7,437 results match your criteria Hyperprolactinemia

Sex-Related Differences in Pharmacological Response to CNS Drugs: A Narrative Review.

J Pers Med 2022 May 31;12(6). Epub 2022 May 31.

Faculty of Medicine, "Victor Babeş" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 2 Eftimie Murgu Street, 300041 Timisoara, Romania.

In the last decades, both animal and human studies have neglected female subjects with the aim of evading a theorized intricacy of feminine hormonal status. However, clinical experience proves that pharmacological response may vary between the two sexes since pathophysiological dissimilarities between men and women significantly influence the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs. Sex-related differences in central nervous system (CNS) medication are particularly challenging to assess due to the complexity of disease manifestation, drugs' intricate mechanisms of action, and lack of trustworthy means of evaluating the clinical response to medication. Read More

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Usefulness of subtraction images for accurate diagnosis of pituitary microadenomas in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

Acta Radiol 2022 Jun 22:2841851221107344. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Gynecology and Obstetrics Department,Tehran University of Medical Science, 213474Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex Imam Hospital, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice for the diagnosis of pituitary microadenomas; however, it may be associated with a relatively high false-negative rate, especially in small lesions.

Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of subtraction images for enhancing the visual detection of pituitary microadenomas.

Material And Methods: In total, 50 patients with clinically established diagnosis hyperprolactinemia, acromegaly, and Cushing's disease were enrolled. Read More

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Metformin in the Treatment of Amisulpride-Induced Hyperprolactinemia: A Clinical Trial.

Front Mol Neurosci 2022 26;15:892477. Epub 2022 May 26.

Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of metformin in the treatment of amisulpride-induced hyperprolactinemia.

Methods: A total of 86 schizophrenic patients who developed hyperprolactinemia after taking amisulpride were screened and randomly assigned to the metformin group (42 patients) and placebo group (44 patients) and followed up for eight weeks. The patients' serum prolactin levels, blood glucose and lipids were measured at the baseline and the end of the intervention. Read More

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Cross-reactivity in assays for prolactin and optimum screening policy for macroprolactinaemia.

Clin Chem Lab Med 2022 Jun 17. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Clinical Biochemist, retired, Chiltern House, Bury St Edmonds, Suffolk, UK.

Objectives: Macroprolactin cross-reacts in immunoassays for prolactin causing apparent hyperprolactinaemia (macroprolactinaemia) and consequent misdiagnosis and mismanagement of patients.

Methods: We determined the prevalence of macroprolactinaemia using prolactin immunoassays with reported "high" (Tosoh) or "low" cross-reactivity (Roche) with macroprolactin. We additionally modelled the effects of increasing the screening threshold on workload and sensitivity in the detection of macroprolactinaemia. Read More

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Interference by macroprolactin in assays for prolactin: will the Diagnostics Regulation lead to a solution at last?

Clin Chem Lab Med 2022 Jun 15. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Department of Investigative Endocrinology, St. Vincent's University Hospital, Elm Park 4, Dublin, Ireland.

Cross reactivity with high molecular weight complexes of prolactin known as macroprolactin is a common cause of positive interference in assays for serum prolactin. All prolactin assays currently available are affected with 5-25% of results indicating hyperprolactinaemia falsely elevated due to macroprolactinaemia - hyperprolactinaemia due to macroprolactin with normal concentrations of bioactive monomeric prolactin. Macroprolactinaemia has no pathological significance but, if it is not recognised as the cause, the apparent hyperprolactinaemia can lead to clinical confusion, unnecessary further investigations, inappropriate treatment and waste of healthcare resources. Read More

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Primary Hypothyroidism with Pituitary Hyperplasia in an Omani Girl.

Case Rep Endocrinol 2022 29;2022:3382612. Epub 2022 May 29.

Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, National Diabetes and Endocrine Center, Royal Hospital, Muscat, Oman.

Pituitary hyperplasia secondary to primary hypothyroidism (PHPH) is uncommon in children and is reversible with thyroxine therapy. We report an Omani girl who presented at the age of 13 years and 6 months with profound primary hypothyroidism due to Hashimoto's thyroiditis and secondary pituitary hyperplasia and hyperprolactinemia. Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the presence of pituitary hyperplasia which regressed during follow-up after the administration of thyroxine therapy. Read More

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Pituitary Stalk Thickening: Causes and Consequences. The Children's Memorial Health Institute Experience and Literature Review.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 20;13:868558. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Pathology, Children's Memorial Health Institute, Warsaw, Poland.

