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    1 OF 105

    Concurrent eosinophilia and IgG4-related disease in a child: A case report and review of the literature.
    Exp Ther Med 2018 Mar 12;15(3):2739-2748. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Department of Hematology, Hangzhou First People's Hospital, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310006, P.R. China.
    The current study presents the case of a 9-year-old Chinese boy who presented with eosinophilia and elevated serum levels of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4). A bone marrow puncture identified an elevated eosinophil rate of 23% (normal range, <5%), which indicated eosinophilia. However, gene analysis, fluorescenthybridization and other examinations, including bone marrow aspiration, blood routine, auto-antibody tests and parasitic and allergens screening, contradicted a diagnosis of secondary or clonal eosinophilia. Read More

    [Portal vein thrombosis associated with idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome].
    Rinsho Ketsueki 2018 ;59(1):45-50
    Department of Hematology, Tokyo Metropolitan Tama Synthesis Medical Center.
    A 35-year-old man who previously underwent splenectomy for hereditary spherocytosis at age 29 visited our hospital complaining of fatigue that had started 7 days ago and right upper abdominal pain. Laboratory data showed increased white blood cell and eosinophil count accompanied by severe transaminitis and clotting abnormalities. Computed tomography scan showed multiple embolisms in the portal vein, superior mesenteric vein, right pulmonary artery, and inferior vena cava. Read More

    Lymphocyte-Variant Hypereosinophilic Syndrome With Eosinophilic Myocarditis Treated With Steroids and Pegylated Interferon Alfa-2a.
    Am J Med Sci 2018 Feb 6;355(2):201-202. Epub 2017 Apr 6.
    Division of Hematology, Gordon and Leslie Diamond Health Care Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Electronic address:

    Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorders Pathology.
    Front Med (Lausanne) 2017 15;4:261. Epub 2018 Jan 15.
    Department of Pathology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States.
    Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGID) are characterized pathologically by excess eosinophils in mucosal biopsies of one or multiple sites in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, simultaneously or sequentially. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is the best characterized EGID, and in most patients it is an abnormal immune-mediated response to food antigens. Current recommendations for diagnosis include signs and symptoms of esophageal dysfunction that do not respond to proton-pump inhibitor therapy, and esophageal biopsies that exhibit at least 15 intraepithelial eosinophils in at least one high power field (HPF). Read More

    Drug-induced eosinophilic pneumonia: A review of 196 case reports.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Jan;97(4):e9688
    Background And Objective: Eosinophilic pneumonia (EP) is an important subset of patients who present with pulmonary infiltrates and eosinophilia (PIE). EP is classified by chronicity and etiology and drug-induced EP is the main cause of secondary EP. The primary goal of this review was to examine all the case reports published since the syndrome was defined in 1990. Read More

    Clinical and Biological Markers in Hypereosinophilic Syndromes.
    Front Med (Lausanne) 2017 22;4:240. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    Human Eosinophil Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States.
    Hypereosinophilic syndromes (HES) are rare, heterogeneous syndromes characterized by markedly elevated eosinophil counts in the blood and/or tissue and evidence of eosinophil-associated pathology. Although parasitic infections, drug hypersensitivity, and other disorders of defined etiology can present as HES (associated HES), treatment is directed at the underlying cause rather than the eosinophilia itself. A number of additional subtypes of HES have been described, based on clinical and laboratory features. Read More

    Aortic stiffness is increased in patients with hypereosinophilic syndrome being in early necrotic phase.
    Quant Imaging Med Surg 2017 Dec;7(6):636-640
    2nd Department of Medicine and Cardiology Centre, 2nd Department of Medicine and Cardiology Centre, Medical Faculty, Albert Szent-Györgyi Clinical Center, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary.
    Background: Persistent eosinophilia and eosinophil-mediated single- or multiple-organ damage are typical features of hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES). Theoretically, eosinophilic infiltration of the ascending aortic wall could not be excluded in HES, therefore the present study aimed to test whether HES is associated with abnormalities in aortic elastic properties.

