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    1 OF 9

    Fatal Hypermagnesemia Due to Laxative Use.
    Am J Med Sci 2018 Apr 12;355(4):390-395. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana.; Southeast Louisiana Veterans Healthcare System, New Orleans, Louisiana.. Electronic address:
    We report a case of fatal hypermagnesemia in a 53-year-old woman admitted for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and with a history of chronic constipation treated regularly with magnesium-containing laxatives. On admission, her magnesium level was 2.0mg/dL, which rose to a peak of 10. Read More

    Prolonged versus short infusion rates for intravenous magnesium sulfate administration in hematopoietic cell transplant patients.
    Support Care Cancer 2018 Mar 5. Epub 2018 Mar 5.
    Department of Clinical & Administrative Pharmacy, University of Georgia College of Pharmacy, 1120 15th Street, HM 104, Augusta, GA, 30912, USA.
    Purpose: Hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients often require intravenous (IV) magnesium repletion due to poor dietary intake, gastrointestinal loss, and use of concomitant magnesium wasting medications. Prolonging the IV magnesium infusion rate has been postulated to reduce renal clearance and improve retention; however, limited evidence supports this hypothesis.

    Methods: We reviewed autologous and allogeneic HCT recipients (n = 82) who received IV magnesium at our institution between 2014 and 2016: 41 patients received IV magnesium at a prolonged rate of 0. Read More

    Early-onset neonatal hyperkalemia associated with maternal hypermagnesemia: a case report.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 02 13;18(1):55. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Division of Neonatology, Kumamoto University Hospital, 1-1-1 Honjo, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto, 860-8556, Japan.
    Background: Neonatal nonoliguric hyperkalemia (NOHK) is a metabolic abnormality that occurs in extremely premature neonates at approximately 24 h after birth and is mainly due to the immature functioning of the sodium (Na)/potassium (K) pump. Magnesium sulfate is frequently used in obstetrical practice to prevent preterm labor and to treat preeclampsia; this medication can also cause hypermagnesemia and hyperkalemia by a mechanism that is different from that of NOHK. Herein, we report the first case of very early-onset neonatal hyperkalemia induced by maternal hypermagnesemia. Read More

    Magnesium supplementation: Pharmacokinetics in cardiac surgery patients with normal renal function.
    J Crit Care 2018 Apr 11;44:419-423. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Intensive Care Medicine, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia. Electronic address:
    Background: Intravenous magnesium is routinely administered in intensive care units (ICU) to treat arrhythmias after cardiothoracic surgery. There are no data on the pharmacokinetics of continuous magnesium infusion therapy.

    Objective: To investigate the pharmacokinetics of continuous magnesium infusion, focusing on serum and urinary magnesium concentration, volume of distribution and half-life. Read More

    Analysis of hypo- and hypermagnesemia in an intensive care unit cohort.
    Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2018 May 16;62(5):648-657. Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate if magnesium deviations correlate with higher 180 day overall mortality or increased morbidity, compared to controls.

    Methods: We conducted a retrospective study on 5369 patients with 22,003 magnesium values treated at the Adult Intensive Care Unit at Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden during 2006-2014. The patients were retrospectively divided into a control group with only normal magnesium values 0. Read More

    Serum Magnesium Abnormality and Influencing Factors of Serum Magnesium Level in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: A Single-Center Study in Northern China.
    Blood Purif 2018 14;45(1-3):110-117. Epub 2017 Dec 14.
    Background/aims: Both hypomagnesemia and hypermagnesemia have been associated with cardiovascular diseases, bone diseases, and mortality in dialysis patients. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of and influencing factors for abnormal serum Mg levels in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD).

