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    Growth hormone, prolactin, and sexuality.
    J Endocrinol Invest 2012 Sep 22;35(8):782-794. Epub 2014 Mar 22.
    Department of Molecular & Clinical Endocrinology and Oncology, "Federico II" University of Naples, Via S. Pansini 5, 80131, Naples, Italy.
    GH and PRL, although not considered as 'classi cal' sexual hormones, could play a role in the endocrine control of sexual function both in men and women. Physiologically, PRL seems to be involved in the central control of sexual behavior and activity, by modulating mainly the effects of dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems on sexual function. Indeed, circulating PRL levels increase after orgasm and may potentially play a role in the acute regulation of further sexual arousal following orgasm both in men and women. Read More

    Autoimmune hypothyroidism is three times more frequent in female prolactinoma patients compared to healthy women: data from a cross-sectional case-control study.
    Endocrine 2017 Jul 19. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    University Hospital of Endocrinology, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Background: The potent immunomodulatory action of prolactin has been demonstrated in many experimental in vitro studies. In accordance with these data, our retrospective analyses revealed higher prevalence of autoimmune thyroid diseases in prolactinoma patients compared to general population.

    Purpose: A cross-sectional case-control study was carried out in a single tertiary referral centre. Read More

    A study of neuroendocrine dysfunction in patients of tuberculous meningitis.
    J Neurol Sci 2017 Aug 13;379:198-206. Epub 2017 Jun 13.
    Department of Endocrinology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, India.
    Background: Endocrine dysfunction is known to occur in various infectious diseases of the brain. The neuroendocrine dysfunction is not well studied in patients of Tuberculous meningitis (TBM). In this study, we aimed at knowing pattern of endocrine dysfunction in newly diagnosed patients of tuberculous meningitis, structural changes occurring in hypothalamic-pituitary region, assessing its predictors and correlative factors related to outcome. Read More

    Physical Health Outcomes in Preschoolers with Prior Authorization for Antipsychotics.
    J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2017 Jul 14. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    1 Department of Pharmaceutical Outcomes and Policy, University of Florida College of Pharmacy , Gainesville, Florida.
    Objective: To examine incidence of adverse health outcomes and associated factors among preschoolers (under age 6) who received antipsychotic treatment through the Florida Medicaid Prior Authorization (PA) program.

    Methods: Using Florida's PA registry linked to the state's Medicaid claims data, we ascertained incident outcomes during PA-approved antipsychotic use between April 2008 and September 2015 (7.5 years). Read More

    Pregnancy and Tumor Outcomes in Women with Prolactinoma.
    Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2017 Jul 13. Epub 2017 Jul 13.
    Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto. Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal.
    Context Management of prolactinomas during pregnancy has always been a challenge. There is a concern about the risk of tumor growth, as well as the effects of the treatment on the developing fetus. Another issue that has been less studied is the outcome of women with prolactinoma after pregnancy and lactation. Read More

    Insight into the Endocrine System and the Immune System: A Review of the Inflammatory Role of Prolactin in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Psoriatic Arthritis.
    Front Immunol 2017 23;8:720. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Laboratory of Translational Immunology, Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, University Medical Center, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects females three times more frequently than males. A potential role for hormones, such as prolactin (PRL), may in part explain this phenomenon. The risk of developing RA is increased in women who are lactating after the first pregnancy, which might be related to breastfeeding and the release of PRL. Read More

    [Pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism].
    Rev Med Interne 2017 Jul 6. Epub 2017 Jul 6.
    Service d'endocrinologie et diabétologie, hôpital Hedi-Chaker, avenue Majida-Boulila, 3029 Sfax, Tunisie.
    Introduction: Pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism is rare and underdiagnosed.

