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    Loeffler Endocarditis: A Unique Presentation of Right-Sided Heart Failure Due to Eosinophil-Induced Endomyocardial Fibrosis.
    Clin Med Insights Case Rep 2017 30;10:1179547617723643. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Department of Cardiology, St. Francis Hospital, Roslyn, NY, USA.
    Loeffler endocarditis is a rare restrictive cardiomyopathy caused by abnormal endomyocardial infiltration of eosinophils, with subsequent tissue damage from degranulation, eventually leading to fibrosis. Although an uncommon entity, it is still a disease with significant morbidity and mortality. Often identified only at late stages, treatment options are limited once fibrosis occurs, usually requiring heart failure medications or surgical intervention. Read More

    Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma and hypereosinophilic syndrome with FIP1L1/PDGFRA fusion gene effectively treated with imatinib: A case report.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Sep;96(36):e8001
    aDivision of Gastroenterology and Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine bOncology Center, Asahikawa Medical University Hospital, Asahikawa, Japan.
    Rationale: Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is a rare disorder characterized by hypereosinophilia and organ damage. Some cases of HES are caused by the FIP1L1/PDGFRA fusion gene and respond to imatinib. FIP1L1/PDGFRA-positive HES occasionally evolves into chronic eosinophilic leukemia or into another form of myeloproliferative neoplasm; however, the development of a malignant lymphoma is very rare. Read More

    Beyond stroke-uncommon causes of diffusion restriction in the basal ganglia.
    Emerg Radiol 2017 Sep 4. Epub 2017 Sep 4.
    Department of Imaging Sciences, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Avenue, PO Box 648, Rochester, NY, 14642, USA.
    In the emergency setting, a regional area of restricted diffusion involving the basal ganglia typically represents an acute infarct due to small vessel occlusion. However, it is important to consider additional differentials, specifically systemic causes. This article will review anatomy of the basal ganglia and pertinent associated vasculature, followed by other entities that can be a cause of restricted diffusion. Read More

    Molecular analysis of more than 140 gene fusion variants and aberrant activation of EVI1 and TLX1 in hematological malignancies.
    Ann Hematol 2017 Aug 5. Epub 2017 Aug 5.
    Connective Tissue Diseases Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
    Gene fusions are observed in abnormal chromosomal rearrangements such as translocations in hematopoietic malignancies, especially leukemia subtypes. Hence, it is critical to obtain correct information about these rearrangements in order to apply proper treatment techniques. To identify abnormal molecular changes in patients with leukemia, we developed a multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (MRT-PCR) protocol and investigated more than 140 gene fusions resulting from variations of 29 prevalent chromosomal rearrangements along with EVI1 and TLX1 oncogenic expression in the presence of optimized primers. Read More

    Hypereosinophilic Syndrome Subtype Predicts Responsiveness to Glucocorticoids.
    J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2017 Jul 27. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md.
    Background: Glucocorticoids (GCs) are considered first-line treatment for platelet-derived growth factor α (PDGFRA)-negative hypereosinophilic syndromes (HESs). Despite this, little is known about clinical predictors of GC responsiveness in HES.

    Objective: Knowledge of clinical and laboratory predictors of GC response before initiation of GC could lead to more rational selection of subjects with HES for whom earlier institution of second-line and alternative therapies would be appropriate. Read More

    Ruxolitinib found to cause eyelash growth: a case report.
    J Med Case Rep 2017 Jul 12;11(1):189. Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Center for Oculofacial & Orbital Surgery, 3771 Katella Ave., #209, Los Alamitos, CA, 90720, USA.
    Background: Hypereosinophilic syndrome is a hematologic disorder in which the eosinophils proliferate. Oral Janus kinase inhibitors are known to be effective treating hypereosinophilic syndrome. Janus kinase inhibitors have also demonstrated efficacy in alopecia. Read More

    Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in the Treatment of Eosinophilic Neoplasms and Systemic Mastocytosis.
    Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 2017 Aug;31(4):643-661
    Division of Hematology, Stanford Cancer Institute/Stanford University School of Medicine, 875 Blake Wilbur Drive, Room 2324, Stanford, CA 94305-5821, USA. Electronic address:
    The World Health Organization's semimolecular classification of eosinophilias emphasizes neoplasms driven by fusion tyrosine kinases. More than 80% of patients with systemic mastocytosis carry the KIT D816V mutation, the primary driver of disease pathogenesis. Genetic annotation of these diseases is critical and affords opportunities for targeted therapy. Read More

    Eosinophilic myocarditis and hypereosinophilic syndrome.
    J Saudi Heart Assoc 2017 Jul 17;29(3):211-213. Epub 2016 Nov 17.
    Department of Cardiology, University Hospital of Mohammed VI, Oujda, MoroccoMorocco.
    Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is a heterogeneous group of hematological disorders characterized by a chronic, unexplained hypereosinophilia with tissue damage. Cardiac involvement occurs in ∼20% of patients with HES and represents a major turning point. Cardiac injuries related to eosinophilia are divided into three chronological phases: eosinophilic infiltration, thrombosis, and fibrosis. Read More

    Resolution of a steroid-resistant, hypereosinophilic immune diathesis with mepolizumab and concomitant amelioration of a mixed thrombotic microangiopathy.
    Blood Cells Mol Dis 2017 May 2. Epub 2017 May 2.
    New York Presbyterian Hospital, United States.
    The anaphylatoxins produced by an unbridled complement cascade in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) can alter the leukocyte environment in tissues and peripheral blood, causing clinically significant eosinophilia. While the membrane attack complex and C5a anaphlatoxin can be suppressed with anti-C5 biologics, the production of C3a is still capable of driving a destructive hypereosinophilic syndrome in spite of anticomplement therapy. The side-effects of glucocorticoids in treating hypereosinophilic syndrome limit their therapeutic index in long-term treatment and this behooves the use of alternative strategies. Read More

    Usefulness of three-dimensional echocardiography in the assessment of valvular involvement in Loeffler endocarditis.
    Echocardiography 2017 Jul 9;34(7):1050-1056. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    National Medical Center (Siglo XXI), Specialties Hospital (Dr. Bernardo Sepulveda), IMSS, Mexico City, Mexico.
    Loeffler endocarditis is a complication of hypereosinophilic syndrome resulting from eosinophilic infiltration of heart tissue. We report a case of Loeffler endocarditis in which three-dimensional transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography provided additional information to what was found by two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography alone. Our case illustrates the usefulness of combined two- and three-dimensional echocardiography in the assessment of Loeffler endocarditis. Read More

    Eosinophilic myocarditis presenting as acute coronary syndrome.
    Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars 2017 Jun;45(4):358-361
    Department of Cardiology, Ege University Faculty of Medicine, İzmir, Turkey.
    Eosinophilic myocarditis (EM) is a rare condition that may result from several heterogeneous eosinophilic diseases, including parasite infection, hypersensitivity reaction, vasculitis, and hypereosinophilic syndrome. Regardless of etiology, the disease may present with various cardiac conditions, such as acute coronary syndrome, heart failure, or arrhythmia. Irreversible endomyocardial fibrosis, which causes restrictive cardiomyopathy, occurs in the late phase of the disease. Read More

    Cardiac involvements in hypereosinophilia-associated syndrome: Case reports and a little review of the literature.
    Echocardiography 2017 Aug 1;34(8):1242-1246. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    The Department of Cardiovascular Ultrasound, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, China.
    Hypereosinophilia-associated syndrome is a rare group of systemic diseases without certain underlying causes. Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), formerly known as Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS), are initial considerations, when underlying causes remains unexplained despite of complete evaluation of hypereosinophilia. In this study, we report two rare cases, one case of HES with Loeffler endocarditis, and the other one of EGPA with restrictive cardiomyopathy mimicking myocardial infarction, to further address differential chief cardiac manifestations between HES and EGPA. Read More

