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    Controversial issues in the management of hyperprolactinemia and prolactinomas - An overview by the Neuroendocrinology Department of the Brazilian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism.
    Arch Endocrinol Metab 2018 Mar-Apr;62(2):236-263
    Serviço de Endocrinologia, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (FMUSP), São Paulo, SP, Brasil.
    Prolactinomas are the most common pituitary adenomas (approximately 40% of cases), and they represent an important cause of hypogonadism and infertility in both sexes. The magnitude of prolactin (PRL) elevation can be useful in determining the etiology of hyperprolactinemia. Indeed, PRL levels > 250 ng/mL are highly suggestive of the presence of a prolactinoma. Read More

    Impact of NTRK2, DRD2 and ACE polymorphisms on prolactin levels in antipsychotic-treated patients with first-episode psychosis.
    J Psychopharmacol 2018 May 1:269881118773026. Epub 2018 May 1.
    1 Department of Basic Clinical Practice, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Background: Hyperprolactinemia is a common side-effect of antipsychotics (APs), which may trigger serious secondary problems and compromise the adherence to treatment which is crucial for prognosis, especially in patients presenting with a first-episode of psychosis (FEP).

    Aims: We evaluated, in some cases for the first time, the effect of polymorphisms in multiple candidate genes on serum prolactin (PRL) levels in an AP-treated FEP cohort recruited in the multicenter PEPs study (Phenotype - genotype and environmental interaction; Application of a predictive model in first psychotic episodes).

    Methods: PRL concentration was measured in serum from 222 patients. Read More

    Neuro-radiological features can predict hypopituitarism in primary autoimmune hypophysitis.
    Pituitary 2018 May 11. Epub 2018 May 11.
    Pituitary Unit, Department of Endocrinology, School of Medicine, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy.
    Primary autoimmune hypophysitis (PAH) is considered an underdiagnosed disease, due to the difficulty in reaching a definitive diagnosis. PAH clinical diagnosis remains an exclusion diagnosis. We aimed to correlate PAH neuro-radiological signs to endocrine features and evaluate their prognostic role. Read More

    Bilateral Mastectomy as Radical Treatment of Gynecomastia Secondary to Antiretroviral Therapy in a Low-Income Setting: A Case Report.
    Drug Saf Case Rep 2018 May 11;5(1):21. Epub 2018 May 11.
    Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, Section of Thoracic Surgery, University of Bari "Aldo Moro", Bari, Italy.
    Gynecomastia is a common finding in males, with an incidence that varies widely globally. In 10-25% of cases, it is caused by drugs. Its pathophysiologic mechanism includes exposure to exogenous estrogens and medications that cause hypogonadism, antiandrogenic effects and hyperprolactinemia. Read More

    Changes in serum prolactin level during intracytoplasmic sperm injection, and effect on clinical pregnancy rate: a prospective observational study.
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2018 May 9;18(1):141. Epub 2018 May 9.
    Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Cairo University, P.O. Box: 11562, KasrAlainy St., Garden City, Cairo, Egypt.
    Background: Transient hyperprolactinemia was proven to adversely affect the outcome of IVF. We aimed to identify changes in serum prolactin levels in patients undergoing ICSI, and to evaluate the effect of these changes on the clinical pregnancy rate.

    Methods: A prospective observational study included 90 patients scheduled for ICSI cycles. Read More

    IGF-1 levels may increase paradoxically with dopamine agonist treatment for prolactinomas.
    Pituitary 2018 May 4. Epub 2018 May 4.
    Institute of Endocrinology, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Hospital, 4941492, Petach Tikva, Israel.
    Objective: Hyperprolactinemia is common in acromegaly and in these patients, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 level may decrease with dopamine agonist. We report a series of patients with prolactinoma and a paradoxical increase of IGF-1 levels during cabergoline treatment.

    Methods: Clinical characteristics and response to treatment of patients with prolactinomas, in whom normal or slightly elevated baseline IGF-1 levels increased with cabergoline. Read More

    Hyperprolactinaemia in male infertility: Clinical case scenarios.
    Arab J Urol 2018 Mar 16;16(1):44-52. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    Weill Cornell Medicine Qatar, Doha, Qatar.
    Objective: To explore the evaluation, treatment and impact of hyperprolactinaemia on male infertility and testicular function, as hyperprolactinaemia is commonly detected during the evaluation of infertile men.