    Methods: The present study comprised 10 HES patients (mean age: 57. Read More

    The significance of eosinophils in predicting the severity of acute ischemic stroke.
    Oncotarget 2017 Nov 31;8(61):104238-104246. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Department of Cardiology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100050, China.
    Background: Previous studies have shown that tumor-associated tissue eosinophilia have a role in various types of solid tumors. However, the relationship between eosinophil and acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is unclear. We aimed to investigate the diagnostic significance of eosinophil in AIS patients. Read More

    (A Critical Appraisal of) Classification of Hypereosinophilic Disorders.
    Front Med (Lausanne) 2017 5;4:216. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    Université de Lille, INSERM, CHU Lille, U995 - LIRIC - Lille Inflammation Research International Center, Institut d'Immunologie, Centre de Référence des Syndromes Hyperéosinophiliques-CEREO, Unité d'Immunologie Clinique, Lille, France.
    Hypereosinophilia (HE) is a heterogeneous condition that can be reported in various (namely inflammatory, allergic, infectious, or neoplastic) diseases with distinct pathophysiological pathways. In 1975, Chusid et al. published the first diagnostic criteria of hypereosinophilic syndromes (HES). Read More

    Noncanonical NF-κB signaling and the essential kinase NIK modulate crucial features associated with eosinophilic esophagitis pathogenesis.
    Dis Model Mech 2017 Dec 19;10(12):1517-1527. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24060, USA
    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an allergic disease of the esophagus driven by T cell and eosinophil responses to dietary allergens, resulting in chronic mucosal inflammation. Few spontaneous animal models of esophageal eosinophilia exist, with most studies relying on artificial sensitization procedures. NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK; MAP3K14) is a key signaling molecule of the noncanonical NF-κB (NFKB1) pathway, an alternative signaling cascade producing chemokines involved in lymphoid stroma development and leukocyte trafficking. Read More

    The right atrium in idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome : Insights from the 3D speckle tracking echocardiographic MAGYAR-Path Study.
    Herz 2017 Dec 12. Epub 2017 Dec 12.
    2nd Department of Medicine and Cardiology Centre, Medical Faculty, Albert Szent-Györgyi Clinical Center, University of Szeged, Semmelweis Street 8, P.O. Box 427, 6725, Szeged, Hungary.
    Background: Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome is characterized by a persistent eosinophil blood count of >1.5 × 10cells/l and organ damage, independent of the primary and secondary causes of eosinophilia. The purpose of the present study was to assess the three-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography-derived right atrial volumetric and functional properties between hypereosinophilic syndrome patients and matched controls. Read More

    Biomarkers for severe eosinophilic asthma.
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 2017 Dec;140(6):1509-1518
    Respiratory Medicine Unit and Oxford Respiratory BRC, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    The last decade has seen the approval of several new biologics for the treatment of severe asthma-targeting specific endotypes and phenotypes. This review will examine how evidence generated from the mepolizumab clinical development program showed that blood eosinophil counts, rather than sputum or tissue eosinophil counts, evolved as a pharmacodynamic and predictive biomarker for the efficacy of treatment with mepolizumab in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma. Based on the available evidence and combined with clinical judgement, a baseline blood eosinophil threshold of 150 cells/μL or greater or a historical blood eosinophil threshold of 300 cells/μL or greater will allow selection of patients with severe eosinophilic asthma who are most likely to achieve clinically significant reductions in the rate of exacerbations with mepolizumab treatment. Read More