    A diagnostic protocol designed for determining allergic causes in patients with blood eosinophilia.
    Mil Med Res 2017 23;4:15. Epub 2017 May 23.
    Purpan Center for Pathophysiology, INSERM UMR U1043, CNRS UMR 5282, Toulouse University, Toulouse, France.
    Background: Blood eosinophilia is a common laboratory abnormality, and its characterization frequently represents a quandary for primary care physicians. Consequently, in France, specialists and particularly hematologists, often must investigate patients who present with blood eosinophilia that often, but not always, occurs because of allergic causes. Both the Departments of Hematology and Parasitology at Toulouse University Hospitals established a collaboration to rule out allergic causes of eosinophilia, particularly helminthiases, prior to initiating more sophisticated investigations. Read More

    Therapeutic effect of anti-IL-5 on eosinophilic myocarditis with large pericardial effusion.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 May 24;2017. Epub 2017 May 24.
    Rheumatology, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, USA.
    Eosinophilic myocarditis (EM) is a rare myocardial disease that results from various eosinophilic diseases, such as idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome, helminth infection, medications and vasculitis. Patients with EM may present with different severities, ranging from mild symptoms to a life-threatening condition. Diagnosis of EM is a challenge and requires an extensive workup, including endomyocardial biopsy. Read More

    When a death apparently associated to sexual assault is instead a natural death due to idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome: The importance of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid analysis in vitreous humor.
    Leg Med (Tokyo) 2017 May 11;26:92-97. Epub 2017 Apr 11.
    Department of Sciences for Health Promotion and Mother and Child Care, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.
    We here report a case involving a 21-year-old female, found dead in a central square of a city in the south of Italy. Initial evidences and circumstances were suggestive of a death associated with a sexual assault. Two peripheral blood and two vitreous humor samples were collected for the purpose of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) testing from the dead body at two different post-mortem intervals (PMIs): approximately 2 (t0) and 36 (t1) hours. Read More

    Two cases of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA): a possible relationship.
    CEN Case Rep 2017 May 1;6(1):91-97. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    Departamento de Medicina Celular y Molecular, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas (CSIC), Madrid, Spain.
    Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare disease characterized by hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, and renal failure. It is related to genetic mutations of the alternative complement pathway and is difficult to differentiate from other prothrombotic microangiopathies. Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) (Churg-Strauss syndrome, CSS) is a systemic ANCA-associated vasculitis and a hypereosinophilic disorder where eosinophils seem to induce cell apoptosis and necrosis and therefore, vasculitis. Read More

    Eosinophils in Autoimmune Diseases.
    Front Immunol 2017 27;8:484. Epub 2017 Apr 27.
    Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Eosinophils are multifunctional granulocytes that contribute to initiation and modulation of inflammation. Their role in asthma and parasitic infections has long been recognized. Growing evidence now reveals a role for eosinophils in autoimmune diseases. Read More

    Bone marrow morphology is a strong discriminator between chronic eosinophilic leukemia, not otherwise specified and reactive idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome.
    Haematologica 2017 Aug 11;102(8):1352-1360. Epub 2017 May 11.
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY.
    Chronic eosinophilic leukemia, not otherwise specified can be difficult to distinguish from idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome according to the current World Health Organization guideline. To examine whether the morphological features of bone marrow might aid in the differential diagnosis of these two entities, we studied a total of 139 patients with a diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic leukemia, not otherwise specified (n=17) or idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (n=122). As a group, abnormal bone marrow morphological features, resembling myelodysplastic syndromes, myeloproliferative neoplasm or myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm, were identified in 40/139 (27%) patients: 16 (94%) of those with chronic eosinophilic leukemia and 24 (20%) of those with hypereosinophilic syndrome. Read More

    Dramatic and early response to low-dose steroid in the treatment of acute eosinophilic myocarditis: a case report.
    BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2017 May 8;17(1):115. Epub 2017 May 8.
    Division of Interventional Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, 1650 Taiwan Boulevard Sect. 4, Taichung, 40705, Taiwan, Republic of China.
    Background: Eosinophilic myocarditis encompasses a variety of etiologies and the prognosis varies. For patients with a hypersensitive response to medications, high-dose corticosteroids and discontinuation of culprit medications are the main treatments.

