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    Sex differences in prolactin levels in emerging psychosis: Indication for enhanced stress reactivity in women.
    Schizophr Res 2017 Feb 14. Epub 2017 Feb 14.
    Center for Gender Research and Early Detection, University of Basel Psychiatric Hospital, Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:
    Background: Hyperprolactinemia is a known side effect of antipsychotics. In recent reports it has also been shown in antipsychotic-naïve at-risk mental state (ARMS) and first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients. Prolactin is not only involved in reproduction and lactation, but is also synthesized in response to stress. Read More

    [Frequency of increased thyrotropin in women with hyperprolactinemia].
    Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc 2017 ;55 Suppl 1:S53-S57
    División de Investigación en Salud, Hospital de Ginecoobstetricia 4 "Luis Castelazo Ayala", Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Ciudad de México, México.
    Background: Hypothyroidism has been associated to hyperprolactinemia. The aim was to establish the frequency of high thyrotropin (TSH) levels in women with hyperprolactinemia.

    Methods: Retrospective, observational, open, and non-controlled study, which included all the non-pregnant women whose prolactin (PRL) and TSH levels were measured between January 1 and December 31, 2014. Read More

    Cluster headache and macroprolactinoma: Case report of a rare, but potential important causality.
    J Clin Neurosci 2017 Feb 10. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    Department of Endocrinology, Universtiy Hospital Basel, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:
    While headache is not an uncommon symptom in patients suffering from pituitary adenomas, cluster headache (CH) has rarely been reported in such cases. Headache associated with hyperprolactinemia has been reported to be responsive to dopamine agonists (DA agonists) in many patients. We report on a patient with refractory CH secondary to a macroprolactinoma who showed immediate and permanent clinical and radiologic recovery following medical treatment with DA agonists. Read More

    Possible involvement of prolactin in endocrine-resistant metastatic prostate cancer.
    Int J Biol Markers 2005 Apr - Jun;20(2):123-125
    Division of Radiation Oncology, San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, Milan - Italy.
    The hormone resistance of prostate cancer has been proved to depend at least in part on enhanced neuroendocrine activity and the resultant increase in blood concentrations of chromogranin A. Other experimental observations have suggested the involvement of prolactin (PRL), which appears to be a potential growth factor for prostate cancer. Abnormally high levels of PRL have been detected in metastatic prostate cancer, but the clinical significance of this finding has still to be clarified. Read More


    Escitalopram-Induced Amenorrhea and False Positive Urine Pregnancy Test.
    Korean J Fam Med 2017 Jan 18;38(1):40-42. Epub 2017 Jan 18.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, USA.
    Escitalopram is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. A 34-year-old female patient with major depressive disorder developed amenorrhea and had a false-positive urine pregnancy test after initiation of escitalopram treatment. To our knowledge, no published case report of amenorrhea and false-positive urine pregnancy tests in women taking escitalopram exists. Read More

    Re: Myocardial Recovery in Peripartum Cardiomyopathy After Hyperprolactinemia Treatment on Biventricular Assist Device.
    ASAIO J 2017 Feb 6. Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    *Department for Cardiac Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Austria; †Center for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Medical University of Vienna, Austria; ¶Ludwig-Boltzmann-Cluster for Cardiovascular Research, Vienna, Austria, ‡Department for Cardiovascular Anaesthesia, Medical University of Vienna, Austria.

    Toxicity Assessment of Molindone Hydrochloride, a Dopamine D2/D5 Receptor Antagonist in juvenile and adult rats.
    Toxicol Mech Methods 2017 Jan 31:1-29. Epub 2017 Jan 31.
    a Supernus Pharmaceuticals Inc. , Rockville , MD 20850.
    Neuroleptic drug molindone hydrochloride is a dopamine D2/D5 receptor antagonist and it is in late stage development for the treatment of impulsive aggression in children and adolescents who have attention deficient/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This new indication for this drug would expand the target population to include younger patients, and therefore, toxicity assessments in juvenile animals were undertaken in order to determine susceptibility differences, if any, between this age group and the adult rats. Adult rats were administered molindone by oral gavage for 13 weeks at dose levels of 0, 5, 20, or 60 mg/kg-bw/day. Read More