    Case Report: We report an 18-year-old patient referred for a pituitary mass revealing primary hypothyroidism. Biological parameters confirmed severe primary hypothyroidism and hyperprolactinemia. Read More

    A novel role for dopamine signaling in the pathogenesis of bone loss from the atypical antipsychotic drug risperidone in female mice.
    Bone 2017 Jul 6;103:168-176. Epub 2017 Jul 6.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine, University of New England, Biddeford, ME, USA. Electronic address:
    Atypical antipsychotic (AA) drugs, including risperidone (RIS), are used to treat schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism, and are prescribed off-label for other mental health issues. AA drugs are associated with severe metabolic side effects of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Cross-sectional and longitudinal data also show that risperidone causes bone loss and increases fracture risk in both men and women. Read More

    REJUVENATING EFFECT OF LONG-TERM IGF-I GENE THERAPY IN THE HYPOTHALAMUS OF AGED RATS WITH DOPAMINERGIC DYSFUNCTION.
    Rejuvenation Res 2017 Jul 3. Epub 2017 Jul 3.
    University of La Plata, INIBIOLP , CC455 , La Plata, Argentina , 1900 ;
    The aging female rat constitutes an interesting model of spontaneous and progressive age-related dopaminergic dysfunction as it allows assessing new therapeutic strategies for Parkinson's disease. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is emerging as a powerful neuroprotective molecule which is strongly induced in the central nervous system after different insults. We constructed a helper-dependent recombinant adenoviral vector (HDRAd-IGFI) harboring the gene for rat IGF-I. Read More

    Safety concerns associated with second-generation antipsychotic long-acting injection treatment. A systematic update.
    Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig 2017 Jun 23. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    .
    Background It has been recently suggested that second-generation antipsychotic long-acting injection (SGA-LAIs) are underutilized in clinical practice, despite that their costs significantly impact on national health system budgets. Hence, an updated analysis of safety data shown by SGA-LAIs may contribute to clarify their role in clinical practice. Materials and methods English-language, peer-reviewed articles reporting updated, primary findings on the SGA-LAI safety were identified (updated through an electronic search of five databases - PubMed, EMBASE, PsycInfo, DARE and the Cochrane Library). Read More

    Menstrual Cycle Abnormalities in Patients with Prolactinoma and Drug-induced Hyperprolactinemia.
    Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2017 Jul-Aug;21(4):545-550
    Department of Endocrinology, PGIMER, Dr. RML Hospital, New Delhi, India.
    Background And Objective: Hyperprolactinemia affects the reproductive endocrine axis; however, the degree of dysfunction may vary depending on etiology. The aim of the present study was to analyze menstrual cyclicity in patients with prolactinoma and drug-induced hyperprolactinemia (DIH).

    Methodology: Patients with prolactinoma and DIH were retrospectively analyzed for menstrual cyclicity at presentation and response to therapy. Read More

    [The influence of the comprehensive spa and health resort-based treatment on the system of hormonal regulation in the women presenting with gynecological pathology depending on the plasma prolactin level].
    Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult 2017 ;94(2):47-52
    'Poltava-Krym' Clinical Health Resort, Morskaya str., 8, Saki, Republic of Crimea, Russia, 296500.
    Aim: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the comprehensive spa and health resort-based treatment on the system of hormonal regulation in the women presenting with bacterial vaginosis and concomitant chronic inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs depending on the plasma prolactin level.

    Material And Methods: We investigated the indicators of hormonal regulation in 186 women suffering from bacterial vaginosis and concomitant chronic inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs depending on the level of prolactin in blood plasma. The first group consisted of 128 women with the normal plasma prolactin levels whereas the second group was comprised of 58 women having hyperprolactinemia. Read More

    Evaluation of Potentially Prolactin-Related Adverse Events and Sexual Maturation in Adolescents with Schizophrenia Treated with Paliperidone Extended-Release (ER) for 2 Years: A Post Hoc Analysis of an Open-Label Multicenter Study.
    CNS Drugs 2017 Jun 28. Epub 2017 Jun 28.
    Neurosciences, Janssen Research & Development, LLC, 1125 Trenton-Harbourton Road, Titusville, NJ, 08560, USA.
    Background: Elevated prolactin levels (hyperprolactinemia) are a frequent adverse effect of antipsychotic medications, especially in young populations. Prolonged hyperprolactinemia may affect sexual functioning and the onset and progression of puberty.