    Case Presentation: We reported a young man with biopsy-proven eosinophilic myocarditis which was possibly induced by Chinese herbal medicine. Read More

    Hypereosinophilic syndrome: endomyocardial biopsy versus echocardiography to diagnose cardiac involvement.
    Postgrad Med 2017 Jun 25;129(5):517-523. Epub 2017 Apr 25.
    a Division of Allergic Diseases, and Mayo Clinic Program for Mast Cell and Eosinophilic Disorders , Mayo Clinic , Rochester , MN , USA.
    Objective: To compare echocardiograms and endomyocardial biopsies to diagnose cardiac involvement in hypereosinophilic syndrome.

    Methods: We examined the agreement between echocardiography and endomyocardial biopsies to detect cardiac involvement in hypereosinophilic syndrome by reviewing cases identified as hypereosinophilia or hypereosinophilic syndrome in Mayo Clinic databases from January 1978 through June 2009. Single-organ cases of eosinophilia such as eosinophilic fasciitis and eosinophilic gastroenteritis were excluded. Read More

    Reslizumab in Eosinophilic Asthma: A Review.
    Drugs 2017 May;77(7):777-784
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Ghent University Hospital and Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Reslizumab (Cinqaero(®); Cinqair(®)) is a humanized monoclonal antibody against interleukin-5 (IL-5), a cytokine mediator of eosinophilic airway inflammation. Reslizumab is indicated as an add-on treatment for severe eosinophilic asthma in adults, on the basis of data from the BREATH phase III clinical trial programme. In three double-blind BREATH studies of up to 52 weeks' duration, adding intravenous reslizumab (3 mg/kg, once every 4 weeks) to the current asthma therapy of patients (aged 12-75 years) with eosinophilic asthma inadequately controlled with inhaled corticosteroids resulted in significant reductions in clinical asthma exacerbation frequency and significant improvements in lung function, asthma control and health-related quality of life relative to adding placebo. Read More

    Daptomycin-associated eosinophilic pneumonia with rechallenge: a case report
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    Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2017 Jun;55(6):521-524
    Purpose: A case of daptomycin-associated acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) with positive rechallenge is reported.

    Summary: AEP associated with daptomycin is reported in the literature, and the product labeling contains a warning and precaution statement. Criteria for diagnosing daptomycin-induced AEP varies and generally includes bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) eosinophils ≥ 25%. Read More

    Urtica dioica attenuates ovalbumin-induced inflammation and lipid peroxidation of lung tissues in rat asthma model.
    Pharm Biol 2017 Dec;55(1):1561-1568
    a Laboratory of Biochemistry and Environmental Toxicology , Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Badji Mokhtar , Annaba , Algeria.
    Context: To find bioactive medicinal herbs exerting anti-asthmatic activity, we investigated the effect of an aqueous extract of Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) leaves (UD), the closest extract to the Algerian traditional use.

    Objective: In this study, we investigated the in vivo anti-asthmatic and antioxidant activities of nettle extract. Read More

    Imatinib Treatment of Lymphomatoid Papulosis Associated with Myeloproliferative Hypereosinophilic Syndrome Presenting the FIP1L1-PDGFRA Fusion Gene.
    Acta Derm Venereol 2017 Jul;97(7):855-857
    Department of Dermatology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Hospital del Mar-Parc de Salut Mar, Passeig Marítim 25-29, ES-08003 Barcelona, Spain.