    Paliperidone for the treatment of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders - a drug safety evaluation.
    Expert Opin Drug Saf 2017 Jan 31. Epub 2017 Jan 31.
    a Department of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Clinical Psychopharmacology Unit , Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico , Milan , Italy.
    Introduction: Paliperidone, the major active metabolite of risperidone, is a second-generation antipsychotic that has been developed as an extended-release (ER) oral formulation and a long-acting injectable paliperidone palmitate (PP) formulation. Paliperidone has demonstrated efficacy in the reduction of acute schizophrenia symptoms and clinical benefits were maintained also in the long-term treatments. Paliperidone ER and PP are generally well tolerated with a predictable adverse event profile. Read More

    Prolactin has a pathogenic role in systemic lupus erythematosus.
    Immunol Res 2017 Jan 28. Epub 2017 Jan 28.
    Rheumatology Section, School of Medicine, Louisiana State University, New Orleans, LA, USA.
    Prolactin, a 23-kDa peptide hormone, is produced by the anterior pituitary gland and extrapituitary sites including the immune cells. Prolactin (PRL) participates in innate and adaptive immune response. PRL stimulates the immune cells by binding to receptor (PRL-R). Read More

    Endocrine disrupting pesticides impair the neuroendocrine regulation of reproductive behaviors and secondary sexual characters of red munia (Amandava amandava).
    Physiol Behav 2017 Jan 21;173:15-22. Epub 2017 Jan 21.
    Department of Zoology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002, U.P., India. Electronic address:
    The exposure effects of two endocrine disrupting pesticides (EDPs), mancozeb/MCZ and imidacloprid/IMI of the group dithiocarbamate and neonicotinoid respectively, on reproductive behaviors and secondary sexual characters have been studied in a seasonally breeding wildlife bird, red munia (Amandava amandava). Adult male birds were exposed to both the pesticides individually (0.25% LD50 of each) as well as co-exposed (MIX-I: 0. Read More

    Re: Myocardial Recovery in Peripartum Cardiomyopathy after Hyperprolactinemia Treatment on Biventricular Assist Device.
    ASAIO J 2017 Jan 19. Epub 2017 Jan 19.
    1 Institute for Clinical Chemistry, Laboratory Medicine and Transfusion Medicine, Nuremberg General Hospital & Paracelsus Medical University, Nuremberg, Germany, 2Instituto de Neurobiología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Campus UNAM-Juriquilla, Querétaro, México.

    Sex differences in the development of prolactinoma in mice overexpressing hCGβ: role of TGFβ1.
    J Endocrinol 2017 Mar 17;232(3):535-546. Epub 2017 Jan 17.
    Instituto de Biología y Medicina ExperimentalConsejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Female transgenic mice that overexpress the human chorionic gonadotrophin β subunit (hCGβ+) develop prolactinomas, whereas hCGβ+ males do not. The high levels of circulating hCG induce massive luteinization in the ovary of hCGβ+ females, and progesterone becomes the primary steroid hormone produced, but estradiol remains at physiological level. The involvement of high levels of progesterone in lactotroph proliferation is not clearly understood; hence, the pathogenesis of prolactinomas in hCGβ+ females remains unclear. Read More

    [Hyperprolactinemia associated with neuroleptic treatment: clinical characteristics and an impact on sexual function].
    Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2016 ;116(11):17-25
    Mental Health Research Center, Moscow, Russia.
    Aim: To study clinical characteristics of antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia (AIH) and an impact of AIH on sexual function in patients with mental disorders treated with neuroleptics for a long time.