    Objective: This study assessed potentially prolactin-related treatment-emergent adverse events (PPRL-TEAEs) and sexual maturation during long-term treatment of adolescents with paliperidone extended-release (ER). Read More

    POEMS syndrome: a rare cause of exudative ascites and chronic peripheral neuropathy.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 Jun 20;2017. Epub 2017 Jun 20.
    Neurology Department, Rashid Hospital, Dubai, UAE.
    POEMS syndrome (Peripheral neuropathy, Organomegaly, Endocrinopathy, M protein, Skin changes) is a rare plasma cell disorder with multisystem involvementA 40-year-old man with a chronic history of unexplained peripheral neuropathy , presented with exudative ascites.He was found to have an incidental osteolytic lesion of the sacrum proven to be a plasmacytoma. Immunoelectrophoresis for monoclonal protein was negative. Read More

    Antipsychotic Use Among Adult Outpatients and Venous Thromboembolic Disease: A Retrospective Cohort Study.
    J Clin Psychopharmacol 2017 Aug;37(4):405-411
    From the *Pharmacology Department, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires; †Hospital de Emergencias Psiquiátricas Torcuato de Alvear; ‡Bipolar Disorder Program, Neuroscience Institute, Favaloro University; §Internal Medicine Department, Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina; and ∥Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research, Portland, OR.
    Background: Treatment with antipsychotic (AP) agents is associated with incident thromboembolic events. However, the underpinnings of this association remain unknown. We sought to evaluate the effect of AP agents-categorized by their metabolic/sedative and hyperprolactinemia adverse effect profile-on the risk of venous thromboembolic disease during long-term follow-up. Read More

    Cabergoline-induced Mania in a Patient of Pituitary Microadenoma.
    Indian J Psychol Med 2017 May-Jun;39(3):350-351
    Department of Psychiatry, Mental Health Institute, S.C.B. Medical College, Cuttack, Odisha, India.
    Cabergoline, a dopamine agonist agent, is commonly used in the treatment of hyperprolactinemia, Parkinson's disease, restless leg syndrome, and antipsychotic-induced prolactin elevation. It is generally well tolerated as compared to other dopamine agonist agents due to its more selective D2 receptor agonistic effect. We present a case of a 25-year-old female who developed manic episode, following the use of cabergoline for treatment of pituitary microadenoma. Read More

    Role of Na+/K(+)-ATPase in Natriuretic Effect of Prolactin in a Model of Cholestasis of Pregnancy.
    Biochemistry (Mosc) 2017 May;82(5):632-641
    Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Biology, Moscow, 119991, Russia.
    Participation of Na+/K+-ATPase in the natriuretic effect of prolactin in a cholestasis of pregnancy model was investigated. The Na+/K+-ATPase activity in rat kidney medulla, where active sodium reabsorption occurs, decreased in the model of cholestasis of pregnancy and other hyperprolactinemia types compared with intact animals. This effect was not connected with the protein level of α1- and β-subunits of Na+/K+-ATPase measured by Western blotting in the kidney medulla. Read More

    Xanthomatous Hypophysitis Presenting with Diabetes Insipidus Completely Cured Through Transsphenoidal Surgery: Case Report and Literature Review.
    World Neurosurg 2017 Aug 3;104:1051.e7-1051.e13. Epub 2017 Jun 3.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:
    Background: Xanthomatous hypophysitis (XH) is extremely rare. Only 27 cases have been reported in the literature. No XH patient presenting with diabetes insipidus (DI) has been completely cured through surgery. Read More

    Topiramate add-on treatment associated with normalization of prolactin levels in a patient with schizophrenia.
    Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2017 24;13:1395-1397. Epub 2017 May 24.
    Department of Psychiatry, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University.
    Topiramate has been used increasingly in the management of psychiatric conditions. Clinical trials demonstrated that topiramate augmentation was effective in controlling negative symptoms in schizophrenia. This case report presents a case of a 38-year-old man with schizophrenia who achieved full negative symptom remission upon the adjunctive use of topiramate. Read More

    Dopaminergic Regulation of Innate Immunity: a Review.
    J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 2017 Jun 3. Epub 2017 Jun 3.
    Center of Research in Medical Pharmacology, University of Insubria, Via Ottorino Rossi n. 9, 21100, Varese, VA, Italy.
    Dopamine (DA) is a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system as well as in peripheral tissues. Emerging evidence however points to DA also as a key transmitter between the nervous system and the immune system as well as a mediator produced and released by immune cells themselves. Dopaminergic pathways have received so far extensive attention in the adaptive branch of the immune system, where they play a role in health and disease such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, and Parkinson's disease. Read More

    Comparative efficacy and safety of antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia: a network meta-analysis in a Japanese population.
    Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2017 11;13:1281-1302. Epub 2017 May 11.
    Department of Psychiatry, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan.
    Background: The relative efficacy and tolerability of antipsychotics for schizophrenia are considerably well studied. This study aimed to examine whether previous findings could be replicated in a genetically distinct and homogenous group (ie, Japanese patients with schizophrenia) and whether previous findings could be extended to a broader range of antipsychotics with previously unclear relative efficacy and tolerability.