Background: Pituitary stalk thickening (PST) is a rare abnormality in the pediatric population. Its etiology is heterogeneous. The aim of the study was to identify important clinical, radiological and endocrinological manifestations of patients with PST and follow the course of the disease. Read More

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Transsphenoidal surgery for prolactinomas in male patients: a retrospective study.

Asian J Androl 2022 May 27. Epub 2022 May 27.

Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China.

Male patients with prolactinomas usually present with typical hyperprolactinemia symptoms, including sexual dysfunction and infertility. However, clinical factors related to sexual dysfunction and surgical outcomes in these patients remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the outcomes of male patients with prolactinomas after transsphenoidal surgery and the risk factors affecting sexual dysfunction. Read More

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Hyperprolactinaemia and galactorrhoea with combined oral contraceptive pill use: A refresher.

Aust J Gen Pract 2022 Jun;51(6):423-424

FRANZCOG, MRCOG, MRCPI, Obstetrics and Gynaecology Staff Specialist, Gold Coast University Hospital, Southport, Qld.

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Sexual function and depressive symptoms in men with hypoprolactinaemia secondary to overtreatment of prolactin excess: A pilot study.

Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr (Engl Ed) 2022 Apr;69(4):279-288

Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland.

Background: Low prolactin levels have been found to impair libido and arousal, as well as to reduce wellbeing in young women.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether drug-induced hypoprolactinaemia affects male sexual function and depressive symptoms.

Methods: The study population consisted of three groups of young and middle-aged men. Read More

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Bromocriptine therapy: Review of mechanism of action, safety and tolerability.

Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2022 May 30. Epub 2022 May 30.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore (Jhang Campus), Lahore, Pakistan.

Bromocriptine is a sympatholytic dopamine D2 receptor agonist with remarkable bioactivities. It has been used clinically as a prescription drug for more than 30 years to treat hyperprolactinemia associated conditions, Parkinson's disease, acromegaly, prolactinomas and other pituitary hormone dependent adenomas and recently, diabetes mellitus as well as various other disorders. Long-term treatment with bromocriptine has minimal or no harmful effects on renal, hepatic, cardiac or hematologic functions. Read More

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A rare endocrinological complication of chronic kidney disease.

Turk J Pediatr 2022 ;64(2):375-380

Divisions of Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Health Sciences, İzmir Tepecik Training and Research Hospital, İzmir.

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) may lead to increase in serum levels of peptide hormones as a result of changes in peripheral metabolism. The pathogenesis of uremic hyperprolactinemia in CKD is not fully understood. Plasma prolactin levels are elevated in women, pubertal girls, and also in men with chronic kidney disease. Read More

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Outcome of Dopamine Agonist Therapy Withdrawal in Children with Prolactinomas.

Horm Res Paediatr 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Background: Prolactinomas are rare in children and adolescents. As in adults, the dopamine agonists (DAs) are the treatment of choice in the majority of patients. However, at what point children should be taken off of therapy and what the recurrence risk of hyperprolactinemia is following treatment withdrawal is not well described. Read More

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C-methionine PET aids localization of microprolactinomas in patients with intolerance or resistance to dopamine agonist therapy.

Pituitary 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Cambridge Endocrine Molecular Imaging Group, Metabolic Research Laboratories, Wellcome-MRC Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge and National Institute for Health Research Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, UK.

Purpose: To assess the potential for C-methionine PET (Met-PET) coregistered with volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (Met-PET/MR) to inform clinical decision making in patients with poorly visualized or occult microprolactinomas and dopamine agonist intolerance or resistance.

Patients And Methods: Thirteen patients with pituitary microprolactinomas, and who were intolerant (n = 11) or resistant (n = 2) to dopamine agonist therapy, were referred to our specialist pituitary centre for Met-PET/MR between 2016 and 2020. All patients had persistent hyperprolactinemia and were being considered for surgical intervention, but standard clinical MRI had shown either no visible adenoma or equivocal appearances. Read More

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Management of Psychiatric Disorders in Patients with Endocrine Disorders.

Indian J Psychiatry 2022 Mar 23;64(Suppl 2):S402-S413. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

Department of Psychiatry, Shri Guru Ram Rai Institute of Medical and Health Sciences, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India.