    Methods: A cross-sectional study in Peking University People's Hospital recorded the demographic information, clinical characteristics, and laboratory data. Read More

    Ionized and total serum magnesium in hemodialysis: predictors and variability. A longitudinal cross-sectional study.
    Clin Exp Nephrol 2017 Dec 7. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    Department of Internal Medicine and Nephrology, San Giovanni Regional Hospital, Bellinzona, Switzerland.
    Background: Ionized Magnesium (ion-Mg) represents the active biological fraction of the serum magnesium content. The assessment of total serum Mg (tot-Mg) might not accurately identify patients with hypo-or hyper-magnesaemie. In hemodialysis, serum tot-Mg levels in the upper part of the distribution, have been associated with reduced mortality and fewer vascular calcifications; thus, resulting in the tendency to increase the Mg concentration in the dialysate, traditionally set at 0. Read More

    Magnesium and Risk of Hip Fracture among Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis.
    J Am Soc Nephrol 2018 Mar 30;29(3):991-999. Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    Committee of Renal Data Registry, Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy, Tokyo, Japan.
    Magnesium is an essential mineral for bone metabolism. However, little is known about the relationship between magnesium and the risk of fractures. In this cohort study, we elucidated the association between serum magnesium level and the risk of incident hip fracture among patients undergoing hemodialysis. Read More

    Anion Gap as a Determinant of Ionized Fraction of Divalent Cations in Hemodialysis Patients.
    Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2018 Feb 27;13(2):274-281. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    Nephrology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan; and.
    Background And Objectives: Circulating levels of anions that bind to magnesium and calcium are often altered in patients with CKD. However, it is unknown how these alterations affect the ionized fraction of magnesium and calcium.

    Design, Setting, Participants, & Measurements: This cross-sectional study involved patients on maintenance hemodialysis and patients not on dialysis who visited the outpatient department of nephrology. Read More

    Deletion of claudin-10 rescues claudin-16-deficient mice from hypomagnesemia and hypercalciuria.
    Kidney Int 2018 Mar 10;93(3):580-588. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Institute of Physiology, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Kiel, Germany. Electronic address:
    The tight junction proteins claudin-10 and -16 are crucial for the paracellular reabsorption of cations along the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop in the kidney. In patients, mutations in CLDN16 cause familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis, while mutations in CLDN10 impair kidney function. Mice lacking claudin-16 display magnesium and calcium wasting, whereas absence of claudin-10 results in hypermagnesemia and interstitial nephrocalcinosis. Read More

    Preparing for the unexpected: special considerations and complications after sugammadex administration.
    BMC Anesthesiol 2017 Oct 17;17(1):140. Epub 2017 Oct 17.
    Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 4500 San Pablo Rd, Jacksonville, Florida, 32224, USA.
    Sugammadex, a modified gamma-cyclodextrin, has changed clinical practice of neuromuscular reversal dramatically. With the introduction of this selective relaxant binding agent, rapid and reliable neuromuscular reversal from any depth of block became possible. Sugammadex can reverse neuromuscular blockade without the muscarinic side effects typically associated with the administration of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Read More

    Acute kidney injury in a postpartum woman with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria: A case report and literature review.
    Hemodial Int 2018 Jan 10;22(1):E6-E10. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    First Department of Internal Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8522, Japan.
    Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is a rare clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorder characterized by intravascular hemolysis, hemoglobinuria, and inflammatory thrombotic state. Intravascular hemolysis in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) can lead to acute and chronic renal injury through hemoglobin-mediated toxicity. A 32-year-old pregnant woman with myelodysplastic syndrome was admitted to our hospital with severe preeclampsia. Read More

    Near death by milk of magnesia.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 Mar 21;2017. Epub 2017 Mar 21.
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA.
    We report a case of hypermagnesemia associated with the use of milk of magnesia in a male patient with end-stage renal disease. After experiencing nausea and vomiting, he developed severe bradycardia and then asystole. Resuscitation efforts were successful; however, he developed atrial fibrillation with severe widening of the QRS and diffuse ST elevation, hypothermia, hypotension and apnoea requiring intubation. Read More