    Methods: Bayesian network meta-analysis was performed in which randomized trials comparing any of the following interventions were included: second-generation antipsychotics, haloperidol, or placebo. Read More

    Hyperprolactinaemia - a problem in patients from the reproductive period to the menopause.
    Prz Menopauzalny 2017 Mar 26;16(1):1-7. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    2 Department of Gynecology, Lublin Medical University, Lublin, Poland.
    Hyperprolactinaemia especially affects women in reproductive age (90/100,000) but also often is diagnosed in menopause age and leads to disturbances in functioning of LH-RH neurons and, as a consequence, to a decrease of FSH and LH, which causes inhibition of oestradiol production. Prolactin is a peptide hormone, phylogenetically one of the oldest, stimulating cells of various organs, which is produced and secreted mainly by lactotrophic acidophilic cells of the anterior lobe of the pituitary. It influences the increase in the mass of the mammary glands, and stimulation and maintenance of lactation after delivery. Read More

    Effectiveness of paliperidone depot injection in seriously violent men with comorbid schizophrenia and dissocial personality disorder in a UK high-security hospital.
    Ther Adv Psychopharmacol 2017 May 27;7(5):169-179. Epub 2017 Mar 27.
    Consultant Forensic Psychiatrist, Top End Mental Health Service, PO Box 140, Parap, NT 0804, Australia.
    Background: High-security hospital patients are often complex in presentation and are characterized by treatment resistance, medication nonadherence and history of violence. Paliperidone is licensed both as an oral and depot antipsychotic medication in the treatment of schizophrenia. Clinical trials have shown that paliperidone depot is well tolerated with similar efficacy to risperidone depot but with additional practical advantages. Read More

    Serum Prolactin Levels in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder Receiving Selective Serotonin-Reuptake Inhibitor Monotherapy for 3 Months: A Prospective Study.
    Psychiatry Investig 2017 May 16;14(3):368-371. Epub 2017 May 16.
    Department of Psychiatry, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, Republic of Korea.
    Objective: It is unclear whether selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) can significantly increase the prolactin level. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between the prolactin level and the administration of SSRIs such as escitalopram and sertraline. An additional purpose was to determine whether the elevation of prolactin differs between escitalopram and sertraline treatment. Read More

    Occurrence of hyperprolactinemia in children with subclinical hypothyroidism.
    J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol 2017 May 22. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Background: Prevalence of hyperprolactinemia in children with subclinical hypothyroidism (ScH) is not known. This study aimed to determine the occurrence and predictors of hyperprolactinemia in children with euthyroidism, ScH and overt primary hypothyroidism (OPH).

    Methods: Consecutive children <18 years age, diagnosed to have normal thyroid function, ScH or OPH underwent serum prolactin estimation. Read More

    Bipolar patients treated with long-acting injectable risperidone in Taiwan: A 1-year mirror-image study using a national claims database.
    J Affect Disord 2017 Aug 3;218:327-334. Epub 2017 May 3.
    School of Health Care Administration, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:
    Objective: Bipolar disorder (BD) is burdensome for patients and healthcare systems. This study evaluated changes in concomitant medication patterns, healthcare utilization, and costs after the initiation of risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) treatment among BD patients.