    Methods: A literature search was performed using MEDLINE/PubMed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to identify all studies exploring hyperprolactinaemia in male infertility.

    Results: Elevated levels of serum prolactin have a detrimental effect on male reproduction through inhibition of the pulsatile release of gonadotrophins from the anterior pituitary gland, and a direct effect on spermatogenesis. Read More

    PROLACTIN LEVELS DO NOT RISE AMONG TRANSGENDER WOMEN TREATED WITH ESTRADIOL AND SPIRONOLACTONE.
    Endocr Pract 2018 Apr 30. Epub 2018 Apr 30.
    Mount Sinai Center for Transgender Medicine and Surgery, Mount Sinai Health System and Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10128 USA.
    Context: Existing transgender treatment guidelines suggest that for transfeminine hormone treatment there is a need to monitor prolactin levels. Also, recent studies suggest that use of cyproterone acetate as an adjunctive anti-androgen during transgender hormone treatment may elevate serum prolactin.

    Objective: We sought to determine whether the reported relationship between transfeminine estradiol treatment and hyperprolactinemia would be evident when the regimen used spironolactone as the adjunctive anti-androgen. Read More

    Serum prolactin level in chronic urticaria: Is promocriptine inducing remission in chronic urticaria?
    J Dermatolog Treat 2018 May 10:1-5. Epub 2018 May 10.
    a Dermatology, Venereology and Andrology Department, Faculty of Medicine , Zagazig University , Sharkia , Egypt.
    Background: Chronic urticaria (CU) is a disturbing disease with a negative impact on quality of life. Despite of several clinical studies on CU patients, its pathogenesis is poorly understood. Prolactin (PRL) is peptide hormone has immunomodulatory effects in some immune inflammatory skin diseases. Read More

    [Treatment of Rathke's Cleft Cyst:Technical Note for Preservation of Pituitary Function].
    No Shinkei Geka 2018 Apr;46(4):313-317
    Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata University.
    Pituitary dysfunction, such as panhypopituitarism or diabetes insipidus(DI), is often found in patients with Rathke's cleft cyst. Patients were treated with transsphenoidal microscopic surgery; however, pituitary dysfunction did not usually recover. Recently, endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery(eTSS)has enabled minimally invasive surgery for patients with Rathke's cleft cyst. Read More

    Pituitary Diseases and Bone.
    Endocr Rev 2018 Apr 19. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Chair of Endocrinology, Università Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy.
    Neuroendocrinology of bone is a new area of research based on the evidence that pituitary hormones may directly modulate bone remodeling and metabolism. Skeletal fragility associated with high risk of fractures is a common complication of several pituitary diseases such as hypopituitarism, Cushing disease, acromegaly and hyperprolactinemia. As in other forms of secondary osteoporosis, pituitary diseases generally affect bone quality more than bone quantity and fractures may occur even in the presence of normal or low-normal bone mineral density as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, making difficult the prediction of fractures in these clinical settings. Read More

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), an inflammatory, systemic, lifestyle endocrinopathy.
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2018 Apr 17. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Bioinformatics and Medical Informatics Research Center, San Diego State University, Campanile Dr, San Diego, CA, 92182, USA. Electronic address:
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder, afflicting females of reproductive age. This syndrome leads to infertility, insulin resistance, obesity, and cardiovascular problems, including a litany of other health issues. PCOS is a polygenic, polyfactorial, systemic, inflammatory, dysregulated steroid state, autoimmune disease, manifesting largely due to lifestyle errors. Read More

    Interpretation of serum gonadotropin levels in hyperprolactinemia.
    Neuroendocrinology 2018 Apr 16. Epub 2018 Apr 16.

