4,028 results match your criteria Hypernatremia

Seizure in Children Under Five Presenting With Pneumonia in a Critical Care Ward in Bangladesh: Prevalence, Associated Factors, and Outcome.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2021 May;40(5):389-393

From the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Background: Pneumonia is the leading infectious cause of deaths in children under 5 for the last few decades. Development of seizure in those children is common and associated with increased risk of deaths. We therefore investigated the prevalence, associated factors and outcome of seizure in children hospitalized with pneumonia. Read More

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[Treatment refractive hypernatremia with mild COVID-19].

Z Gerontol Geriatr 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Geriatrische Klinik St. Gallen, Rorschacher Straße 94, 9000, St. Gallen, Schweiz.

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Risk predictive role of hypernatremia for occurrence of sepsis-induced acute kidney injury.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Apr;10(4):4705-4715

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Septic acute kidney injury (AKI), identified when sepsis and AKI present concurrently, is a syndrome of acute function impairment and organ damage, which accounts for ~50% AKI in the intensive care unit (ICU).

Methods: This study retrospectively reviewed 591 patients who were diagnosed with sepsis and admitted to the ICU of Beijing Friendship Hospital from January 2009 to December 2014. According to the concentration of serum sodium, the 591 patients were further divided into 3 groups: normal group, hyponatremia group, and hypernatremia group. Read More

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Eur J Endocrinol 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

A Peri, Endocrine Unit, Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, 50139, Italy.

Objective: Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder in hospitalized patients and occurs in about 30% of patients with pneumonia. Hyponatremia has been associated with a worse outcome in several pathologic conditions The main objective of this study was to determine whether serum sodium alterations may be independent predictors of the outcome of hospitalized COVID-19 patients Design and Methods. In this observational study, data from 441 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to a University Hospital were collected. Read More

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Hyponatremia is a Prognostic Factor in Patients Receiving Nutrition Support.

Am J Med Sci 2020 Nov 26. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Department of Therapeutic Nutrition, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima University Graduate School, Tokushima, Japan; Department of Nutrition, Tokushima University Hospital, Tokushima, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: Hyponatremia, the most common electrolyte disorder, has been reported to be related to increased mortality. However, the association between hyponatremia and prognoses remains unclear in patients with nutrition support team (NST) intervention. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of abnormal serum sodium levels, its relation to patient data, and the impact of hyponatremia on prognosis. Read More

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November 2020

Fluid and Electrolyte Disturbances in COVID-19 and Their Complications.

Biomed Res Int 2021 14;2021:6667047. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Students' Scientific Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the cause of an acute respiratory illness which has spread around the world. The virus infects the host by binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors. Due to the presence of ACE2 receptors in the kidneys and gastrointestinal (GI) tract, kidneys and GI tract damage arising from the virus can be seen in patients and can cause acute conditions such as acute kidney injury (AKI) and digestive problems for the patient. Read More

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An infant with congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus presenting with hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia.

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2021 Apr 1;2021. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Pediatrics, Keio University School of Medicine, shinjyuku, Tokyo, Japan.

Summary: We report a male infant with congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) who presented with hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia since birth. Serum sodium started to increase at 39 days. Although there was no polyuria, urine osmolality was 71 mOsm/kg, when serum osmolality was 296 mOsm/kg with plasma arginine vasopressin 22. Read More

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Hypoglycemia and seizures associated with canine primary hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2021 Apr 26:10406387211012378. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

BluePearl Specialty and Emergency Hospital, Phoenix, AZ, USA.

A 10-y-old intact male Labrador Retriever dog had a history of ataxia, inability to stand, and grand mal seizures. Complete blood count and serum biochemistry profiles revealed profound hypoglycemia, mildly increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, mild hypernatremia, and lymphopenia. The seizures could not be controlled with intravenous dextrose, diazepam, or propofol. Read More

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Serum sodium and eplerenone use in patients with a myocardial infarction and left ventricular dysfunction or heart failure: insights from the EPHESUS trial.