    Method: 287 BD patients receiving regular RLAI treatment for 1 year were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research database during 2007-2012. Read More

    Evaluation of prolactin levels in patients with newly diagnosed pemphigus vulgaris and its correlation with pemphigus disease area index.
    Int J Womens Dermatol 2016 Jun 23;2(2):53-55. Epub 2016 Apr 23.
    Department of Dermatology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Background: Prolactin is a hormone; in addition to it known roles, it has immunomodulatory effects on lymphocytes maturation and immunoglobulins production. Hyperprolactinemia has been demonstrated in various autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, type I diabetes mellitus, and Graves' disease. In view of the prolactin immunomodulatory roles, studying prolactin levels in pemphigus as an autoimmune blistering disease may introduce new ways of understanding disease etiology and developing treatment strategies. Read More

    Prolactin and Estradiol Profile in a Cohort of Colombian Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.
    Isr Med Assoc J 2016 Sep;18(9):537-541
    Department of Autoimmune Diseases, Hospital Clínic, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
    Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with multiorgan involvement and wide variability in presentation and course. Although it can appear at any age, women of childbearing age are primarily affected. This has led to the proposal of a hormonal role in the development of SLE. Read More

    Macroprolactinoma appearing after resolution of hydrocephalus.
    Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2017 19;2017. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    Division of Neurosurgery, Hospital de Clínicas, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos AiresArgentina.
    Summary: The role of mechanical forces influencing the growth of a pituitary adenoma is poorly understood. In this paper we report the case of a young man with hyperprolactinaemia and an empty sella secondary to hydrocephalia, who developed a macroprolactinoma following the relief of high intraventricular pressure.

    Learning Points: The volume of a pituitary tumour may be influenced not only by molecular but also by local mechanical factors. Read More

    The role of atypical antipsychotics in sexuality: Road to recovery in schizophrenia.
    Curr Drug Targets 2017 May 2. Epub 2017 May 2.
    Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Medical Campus, 20400 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu. Malaysia.
    Sexuality is an important dimension in human beings as a form of expression of individuality. For many decades, sexual functioning has been a neglected area among patients suffering from schizophrenia. It was a presumption that patients with schizophrenia could be asexual and this could be secondary to overwhelming situations of delusion, hallucination, hostility and negative symptoms among others. Read More

    Levosulpiride and Serum Prolactin Levels.
    Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2017 Mar-Apr;21(2):355-358
    Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Medanta - The Medicity, Gurgaon, Haryana, India.
    Levosulpiride is the levorotatory enantiomer of sulpiride used in dyspeptic syndromes of various etiologies. The prokinetic effect of levosulpiride is mediated through the blockade of enteric inhibitory dopaminergic type 2 (D2) receptors. The antagonism of central D2 receptors leads to both therapeutic (e. Read More

    Paliperidone palmitate: effectiveness, safety, and the use for treatment of schizophrenia.
    Psychiatr Pol 2017 Feb 26;51(1):7-21. Epub 2017 Feb 26.
    Klinika Psychiatrii Dorosłych UM w Poznaniu.
    The aim of the study was to summarize the efficacy and tolerability of paliperidone palmitate, an atypical long-acting antipsychotic drug. Paliperidone is a 9-hydroxy metabolite of risperidone with a slightly different receptor profile and significantly different pharmacokinetic profile. After the short review of its pharmacological properties, the efficacy of the drug in comparison to placebo or to an active comparator was described. Read More

    Growth without growth hormone in combined pituitary hormone deficiency caused by pituitary stalk interruption syndrome.
    Ann Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2017 Mar 31;22(1):55-59. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    Department of Pediatrics, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Growth hormone (GH) is an essential element for normal growth. However, reports of normal growth without GH have been made in patients who have undergone brain surgery for craniopharyngioma. Normal growth without GH can be explained by hyperinsulinemia, hyperprolactinemia, elevated leptin levels, and GH variants; however, its exact mechanism has not been elucidated yet. Read More

    Hyperprolactinemia Induced by Antipsychotics: From Diagnosis to Treatment Approach.
    Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets 2017 04 23. Epub 2017 Apr 23.
    Dipartimento di Farmacia, Università di Salerno . Italy.
    Schizophrenia is one of the most severe psychiatric diseases with a significant impact on the psychosocial functioning of the patients. People with schizophrenia are at risk to die prematurely because of their illness with their poor lifestyle contributing to the excess morbidity and higher mortality rate. In particular, lifestyle (e. Read More

    Hyperprolactinemia and the Association with All-Cause Mortality and Cardiovascular Mortality.
    Horm Metab Res 2017 Jun 24;49(6):411-417. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    Department of Endocrinology, Herlev University Hospital, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hyperprolactinemia has been suspected to increase mortality risk, but the available data are conflicting. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between hyperprolactinemia and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among patients referred for assessment of prolactin. For this study, adults with no prio pituitary disease who underwent prolactin assessment at 3 university Hospitals in Denmark between 2001 and 2011 were included in a retrospective cohort study. Read More