    Background/Aims: Hyperprolactinemia is a common cause of amenorrhea due to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Prolactin is hypothesized to impede the reproductive axis through an inhibitory action at the hypothalamus. However, limited data exists to aid the interpretation of serum gonadotropins in the context of hyperprolactinemia. Read More

    Kratom, an Emerging Drug of Abuse, Raises Prolactin and Causes Secondary Hypogonadism: Case Report.
    J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep 2018 Jan-Dec;6:2324709618765022. Epub 2018 Mar 16.
    University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA.
    Kratom is a drug derived from the leaves of the tree , which is native to southern Thailand. The route of administration is oral. Kratom has become increasingly available in the United States. Read More

    [Atypical presentation of a giant prolactinoma in a 15-year-old boy].
    Arch Argent Pediatr 2018 Apr;116(2):e325-e330
    Servicio de Endocrinología, Hospital de Pediatría "Profesor Dr. Juan P. Garrahan", Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Giant prolactinomas are rare pituitary adenomas characterized by their great local invasion. In this paper, we report a 15-year-old male with left retro-ocular pain and ipsilateral exophthalmos of 4 months of evolution, secondary to a tumour in the base of the skull that invaded the orbit. Hormonal studies revealed serum prolactin of 6913,7 ng/ml (normal value < 20), confirming the diagnosis of giant prolactinoma. Read More

    Fertility and infertility: Definition and epidemiology.
    Clin Biochem 2018 Mar 16. Epub 2018 Mar 16.
    Gynecology-Andrology Unit, Medical School, Institut de Recherche Expérimentale et Clinique, Université Catholique de Louvain, 1200 Brussels, Belgium; Department of Gynecology-Andrology, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, 1200 Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address:
    Infertility is a disease characterized by the failure to establish a clinical pregnancy after 12 months of regular and unprotected sexual intercourse. It is estimated to affect between 8 and 12% of reproductive-aged couples worldwide. Males are found to be solely responsible for 20-30% of infertility cases but contribute to 50% of cases overall. Read More

    A Rare Cause of Hypothalamic Obesity, Rohhad Syndrome: 2 Cases.
    J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol 2018 Mar 19. Epub 2018 Mar 19.
    Erciyes University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Kayseri, Turkey.
    Rapid-onset obesity with hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD) syndrome is a rare disease that is difficult to diagnosis and distinguish from genetic obesity syndromes. The underlying causes of the disease has not been fully explained. Hypothalamic dysfunction causes endocrine problems, respiratory dysfunction and autonomic alterations. Read More

    The antipsychotics sulpiride induces fatty liver in rats via phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 at Serine 307-mediated adipose tissue insulin resistance.
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2018 Apr 15;345:66-74. Epub 2018 Mar 15.
    Department of Pharmacy, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of New Drug Screening, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China. Electronic address:
    Cumulative evidence has suggested that many antipsychotics cause metabolic abnormalities. Adipose tissue insulin resistance (Adipo-IR) contributes to the development and progress of metabolic abnormalities including fatty liver by inducing excessive free fatty acid release from adipose tissue. Sulpiride is an old antipsychotic still frequently used in many developing countries. Read More

    [Preoperative and postoperative endocrine disorders associated with pituitary stalk injuries caused by suprasellar growing tumors].
    Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko 2018 ;82(1):13-21
    Burdenko Neurosurgery Institute, 4-ya Tverskaya-Yamskaya Str., 16, Moscow, Russia, 125047.
    The pituitary stalk (PS) is a relatively thin bundle connecting the hypophyseal stalk to the pituitary gland; it consists of both axons of the hypothalamic nuclei (terminating in the neurohypophysis) and the system of portal vessels. Compression of the PS by a space-occupying lesion or its transection (forced or intended) during surgery may lead to the development of endocrine disorders: hypopituitarism, diabetes insipidus, and hyperprolactinemia. The modern literature lacks studies evaluating the severity of endocrine disorders depending on the PS condition before and after surgery. Read More

    Abnormal Uterine Bleeding In Adolescents.
    J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol 2018 Feb 28. Epub 2018 Feb 28.
    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is the major gynecologic complaint of adolescents admitting to hospital. Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is the most common clinical presentation of AUB. Anovulatory cycles owing to immature hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis is the leading etiology of HMB and there is an accompanying bleeding disorder in almost %20 of patients with HMB. Read More

    Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis: Manifestations at Multimodality Imaging and Pitfalls.
    Radiographics 2018 Mar-Apr;38(2):330-356
    From the Departments of Radiology (C.W.P.T., J.E.N., H.A., K.A.K., N.C.D.) and Pathology (D.D.M.), University of Texas Health at San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Dr, San Antonio, TX 78229; and Department of Radiology, Bryn Mawr Hospital, Bryn Mawr, Pa (C.J.Q.).
    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare benign inflammatory breast entity characterized by lobulocentric granulomas. IGM has a persistent or recurrent disease course and affects parous premenopausal women with a history of lactation. It has also been associated with hyperprolactinemia. Read More

    Treatment escape reduces the effectiveness of cabergoline during long-term treatment of acromegaly in monotherapy or in association with first-generation somatostatin receptor ligands.
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2018 Mar 9. Epub 2018 Mar 9.
    Neuroendocrinology Research Center /Endocrinology Division, Medical School and Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Background: Few studies evaluated the use of cabergoline (CAB) for acromegaly treatment in monotherapy or in combination with first-generation somatostatin receptor ligands (SRLs).

    Aim: To evaluate the efficacy, predictors of response and safety of CAB treatment in acromegaly both in monotherapy and in combination with SRLs.

    Methods: We retrospectively collected demographic, biochemical, tumour and treatment data. Read More

    Efficacy, Tolerability, and Safety of Blonanserin in Schizophrenia: An Updated and Extended Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.
    Pharmacopsychiatry 2018 Mar 7. Epub 2018 Mar 7.
    Department of Psychiatry, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan.
    Introduction: We conducted an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing blonanserin with other antipsychotics (amisulpride, aripiprazole, haloperidol, paliperidone, and risperidone).

    Methods: Weighted mean difference (WMD), risk ratio, and number needed to harm (NNH) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using random-effects model.

    Results: Ten RCTs (n1521) were included in this study. Read More

    Prolactin and Autoimmunity.
    Front Immunol 2018 12;9:73. Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    Zabludowicz Center for Autoimmune Diseases, Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Israel.
    The great asymmetry of autoimmune diseases between genders represents one of the most enigmatic observations among the mosaic of autoimmunity. Sex hormones are believed to play a crucial role on this dimorphism. The higher prevalence of autoimmunity among women at childbearing ages, disease onset/relapses during pregnancy, and post-partum are some of the arguments that support this hypothesis. Read More

    Effects of Risperidone and Aripiprazole on Serum Levels of Prolactin, Testosterone and Estradiol in Female Patients with Schizophrenia.
    Drug Res (Stuttg) 2018 Feb 26. Epub 2018 Feb 26.
    The Affiliated Brain Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University (Guangzhou Huiai Hospital), Guangzhou, China.
    Objective: To evaluate the effects of treatment with risperidone and aripiprazole on serum prolactin, testosterone and estradiol levels in female patients with schizophrenia in China.

    Methods: In the retrospective study, Data were collected and included prolactin, testosterone and estradiol levels of 30 female patients with risperidone monotherapy. In the prospective study, Another 30 female schizophrenic patients were randomized to receive risperidone or adjunctive aripiprazole for six weeks. Read More

    The effect of bromocriptine treatment on sexual functioning and depressive symptoms in women with mild hyperprolactinemia.
    Pharmacol Rep 2018 Apr 21;70(2):227-232. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland.
    Background: Elevated prolactin levels are associated with sexual dysfunction in women. No previous study has investigated the effect of dopamine agonists on sexual functioning in women.

    Methods: The study enrolled 30 young women with mild hyperprolactinemia (serum prolactin levels in the range between 25 and 50ng/mL), 15 of whom were later treated with bromocriptine (5-10mg daily), as well as 14 age- and weight-matched healthy women. Read More

    Cabergoline-Induced Pneumocephalus Following Treatment for Giant Invasive Macroprolactinoma Presenting With Spontaneous Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea.
    Clin Med Insights Endocrinol Diabetes 2018 13;11:1179551418758640. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Obesity, Endocrine, and Metabolism Center, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea is rarely reported as the first presenting feature of giant invasive macroprolactinomas. Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea is usually reported as a complication of trauma, neurosurgical, and skull-based procedures (such as pituitary surgery or radiations), and less frequently after medical treatment with dopamine agonists (DAs) for macroprolactinomas. This phenomenon results from fistula creation that communicates between the subarachnoid space and the nasal cavity. Read More

    Clinical Features and Response to Treatment of Prolactinomas in Children and Adolescents: A Retrospective Single-Centre Analysis and Review of the Literature.
    Horm Res Paediatr 2018 16;89(3):157-165. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Division of Paediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Paediatrics, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Background: Paediatric prolactinomas are rare. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical features and outcome of paediatric patients with prolactinomas.