Clin Res Cardiol 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Centre d'Investigation Clinique 1433 module Plurithematique, Institut Lorrain du Coeur et des Vaisseaux Louis Mathieu, F-CRIN INI-CRCT Network, Universite de Lorraine, Inserm U1116, 4 rue du Morvan, 54500, Vandoeuvre les Nancy, France.

Background: Sodium changes are common in myocardial infarction (MI) complicated with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) and/or heart failure (HF). Sodium handling is fine-tuned in the distal nephron, were eplerenone exhibits some of its pleotropic effects. Little is known about the effect of eplerenone on serum sodium and the prognostic relevance of sodium alterations in patients with MI complicated with LVSD and/or HF. Read More

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Adipsic hypernatremia in a young Sudanese child, challenges in a limited-resource setting: a case report.

Pan Afr Med J 2021 26;38:86. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, khartoum, Sudan.

Adipsia is a rare condition characterized by a lack of thirst due to a defect in specific osmoreceptors located in the hypothalamus. The disorder is characterized by failure to maintain the body's normal plasma osmolality (POSM), resulting in chronic or recurrent severe hypernatremia and dehydration. Adipsia is usually accompanied by central diabetes insipidus (DI). Read More

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Comparison of isotonic versus hypotonic intravenous fluid for maintenance fluid therapy in neonates more than or equal to 34 weeks of gestational age - a randomized clinical trial.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Apr 20:1-8. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Neonatology, Mehta Multispeciality Hospital Pvt Ltd, Chennai, India.

Background And Objectives: The use of hypotonic fluids as maintenance therapy in the neonatal population has been in practice for a long time, but there is a lack of evidence for the choice of this fluid in neonates. This study compared isotonic (sodium chloride, 0.9%, and dextrose, 5%) versus hypotonic (sodium chloride, 0. Read More

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[Characterization of full term newborns with hypernatremic dehydration].

Rev Chil Pediatr 2020 Dec 8;91(6):874-880. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Fundación Hospital Infantil Los Ángeles, San Juan de Pasto, Colombia.

Introduction: The hypernatremic neonatal dehydration is a severe condition whose incidence has increased in recent years resulting in complications leading to the hospitalization of the newborn.

Objective: Describe the clinical and laboratory characteristics of term-newborns with Hypernatremic Dehy dration diagnosis.

Patients And Method: Descriptive observational study of hospitalized term- newborns due to hypernatremic dehydration between a period from 2014 to 2016. Read More

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December 2020

Incidence and possible predictors of sodium disturbance after craniopharyngioma resection based on QST classification.

World Neurosurg 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Affiliations: Department of Neurosurgery, Nanfang Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Objective: Serum sodium abnormalities are one of the most common manifestations following radical CP excision. The aim of this study was to report the incidence and possible predictors of serum sodium disturbance and explore features of sodium destabilization manifestation among QST classification results following craniopharyngioma resection.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of clinical, biochemical, radiological and operative data for 134 successive patients who underwent primary craniopharyngioma removal between September 2016 and March 2018 was performed. Read More

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Lessons for the clinical nephrologist: a midsummer night's cluster of hypernatremia cases.

J Nephrol 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, International University of Health and Welfare School of Medicine, 13-1 Higashi-Kaigan-Cho, Atami, Shizuoka, 413-0012, Japan.

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Effect of hypertonic saline in the management of elevated intracranial pressure in children with cerebral edema: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

SAGE Open Med 2021 29;9:20503121211004825. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Intensive Care Unit, Nutrition & Clinical Services Division (NCSD), International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR, B), Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Objective: To determine the hypertonic saline efficacy in children with cerebral edema and raised intracranial pressure.

Method: Studies assessing the efficacy and safety of hypertonic saline in children with cerebral edema and elevated intracranial pressure were identified using Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. Two reviewers independently assessed papers for inclusion. Read More

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Treatment of a giant hepatic echinococcal cyst with percutaneous drainage and in vivo assessment of the protoscolicidal effect of praziquantel.

