Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2021 Feb 11;42(1):127-144. Epub 2020 Sep 11.
Critical Illness, Brain Dysfunction, and Survivorship Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in trauma patients, and can be classified into mild, moderate, and severe by the Glasgow coma scale (GCS). Prehospital, initial emergency department, and subsequent intensive care unit (ICU) management of severe TBI should focus on avoiding secondary brain injury from hypotension and hypoxia, with appropriate reversal of anticoagulation and surgical evacuation of mass lesions as indicated. Utilizing principles based on the Monro-Kellie doctrine and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), a surrogate for cerebral blood flow (CBF) should be maintained by optimizing mean arterial pressure (MAP), through fluids and vasopressors, and/or decreasing intracranial pressure (ICP), through bedside maneuvers, sedation, hyperosmolar therapy, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage, and, in refractory cases, barbiturate coma or decompressive craniectomy (DC). Read More