    Material And Methods: A cross-sectional study of 244 consecutive psychiatric in-patients (F/M=140/104) with mental disorders currently taking antipsychotics was carried out. The patients were screened for serum prolactin, sex hormones and gonadotropin levels. Read More

    Threshold of Dopamine D2/3 Receptor Occupancy for Hyperprolactinemia in Older Patients With Schizophrenia.
    J Clin Psychiatry 2016 Dec;77(12):e1557-e1563
    Multimodal Imaging Group, Research Imaging Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 250 College St, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R, Canada.
    Objective: Although hyperprolactinemia carries a long-term risk of morbidity, the threshold of dopamine D2/3 receptor (D2/3R) occupancy for hyperprolactinemia has not been investigated in older patients with schizophrenia. Data were taken from a positron emission tomography (PET) study conducted between August 2007 and August 2015. The present post hoc study included 42 clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia (DSM-IV) (mean ± SD age = 60. Read More

    Mixed Gangliocytoma-Pituitary Adenoma: Insights on the Pathogenesis of a Rare Sellar Tumor.
    Am J Surg Pathol 2017 Jan 10. Epub 2017 Jan 10.
    Department of Pathology, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA.
    Gangliocytomas originating in the sellar region are rare; most are tumors composed of gangliocytic and pituitary adenomatous elements, forming the so-called mixed gangliocytoma-pituitary adenoma. The majority of mixed gangliocytoma adenomas are associated with endocrinopathies, mainly acromegaly and less often Cushing disease and hyperprolactinemia. In the present study, 10 cases of mixed gangliocytoma and somatotroph adenomas were evaluated for patterns of cellular differentiation and expression of lineage-specific transcription factors. Read More

    Alternative Treatment Strategies in Women Poorly Tolerating Moderate Doses of Bromocriptine.
    Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2017 Jan 10. Epub 2017 Jan 10.
    Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland.
    Background: Metformin as well as dopaminergic agents exert a beneficial effect on glucose and lipid metabolism, often impaired in patients with hyperprolactinemia. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare metabolic- and prolactin-lowering effects of low-dose bromocriptine/metformin combination therapy and cabergoline in patients with elevated prolactin levels. Methods: The study included 27 women with hyperprolactinemia and impaired glucose tolerance who were treated with moderate doses of bromocriptine but experienced adverse effects of this treatment. Read More

    Olanzapine has better efficacy compared to risperidone for treatment of negative symptoms in schizophrenia.
    Indian J Psychiatry 2016 Jul-Sep;58(3):311-316
    Department of Psychiatry, KMCT Medical College, Calicut, Kerala, India.
    Objective: The safety and efficacy profile of risperidone and olanzapine were compared in a double-blind trial that used doses widely accepted in clinical practice.

    Methods: Subjects (n = 71) who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria for schizophrenia were randomly assigned to receive 2-8 mg/day of risperidone (mean modal dose = 5.5 mg/day) or 5-20 mg/day of olanzapine (mean modal dose = 14. Read More

    Cabergoline in acromegaly.
    Pituitary 2016 Dec 26. Epub 2016 Dec 26.
    Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bicêtre Service d'Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction, 78 rue du Général Leclerc, 94275, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France.
    Acromegaly, a rare disease due to growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion by a pituitary adenoma, is associated with severe comorbidity and premature death if not adequately treated. The usual first-line treatment is surgery. Various drugs, including somatostatin receptor ligands, dopamine agonists and GH receptor antagonists, are now available for use if surgery fails to suppress GH/IGF-I hypersecretion. Read More

    Long-Term Clinical Outcomes of Invasive Giant Prolactinomas after a Mean Ten-Year Followup.
    Int J Endocrinol 2016 23;2016:8580750. Epub 2016 Nov 23.
    Department of Neurosurgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, China; Department of Neurosurgery, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025, China.
    Objective. The aim of this study is to observe clinical outcomes after more than ten years of followup in a group of patients with invasive giant prolactinomas (IGPs) treated with dopamine agonists (DAs). Methods. Read More

    Endocrinology Update: Hirsutism.
    FP Essent 2016 Dec;451:17-24
    University of Michigan Medical School Ypsilanti Health Center, 200 Arnet Suite 200, Ypsilanti, MI 48198.
    Hirsutism is defined as excessive terminal hair growth, such as coarse sexual or secondary hair, that typically appears in a male growth pattern in androgen-dependent areas of the female body. It can occur in men and women. Common etiologies include polycystic ovary syndrome, idiopathic hyperandrogenemia, idiopathic hirsutism, adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, androgen-secreting tumors, iatrogenic hirsutism, acromegaly, Cushing syndrome, hyperprolactinemia, and hypo- or hyperthyroidism. Read More