    Magnesium: An Overlooked Electrolyte.
    J Emerg Med 2017 May 17;52(5):741-743. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
    UT Health Science Center at Houston-McGovern Medical School, Houston, Texas.
    Background: Hypermagnesemia is rare and usually iatrogenic. Due to decreased renal function, older patients are generally more susceptible to hypermagnesemia than are younger patients. Because it is not one of the commonly assessed electrolytes in the blood work panel of patients, high levels are usually missed. Read More

    Hypermagnesemia disturbances in rats, NO-related: pentadecapeptide BPC 157 abrogates, L-NAME and L-arginine worsen.
    Inflammopharmacology 2017 Aug 16;25(4):439-449. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Salata 11, P.O. Box 916, 10000, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Aim: Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157, administered before a high-dose magnesium injection in rats, might be a useful peptide therapy against magnesium toxicity and the magnesium-induced effect on cell depolarization. Moreover, this might be an NO-system-related effect. Previously, BPC 157 counteracts paralysis, arrhythmias and hyperkalaemia, extreme muscle weakness; parasympathetic and neuromuscular blockade; injured muscle healing and interacts with the NOS-blocker and NOS-substrate effects. Read More

    Pharmacokinetic Studies of Orally Administered Magnesium Oxide in Rats.
    Yakugaku Zasshi 2017 05 26;137(5):581-587. Epub 2017 Jan 26.
    Institute for Genome Research, University of Tokushima.
    Magnesium oxide (MgO) tablets are widely used as laxatives in patients with constipation. Recently, the "Revision of Precautions on the Use of Magnesium Oxide" has been issued by the Japanese Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency, warning against the risk of hypermagnesemia with the use of MgO. However, the majority of physicians continue to administer MgO for constipation without adequately considering its safe use. Read More

    The association of serum magnesium and mortality outcomes in heart failure patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2016 Dec;95(50):e5406
    aSection for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok bDivision of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, HRH Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Medical Center, Srinakharinwirot University, Ongkharak, Nakhon Nayok cDepartment of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University dCardiology Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine Vajira Hospital, Navamindradhiraj University, Bangkok, Thailand eDepartment of Internal Medicine "F", Assaf Harofeh Medical Center (Affiliated to the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel), Zerifin, Israel fCenter for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, The School of Medicine and Public Health, the University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.
    Background: Low serum magnesium (Mg) has been independently shown to increase risk of heart failure (HF), but data on the association between serum Mg concentration and the outcome of patients with HF are conflicting. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to estimate the prognostic effects of hypermagnesemia and hypomagnesemia on cardiovascular (CV) mortality and all-cause mortality (ACM) of patients with HF.

    Methods: Relevant studies were identified from Medline and Scopus databases. Read More

    Inherited and acquired disorders of magnesium homeostasis.
    Curr Opin Pediatr 2017 Apr;29(2):187-198
    Division of Pediatric Nephrology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA.
    Purpose Of Review: Magnesium (Mg) imbalances are frequently overlooked. Hypermagnesemia usually occurs in preeclamptic women after Mg therapy or in end-stage renal disease patients, whereas hypomagnesemia is more common with a prevalence of up to 15% in the general population. Increasing evidence points toward a role for mild-to-moderate chronic hypomagnesemia in the pathogenesis of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome. Read More

    Efficacy and safety of calcium acetate-magnesium carbonate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients.
    Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2016 Nov-Dec;27(6):1162-1167
    Department of Medicine A (M8); Laboratory of Kidney Pathology (LR00SP01), Charles Nicolle Hospital; Faculty of Medicine, University of Tunis El Manar, Tunis, Tunisia.
    A phosphate binder combining calcium and magnesium offers an interesting therapeutic option to control hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients. We investigated the effectiveness and tolerance of calcium acetate-magnesium carbonate (Ca-Mg). This is a 16-week prospective study including 16 dialysis patients. Read More

    Serum Magnesium and Mortality in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients.
    Blood Purif 2017 23;43(1-3):31-36. Epub 2016 Nov 23.
    Department of Blood Purification, Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.
    Background And Aim: The study aimed to investigate the potential contributing effect of serum magnesium on mortality in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients.