    Recurrent Malignancy-Associated Atypical Neutrophilic Dermatosis With Noninfectious Shock.
    Am J Med Sci 2017 Dec 20;354(6):626-632. Epub 2016 Oct 20.
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas; Department of Dermatology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas. Electronic address:
    Sweet syndrome (SS) or acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis presents with the sudden onset of fever, leukocytosis and tender, erythematous, edematous, well-demarcated papules and plaques that histopathologically demonstrate a dense neutrophilic infiltrate. A total of 20% of patients with SS have malignancy-associated disease that can present with bullous or atypical skin lesions that mimic pyoderma gangrenosum, another neutrophilic dermatosis. Both entities exist on a spectrum, and in the context of underlying malignancy, these neutrophilic diseases become less clinically distinct. Read More

    Eosinophilic Myocarditis.
    Am J Med Sci 2017 Nov 6;354(5):486-492. Epub 2017 Apr 6.
    Division of Hematology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia. Electronic address:
    Persistent eosinophilia can cause cardiac tissue damage, typically in the form of eosinophilic myocarditis, whether the underlying cause is reactive, a clonal myeloid disorder, or idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES). Eosinophilic myocarditis ranges from mild localized disease to multifocal widespread infiltrates associated with myocardial necrosis, thrombotic complications and endomyocardial fibrosis. Systemic treatment varies widely depending on the underlying cause, so thorough investigation and precise diagnosis are essential. Read More

    A Case of Loeffler Endocarditis That Showed Endomyocardial Systolic Dysfunction Detected by Layer Specific Strain Analysis.
    Int Heart J 2017 Dec 17;58(6):1001-1003. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    Department of Cardiovascular Ultrasound, The First Hospital of China Medical University.
    Loeffler endocarditis is a rare comprehensive cardiac manifestation caused by eosinophilic cell infiltrations and is present in 50%-60% of patients with hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES). Left ventricle (LV) endocardial systolic dysfunction is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in HES and Loeffler endocarditis. We present a case of Loeffler endocarditis, whose left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction and endocardial systolic dysfunction were first neglected by conventional transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), but were later pointed out by layer-specific longitudinal strain analysis. Read More

    Biologic Agents for the Treatment of Hypereosinophilic Syndromes.
    J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2017 Nov - Dec;5(6):1502-1509
    Human Eosinophil Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md. Electronic address:
    Hypereosinophilic syndromes (HES) are a heterogeneous group of rare disorders defined by the presence of marked peripheral or tissue eosinophilia resulting in end-organ damage. Although conventional therapies, including glucocorticoids, hydroxyurea, and IFN-α, are initially effective in reducing eosinophilia and symptoms in a majority of patients with platelet-derived growth factor mutation-negative HES, the development of resistance and treatment-related toxicity are common. In contrast, targeted therapy with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, imatinib, is well tolerated but effective only in the subset of patients with HES with a primary myeloid disorder. Read More

    Lung-Infiltrating Foxp3Regulatory T Cells Are Quantitatively and Qualitatively Different during Eosinophilic and Neutrophilic Allergic Airway Inflammation but Essential To Control the Inflammation.
    J Immunol 2017 12 1;199(12):3943-3951. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Department of Immunology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH 44195; and
    Understanding functions of Foxp3regulatory T cells (Tregs) during allergic airway inflammation remains incomplete. In this study, we report that, during cockroach Ag-induced allergic airway inflammation, Foxp3Tregs are rapidly mobilized into the inflamed lung tissues. However, the level of Treg accumulation in the lung was different depending on the type of inflammation. Read More

    Idiopathic hypereosinophilia is clonal disorder? Clonality identified by targeted sequencing.
    PLoS One 2017 31;12(10):e0185602. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Idiopathic hypereosinophilia (IHE)/idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (IHES) has been defined by a persistent elevation of the blood eosinophil count exceeding 1.5×103/μL, without evidence of reactive or clonal causes. While T-cell clonality assessment has been recommended for unexplained hypereosinophilia, this approach is not often applied to routine practice in the clinic. Read More