    A Rare Case of Gestational Gigantomastia with Hypercalcemia: The Challenges of Management and Follow up.
    J Reprod Infertil 2016 Oct-Dec;17(4):243-246
    Clinical Research and Development Center, Imam Hossein Medical Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Background: Gigantomastia is a breast disorder marked by exaggerated rapid growth of the breasts, generally bilaterally. Since this disorder is very rare and has been reported only in sparse case reports its etiology has yet to be fully established. Treatment is aimed at improving the clinical and psychological symptoms and reducing the treatment side effects; however, the best therapeutic option varies from case to case. Read More

    Pregnancy and tumor outcomes in infertile women with macroprolactinoma on cabergoline therapy.
    Gynecol Endocrinol 2016 Dec 2:1-4. Epub 2016 Dec 2.
    a Department of Endocrinology , Post Graduate Institute of Medical education and Research (PGIMER) , Chandigarh, 160012 , India.
    Hyperprolactinemia and prolactinomas cause infertility in significant number of women. But, pregnancy may lead to post-partum remission of hyperprolactinemia. The data on pregnancy and tumor outcome in women with macroprolactinoma conceiving on Cabergoline (CAB) therapy is increasing but still less than with Bromocriptine. Read More

    Association of Thyroid Profile and Prolactin Level in Patient with Secondary Amenorrhea.
    Malays J Med Sci 2016 Sep 5;23(5):51-56. Epub 2016 Oct 5.
    Department of Biochemistry, Universal College of Medical Sciences, Ranigaon, Bhairahawa, Nepal.
    Background: Amenorrhea is the absence of menstrual periods. It has multiple social consequences as it may leads to infertility. This case control study was conducted for determining the association of thyroid hormones with hyperprolactinemia in patient with amenorrhea. Read More

    Interactions between prolactin and kisspeptin to control reproduction.
    Arch Endocrinol Metab 2016 Nov-Dec;60(6):587-595. Epub 2016 Nov 24.
    Departamento de Anatomia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, USP, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.
    Prolactin is best known for its effects of stimulating mammary gland development and lactogenesis. However, prolactin is a pleiotropic hormone that is able to affect several physiological functions, including fertility. Prolactin receptors (PRLRs) are widely expressed in several tissues, including several brain regions and reproductive tract organs. Read More

    [Guidelines for the prescription of mood stabilizers for adolescents: A literature review].
    Encephale 2016 Nov 18. Epub 2016 Nov 18.
    UVSQ, CESP, Inserm, université Paris-Saclay, université Paris-Sud, 94800 Villejuif, France; Département de psychiatrie, institut mutualiste Montsouris, 75014 Paris, France; Faculté de médecine, université Paris Descartes, 75006 Paris, France. Electronic address:
    Introduction: Adolescence is a unique phase of the human developmental process. In adolescents, psychotropic medications may have different efficacy and tolerance profiles compared to those at other stages of the lifespan. Mood stabilizers are a complex pharmacological category including lithium, some anticonvulsants, and some second generation antipsychotics. Read More

    Oestrogens, prolactin, hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and schizophrenic psychoses.
    Lancet Psychiatry 2017 Jan 15;4(1):63-72. Epub 2016 Nov 15.
    Center for Gender Research and Early Detection, University of Basel Psychiatric Clinics, Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:
    Interest is growing in the potential effect of gonadal hormones, prolactin, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in schizophrenic psychoses. Many studies from clinical, epidemiological, and fundamental research have confirmed that oestradiol, the main component of oestrogens, can have protective effects in schizophrenic psychoses. Furthermore, many patients with schizophrenic psychoses-even in the untreated prodromal stages-have hyperprolactinaemia and gonadal dysfunction, with oestrogen deficiency in women and testosterone deficiency in men. Read More


    SERUM LEVELS OF FİBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR-23, OSTEOPROTEGERİN AND RECEPTOR ACTİVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR KAPPA B LİGAND (RANKL) İN PATİENTS WİH PROLACTİNOMA.
    Endocr Pract 2016 Nov 16. Epub 2016 Nov 16.
    From: 1Diskapi Training and Research Hospital, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Ankara, Turkey.
    Purpose: The aim of this study to was to evaluate the effect of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator nuclear kB ligand (RANKL), and vitamin D hormones on bone loss in patients with hyperprolactinemia due to the pituitary prolactinoma.