    Methods: The patients receiving regular MHD in March 2013 were involved. Baseline data including clinical data, anthropometrics and biochemical measurement were collected. Read More

    Association of Serum Magnesium on Mortality in Patients Admitted to the Intensive Cardiac Care Unit.
    Am J Med 2017 Feb 14;130(2):229.e5-229.e13. Epub 2016 Sep 14.
    Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn; Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Electronic address:
    Background: Although electrolyte disturbances may affect cardiac action potential, little is known about the association between serum magnesium and corrected QT (QTc) interval as well as clinical outcomes.

    Methods: A consecutive 8498 patients admitted to the Mayo Clinic Hospital-Rochester cardiac care unit (CCU) from January 1, 2004 through December 31, 2013 with 2 or more documented serum magnesium levels, were studied to test the hypothesis that serum magnesium levels are associated with in-hospital mortality, sudden cardiac death, and QTc interval.

    Results: Patients were 67 ± 15 years; 62. Read More

    Hypomagnesemia Is Prevalent in Patients Undergoing Gynecologic Surgery by a Gynecologic Oncologist.
    Int J Gynecol Cancer 2016 09;26(7):1320-6
    *Division of Gynecologic Oncology, The West Clinic; and †Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN.
    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of and risk factors for hypomagnesemia in patients undergoing gynecologic surgery by a gynecologic oncologist.

    Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on all patients undergoing surgery for gynecologic pathology from July 2011 to July 2015 by a single surgeon. Demographic data, surgical indication, surgery performed, preoperative laboratory values, postoperative laboratory values, and medical history were examined. Read More

    Efficacy of Intravenous Magnesium in Facilitating Cardioversion of Atrial Fibrillation.
    Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2016 Sep;9(9)
    From the Department of Medicine, University at Buffalo, NY (B.R., G.H.G., A.B.C.); Department of Medicine, University of Kansas, Kansas City (Z.S.); Department of Medicine, Loma Linda University, CA (D.N.); and Division of Cardiac Electrophysiology, Great Lakes Cardiology P.C., Buffalo, NY (A.B., C.H.K., D.F.S.).
    Background: Low serum magnesium (Mg) levels are associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation. Some studies have shown a benefit of Mg in facilitating pharmacological cardioversion. The role of an intravenous infusion of Mg alone in facilitating electric cardioversion is not clear. Read More

    [Bowel obstruction-induced cholinergic crisis with progressive respiratory failure following distigmine bromide treatment].
    Chudoku Kenkyu 2016 Mar;29(1):26-9
    A 54-year-old female experienced rapid respiratory failure while being transported in an ambulance to our emergency department for evaluation and management of constipation and abdominal pain. The patient was on treatment with distigmine bromide for postoperative urination disorder and magnesium oxide for constipation. Increased salivary secretions, diminished respiratory excursion, type 2 respiratory failure (PaCO2 : 65 mmHg), low serum cholinesterase, and hypermagnesemia were detected. Read More

    Biodegradable Magnesium (Mg) Implantation Does Not Impose Related Metabolic Disorders in Rats with Chronic Renal Failure.
    Sci Rep 2016 05 23;6:26341. Epub 2016 May 23.
    Musculoskeletal Research Laboratory, Department of Orthopaedics &Traumatology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, P.R. China.
    Mg and its alloys have been considered as one of the most promising biodegradable medical devices, but it was still unclear whether hypermagnesemia involved health risks would occur in persons with kidney disease due to their deteriorated kidney function for Mg ions excretion from their body. In this study, we established a chronic renal failure (CRF) model in rats induced by adenine administration prior to Mg implantation, aiming to predict if CRF patients are suitable for the use of Mg implants. The results showed that Mg levels in serum, urine, feces and internal organs had no significant changes after Mg implantation for both normal and CRF rats. Read More

    Hypomagnesemia and mortality in patients admitted to intensive care unit: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    QJM 2016 Jul 24;109(7):453-459. Epub 2016 Mar 24.
    From the 1 Department of Internal Medicine, Bassett Medical Center and Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Cooperstown, NY, USA.
    Background: Reports of mortality due to magnesium dysregulation in the critical care setting are controversial. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the association between hypomagnesemia and mortality in patients admitted to the intensive care unit.