    Methods: In this single-centre retrospective analysis, clinical, biochemical, and radiological features of all paediatric patients with pituitary adenomas diagnosed between 2000 and 2016 were evaluated. Read More

    Cognitive Function and Serum Hormone Levels Are Associated with Gray Matter Volume Decline in Female Patients with Prolactinomas.
    Front Neurol 2017 29;8:742. Epub 2018 Jan 29.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Wuhan General Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.
    Background And Objective: Cognitive impairments have been reported in patients with hyperprolactinemia; however, there is a lack of knowledge of brain structure alterations relevant to hyperprolactinemia in prolactinomas. Thus, we aimed to identify changes in brain structure in prolactinomas and to determine whether these changes are related to cognitive performance and clinical characteristics.

    Methods: Participants were 32 female patients with prolactinomas and 26 healthy controls (HC) matched for age, sex, education, and handedness. Read More

    Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC chemo sensitize human breast cancer cells via downregulation of prolactin-mediated JAK2/STAT5A signaling.
    J Ethnopharmacol 2018 May 7;217:23-35. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, B. V. Patel Pharmaceutical Education and Research Development (PERD) Centre, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Electronic address:
    Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC (MP) is an ancient Indian medicinal plant traditionally used to treat Parkinson's disease. L-Dopa (LD), precursor of dopamine is abundantly found in the seeds of MP. Read More

    Venous Thromboembolism During Treatment with Antipsychotics: A Review of Current Evidence.
    CNS Drugs 2018 Jan;32(1):47-64
    Futurum, Region Jönköping County, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Sweden.
    This article summarises the current evidence on the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) with the use of antipsychotics. An increasing number of observational studies indicate an elevated risk of VTE in antipsychotic drug users. Although the use of certain antipsychotics has been associated with VTE, current data can neither conclusively verify differences in occurrence rates of VTE between first- and second-generation antipsychotics or between individual compounds, nor identify which antipsychotic drugs have the lowest risk of VTE. Read More

    Meta regression: Relationship between antipsychotic receptor binding profiles and side-effects.
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2018 Jun 2;84(Pt A):272-281. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Yale Child Study Center, Department of Psychiatry, Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States. Electronic address:
    Our objective was to examine the association between antipsychotic receptor binding profiles and the magnitude of common side-effects. We used regression analysis to examine the association between the receptor binding affinities of antipsychotic agents (log Ki) and degree of specific antipsychotic side-effects. Data on magnitude of weight gain, prolactin increase and QTc prolongation (in Standardized Mean Difference) and risk of sedation and extrapyramidal symptoms (in Odds Ratio) between individual antipsychotic medications as compared to placebo was based on a recent network meta-analysis examining the treatment of schizophrenia. Read More

    Novel multi-target azinesulfonamides of cyclic amine derivatives as potential antipsychotics with pro-social and pro-cognitive effects.
    Eur J Med Chem 2018 Feb 3;145:790-804. Epub 2018 Jan 3.
    Department of Behavioral Neuroscience and Drug Development, Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 12 Smętna Street, 31-343 Kraków, Poland. Electronic address:
    Currently used antipsychotics are characterized by multireceptor mode of action. While antagonism of dopamine D receptors is responsible for the alleviation of "positive" symptoms of schizophrenia and the effects at other, particularly serotonergic receptors are necessary for their additional therapeutic effects, there is no consensus regarding an "ideal" target engagement. Here, a detailed SAR analysis in a series of 45 novel azinesulfonamides of cyclic amine derivatives, involving the aryl-piperazine/piperidine pharmacophore, central alicyclic amine and azinesulfonamide groups has led to the selection of (S)-4-((2-(2-(4-(benzo[b]thiophen-4-yl)piperazin-1-yl)ethyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl)sulfonyl)isoquinoline (62). Read More

    Female gonadal functions and ovarian reserve in patients with acromegaly: experience from a single tertiary center.
    Endocrine 2018 Apr 5;60(1):167-174. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Istanbul University, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Purpose: To evaluate the gonadal functions and related factors in female patients with acromegaly at the time of diagnosis, the course of gonadal dysfunctions and pregnancies during the follow-up period, and the investigation of ovarian reserve with serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels in patients with reproductive age.