Clin J Gastroenterol 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Pediatric Sciences, University Hospital of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Therapy choices for cystic echinococcisis (CE) are stage-specific: surgical, minimally invasive, medical or observation without intervention. PAIR (percutaneous aspiration, instillation of a scolicide, and re-aspiration) has been considered the treatment of choice for uncomplicated echinococcal liver cysts. However, PAIR carries the risk of toxic cholangitis or hypernatremia and that the cyst frequently refills with bile after withdrawing the catheter. Read More

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Fatal case of hospital-acquired hypernatraemia in a neonate: lessons learned from a tragic error.

Clin Kidney J 2021 Apr 6;14(4):1277-1283. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA.

A 3-week-old boy with viral gastroenteritis was by error given 200 mL 1 mmol/mL hypertonic saline intravenously instead of isotonic saline. His plasma sodium concentration (PNa) increased from 136 to 206 mmol/L. Extreme brain shrinkage and universal hypoperfusion despite arterial hypertension resulted. Read More

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Perioperative management of cranial diabetes insipidus in a patient requiring a tracheostomy.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Apr 9;14(4). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Guy's and Saint Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Cranial diabetes insipidus (DI), which can cause life-threatening dehydration, is treated with desmopressin, often intranasally. This is challenging in patients whose nasal airflow is altered, such as those requiring tracheostomy. We report the case of a patient, taking intranasal desmopressin for cranial DI, who underwent partial glossectomy, free-flap reconstruction and tracheostomy. Read More

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Electrolyte disturbances in children receiving omeprazole for gastroesophageal reflux disease.

J Res Med Sci 2020 26;25:106. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Department of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the common gastrointestinal diseases with various side effects. Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) drugs are widely used for their treatment and long-term ingestion, which results in an electrolyte imbalance. This study investigates the changes in serum magnesium, calcium, sodium, and potassium after long-term use of omeprazole in children. Read More

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November 2020

Vasopressin-Dependent Disorders: What Is New in Children?

Pediatrics 2021 May 1;147(5). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota

Arginine vasopressin (AVP)-mediated osmoregulatory disorders, such as diabetes insipidus (DI) and syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) are common in the differential diagnosis for children with hypo- and hypernatremia and require timely recognition and treatment. DI is caused by a failure to concentrate urine secondary to impaired production of or response to AVP, resulting in hypernatremia. Newer methods of diagnosing DI include measuring copeptin levels; copeptin is AVP's chaperone protein and serves as a surrogate biomarker of AVP secretion. Read More

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Postoperative and Long-Term Endocrinologic Complications of Craniopharyngioma.

Abdullah Bereket

Horm Res Paediatr 2020 1;93(9-10):497-509. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Background: Craniopharyngioma (CP), despite being a malformational tumor of low histological grade, causes considerable morbidity and mortality mostly due to hypothalamo-pituitary dysfunction that is created by tumor itself or its treatment.

Summary: Fluid-electrolyte disturbances which range from dehydration to fluid overload and from hypernatremia to hyponatremia are frequently encountered during the acute postoperative period and should be carefully managed to avoid permanent neurological sequelae. Hypopituitarism, increased cardiovascular risk, hypothalamic damage, hypothalamic obesity, visual and neurological deficits, and impaired bone health and cognitive function are the morbidities affecting the well-being of these patients in the long term. Read More

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Effects of osmolality on the expression of brain aquaporins in AQP11-null mice.

Biochimie 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Pathophysiology, School of Pharmacy, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address:

Water transport in the brain is tightly controlled by blood-brain-barrier (BBB) composed of capillary endothelial cells expressing AQP1/AQP11 and glial foot processes expressing AQP4. Here we examined each AQP mRNA expression in acute hyponatremic and hypernatremic mouse models of wild type (WT) and AQP11 KO mice (KO). The expressions of AQP1, AQP4 and AQP11 mRNAs were quantified by real-time qRT-PCR analysis of whole brain RNA. Read More

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Enteroendocrine Dysfunction in Two Saudi Sisters.

Case Rep Gastroenterol 2021 Jan-Apr;15(1):290-295. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology/Hepatology, Children's Hospital, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Proprotein convertase (PC) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 1 (). It is characterized by severe malabsorptive early-onset diarrhea, obesity, and systemic endocrinopathies. Only few cases have been reported in the literature; we have add two female sisters with some difference in clinical progress. Read More

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Diabetes Insipidus: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Clinical Management.