    Methods: Eligible studies assessing the association between hypomagnesemia or hypermagnesemia and mortality in the critical care setting were comprehensively searched in MEDLINE and EMBASE from their inception to September 2015. Read More

    Induction of potentially lethal hypermagnesemia, ischemic colitis, and toxic megacolon by a preoperative mechanical bowel preparation: report of a case.
    Surg Case Rep 2016 Dec 20;2(1):18. Epub 2016 Feb 20.
    Department of Surgery and Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8582, Japan.
    A 67-year-old man was diagnosed with rectal cancer. The tumor invaded the subserosal layer, but it was not large, and there was no sign of obstruction. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy reduced the size of the tumor. Read More

    An Unusual yet "Mg"nificent Indication for Hemodialysis.
    Semin Dial 2016 05 25;29(3):247-50. Epub 2016 Feb 25.
    Renal Electrolyte and Hypertension Division, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
    Hypermagnesemia is an uncommon electrolyte abnormality, due to the fact that magnesium toxicity is only seen in the setting of a massive exposure to exogenous magnesium, often in the setting of renal insufficiency. Here, we report a case of severe hypermagnesemia that resulted in complete paralysis that was secondary to Renacidin administration, a rarely used agent used for intra-renal pelvic or intra-vesicular instillation dissolution of struvite stones. The patient also had concurrent acute kidney injury (AKI). Read More

    Risk factors evaluation for urolithiasis among children.
    Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex 2016 Jul - Aug;73(4):228-236. Epub 2016 Aug 4.
    Former Director of Clinical Nephrology and Hypertension. Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC, USA.
    Background: The prevalence of pediatric urolithiasis varies from 0.01-0.03%. Read More

    Effect of parathyroid hormone on serum magnesium levels: the neglected relationship in hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism.
    Ren Fail 2016 16;38(1):50-6. Epub 2015 Dec 16.
    a Department of Nephrology , 2nd Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University , Nanjing, Jiangsu Province , China and.
    Chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is an important complication in patients with end-stage renal disease. Since recent studies have shown that magnesium (Mg) disturbance plays an important role in CKD-MBD and cardiovascular mortality, the interest on magnesium has grown recently. Although much concern focused on the effect of Mg on parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels, however, the influence of PTH on serum Mg levels is nearly unexplored. Read More

    Hypocalcemia and hyperkalemia during magnesium infusion therapy in a pre-eclamptic patient.
    Clin Case Rep 2015 Oct 2;3(10):827-31. Epub 2015 Sep 2.
    University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, Texas.
    We present a case of prominent hypocalcemia and hyperkalemia attributed to magnesium infusion in a preeclamptic patient. Iatrogenic hypermagnesemia is an underrecognized cause of hypocalcemia and hyperkalemia. Our report illustrates the effects of magnesium therapy on serum calcium and potassium, necessitating close electrolytes monitoring when used. Read More

    Serum Magnesium Status in Patients Subjects with Depression in the City of Yazd in Iran 2013-2014.
    Biol Trace Elem Res 2016 Jun 21;171(2):275-282. Epub 2015 Oct 21.
    Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Faculty of Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.
    Depression is the most common mental disorder and involves many factors. The regulatory effects of magnesium on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) channels make it a factor in the treatment of depression. The present study investigated the level of serum magnesium in subjects diagnosed with depression in the city of Yazd in Iran. Read More