    Evaluation of the prevalence and clinical impact of toxocariasis in patients with eosinophilia of unknown origin.
    Korean J Intern Med 2017 May 30;32(3):523-529. Epub 2017 Mar 30.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Chosun University Hospital, Gwangju, Korea.
    Background/aims: Eosinophilia has numerous diverse causes, and in many patients, it is not possible to establish the cause of eosinophilia. Recently, toxocariasis was introduced as one cause of eosinophilia. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of toxocariasis and the clinical impact of albendazole treatment for toxocariasis in patients suspected of eosinophilia of unknown origin. Read More

    Total artificial heart implantation for biventricular failure due to eosinophilic myocarditis.
    J Artif Organs 2017 Mar 27. Epub 2017 Mar 27.
    Division of Cardiothoracic Transplantation and Circulatory Support, Texas Heart Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, Cooley 355N, 6770 Bertner Avenue, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.
    Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome is a condition of unknown etiology characterized by proliferation of eosinophils and their infiltration into tissues. Although cardiac involvement is rare, eosinophilic myocarditis can lead to life-threating fulminant congestive heart failure. Treatment of patients with eosinophilic myocarditis is challenging as heart failure can be caused by biventricular dysfunction. Read More

    Hypereosinophilic Syndrome as a Rare Cause of Reversible Biventricular Heart Failure.
    Can J Cardiol 2017 May 20;33(5):688.e5-688.e7. Epub 2017 Jan 20.
    Department of Cardiology, Laikon General Hospital, Athens, Greece.
    Hypereosinophilic syndrome is a rare entity that can develop secondary to overproduction of eosinophilopoietic cytokines or as idiopathic disease. Cardiac involvement, which occurs often, is divided into 3 stages, the latter of which is nonreversible and leads to severe heart failure. Early detection and treatment of the syndrome is essential. Read More

    Cutaneous Larva Migrans Associated With Löffler's Syndrome in a 6-Year-Old Boy.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2017 Sep;36(9):912-914
    From the *Department of Dermatology, Beijing Children's Hospital, and †Department of Dermatology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.
    Cutaneous larva migrans is a frequent dermatologic problem among travelers in tropical areas, but its association with Löffler's syndrome is an extremely rare condition, particularly in children. Here, we describe a 6-year-old boy presenting cutaneous larva migrans associated with Löffler's syndrome. Read More

    Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly known as Churg-Strauss syndrome) as a differential diagnosis of hypereosinophilic syndromes.
    Respir Med Case Rep 2017 8;21:1-6. Epub 2017 Mar 8.
    Department of Pneumology, University Hospital Pedro Ernesto, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Boulevard 28 de Setembro, 77, 2º andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Postgraduate Programme in Medical Sciences, School of Medical Sciences, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Av. Prof. Manoel de Abreu, 444, 2º andar, Vila Isabel, 20550-170, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), formerly known as Churg-Strauss syndrome, is a rare systemic disease situated between primary small vessel vasculitides associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) and hypereosinophilic syndromes (HES). Here, we present a case of EGPA in a 38-year-old male, with a previous diagnosis of asthma, who presented with fever, migratory lung infiltrates and systemic eosinophilia that was refractory to previous courses of antibiotics. This case highlights the importance of the primary care physician understanding the differential diagnosis of pulmonary eosinophilic syndromes. Read More

    Targeting Interleukin-5 or Interleukin-5Rα: Safety Considerations.
    Drug Saf 2017 Jul;40(7):559-570
    Allergy and Respiratory Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, IRCCS AOU San Martino-IST, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.
    Asthma is a highly prevalent chronic disease of the airways; approximately 10% of patients with asthma will experience a severe form of the disease. New understanding of the pathogenesis of asthma has enabled the development of novel drugs and provided hope for patients with asthma. Interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-5 receptor subunit α (IL-5-Rα) plays a crucial role in the development, maturation, and operation of eosinophils so were the first important therapeutic target of these new drugs. Read More

    Non-Bacterial Thrombotic Endocarditis of Aortic Valve due to Hypereosinophilic Syndrome.
    J Heart Valve Dis 2016 Nov;25(6):760-763
    Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Harrington Heart and Vascular Institute, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.
    Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is a rare hematological disorder, which may present with cardiac involvement. The case is presented of a 61-year-old male patient with isolated aortic stenosis secondary to non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis and HES. The patient underwent successful aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthesis and remained recurrence-free at the 18-month follow up. Read More