    The incidence of anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies in patients with microprolactinoma and idiopathic hyperprolactinaemia.
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2017 Apr 20. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    Academic Department of Endocrinology, Beaumont Hospital and RCSI Medical School, Dublin, Ireland.
    Introduction: Patients with microprolactinoma and idiopathic hyperprolactinaemia are not generally considered to be at risk of hypopituitarism and are therefore not routinely screened for this abnormality. In our clinical practice, we have observed a number of patients with nonmacroadenomatous hyperprolactinaemia to have anterior pituitary hormone deficits.

    Aims: We aimed to establish the frequency and clinical significance of anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies, comparing patients with radiologically proven microprolactinomas and patients with idiopathic hyperprolactinaemia. Read More

    The efficacy and safety of pubertal induction using 17beta-estradiol in transgirls.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 Apr 14. Epub 2017 Apr 14.
    Department of Pediatrics, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, the Netherlands.
    Introduction.: Puberty suppression using GnRH agonists, followed by induction of desired sex characteristics using sex steroids, is recommended by current guidelines as the treatment of choice for gender dysphoric adolescents although little evidence is available.

    Aim. Read More

    An evaluation of neuroendocrine dysfunction following acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: A prospective study.
    Asian J Neurosurg 2017 Jan-Mar;12(1):34-36
    Department of Neurosurgery, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.
    Objective: The aim was to investigate the incidence and pattern of neuroendocrine changes in cases of acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).

    Materials And Methods: Endocrine assessment was performed in 100 consecutive cases of acute aneurysmal SAH presenting within 7 days of ictus. The gonadotropic, somatotrophic, thyrotropic, and corticotrophic axes were evaluated for their possible dysfunction. Read More

    Endocrine Comorbidities in Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis: A Population-based Case-controlled Study.
    J Rheumatol 2017 Jun 15;44(6):786-790. Epub 2017 Apr 15.
    From the Department of Rheumatology, and the Department of Internal Medicine, and the Department of Community Medicine and Epidemiology, Carmel Medical Center; Bruce and Ruth Rappaport Faculty of Medicine Technion, Haifa; Chief Physician's Office, Central Headquarters, Clalit Health Services, Tel Aviv; Siaal Research Center for Family Medicine and Primary Care, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheba, Israel.
    Objective: To investigate endocrine comorbidities in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA).

    Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional study was performed with the database of Clalit Health Services, the largest healthcare provider in Israel, between 2002 and 2014. Patients with PsA were identified and matched by age and sex to healthy controls. Read More

    Prolactin as a Potential Early Predictive Factor in Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated with Nivolumab.
    Oncology 2017 14;93(1):62-66. Epub 2017 Apr 14.
    Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Radiological, Oncological, and Pathological Sciences, "Sapienza" University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
    Background/aims: Prolactin (PRL) is a peptide hormone and several studies have demonstrated its role as a cytokine in human T cell-mediated immunity. We are unaware if PRL is a positive or negative immunomodulator, but its effects on the regulation of T cells could inhibit the antitumor activity elicited by nivolumab (NIVO). We aimed to assess whether the occurrence of hyperprolactinemia in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (mNSCLC) patients treated with NIVO is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Read More

    Risperidone-Induced Adverse Drug Reactions and Role of DRD2 (-141 C Ins/Del) and 5HTR2C (-759 C>T) Genetic Polymorphisms in Patients with Schizophrenia.
    J Pharmacol Pharmacother 2017 Jan-Mar;8(1):28-32
    Department of Psychiatry, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, India.
    Objective: To determine the adverse drug reaction (ADR) profile of risperidone and their association with dopamine (DRD2 - 141 C Ins/Del/rs1799732) and serotonin receptor (5HTR2C -759 C>T/rs3813929) gene polymorphisms in patients with schizophrenia.