    Magnesium in Prevention and Therapy.
    Nutrients 2015 Sep 23;7(9):8199-226. Epub 2015 Sep 23.
    Academy of Micronutrient Medicine, Essen 45130, Germany.
    Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral in the body. It has been recognized as a cofactor for more than 300 enzymatic reactions, where it is crucial for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) metabolism. Magnesium is required for DNA and RNA synthesis, reproduction, and protein synthesis. Read More

    Serotonin 5-HT7 receptor agonist, LP-211, exacerbates Na(+), K(+)-ATPase/Mg(2+)-ATPase imbalances in spinal cord-injured male rats.
    Diagn Pathol 2015 Sep 14;10:157. Epub 2015 Sep 14.
    Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research Center, Neuroscience Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Background: The observed controversy that N-(4-cyanophenylmethyl)-4-(2-diphenyl)-1-piperazinehexanamide (LP-211), a selective serotonin (5-HT7) receptor agonist, may either modify or exacerbate imbalances in serum electrolyte concentrations and renal tissue of spinal cord trauma cases has not been reported yet. The aim of this study was to better understand the effects of a new 5-HT7 receptor agonist, LP-211, on serum electrolyte changes in spinal cord injured- (SCI) rats.

    Methods: Sixty male rats were assigned to the following groups: A) Intact (saline as vehicle, 1 ml/kg, i. Read More

    Admission hypomagnesemia linked to septic shock in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome.
    Ren Fail 2015 3;37(9):1518-21. Epub 2015 Sep 3.
    a Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine , Mayo Clinic , Rochester , MN , USA and.
    Background: The association between admission serum magnesium (Mg) levels and risk of developing septic shock in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is limited. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of developing septic shock in hospitalized patients with SIRS with various admission Mg levels.

    Methods: This is a single-center retrospective study conducted at a tertiary referral hospital. Read More

    Pathophysiology of Calcium, Phosphorus, and Magnesium Dysregulation in Chronic Kidney Disease.
    Semin Dial 2015 Nov-Dec;28(6):564-77. Epub 2015 Aug 25.
    Nephrology Service, IMIBIC, Hospital Universitario Reina Sofia, University of Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain.
    Calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium homeostasis is altered in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hypermagnesemia are not seen until advanced CKD because adaptations develop. Increased parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion maintains serum calcium normal by increasing calcium efflux from bone, renal calcium reabsorption, and phosphate excretion. Read More

    Serum magnesium concentrations in patients receiving sodium picosulfate and magnesium citrate bowel preparation: an assessment of renal function and electrocardiographic conduction.
    Clin Exp Gastroenterol 2015 28;8:215-24. Epub 2015 Jul 28.
    Ferring Pharmaceuticals Inc., Parsippany, NJ, USA.
    Background: We performed a post hoc analysis of two clinical trials to assess whether sodium picosulfate and magnesium (Mg(2+)) citrate (Prepopik(®) [P/MC]), a dual-action bowel preparation for colonoscopy, has an impact on serum Mg(2+) levels and cardiac electrophysiology. Although rare, hypermagnesemia has been reported in patients consuming Mg(2+)-containing cathartics, especially patients who are elderly and have renal impairment.

    Methods: Data were analyzed from two prospective, Phase III, randomized, assessor-blinded, active-control, multicenter, pivotal studies that investigated split-dose/day-before P/MC. Read More

    Dysmagnesemia in Hospitalized Patients: Prevalence and Prognostic Importance.
    Mayo Clin Proc 2015 Aug;90(8):1001-10
    Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. Electronic address:
    Objective: To examine the prevalence of serum magnesium (Mg) alterations and outcomes in hospitalized patients.