    Multiple Valvular Complications of Hypereosinophilic Syndrome.
    J Heart Valve Dis 2016 Nov;25(6):752-755
    Heart Center, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.
    Endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF) is the most common cardiac abnormality in hyeperosinophilic syndrome (HES), sometimes complicated with mitral valve disease. Mitral valve disease without ventricular manifestation is very rare, however. Case reports link HES to prosthetic valve thrombosis (PVT), but the optimal type of prosthetic valve in HES is not known. Read More

    Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia: Correlation of Clinical Characteristics With Underlying Cause.
    Chest 2017 Aug 9;152(2):379-385. Epub 2017 Mar 9.
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. Electronic address:
    Background: Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) is an uncommon disease, often indistinguishable from ARDS or community-acquired pneumonia at initial presentation. AEP can be idiopathic, but identifiable causes include medications and inhalational exposures, including cigarette smoke.

    Methods: Using a computer-assisted search, we retrospectively identified and reviewed the medical records of all patients diagnosed with AEP between January 1, 1998, and June 30, 2016, at our institution. Read More

    Multiparametric cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) for the diagnosis of Loeffler's endocarditis: a case report.
    BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2017 Mar 11;17(1):74. Epub 2017 Mar 11.
    Department of Cardiology, Pulmonology and Vascular Medicine, Heinrich-Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.
    Background: Endocarditis parietalis fibroplastica Löfflein (EPF) is a rare form of primary restrictive cardiomyopathy with poor prognosis. It is generally caused by hypereosinophilic syndrome with eosinophilic penetration of the heart. This leads to congestive heart failure in three different stages. Read More

    Eosinophils Promote Antiviral Immunity in Mice Infected with Influenza A Virus.
    J Immunol 2017 Apr 10;198(8):3214-3226. Epub 2017 Mar 10.
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38103.
    Eosinophils are multifunctional cells of the innate immune system linked to allergic inflammation. Asthmatics were more likely to be hospitalized but less likely to suffer severe morbidity and mortality during the 2009 influenza pandemic. These epidemiologic findings were recapitulated in a mouse model of fungal asthma wherein infection during heightened allergic inflammation was protective against influenza A virus (IAV) infection and disease. Read More

    Levetiracetam-induced eosinophilic pneumonia.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 Mar 8;2017. Epub 2017 Mar 8.
    Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
    Levetiracetam is widely regarded as a benign antiepileptic drug, compared to older antiepileptic medication. We report a case of eosinophilic pneumonia due to levetiracetam use in a non-smoking woman aged 59 years with no previous respiratory history. Our patient presented with exertional breathlessness and marked desaturation on exertion. Read More

    Hypereosinophilic Syndrome After Liver Transplantation: A Case Report and a Review of the Literature.
    Transplantation 2017 May;101(5):e166-e169
    1 Department of Pediatrics, University-Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany. 2 Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, University-Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany. 3 Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Liver Transplantation, University-Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany. 4 Institute of Pathology, University-Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany. 5 Department of Pediatric Nephrology and Kidney Transplantation, University-Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany. 6 Department of Pediatrics, Heidberg-Hospital, Hamburg, Germany.
    Persistently elevated eosinophil granulocytes in the peripheral blood in children is challenging because of a complex diagnosis especially after solid organ transplantation and can lead to difficulties in finding an underlying causative factor.We report a 12-year-old boy who developed severe hypereosinophilia 11 years after liver transplantation due to biliary atresia. Accompanying symptoms were recurrent fever, fatigue, elevated liver enzymes, abdominal pain, and significant weight loss. Read More

    Dysregulation of interleukin 5 expression in familial eosinophilia.
    Allergy 2017 Sep 18;72(9):1338-1345. Epub 2017 Apr 18.
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Background: Familial eosinophilia (FE) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited disorder characterized by the presence of lifelong peripheral eosinophilia (>1500/μL). Mapped to chromosome 5q31-q33, the genetic cause of FE is unknown, and prior studies have failed to demonstrate a primary abnormality in the eosinophil lineage.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the cells driving the eosinophilia in FE. Read More