    Methods: 46 premenopausal female patients with prolactinoma and age and sex matched healthy controls (Group 3, n=20) were recruited to this cross sectional study. Prolactinoma patients were divided into two groups as patients newly diagnosed (Group 1, n=26), and under cabergoline treatment (Group 2, n=20). Read More

    Pituitary response profile following metoclopramide administration in women with different forms of hyperprolactinemia.
    Gynecol Endocrinol 2017 Feb 12;33(2):148-151. Epub 2016 Nov 12.
    a Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
    Aims: To test the hypothesis that macroprolactinemia is an extra-pituitary phenomenon by showing that the pituitary production of prolactin in patients with hyperprolactinemia due to macroprolactin is comparable to that in normoprolactinemic women and different from that in women with monomeric hyperprolactinemia.

    Methods: Twenty-five women were studied: eight with macroprolactin hyperprolactinemia, eight with monomeric hyperprolactinemia, and nine controls. Prolactin levels were measured before and after precipitation with polyethylene glycol at baseline and at 5, 10,15, 30, and 60 min after metoclopramide administration (10 mg i. Read More

    Prolactin related symptoms during risperidone maintenance treatment: results from a prospective, multicenter study of schizophrenia.
    BMC Psychiatry 2016 Nov 9;16(1):386. Epub 2016 Nov 9.
    Beijing Key Laboratory of Mental Disorders, Department of Psychiatry, Beijing Anding Hospital, Capital Medical University, No.5 Ankang Lane, Dewai Avenue, Xicheng District, Beijing, 100088, China.
    Background: This study aimed to investigate prolactin related symptoms (PRS) in individuals with schizophrenia during risperidone maintenance treatment for one year, as well as to identify the risk factors for PRS.

    Methods: In a multicenter, randomized, controlled, longitudinal study, clinically stabilized schizophrenia patients (N = 374) were randomized to a no-dose-reduction group (N = 129) and 4-week (N = 125) and 26-week (N = 120) reduction groups, in which the original dose was followed by a 50 % reduction over 8 weeks and subsequently maintained. PRS were assessed via a scale of prolactin related adverse events, which included 16 items: menstrual cycle, menstrual period, menstrual volume, menstrual irregularities, amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, postpartum lactation, gynecomastia, breast tenderness, sexual dysfunction, decreased sexual desire, erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction, impotence, increased body hair, and acne. Read More

    Clinical Features of Pituitary Stalk Interruption Syndrome in 114 Cases.
    Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 2016 Oct;38(5):534-538
    1Department of Endocrinology,Chinese PLA General Hospital,Beijing 100853,China.
    Objective To analyze the clinical characteristics of pituitary stalk interruption syndrome(PSIS). Methods The clinical data including clinical manifestations,laboratory tests,and imaging findings of 114 PSIS patients in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Results Of these 114 PSIS patients,102 cases (89. Read More

    Risk of breast cancer in risperidone users: A nationwide cohort study.
    Schizophr Res 2016 Nov 4. Epub 2016 Nov 4.
    Centre for Pharmacoepidemiology, Department of Medicine, Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Background: Several antipsychotics, especially risperidone, are known to increase serum prolactin. Hyperprolactinemia has been linked to the development of mammary gland tumors in animal studies. We therefore investigated the risk of breast cancer in a nationwide cohort of women using risperidone or other antipsychotics. Read More

    Paraneoplastic Galactorrhea in Childhood T-ALL: An Evaluation of Tumor-derived Prolactin.
    J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2017 Jan;39(1):e18-e20
    Departments of *Pediatrics, Hematology/Oncology ‡Molecular Medicine, UT Health Science Center San Antonio †Greehey Children's Cancer Research Institute §Texas Research Park, San Antonio, TX ∥Dept of Hematology/Oncology, University of Maryland Greenebaum Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD.
    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) comprises 15% of childhood leukemia. Although multiagent pulse chemotherapy has improved event-free survival in recent decades, the lack of reliable prognosticators and high rate of relapse remain a challenge. Described is a novel discovery of tumor-derived hyperprolactinemia in childhood T-ALL through a case associated with paraneoplastic galactorrhea. Read More