    Eosinophilic Lung Disease.
    Am J Med Sci 2017 Oct 15;354(4):339-349. Epub 2017 Mar 15.
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas. Electronic address:
    Eosinophils are involved in the pathogenesis of a number of lung diseases. Recent advances in eosinophil biology have now produced clinically applicable therapies that seek to counter eosinophilia in blood and lungs. This article reviews the basic biology of eosinophils and their role in mediating T-helper 2 cell responses. Read More

    [Pediatric idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome with pulmonary embolism: a case report and review of literature].
    Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 2017 Oct;55(10):775-779
    Department of Pediatric Respiratory Medicine, Shanghai Children's Hospital, Children's Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200040, China.
    To explore clinical features of idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome combined with pulmonary embolism.A retrospective analysis of a patient with idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome and pulmonary embolism diagnosed and treated in the Respiratory Department of Shanghai Children's Hospital in September 2016 was performed. A literature search was performed with"Eosinophils increased, thrombosis"as the Chinese keywords in Wanfang database and"idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome, deep vein thrombosis"as the English key words in PubMed database. Read More

    World Health Organization-defined eosinophilic disorders: 2017 update on diagnosis, risk stratification, and management.
    Am J Hematol 2017 Nov;92(11):1243-1259
    Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California 94305-5821.
    Disease Overview: The eosinophilias encompass a broad range of nonhematologic (secondary or reactive) and hematologic (primary, clonal) disorders with potential for end-organ damage.

    Diagnosis: Hypereosinophilia has generally been defined as a peripheral blood eosinophil count greater than 1500/mmand may be associated with tissue damage. After exclusion of secondary causes of eosinophilia, diagnostic evaluation of primary eosinophilias relies on a combination of morphologic review of the blood and marrow, standard cytogenetics, fluorescent in situ-hybridization, flow immunocytometry, and T-cell clonality assessment to detect histopathologic or clonal evidence for an acute or chronic myeloid or lymphoproliferative disorder. Read More

    Mepolizumab-a novel option for the treatment of hypereosinophilic syndrome in childhood.
    Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2018 Feb 28;29(1):28-33. Epub 2017 Nov 28.
    Department of pediatric Pneumology and Immunology, Charité-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Background: Mepolizumab was originally intended as a therapeutic agent for atopic asthma in adults, and consequently, little is known about its use in children. Up to now, corticosteroids have formed the basis of the initial treatment of hypereosinophilic syndromes and are shown to be effective in most patients. To analyze the effect of mepolizumab in children is the aim of this study. Read More

    Hypereosinophilic syndrome with central nervous system involvement: Two case reports and literature review.
    Brain Inj 2017 25;31(12):1695-1700. Epub 2017 Sep 25.
    a Department of Neurology , The Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University , Xuzhou , China.
    Objective: To report two cases of hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) with central nervous system involvement and explore its possible pathogenesis.

    Methods: We have analysed the clinical data and relevant features of two patients who presented themselves to The Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University between 2012 and 2015. We have reviewed the relevant literature, elaborated the possible pathogenesis, and discussed the treatment options. Read More

    Persistent impairment on spirometry in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia: A longitudinal observation study (Shizuoka-CEP study).
    Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2017 11 21;119(5):422-428.e2. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Second Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Japan.
    Background: Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) is characterized by the accumulation of eosinophils in the lung with unknown etiology. Although systemic corticosteroid administration leads to dramatic improvement, nearly half the patients with CEP experience relapse and some develop persistent impairment of pulmonary function. However, predictive factors for this persistent impairment have not been determined. Read More

    Loeffler Endocarditis: A Unique Presentation of Right-Sided Heart Failure Due to Eosinophil-Induced Endomyocardial Fibrosis.
    Clin Med Insights Case Rep 2017 30;10:1179547617723643. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Department of Cardiology, St. Francis Hospital, Roslyn, NY, USA.
    Loeffler endocarditis is a rare restrictive cardiomyopathy caused by abnormal endomyocardial infiltration of eosinophils, with subsequent tissue damage from degranulation, eventually leading to fibrosis. Although an uncommon entity, it is still a disease with significant morbidity and mortality. Often identified only at late stages, treatment options are limited once fibrosis occurs, usually requiring heart failure medications or surgical intervention. Read More

    Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma and hypereosinophilic syndrome with FIP1L1/PDGFRA fusion gene effectively treated with imatinib: A case report.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Sep;96(36):e8001
    aDivision of Gastroenterology and Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine bOncology Center, Asahikawa Medical University Hospital, Asahikawa, Japan.
    Rationale: Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is a rare disorder characterized by hypereosinophilia and organ damage. Some cases of HES are caused by the FIP1L1/PDGFRA fusion gene and respond to imatinib. FIP1L1/PDGFRA-positive HES occasionally evolves into chronic eosinophilic leukemia or into another form of myeloproliferative neoplasm; however, the development of a malignant lymphoma is very rare. Read More

    Beyond stroke-uncommon causes of diffusion restriction in the basal ganglia.
    Emerg Radiol 2018 Feb 4;25(1):87-92. Epub 2017 Sep 4.
    Department of Imaging Sciences, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Avenue, PO Box 648, Rochester, NY, 14642, USA.
    In the emergency setting, a regional area of restricted diffusion involving the basal ganglia typically represents an acute infarct due to small vessel occlusion. However, it is important to consider additional differentials, specifically systemic causes. This article will review anatomy of the basal ganglia and pertinent associated vasculature, followed by other entities that can be a cause of restricted diffusion. Read More

    Pollen-induced oxidative DNA damage response regulates miRNAs controlling allergic inflammation.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Dec 10;313(6):L1058-L1068. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas;
    A mucosal oxidative burst is a hallmark response to pollen exposure that promotes allergic inflammatory responses. Reactive species constituents of oxidative stress signal via the modification of cellular molecules including nucleic acids. One of the most abundant forms of oxidative genomic base damage is 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG), which is removed from DNA by 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1). Read More

    Molecular analysis of more than 140 gene fusion variants and aberrant activation of EVI1 and TLX1 in hematological malignancies.
    Ann Hematol 2017 Oct 5;96(10):1605-1623. Epub 2017 Aug 5.
    Connective Tissue Diseases Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
    Gene fusions are observed in abnormal chromosomal rearrangements such as translocations in hematopoietic malignancies, especially leukemia subtypes. Hence, it is critical to obtain correct information about these rearrangements in order to apply proper treatment techniques. To identify abnormal molecular changes in patients with leukemia, we developed a multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (MRT-PCR) protocol and investigated more than 140 gene fusions resulting from variations of 29 prevalent chromosomal rearrangements along with EVI1 and TLX1 oncogenic expression in the presence of optimized primers. Read More

    Hypereosinophilic Syndrome Subtype Predicts Responsiveness to Glucocorticoids.
    J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2018 Jan - Feb;6(1):190-195. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md.
    Background: Glucocorticoids (GCs) are considered first-line treatment for platelet-derived growth factor α (PDGFRA)-negative hypereosinophilic syndromes (HESs). Despite this, little is known about clinical predictors of GC responsiveness in HES.

    Objective: Knowledge of clinical and laboratory predictors of GC response before initiation of GC could lead to more rational selection of subjects with HES for whom earlier institution of second-line and alternative therapies would be appropriate. Read More

    In vivo neutralization of α4 and β7 integrins inhibits eosinophil trafficking and prevents lung injury during tropical pulmonary eosinophilia in mice.
    Eur J Immunol 2017 09 14;47(9):1501-1512. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    Parasitology Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India.
    Integrins regulate leukocyte trafficking during homeostasis and inflammatory conditions. However, the role of α4 and β7 integrins in guiding eosinophil transmigration into the lungs during filarial manifestation of Tropical Pulmonary Eosinophilia (TPE) has not been explored. In this study, mice exhibiting TPE manifestations were administered with in vivo neutralizing antibodies against integrins α4 and β7 or their combination and immuno-pathological parameters were evaluated. Read More

