrast media (RCM) occur in approximately 0.5-23.0% of patients and are thought to be caused by T cell-mediated mechanisms. Read More

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Anaphylaxis to levetiracetam in an adolescent: a very rare occurence.

Turk J Pediatr 2021 ;63(3):506-509

Divisions of Pediatric Allergy, Gazi University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

Background: Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are among the most common causes of severe delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms(DRESS) in children. These reactions are more commonly seen with aromatic AEDs such as phenytoin and carbamazepine than the non-aromatic or new generation AEDs. However immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions such as urticaria/angioedema, anaphylaxis are very rare with AEDs. Read More

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January 2021

Immunosuppression by UVB radiation exacerbates Leishmania mexicana skin lesions in mice.

Acta Trop 2021 Jul 10;222:106041. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Facultad de Medicina y Hospital Universitario Dr. Jose Eleuterio Gonzalez, Departamento y Servicio de Inmunología, Av. Madero y Av. Gonzalitos s/n, Colonia Mitras Centro, Monterrey C.P. 64460, Nuevo León, México. Electronic address:

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most common form of leishmaniasis in humans. The disease is caused by several species, such as Leishmania mexicana, a protozoa parasite. Several major risk factors are associated with this disease, including poverty, poor housing, inadequate domestic hygiene, malnutrition, mobility, and occupational exposure. Read More

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You Only Find What You Look for: Anchor Bias During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Cureus 2021 Jun 3;13(6):e15416. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Internal Medicine, Presbyterian Medical Center, Albuquerque, USA.

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is an immune-mediated syndrome caused by allergen inhalation. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of HP usually shows diffuse ground-glass opacities, but can show centrilobular ground-glass nodules, areas of air-trapping, or fibrotic changes. The clinical presentation of HP as well as the imaging findings can resemble coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. Read More

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Pharmacogenomics of Hypersensitivity to Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs.

Front Genet 2021 25;12:647257. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Ajou University Medical Center, Suwon, South Korea.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are extensively prescribed in daily clinical practice. NSAIDs are the main cause of drug hypersensitivity reactions all over the world. The inhibition of cyclooxygenase enzymes by NSAIDs can perpetuate arachidonic acid metabolism, shunting to the 5-lipoxygenase pathway and its downstream inflammatory process. Read More

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Study protocol of a phase 2, dual-centre, randomised, controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of probiotic and egg oral immunotherapy at inducing desensitisation or sustained unresponsiveness (remission) in participants with egg allergy compared with placebo (Probiotic Egg Allergen Oral Immunotherapy for Treatment of Egg Allergy: PEAT study).

BMJ Open 2021 07 7;11(7):e044331. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Allergy Immunology, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Parkville, Victoria, Australia

Introduction: Egg allergy is the most common food allergy in children but recent studies have shown persistence or delayed resolution into adolescence. As there is currently no effective long-term treatment, definitive treatments that improve quality of life and prevent fatalities for food allergies are required. We have previously shown that a novel treatment comprising a combination of the probiotic CGMCC 1. Read More

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Cross-protective efficacy of immuno-stimulatory recombinant Brugia malayi protein HSP60 against the Leishmania donovani in BALB/c mice.

Biologicals 2021 Jul 3;72:18-26. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Leishmania Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Sector-14, Chandigarh, 160014, India.

Coinfection of Leishmania with bacteria, viruses, protozoans, and nematodes alter the immune system of the host, thereby influencing the disease outcomes. Here, we have determined the immunogenic property and protective efficacy of the cross-reactive molecule HSP60 of filarial parasite B. malayi against the L. Read More

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Delayed Cutaneous Reactivity Associated With COVID-19 Vaccines Is Rare.

J Cutan Med Surg 2021 Jul 6:12034754211027854. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

54473 Division of Dermatology, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, QC, Canada.

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Protein Causes of Urticaria and Dermatitis.

Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 2021 Aug 5;41(3):481-491. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco, Third and Fourth Floors, 1701 Divisadero St, San Francisco, CA 94115, USA; Department of Dermatology, Palo Alto Foundation Medical Group, 701 East El Camino Real (31-104), Mountain View, CA 94040, USA. Electronic address:

Protein contact dermatitis is a cutaneous hypersensitivity reaction after chronic, recurrent exposure or chronic irritation to animal or plant protein. Although the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying protein contact dermatitis are not well characterized, protein contact dermatitis is thought to be caused by combined type I/IV-mediated, type-1 mediated, or a Langerhans cell immunoglobulin E-mediated delayed hypersensitivity reaction. This chapter reviews the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, common protein allergens, diagnostic process, treatment options, and prognosis of protein contact dermatitis. Read More

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Hypersensitivity reactions to iodinate contrast media in Italy: a retrospective study. Characteristics of patients and risk factors.

Eur Ann Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 Jul 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy.

Summary: The purpose of the study was to describe the characteristics of patients experiencing hypersensitivity reactions (HRs) to iodinated contrast media (ICM) in a large Italian population and to investigate potential risks factors in order to obtain a risk stratification, helpful in the management of these patients. Data of 407 patients investigated in 9 Italian Allergy Centers for suspected HRs to ICM were analyzed and compared with a control group of 152 subjects that tolerated one or more ICM-enhanced examinations. The univariate and multivariate logistic regression model was used to evaluate associated factors. Read More

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Art of Prevention: Essential Oils - Natural Products Not Necessarily Safe.

Int J Womens Dermatol 2021 Jun 12;7(3):304-308. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Dermatology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, United States.

Aromatherapy is defined as the use of essential oils, through inhalation or direct application to the skin, to achieve physical, psychological, and spiritual well-being. It has become an increasingly popular trend in modern-day holistic approaches to health care. Essential oils are thought to be natural and pure products, some of the most common being lavender, tea tree, peppermint, and ylang-ylang. Read More

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Immunogenicity of antigens from outer membrane vesicles of associated with bilayer fragment of dioctadecyldimethylammonium in Swiss adult mice.

Clin Exp Vaccine Res 2021 May 31;10(2):106-122. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Immunology, Adolfo Lutz Institute, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Purpose: In the present study, meningococcal serogroup B outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) were associated with bilayer fragments of a cationic lipid, dioctadecyldimethylammonium (DDA-BF), used as adjuvant, in an antigenic preparation tested in adult female outbred mice. This adjuvant was compared to the traditional adjuvant aluminum hydroxide.

Materials And Methods: The potential in generating humoral response was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Read More

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Visual Genomics Analysis Studio as a Tool to Analyze Multiomic Data.

Front Genet 2021 17;12:642012. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Institute for Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA, Australia.

Type B adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are iatrogenic immune-mediated syndromes with mechanistic etiologies that remain incompletely understood. Some of the most severe ADRs, including delayed drug hypersensitivity reactions, are T-cell mediated, restricted by specific human leukocyte antigen risk alleles and sometimes by public or oligoclonal T-cell receptors (TCRs), central to the immunopathogenesis of tissue-damaging response. However, the specific cellular signatures of effector, regulatory, and accessory immune populations that mediate disease, define reaction phenotype, and determine severity have not been defined. Read More

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Drug Allergy and Cutaneous Adverse Reactions.

Maja Mockenhaupt

Handb Exp Pharmacol 2021 Jul 5. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Dokumentationszentrum schwerer Hautreaktionen (dZh), Department of Dermatology, Medical Center and Medical Faculty, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Allergy or hypersensitivity to drugs often affects the skin and sometimes also mucosa. While immediate type reactions show a rather homogeneous pattern, delayed type reactions reveal a high variability. In both cases it may not always be easy to differentiate drug reactions from non-drug-induced skin conditions. Read More

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