    Preconception management of endocrine disorders.
    J Pak Med Assoc 2016 Nov;66(11):1494-1496
    Department of Endocrinology, Bharti Hospital, Karnal, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    Endocrine function is closely interlinked with pregnancy. Maternal and foetal outcomes can be improved if optimal endocrine function is achieved, and maintained prior to conception. This needs a systematic approach which includes rational screening, appropriate management, and pragmatic counseling. Read More

    A Follow-Up Study of the Prevalence of Valvular Heart Abnormalities in Hyperprolactinemic Patients Treated With Cabergoline.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2016 Nov 29;101(11):4189-4194. Epub 2016 Aug 29.
    Department Endocrinology (W.M.D., C.E.S.), St Bartholomew's Hospital, London EC1A 7BE, United Kingdom; Department of Cardiology (S.K.P),JJR Macleod Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology & Metabolism (J.S.B.), Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZP, United Kingdom; Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research (N.K.), School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom; Department Endocrinology (P.J.T., S.A.), The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester M20 4BX, United Kingdom; Neurosciences and Mental Health Research Institute (A.R.), School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 4HQ, United Kingdom; Diabetes and Endocrine Centre (T.I.R., N.B.), Royal Bournemouth Hospital, Bournemouth, Dorset BH7 7DW, United Kingdom; Department Endocrinology (S.E.B., F.C.B.), University College London Hospital, London NW1 2BU, United Kingdom; Queen's Hospital (N.S.), Romford, Essex RM7 0AG, United Kingdom; Department of Endocrinology (R.D.M., N.K.), Leeds Centre for Diabetes & Endocrinology, St James's University Hospital, Leeds LS9 7TF, United Kingdom; Department of Endocrinology (A.A.T.), Queen Elizabeth Hospital, University Hospitals Birmingham, NHSFT, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TH, United Kingdom; Imperial Centre for Endocrinology (N.M.M.), Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom; Department of Endocrinology (B.V., U.E.S.), Royal Devon & Exeter Hospital, University of Exeter Medical School, Exeter EX2 4TP, United Kingdom; Institute of Cardiovascular Research (T.S.H.), Royal Holloway, University of London (ICR2UL) & Ashford and St Peter's NHS Foundation Trust, Surrey TW20 0EX, United Kingdom; Department Cardiology (R.P.S., L.T.), University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham B15 2TH, United Kingdom.
    Context: Uncertainty exists whether the long-term use of ergot-derived dopamine agonist (DA) drugs for the treatment of hyperprolactinemia may be associated with clinically significant valvular heart disease and whether current regulatory authority guidelines for echocardiographic screening are clinically appropriate.

    Objective: Our objective was to provide follow-up echocardiographic data on a previously described cohort of patients treated with DA for lactotrope pituitary tumors and to explore possible associations between structural and functional valve abnormalities with the cumulative dose of drug used.

    Design: Follow-up echocardiographic data were collected from a proportion of our previously reported cohort of patients; all had received continuous DA therapy for at least 2 years in the intervening period. Read More

    Chronic hyperprolactinemia evoked by disruption of lactotrope dopamine D2 receptors impacts on liver and adipocyte genes related to glucose and insulin balance.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2016 Dec 1;311(6):E974-E988. Epub 2016 Nov 1.
    Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina;
    We studied the impact of high prolactin titers on liver and adipocyte gene expression related to glucose and insulin homeostasis in correlation with obesity onset. To that end we used mutant female mice that selectively lack dopamine type 2 receptors (D2Rs) from pituitary lactotropes (lacDrd2KO), which have chronic high prolactin levels associated with increased body weight, marked increments in fat depots, adipocyte size, and serum lipids, and a metabolic phenotype that intensifies with age. LacDrd2KO mice of two developmental ages, 5 and 10 mo, were used. Read More