    Ruxolitinib found to cause eyelash growth: a case report.
    J Med Case Rep 2017 Jul 12;11(1):189. Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Center for Oculofacial & Orbital Surgery, 3771 Katella Ave., #209, Los Alamitos, CA, 90720, USA.
    Background: Hypereosinophilic syndrome is a hematologic disorder in which the eosinophils proliferate. Oral Janus kinase inhibitors are known to be effective treating hypereosinophilic syndrome. Janus kinase inhibitors have also demonstrated efficacy in alopecia. Read More

    House Dust Mite-Induced Allergic Airway Disease Is Independent of IgE and FcεRIα.
    Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2017 12;57(6):674-682
    1 Department of Immunology, Allergy and Rheumatology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio.
    IgE contributes to disease exacerbations but not to baseline airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in human asthma. In rodent allergic airway disease (AAD), mast cell and IgE dependence for the induction of AHR has only been observed when mice are immunized with a relatively weak allergen without adjuvant. To evaluate the role of IgE in murine AAD that is induced by a potent allergen, we inoculated BALB/c and FVB/N background wild-type and IgE- or FcεRIα-deficient mice intratracheally with large or limiting doses of house dust mite extract (HDM) and evaluated AHR, pulmonary eosinophilia, goblet cell metaplasia, serum IgE, and lung mastocytosis. Read More

    Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in the Treatment of Eosinophilic Neoplasms and Systemic Mastocytosis.
    Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 2017 Aug;31(4):643-661
    Division of Hematology, Stanford Cancer Institute/Stanford University School of Medicine, 875 Blake Wilbur Drive, Room 2324, Stanford, CA 94305-5821, USA. Electronic address:
    The World Health Organization's semimolecular classification of eosinophilias emphasizes neoplasms driven by fusion tyrosine kinases. More than 80% of patients with systemic mastocytosis carry the KIT D816V mutation, the primary driver of disease pathogenesis. Genetic annotation of these diseases is critical and affords opportunities for targeted therapy. Read More

    Eosinophilic myocarditis and hypereosinophilic syndrome.
    J Saudi Heart Assoc 2017 Jul 17;29(3):211-213. Epub 2016 Nov 17.
    Department of Cardiology, University Hospital of Mohammed VI, Oujda, MoroccoMorocco.
    Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is a heterogeneous group of hematological disorders characterized by a chronic, unexplained hypereosinophilia with tissue damage. Cardiac involvement occurs in ∼20% of patients with HES and represents a major turning point. Cardiac injuries related to eosinophilia are divided into three chronological phases: eosinophilic infiltration, thrombosis, and fibrosis. Read More

    Resolution of a steroid-resistant, hypereosinophilic immune diathesis with mepolizumab and concomitant amelioration of a mixed thrombotic microangiopathy.
    Blood Cells Mol Dis 2018 Mar 2;69:38-42. Epub 2017 May 2.
    New York Presbyterian Hospital, United States.
    The anaphylatoxins produced by an unbridled complement cascade in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) can alter the leukocyte environment in tissues and peripheral blood, causing clinically significant eosinophilia. While the membrane attack complex and C5a anaphlatoxin can be suppressed with anti-C5 biologics, the production of C3a is still capable of driving a destructive hypereosinophilic syndrome in spite of anticomplement therapy. The side-effects of glucocorticoids in treating hypereosinophilic syndrome limit their therapeutic index in long-term treatment and this behooves the use of alternative strategies. Read More

    Usefulness of three-dimensional echocardiography in the assessment of valvular involvement in Loeffler endocarditis.
    Echocardiography 2017 Jul 9;34(7):1050-1056. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    National Medical Center (Siglo XXI), Specialties Hospital (Dr. Bernardo Sepulveda), IMSS, Mexico City, Mexico.
    Loeffler endocarditis is a complication of hypereosinophilic syndrome resulting from eosinophilic infiltration of heart tissue. We report a case of Loeffler endocarditis in which three-dimensional transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography provided additional information to what was found by two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography alone. Our case illustrates the usefulness of combined two- and three-dimensional echocardiography in the assessment of Loeffler endocarditis. Read More