The neuropsychiatric symptoms and disorders among endocrine disorders are discussed in the context of current global and local epidemiological data. Neuropsychiatric symptoms, clinical differentials in hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and parathyroid disorders, and relevant management protocols are described. HPT axis and its interaction with psychotropic usage are mentioned. Read More

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Risperidone Induced Hyperprolactinemia: From Basic to Clinical Studies.

Front Psychiatry 2022 6;13:874705. Epub 2022 May 6.

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, Kragujevac, Serbia.

Risperidone is one of the most commonly used antipsychotics (AP), due to its safety and efficacy in reducing psychotic symptoms. Despite the favorable side effect profile, the therapy is accompanied by side effects due to the non-selectivity of this medicine. This review will briefly highlight the most important basic and clinical findings in this area, consider the clinical effects of AP-induced hyperprolactinemia (HPL), and suggest different approaches to the treatment. Read More

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Pituitary apoplexy in an adolescent male with macroprolactinoma presenting as middle cerebral artery territory infarction.

Ann Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2022 May 16. Epub 2022 May 16.

Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Variety Children Hospital, King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Pituitary apoplexy typically presents with acute headache, vomiting, visual disturbance and confusion. We report a rare presentation of ischaemic stroke due to pituitary apoplexy. A 16. Read More

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Minimal Effects of Cariprazine on Prolactin Levels in Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2022 12;18:995-1011. Epub 2022 May 12.

AbbVie, Madison, NJ, USA.

Background: Many medications used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder are linked to hyperprolactinemia. The effects of cariprazine, a dopamine D/D receptor partial agonist, on prolactin levels in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder were evaluated.

Methods: Effects on prolactin were evaluated using pooled data from randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in patients with schizophrenia (4 studies; 6-week duration; cariprazine 1. Read More

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Etiology and management of amenorrhea in adolescent and young adult women.

Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care 2022 05 4;52(5):101184. Epub 2022 May 4.

Division of Adolescent Medicine, Cohen Children's Medical Center, Northwell Health, 410 Lakeville Road, Suite 108, New Hyde Park, NY 11042, United States; Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, Hempstead, NY, United States.

In this article, we will review the etiology and management of amenorrhea in adolescent and young adult women, beginning with the diagnostic work-up and followed by etiologies organized by system. Most cases of amenorrhea are caused by dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis, which is the major regulator of the female reproductive hormones: estrogen and progesterone.  We begin by reviewing hypothalamic etiologies, including eating disorders and relative energy deficiency in sport. Read More

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Mild hyperprolactinemia in a couple: What impact on fertility?

Dominique Maiter

Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2022 Jun 5;83(3):164-167. Epub 2022 May 5.

Service d'Endocrinologie et Nutrition, UCLouvain Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, avenue Hippocrate 10, 1200 Bruxelles, Belgium. Electronic address:

Mild-to-moderate hyperprolactinemia is a frequent finding in young women presenting with infertility. Prolactin (PRL) concentration should be determined accurately, whether or not the patient has other symptoms suggestive of excess PRL such as galactorrhea or menstrual cycle disorder. After confirmation of persistent hyperprolactinemia on a second blood sample (avoiding conditions known to raise prolactin) and exclusion of macroprolactinemia, prolactinoma and other identifiable non-tumoral causes of hyperprolactinemia must be ruled out. Read More

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Increase in Thyrotropin Is Associated with an Increase in Serum Prolactin in Euthyroid Subjects and Patients with Subclinical Hypothyroidism.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2021 15;35:167. Epub 2021 Dec 15.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.

Prevalence and clinical significance of hyperprolactinemia in subclinical hypothyroidism have been reported in few studies. The upper limit of the normal range for TSH used to diagnose subclinical hypothyroidism is a matter of controversy. Some experts believe that the upper limit of the normal TSH range should be reduced from 4. Read More

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December 2021

Endokrin kórképek előfordulása és társulása in vitro fertilizációs programban részt vevő nők körében.

Orv Hetil 2022 May 1;163(18):712-719. Epub 2022 May 1.

2 Debreceni Egyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar, Szülészeti és Nőgyógyászati Intézet Debrecen, Egyetem tér 1., 4032 Magyarország.

Összefoglaló. Bevezetés: Az endokrin betegségekhez társuló ovulációs diszfunkció gyakori vezető vagy társuló oka a női infertilitásnak, de optimális reprodukciós korban oki vagy ovulációindukciós kezeléssel többnyire rendezhető a fertilitás. Az in vitro fertilizációs (IVF-) kezelések vezető indikációi jelenleg az andrológiai és a női életkorból adódó, petefészek-eredetű infertilitás, de egyéb endokrin diszfunkció társulása befolyásolja a kezelési eredményeket. Read More

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Diagnostic laparoscopy prior to IVF cycle improves outcome in patients with unilateral distal tubal occlusion.