    Methods: Patients who were not menopausal at the time of acromegaly diagnosis (n = 47) were included in this study. Baseline gonadal status was evaluated retrospectively. Read More

    Extended Endoscopic Endonasal Approach for Suprasellar Craniopharyngioma.
    J Neurol Surg B Skull Base 2018 Feb 18;79(2):S196-S198. Epub 2018 Jan 18.
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Insubria - Ospedale di Circolo Fondazione Macchi, Varese, Italy.
     We illustrate a suprasellar craniopharyngiomas treated with an extended endoscopic endonasal approach (EEEA).  Case report of a 43-year-old male affected by cerebral lesion located in suprasellar region involving the third ventricle and compressing the neurovascular structures, causing an anterosuperior dislocation of the chiasma. There is a complete disruption of the pituitary stalk that can explain the clinical finding of partial anterior hypopituitarism and hyperprolactinemia. Read More

    Impact of Triclosan on Female Reproduction through Reducing Thyroid Hormones to Suppress Hypothalamic Kisspeptin Neurons in Mice.
    Front Mol Neurosci 2018 19;11. Epub 2018 Jan 19.
    State Key Lab of Reproductive Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.
    Triclosan (TCS), a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent, is widely used in clinical settings and various personal care products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of TCS on reproductive endocrine and function. Here, we show that the exposure of adult female mice to 10 or 100 mg/kg/day TCS caused prolongation of diestrus, and decreases in antral follicles and corpora lutea within 2 weeks. Read More

    Add-on Aripiprazole for Atypical Antipsychotic-induced, Clinically Significant Hyperprolactinemia.
    Indian J Psychol Med 2018 Jan-Feb;40(1):38-40
    Department of Psychiatry, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
    Background: Antipsychotic treatment-induced hyperprolactinemia is a highly distressing and disabling side effect for patients. The use of add-on aripiprazole has been identified as a possible treatment strategy in this situation. However, data on prolactin changes with add-on aripiprazole in a real-world naturalistic clinical setting from India are sparse. Read More

    Role of prolactin/adenoma maximum diameter and prolactin/adenoma volume in the differential diagnosis of prolactinomas and other types of pituitary adenomas.
    Oncol Lett 2018 Feb 21;15(2):2010-2016. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Fuzhou General Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350025, P.R. China.
    The present study aimed to investigate the function of the prolactin/adenoma maximum diameter (PRL/MD) and the prolactin/adenoma volume (PRL/V) in the differential diagnosis of prolactinomas and other types of pituitary adenomas. A total of 118 patients with pituitary adenoma, hyperprolactinemia and a plasma PRL <250 µg/l were enrolled. Clinical data from these patients were retrospectively analyzed. Read More

    Frequency of Macroprolactin in Hyperprolactinemia.
    J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2018 Feb;28(2):93-97
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The Aga Khan University, Karachi.
    Objective: To determine the frequency of Macroprolactin (MaPRL) in patients with increased total prolactin and its clinical and financial impact.

    Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

    Place And Duration Of Study: Section of Clinical Chemistry, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from March to May 2015. Read More

    [Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea in primary treatment of large and giant prolactinomas with dopamine agonists].
    Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko 2017;81(6):32-39
    Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute, Moscow, Russia, 125047.
    At present, pharmacological therapy of prolactinomas with dopamine agonists (DAs) is considered the treatment of choice. In most cases, giant prolactinomas respond to treatment with dopamine agonists and decrease in size during the first months of the treatment. One of the rare but dangerous complications of conservative treatment of prolactinomas with invasive growth is cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea. Read More

    Endocrine Abnormalities in Adolescents with Menstrual Disorders.
    J Obstet Gynaecol India 2018 Feb 17;68(1):58-64. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    4Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, JIPMER, Puducherry, 605006 India.
    Purpose: To look for endocrine abnormalities like thyroid disorders, hyperprolactinemia, hyperandrogenism and PCOS among adolescents with menstrual disorders and to compare the above endocrine status with those without menstrual disorders.