    Eosinophilic myocarditis presenting as acute coronary syndrome.
    Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars 2017 Jun;45(4):358-361
    Department of Cardiology, Ege University Faculty of Medicine, İzmir, Turkey.
    Eosinophilic myocarditis (EM) is a rare condition that may result from several heterogeneous eosinophilic diseases, including parasite infection, hypersensitivity reaction, vasculitis, and hypereosinophilic syndrome. Regardless of etiology, the disease may present with various cardiac conditions, such as acute coronary syndrome, heart failure, or arrhythmia. Irreversible endomyocardial fibrosis, which causes restrictive cardiomyopathy, occurs in the late phase of the disease. Read More

    Blomia tropicalis allergen 5 (Blo t 5) T-cell epitopes and their ability to suppress the allergic immune response.
    Immunology 2017 10 17;152(2):344-355. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    Immunology Programme, Life Sciences Institute, Centre for Life Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore City, Singapore.
    Blomia tropicalis is the major asthma allergen in the tropics comparable to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. However, little is known about the B. tropicalis epitopes recognized by T cells. Read More

    Cardiac involvements in hypereosinophilia-associated syndrome: Case reports and a little review of the literature.
    Echocardiography 2017 Aug 1;34(8):1242-1246. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    The Department of Cardiovascular Ultrasound, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, China.
    Hypereosinophilia-associated syndrome is a rare group of systemic diseases without certain underlying causes. Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), formerly known as Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS), are initial considerations, when underlying causes remains unexplained despite of complete evaluation of hypereosinophilia. In this study, we report two rare cases, one case of HES with Loeffler endocarditis, and the other one of EGPA with restrictive cardiomyopathy mimicking myocardial infarction, to further address differential chief cardiac manifestations between HES and EGPA. Read More

    A diagnostic protocol designed for determining allergic causes in patients with blood eosinophilia.
    Mil Med Res 2017 23;4:15. Epub 2017 May 23.
    Purpan Center for Pathophysiology, INSERM UMR U1043, CNRS UMR 5282, Toulouse University, Toulouse, France.
    Background: Blood eosinophilia is a common laboratory abnormality, and its characterization frequently represents a quandary for primary care physicians. Consequently, in France, specialists and particularly hematologists, often must investigate patients who present with blood eosinophilia that often, but not always, occurs because of allergic causes. Both the Departments of Hematology and Parasitology at Toulouse University Hospitals established a collaboration to rule out allergic causes of eosinophilia, particularly helminthiases, prior to initiating more sophisticated investigations. Read More

    Therapeutic effect of anti-IL-5 on eosinophilic myocarditis with large pericardial effusion.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 May 24;2017. Epub 2017 May 24.
    Rheumatology, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, USA.
    Eosinophilic myocarditis (EM) is a rare myocardial disease that results from various eosinophilic diseases, such as idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome, helminth infection, medications and vasculitis. Patients with EM may present with different severities, ranging from mild symptoms to a life-threatening condition. Diagnosis of EM is a challenge and requires an extensive workup, including endomyocardial biopsy. Read More

    Severe asthma in children.
    Respirology 2017 Jul 25;22(5):886-897. Epub 2017 May 25.
    Paediatric Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College and Royal Brompton Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.
    Most children with asthma have their disease easily controlled if low-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) are regularly and correctly administered. If a child presents with asthma which is apparently resistant to therapy with high-dose ICS and other controllers, then they have problematic severe asthma. However, in light of the UK National Review of Asthma Deaths, definitions of severe asthma based solely on the levels of prescribed treatment are too narrow. Read More

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