    Peony-Glycyrrhiza Decoction for Antipsychotic-Related Hyperprolactinemia in Women With Schizophrenia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
    J Clin Psychopharmacol 2016 Dec;36(6):572-579
    From the *School of Chinese Medicine, LKS Faculty of Medicine, the University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; †Department of Psychiatry, Beijing Key Laboratory of Mental Disorders, Beijing Anding Hospital, and ‡Center of Schizophrenia, Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Capital Medical University, Beijing; and §Department of Psychiatry, Xijing Hospital, the Fourth Military Medical University, Shaanxi, China; and ∥Department of Forensic and Neurodevelopmental Sciences, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.
    Objectives: An herbal preparation called peony-glycyrrhiza decoction (PGD) may have the potential in reducing antipsychotic-related hyperprolactinemia (hyperPRL). This double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled study aimed to reevaluate the efficacy of PGD against antipsychotic-related hyperPRL.

    Methods: Ninety-nine schizophrenic women who were under antipsychotic therapy and had symptomatic hyperPRL were randomly assigned to additional treatment with placebo (n = 50) or PGD (n = 49, 45 g/d) for 16 weeks. Read More

    Development and Validation of Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry Analysis for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Risperidone and 9-Hydroxyrisperidone in Pediatric Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorders.
    J Clin Lab Anal 2016 Nov 26;30(6):1236-1246. Epub 2016 Jun 26.
    Division of Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.
    Background: Risperidone (RIS) is a widely used atypical antipsychotic drug. We developed and validated a sensitive and accurate LC-MS/MS method, which requires a small-volume of plasma and small-volume injection for measurement of RIS levels in ASD pediatric patients. We also investigated the relationship between RIS levels and RIS dosages, including prolactin levels. Read More

    A New Method of Using Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Precipitation of Macroprolactin to Detect Genuine Hyperprolactinemia.
    J Clin Lab Anal 2016 Nov 24;30(6):1169-1174. Epub 2016 May 24.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Hangzhou Medical College, Hangzhou, China.
    Background: The most commonly used method of polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation for macroprolactinemia (MP) screening has some significant drawbacks. The aim of this study was to establish a new method using PEG for precipitation of macroprolactin (macroPRL) to detect genuine hyperprolactinemia (genuine HP).

    Methods: The optimal PEG concentration for precipitation and the effect of PEG on the precipitation of PRL were analyzed to establish and optimize our PEG precipitation method. Read More

    Management of prolactinomas: a survey of physicians from the Middle East and North Africa.
    Pituitary 2016 Oct 25. Epub 2016 Oct 25.
    Saint-Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon.
    Background: Prolactinomas are the commonest functional tumors of the pituitary gland. There are still controversies regarding medical therapy in specific clinical situations. Patients may be managed by different specialists in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region and no data exist on patterns of clinical management. Read More

    Pituitary tumors in MEN1: do not be misled by borderline elevated prolactin levels.
    Pituitary 2016 Dec;19(6):601-604
    Division of Endocrinology Metabolism and Molecular Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 645 N. Michigan Avenue, Suite 530, Chicago, IL, 60611, USA.
    Purpose: The objective of this case report is to demonstrate that the simple expedient of measuring periodic prolactin levels in patients with MEN1 who have modest hyperprolactinemia and normal pituitary MRI scans is insufficient to monitor for the development of pituitary adenomas.

    Methods: Review of relevant literature and chart review.

    Results: A 25 year old man with known MEN1 manifested by hyperparathyroidism and a gastrin-producing neuroendocrine tumor was found to have a prolactin [PRL] level of 20. Read More

    Prolactin gene polymorphism (-1149 G/T) is associated with hyperprolactinemia in patients with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotics.
    Schizophr Res 2016 Oct 21. Epub 2016 Oct 21.
    Department of Pharmacy, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands; GGZ Westelijk Noord-Brabant, Bergen op Zoom, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
    Background: Antipsychotic drugs can cause hyperprolactinemia. However, hyperprolactinemia was also observed in treatment-naive patients with a first schizophrenic episode. This phenomenon might be related to the role of prolactin as a cytokine in autoimmune diseases. Read More