    Patients And Methods: All admissions to Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, from January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2013 (288,120 patients), were screened. Admission Mg from each unique patient and relevant clinical data were extracted from the institutional electronic database. Read More

    Admission serum magnesium levels and the risk of acute respiratory failure.
    Int J Clin Pract 2015 Nov 21;69(11):1303-8. Epub 2015 Jul 21.
    Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
    Background: The association between admission serum magnesium (Mg) levels and risk of acute respiratory failure (ARF) in hospitalised patients is limited. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of developing ARF in all hospitalised patients with various admission Mg levels.

    Methods: This is a single-center retrospective study conducted at a tertiary referral hospital. Read More

    Magnesium Toxicity-Induced Ileus in a Postpartum Patient Treated for Preeclampsia With Magnesium Sulphate.
    ACG Case Rep J 2015 Jul 9;2(4):227-9. Epub 2015 Jul 9.
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR ; Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR.
    Hypermagnesemia is a rare and under-recognized cause of paralytic ileus. We report a case of a 21-year-old primigravida who was managed aggressively for preeclampsia and presented with postpartum paralytic ileus. Detailed history was employed to consider hypermagnesemia-induced ileus as the working diagnosis, and the patient improved with correction of the electrolyte imbalance. Read More

    Serum Magnesium and Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients in the United States: A Cohort Study.
    Am J Kidney Dis 2015 Dec 17;66(6):1056-66. Epub 2015 Jul 17.
    Department of Nephrology, University of Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf, Germany.
    Background: Low serum magnesium levels in patients with kidney disease have been linked to increased mortality. This study investigated whether similar associations existed in maintenance hemodialysis (HD) patients.

    Study Design: Cohort study. Read More

    Admission hypomagnesemia and hypermagnesemia increase the risk of acute kidney injury.
    Ren Fail 2015 Aug 23;37(7):1175-9. Epub 2015 Jun 23.
    a Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension , Mayo Clinic , Rochester , MN , USA and.
    Background: The association between admission serum magnesium (Mg) levels and risk of in-hospital acute kidney injury (AKI) is limited. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of developing AKI in all hospitalized patients with various admission Mg levels.

    Methods: This is a single-center retrospective study conducted at a tertiary referral hospital. Read More

    Relationship between renal function and serum magnesium concentration in elderly outpatients treated with magnesium oxide.
    Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016 May 16;16(5):600-5. Epub 2015 Jun 16.
    Department of Family Medicine, Mie University School of Medicine, Tsu, Mie, Japan.
    Aims: We investigated the relationship between renal function and serum magnesium concentration in elderly patients treated with magnesium oxide (MgO) in an outpatient setting of an urban hospital in Japan.

    Methods: In the present study, 44 elderly outpatients (23 patients with constipation treated with daily oral MgO and 21 untreated patients in the control group) who visited Kameyama municipal medical center were enrolled. Variables were age, sex, weight, height, serum magnesium concentration, serum blood urea nitrogen level, serum creatinine level, use of other magnesium-containing supplements and symptoms associated with hypermagnesemia. Read More

    Calcium and Magnesium Metabolism in Pre-Eclampsia.
    West Afr J Med 2014 Jul-Sep;33(3):178-82
    Department of Clinical Pathology, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.
    Background: Preeclampsia is a multisystem disorder associated with high maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. The cause of the disorder is largely unknown and its pathogenesis is complex and poorly understood. Calcium and magnesium are divalent ions which may have roles to play in the manifestations of the disease. Read More

    Hypermagnesemia is a strong independent risk factor for mortality in critically ill patients: results from a cross-sectional study.
    Eur J Intern Med 2015 Sep 3;26(7):504-7. Epub 2015 Jun 3.
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistraße 5220246 Hamburg, Germany.
    Background: Patients with electrolyte imbalances or disorders have a high risk of mortality. It is unknown if this finding from sodium or potassium disorders extends to alterations of magnesium levels.

    Methods And Patients: In this cross-sectional analysis, all emergency room patients between 2010 and 2011 at the Inselspital Bern, Switzerland, were included. Read More

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