Heart Fail Rev 2017 Apr 22. Epub 2017 Apr 22.
Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Ioannina, 451 10, Ioannina, Greece.
Patients with heart failure often exhibit electrolyte abnormalities, such as hyponatremia or hypokalemia/hyperkalemia. Although not as common as the other electrolyte disturbances observed in patients with heart failure, phosphate imbalance is also of high importance in this population. The aim of this review is to present the mechanisms of low or high phosphate serum levels in patients with heart failure and its role in the pathogenesis and progression of heart dysfunction. Read More