    Repeated Prosthetic Mitral Valve Thrombosis in Fluke Infection Induced Hypereosinophilic Syndrome.
    Ann Thorac Surg 2017 Mar;103(3):e259-e260
    Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:
    A 43-year-old female patient with mitral valve stenosis and hypereosinophilia on admission received mechanical mitral valve replacement. During the 2 years after the first surgery, the patient underwent two mitral valve revision operations for repeated prosthetic mitral valve thrombosis. During the 2-year period, the patient's absolute eosinophil count was found elevated repeatedly. Read More

    Does Ethnicity Influence Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Healthy Individuals?: A Systematic Review.
    Chest 2017 Jul 17;152(1):40-50. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
    Queensland University of Technology, Centre for Children's Health Research, South Brisbane, QLD, Australia; Indigenous Respiratory Outreach Care Program, The Prince Charles Hospital, Chermside, QLD, Australia; Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Lady Cilento Children's Hospital, South Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    Background: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (Feno) is used clinically as a biomarker of eosinophilic airway inflammation. Awareness of the factors influencing Feno values is important for valid clinical interpretation.

    Methods: We undertook a systematic review of PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and Web of Science databases and reference lists of included articles to evaluate whether ethnicity influences Feno values, and to determine if this influence affects clinical interpretation according to current guidelines. Read More

    Targeted therapy for chronic respiratory disease: a new paradigm.
    Med J Aust 2017 Feb;206(3):136-140
    Lady Cilento Children's Hospital, Brisbane, QLD.
    Targeted therapy has emerged as a highly effective treatment approach for chronic respiratory diseases. Many of these conditions have dismal outcomes; however, targeted therapy shows great results for the subgroup who respond. This represents a new way to approach these conditions and offers great promise as a future treatment direction. Read More

    A case of T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder associated with hypereosinophilia with excellent response to mycophenolate mofetil.
    Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther 2017 Feb 1. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
    King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is a group of rare blood disorders characterized by a persistent elevation of blood eosinophil count ⩾1.5×10(9)/L and clinical manifestations attributable to eosinophilia or tissue hypereosinophilia. Lymphocytic variant of HES (HES-L) is a known subtype according to World Health Organization classification. Read More

    Rapid Change in Mental Status in a Patient with Hypereosinophilia.
    Case Rep Hematol 2017 10;2017:6936709. Epub 2017 Jan 10.
    Division of Hematology/Oncology, Tufts Medical Center, 800 Washington St., Boston, MA 02111, USA.
    We present the case of a 48-year-old female with acute onset altered mental status, who was found to have eosinophilia, elevated troponin, and embolic strokes. Extensive testing for autoimmune, infectious, and coronary artery etiologies was unremarkable. After a cardiac MRI revealed focal myocardial hyperenhancement, the patient underwent an endomyocardial biopsy with findings consistent with eosinophilic myocarditis. Read More

    [Eosinophilic pneumonia revealing B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma].
    Pan Afr Med J 2016 3;24:292. Epub 2016 Aug 3.
    Service de Pneumologie, Hôpital Arrazi, CHU Mohammed VI, FMPM, Labo PCIM, UCA, Marrakech, Maroc.
    The diagnosis of eosinophilic pneumonia is rare and malignant etiology remains exceptional. Eosinophilic pneumonia etiology varies and is mainly dominated by allergic and drug causes. We report the case of a 61-year-old patient with B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma revealed by eosinophilic pneumonia. Read More

    Hematopoietic Processes in Eosinophilic Asthma.
    Chest 2017 Aug 24;152(2):410-416. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    CardioRespiratory Research Group, Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada. Electronic address:
    Airway eosinophilia is a hallmark of allergic asthma, and understanding mechanisms that promote increases in lung eosinophil numbers is important for effective pharmacotherapeutic development. It has become evident that expansion of hematopoietic compartments in the bone marrow (BM) promotes differentiation and trafficking of mature eosinophils to the airways. Hematopoietic progenitor cells egress the BM and home to the lungs, where in situ differentiation within the tissue provides an ongoing source of proinflammatory cells. Read More

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