    Methods: This was a case-control study carried out in adolescent girls aged 10-19 years in gynecology outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital. Sample of venous blood (5 ml) was taken for hormonal studies as clinically indicated-thyroid function test, serum prolactin, total testosterone, which were analyzed by chemiluminescence system. Read More

    The prolactin-release inhibitor paeoniflorin suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis in prolactinoma cells via the mitochondria-dependent pathway.
    J Cell Biochem 2018 Feb 1. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    Endocrinology and Metabolism Group, Sydney Institute of Health Sciences/Sydney Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, New South Wales, Australia.
    Prolactinomas are the most prevalent functional pituitary adenomas that cause chronic pathological hyperprolactinemia. Prolactin is known to promote cell growth and inhibit apoptosis in cells. Paeoniflorin is the principal component of radix Paeoniae alba (the main ingredient in some traditional herbal formulas clinically used for hyperprolactinemia-associated disorders). Read More

    Primary Meningeal Melanocytoma in Sellar Region, Simulating a Nonfunctioning Pituitary Adenoma: Case Report and Literature Review.
    World Neurosurg 2018 Apr 31;112:209-213. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of University of Science and Technology of China (Anhui Provincial Hospital), Hefei, Anhui Province, China. Electronic address:
    Background: Primary meningeal melanocytoma is a benign lesion in the central nervous system derived from leptomeningeal melanocytes, most commonly growing in the posterior fossa and cervical spinal cord. The sellar primary meningeal melanocytoma (SPMM) is an exceptionally rare tumor. Here we report the ninth published case of an SPMM, and also discuss the problems of differential diagnosis and management of these tumors. Read More

    Neuropsychiatric and metabolic aspects of dopaminergic therapy: perspectives from an endocrinologist and a psychiatrist.
    Endocr Connect 2018 Feb 29;7(2):R88-R94. Epub 2018 Jan 29.
    Max Planck Institute of PsychiatryDepartment of Internal Medicine, Endocrinology and Clinical Chemistry, Munich, Germany
    The dopaminergic treatment represents the primary treatment in prolactinomas, which are the most common pituitary adenomas and account for about 40% of all pituitary tumours with an annual incidence of six to ten cases per million population. The dopaminergic treatment includes ergot and non-ergot derivatives with high affinity for the dopamine receptors D1 or/and D2. Through the activation of the dopaminergic pathway on pituitary lactotrophs, the dopamine agonists inhibit the prolactin synthesis and secretion, therefore normalizing the prolactin levels and restoring eugonadism, but they also lead to tumour shrinkage. Read More

    Epidemiology, clinical presentation and diagnosis of non-functioning pituitary adenomas.
    Pituitary 2018 Apr;21(2):111-118
    Department of Endocrinology, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Oxford, UK.
    Purpose: Non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) are benign pituitary neoplasms that do not cause a hormonal hypersecretory syndrome. An improved understanding of their epidemiology, clinical presentation and diagnosis is needed.

    Method: A literature review was performed using Pubmed to identify research reports and clinical case series on NFPAs. Read More

    Pituitary xanthogranulomas: clinical features, radiological appearances and post-operative outcomes.
    Pituitary 2018 Jun;21(3):256-265
    B4 Office, Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff, CF 14 4XW, UK.
    Background: Xanthogranulomas are inflammatory masses most commonly found at peripheral sites such as the skin. Sellar and parasellar xanthogranulomas are rare and present a diagnostic challenge as they are difficult to differentiate from other sellar lesions such as craniopharyngiomas and Rathke's cleft cysts pre-operatively. Their radiological imaging features are yet to be clearly defined, and clinical outcomes after surgery are also uncertain. Read More

    The impact of severe mental disorders and psychotropic medications on sexual health and its implications for clinical management.
    World Psychiatry 2018 Feb;17(1):3-11
    Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.
    Sexual dysfunction often accompanies severe psychiatric illness and can be due to both the mental disorder itself and the use of psychotropic treatments. Many sexual symptoms resolve as the mental state improves, but treatment-related sexual adverse events tend to persist over time, and are unfortunately under-recognized by clinicians and scarcely investigated in clinical trials. Treatment-emergent sexual dysfunction adversely affects quality of life and may contribute to reduce treatment adherence. Read More

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