J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod 2022 Jun 27;51(6):102400. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ankara University School of Medicine, Dikimevi, Ankara, Turkey.

Objective: To assess the impact of laparoscopy before in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment on live birth rates in patients with distal unilateral tubal obstruction (UTO).

Methods: Retrospective cohort study which was conducted in tertiary ART center in Ankara University Hospital between January 2008- January 2019. Inclusion criteria were distal UTO at HSG, patients who were 18-40 years age and baseline serum FSH levels between 3 and 15 IU/ml. Read More

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Proton pump inhibitors therapy and risk of hyperprolactinemia with associated sexual disorders.

Endocr Regul 2022 Apr 30;56(2):134-147. Epub 2022 Apr 30.

Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus, Pakistan.

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the most widely prescribed medications in the world. According to numerous studies, PPIs have been linked to hyperprolactinemia, which can lead to a variety of sexual and reproductive issues. This review summarizes the effects of numerous PPIs on the blood prolactin levels and associated sexual dysfunctions, which have an effect on the patient's life quality and fertility. Read More

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Aggressive giant prolactinoma: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2022 Apr 30;16(1):170. Epub 2022 Apr 30.

Endocrinology Unit, Medical Department, Sarawak General Hospital, Kuching Sarawak, Malaysia.

Background: Managing treatment-resistant aggressive giant prolactinoma can be challenging, as the diagnosis is often complex, and treatment beyond dopamine agonists, surgery, and radiotherapy is limited.

Case Presentation: A 21-year-old Malay woman first presented to our hospital at the age of 16 years with 1-year history of reduced vision and 2 years of amenorrhea. Her baseline prolactin level was 255,894 µIU/mL with secondary hypogonadism, and pituitary magnetic resonance imaging revealed a giant prolactinoma (2. Read More

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Therapeutic potential of dopamine agonists in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 Jul 29;29(31):46385-46404. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Department of Pharmacy, Southeast University, Banani, Dhaka, 1213, Bangladesh.

Diabetes is a global health concern that has affected almost 415 million people globally. Bromocriptine is a dopamine D2 agonist, which is a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. However, it is considered that a novel treatment therapy is required which can be used in the treatment of diabetes with or without other antidiabetic agents. Read More

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Antipsychotic polypharmacy and adverse drug reactions among adults in a London mental health service, 2008-2018.

Psychol Med 2022 Apr 29:1-8. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Division of Psychiatry, University College London, London, UK.

Background: Antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) occurs commonly but it is unclear whether it is associated with an increased risk of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Electronic health records (EHRs) offer an opportunity to examine APP using real-world data. In this study, we use EHR data to identify periods when patients were prescribed 2 + antipsychotics and compare these with periods of antipsychotic monotherapy. Read More

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A diversity outbred F1 mouse model identifies host-intrinsic genetic regulators of response to immune checkpoint inhibitors.

Oncoimmunology 2022 20;11(1):2064958. Epub 2022 Apr 20.

Department of Oncology, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA.

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have improved outcomes for a variety of malignancies; however, many patients fail to benefit. While tumor-intrinsic mechanisms are likely involved in therapy resistance, it is unclear to what extent host genetic background influences response. To investigate this, we utilized the Diversity Outbred (DO) and Collaborative Cross (CC) mouse models. Read More

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Synthesis and biological evaluation of a new class of multi-target heterocycle piperazine derivatives as potential antipsychotics.

RSC Adv 2021 May 7;11(28):16931-16941. Epub 2021 May 7.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Marine Biological Resources and Environment, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Marine Pharmaceutical Compound Screening, School of Pharmacy, Jiangsu Ocean University Lianyungang 222005 China +86-518-85586628 +86-518-85586628.

In this study, we designed and synthesized a novel series of multi-receptor ligands as polypharmacological antipsychotic agents by using a multi-receptor affinity strategy. Among them, 3w combines a multi-receptor mechanism with high mixed affinities for D, 5-HT, 5-HT and H receptors, and low efficacy at the off-target receptors (5-HT, H and α receptor) and human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) channel. In addition, compound 3w exhibits favorable antipsychotic drug-like activities in assessment. Read More

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