Cureus 2021 Feb 23;13(2):e13523. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Basic Sciences, Nova Southeastern University Dr. Kiran C. Patel College of Osteopathic Medicine, Fort Lauderdale, USA.

Diabetes insipidus (DI) is an endocrine condition involving the posterior pituitary peptide hormone, antidiuretic hormone (ADH). ADH exerts its effects on the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct of the nephron by upregulating aquaporin-2 channels (AQP2) on the cellular apical membrane surface. DI is marked by expelling excessive quantities of highly dilute urine, extreme thirst, and craving for cold water. Read More

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February 2021

Relationship of Maternal and Neonatal Variables With Breastmilk Sodium.

Indian Pediatr 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Pediatrics, Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences, Puducherry, India. Correspondence to: Prof Lalitha Krishnan, Head, Departments of Pediatrics, Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences, Puducherry 605 014, India.

Objective: To determine breastmilk sodium changes in the first 72 hours after birth and to correlate maternal and neonatal variables with maternal breastmilk sodium.

Methods: We enrolled 245 mothers and their exclusively breast-fed neonates in this prospective cohort study. Singleton, inborn babies of greater than 34 weeks gestation, who were exclusively breastfed for the first 72 hours were included. Read More

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Suboptimal management of hypernatraemia in acute medical admissions.

Age Ageing 2021 May;50(3):990-995

Department of Geriatric Medicine, Saolta University Health Care Group (SUHCG), University Hospital Galway, Galway, Ireland.

Background: Hypernatraemia arises commonly in acute general medical admissions. Affected patients have a guarded prognosis with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Age-related physiology and physical/cognitive barriers to accessing water predispose older patients to developing hypernatraemia. Read More

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Severe hypernatremia in children after surgical resection of hepatic echinococcosis: a rare and potentially fatal complication.

BMC Pediatr 2021 Mar 24;21(1):140. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, 610041, Chengdu, China.

Background: Using effective scolicidal agents intraoperatively is essential to lessen the recurrence rate of hepatic echinococcosis. However, severe hypernatremia may occur after hypertonic saline (HS) has been applied as the scolicidal agent. The aim of this study is to report on pediatric patients with severe hypernatremia after hepatic echinococcus surgery. Read More

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Coronavirus disease in children: A multicentre study from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

J Infect Public Health 2021 Apr 18;14(4):543-549. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Paediatrics Department, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: The COVID-19 global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, warranted attention for whether it has unique manifestations in children. Children tend to develop less severe disease with a small percentage present with clinical manifestations of paediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome and have poor prognosis. We studied the characteristics of COVID-19 in children requiring hospitalisation in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and assessed the clinical presentation and the risk factors for mortality, morbidity, and paediatric intensive care (PICU) admission. Read More

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The successful treatment of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and severe hypernatremia, secondary to joint supplement toxicity in a dog.

J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 2021 Mar 10. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Emergency and Critical Care Department, BluePearl Veterinary Specialists, New York, New York.

Objective: To describe a case of the successful management of hypernatremia and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome secondary to joint supplement toxicity in a dog.

Case Summary: A 6-year-old neutered male Dachshund was presented for severe hypernatremia and neurological abnormalities after ingestion of a large quantity of joint supplements. The patient developed evidence of multiple organ dysfunction in the form of increased hepatocellular enzymes, prolongation of prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times, azotemia, and thrombocytopenia. Read More

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Incidence and risk factors of delirium in surgical intensive care unit.

Trauma Surg Acute Care Open 2021 3;6(1):e000564. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Anaesthesiology, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.

Background: To evaluate the incidence and modifiable risk factors of delirium in surgical intensive care unit (SICU) of tertiary care hospital in a low-income and middle-income country.

Methods: We conducted a single cohort observational study in patients over 18 years of age who were admitted to the SICU for >24 hours in Aga Khan University Hospital from January to December 2016. Patients who had pre-existing cognitive dysfunction were excluded. Read More

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