    Hyperprolactinemia in end-stage renal disease and effects of frequent hemodialysis.
    Hemodial Int 2016 Oct 23. Epub 2016 Oct 23.
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California, USA.
    Introduction End-stage renal disease is associated with elevations in circulating prolactin concentrations, but the association of prolactin concentrations with intermediate health outcomes and the effects of hemodialysis frequency on changes in serum prolactin have not been examined. Methods The FHN Daily and Nocturnal Dialysis Trials compared the effects of conventional thrice weekly hemodialysis with in-center daily hemodialysis (6 days/week) and nocturnal home hemodialysis (6 nights/week) over 12 months and obtained measures of health-related quality of life, self-reported physical function, mental health and cognition. Serum prolactin concentrations were measured at baseline and 12-month follow-up in 70% of the FHN Trial cohort to examine the associations among serum prolactin concentrations and physical, mental and cognitive function and the effects of hemodialysis frequency on serum prolactin. Read More

    Long-Term Follow-Up of Primary Medical Versus Surgical Treatment of Prolactinomas in Men: Effects on Hyperprolactinemia, Hypogonadism, and Bone Health.
    World Neurosurg 2017 Jan 20;97:595-602. Epub 2016 Oct 20.
    Department of Endocrinology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:
    Objective: In men with prolactinomas, impaired bone density is the principle consequence of hyperprolactinemia-induced hypogonadism. Although dopamine agonists (DAs) are the first-line approach in prolactinomas, surgery can be considered in selected cases. In this study, we aimed to investigate the long-term control of hyperprolactinemia, hypogonadism, and bone health comparing primary medical and surgical therapy in men who had not had prior DA treatment. Read More

    Gigantism: X-linked acrogigantism and GPR101 mutations.
    Growth Horm IGF Res 2016 Oct - Dec;30-31:64-69. Epub 2016 Sep 29.
    Centre for Endocrinology, Barts and The London School of Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, London, EC1M 6BQ, UK. Electronic address:
    X-linked acrogigantism (XLAG) is a recently identified condition of early-onset GH excess resulting from the germline or somatic duplication of the GPR101 gene on chromosome Xq26.3. Thirty patients have been formally reported so far. Read More

    Hyperprolactinemia, prolactin-related side effects and quality of life in Chinese psychiatric patients.
    Compr Psychiatry 2016 Nov 24;71:71-76. Epub 2016 Aug 24.
    Unit of Psychiatry, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau, Macao, SAR, China. Electronic address:
    Purpose: To examine the frequency of hyperprolactinemia and the socio-demographic, clinical, and quality of life (QOL) correlates. The frequency of prolactin-related side effects and associated subjective experiences were also examined.

    Methods: A cohort of 1364 psychiatric inpatients were consecutively recruited and evaluated. Read More

    Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD): Case report, clinical and basic investigations, and review of literature.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2016 Oct;95(42):e5167
    aBaruch Padeh Medical Center, Poriya, Faculty of Medicine in the Galilee - Bar Ilan University, Israel bSenior Physician Specialists in Family Medicine, Department of Family Medicine and Faculty of Medicine in the Galilee - Bar Ilan University, Israel cProfessor of Clinical Neuroscience, Neuropsychopharmacology & Population Genetics; Department of clinical Neuroscience - EMMS Nazareth Hospital, Nazareth, Israel.
    Background: Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is an uncommon aggressive, multisystem form of non-Langerhans' cell histocytosis, which was firstly reported by Jakob Erdheim and William chester in 1930. The disease pathological features encompass an aberrant multiplication, overproduction and accumulation of white blood cells called histiocytes within multiple tissues and organs. Herein, we present a case of ECD owing to the rarity of this disease (roughly 550 cases have been described in the literature to date). Read More

    Galactocele in a Male Infant with Transient Hyperprolactinaemia: An Extremely Rare Cause of Breast Enlargement in Children.
    Case Rep Pediatr 2016 26;2016:9487616. Epub 2016 Sep 26.
    Department of Surgery, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Pokfulam, Hong Kong.
    Galactocele is a rare breast condition in infants. Here, we report a 16-month-old boy who developed progressive left breast enlargement. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 4 cm cystic lesion at left breast. Read More

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