    Materials And Methods: The study was conducted among 289 patients who were diagnosed with schizophrenia and were on treatment with risperidone (4-8 mg/day)-based therapy for a minimum of 4 weeks. Genotyping was carried by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Read More

    Paeoniflorin and liquiritin, two major constituents in Chinese herbal formulas used to treat hyperprolactinemia-associated disorders, inhibits prolactin secretion in prolactinoma cells by different mechanisms.
    J Ethnopharmacol 2017 May 7;204:36-44. Epub 2017 Apr 7.
    Endocrinology and Metabolism Group, Sydney Institute of Health Sciences/Sydney Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, NSW 2000, Australia. Electronic address:
    Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Paeoniflorin and liquiritin are major constituents in some Chinese herbal formulas, such as Yiru Tiaojing (YRTJ) Granule (a hospitalized preparation) and Peony-Glycyrrhiza Decoction, used for hyperprolactinemia-associated disorders.

    Aim Of The Study: To investigate the effect of paeoniflorin and liquiritin on prolactin secretion.

    Materials And Methods: The effect of YRTJ Granule on metoclopramide-induced hyperprolactinemia was tested in rats. Read More

    Association between serum prolactin levels and insulin resistance in non-diabetic men.
    PLoS One 2017 6;12(4):e0175204. Epub 2017 Apr 6.
    Department of Social Medicine, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Aomori, Japan.
    Prolactin (PRL) has roles in various physiological functions. Although experimental studies showed that PRL has both beneficial and adverse effects on type 2 diabetes mellitus, clinical findings in subjects with hyperprolactinemia indicate adverse effects on glucose metabolism. However, effects of PRL within the physiological range in human are controversial. Read More

    Progressive visual disturbance and enlarging prolactinoma caused by melanoma metastasis: A case report and literature review.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Apr;96(14):e6483
    aDepartment of Neurosurgery of the Second Affiliated Hospital bInstitute of Cancer Stem Cell cDepartment of Endocrinology of Affiliated Dalian Municipal Central Hospital, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning Province dDepartment of Neurosurgery of Yantaishan Hospital, Yantai, Shandong Province, PR China.
    Rationale: Melanoma metastases to the pituitary adenoma (MMPA) are extremely rare, with only 1 reported case. To date, the melanoma metastasis to the existing prolactinoma has not been reported in literatures.

    Patient Concerns: We report a case of 62-year-old woman presented with progressive visual disturbance and hyperprolactinemia. Read More

    Adjunctive metformin for antipsychotic-related hyperprolactinemia: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
    J Psychopharmacol 2017 May 3;31(5):625-631. Epub 2017 Apr 3.
    7 Unit of Psychiatry, University of Macau, Macau SAR, China.
    Hyperprolactinemia is a common and severe antipsychotic-induced adverse drug reaction. This meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials systematically examined the efficacy and safety of adjunctive metformin for antipsychotic-related hyperprolactinemia in schizophrenia patients. Two independent investigators searched, extracted, and synthesized data. Read More

    Role of Prolactin in the Regulation of Bicarbonates Biodynamics in Female Rat Model of Cholestasis of Pregnancy.
    Bull Exp Biol Med 2017 Mar 31;162(5):611-614. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    Laboratory of Endocrinology, Biological Faculty, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.
    We studied possible involvement of prolactin in the regulation of bicarbonate biodynamics using female rat model of cholestasis of pregnancy induced by transplantation of the donor pituitary under the renal capsule of a recipient (hyperprolactinemia) and bile duct ligation (cholestasis). The concentration of bicarbonates in the bile and blood, their excretion, clearance, and reabsorption, as well as glomerular filtration rate and excretion of sodium ions were assessed. It was found that the main effect of prolactin was directed to the kidney-regulated pool of bicarbonates and consisted in stimulation of their clearance and inhibition of reabsorption, which led to a decrease in bicarbonate blood concentration. Read More

    Serum Prolactin Levels in Multiple Sclerosis, Neuromyelitis Optica, and Clinically Isolated Syndrome Patients.
    Noro Psikiyatr Ars 2016 Dec 1;53(4):353-356. Epub 2016 Dec 1.
    Department of Neurology, İstanbul University İstanbul School of Medicine, İstanbul, Turkey.
    Introduction: Prolactin has been discussed as a factor likely to play a mediating role in multiple sclerosis (MS). Our aim was to investigate the possible association between prolactin production and clinical features of autoimmune demyelinating central nervous system disorders.

    Methods: Serum prolactin levels of 255 MS patients, 19 neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients, 15 clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) patients, and 240 healthy controls were measured by a heterogeneous sandwich magnetic separation assay. Read More

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