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    1 OF 385

    Vitamin-D concentrations, cardiovascular risk and events - a review of epidemiological evidence.
    Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2017 Apr 27. Epub 2017 Apr 27.
    Department of Medicine, Surgery Odontoiatrics-Scuola Medica Salernitana, University of Salerno, Salerno, Italy.
    Vitamin D has long been established as an elemental factor of bone physiology. Beyond mineral metabolism, the expression of the vitamin D receptor has been identified throughout the cardiovascular (CV) system. Experimental studies showed beneficial effects of vitamin D on heart and vessels, but vitamin D intoxication in animals also led to hypercalcemia and vascular calcification. Read More

    [Costal metastasis revealing esophageal squamous cell carcinoma].
    Pan Afr Med J 2017 18;26:23. Epub 2017 Jan 18.
    Service d'Hépato-Gastroentérolgie, Hôpital Géneral de Grand Yoff, (HOGGY) Dakar, Sénégal.
    Esophageal cancer is associated with poor prognosis. Its severity is linked to delayed diagnosis which is most often made once a cancer has metastasized, in Africa. Costal metastases are rare. Read More

    Parathyroid Adenoma in a Young Female Presenting Multiple Fractures and Postoperative Hungry Bone Syndrome.
    Acta Med Indones 2017 Jan;49(1):69-73
    Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Syarif Hidayatullah Islamic State University (UIN), Jakarta, Indonesia.
    A young 18-year-old female patient with general bone pain and history of multiple fractures brought her to our medical attention. Laboratory work showed hypercalcemia and high parathyroid hormone levels in the blood. Radiograph imaging revealed severe scoliosis with multiple vertebrae fractures with decreased bone mineral density. Read More

    Vitamin D3-induced hypercalcemia increases carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity through elevated oxidative stress in mice.
    PLoS One 2017 27;12(4):e0176524. Epub 2017 Apr 27.
    Faculty of Nutrition, Kobe Gakuin University, 518 Arise, Ikawadani-cho, Nishi-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan.
    The aim of this study was to determine whether calcium potentiates acute carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) -induced toxicity. Elevated calcium levels were induced in mice by pre-treatment with cholecalciferol (vitamin D3; V.D3), a compound that has previously been shown to induce hypercalcemia in human and animal models. Read More

    Childhood sustained hypercalcemia: A diagnostic challenge.
    J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol 2017 Apr 26. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    Objective: This study aimed to call attention to hypercalcemia, a rare finding in children, which carries the potential of leading serious complications without proper intervention.

    Methods: Diagnosis, treatment and clinical course of children with sustained hypercalcemia between 2006-2016 were reviewed. Group 1 (PTH-dependent) consisted of patients with high/unsupressed PTH level and Group 2 (PTH-independent) included cases with normal/supressed PTH level. Read More

    Reference intervals for serum 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and the ratio with 25-hydroxyvitamin D established using a newly developed LC-MS/MS method.
    J Nutr Biochem 2017 Apr 12;46:21-29. Epub 2017 Apr 12.
    Bioanalytical Facility, Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, UK; Departments of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Clinical Biochemistry, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Colney Lane, Norwich, UK.
    24,25(OH)2D is the product of 25(OH)D catabolism by CYP24A1. The measurement of serum 24,25(OH)2D concentration may serve as an indicator of vitamin D catabolic status and the relative ratio with 25(OH)D can be used to identify patients with inactivating mutations in CYP24A1. We describe a LC-MS/MS method to determine: (1) the relationships between serum 24,25(OH)2D and 25(OH)D; (2) serum reference intervals in healthy individuals; (3) the diagnostic accuracy of 24,25(OH)2D measurement as an indicator for vitamin D status; 4) 24,25(OH)2D cut-off value for clinically significant change between inadequate and sufficient 25(OH)D status. Read More

    Immobilisation-induced hypercalcemia following spinal cord injury affecting the kidney function in two young native Greenlanders.
    Spinal Cord Ser Cases 2017 13;3:17010. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Clinic for Spinal Cord Injuries, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Introduction: Immobilisation-induced hypercalcemia following SCI affecting the kidney function, is a rare but potentially serious condition. We report immobilisation-induced hypercalcemia affecting the kidney function in two young native Greenlanders with spinal cord injury (SCI).

    Case Presentations: Two 15- and 24-year-old male native Greenlanders, both with traumatic C5 SCI were admitted to our spinal cord unit. Read More

    Dose-response effects of supplementation with calcifediol on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status and its metabolites: A randomized controlled trial in older adults.
    Clin Nutr 2017 Mar 31. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Background & Aims: Oral supplementation with vitamin D is recommended for older adults to maintain a sufficient 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status throughout the year. While supplementation with vitamin D2 or D3 is most common, alternative treatment regimens exist which require further investigation with respect to increasing 25(OH)D concentration. We investigated the dose-response effects of supplementation with calcifediol compared to vitamin D3 and assessed the dose which results in mean serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations between 75 and 100 nmol/L. Read More

    The role of calcium and non calcium-based phosphate binders in chronic kidney disease.
    Nephrology (Carlton) 2017 Mar;22 Suppl 2:42-46
    Osteoporosis and Bone Biology Division, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, Australia.
    Rising levels of serum phosphate occur late in the course of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and have been easy targets for nephrologists to treat using phosphate binding drugs, as well as fertile ground for the pharmaceutical industry, for meta-analysis and for the earnest pontifications of guideline writers. Unfortunately, the evidence does little to support this focus, which might be better applied to earlier, adaptive hormonal changes, and to phosphate balance rather than serum phosphate levels. Nevertheless, phosphate binders are ubiquitously prescribed to patients on dialysis, and often prescribed to patients with earlier stages of CKD; for which there is no evidence of benefit and some evidence that calcium-based binders (CBBs) and possibly non-CBBs may cause more harm than placebo. Read More

    Do the benefits of using calcitriol and other vitamin D receptor activators in patients with chronic kidney disease outweigh the harms?
    Nephrology (Carlton) 2017 Mar;22 Suppl 2:51-56
    Department of Nephrology, Monash Health, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.
    The primary indication for administration of calcitriol or other vitamin D receptor activators (VDRA) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). Prevention and treatment of SHPT appears important, as imbalances in mineral metabolism are associated with renal osteodystrophy, and higher parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels are associated with increased rates of mortality and morbidity in CKD patients. There is, however, a lack of controlled trial data that show lowering PTH with calcitriol/VDRA equates to improved clinical outcomes. Read More

    The many guises of primary hyperparathyroidism: An unchanged scenario.
    J Pak Med Assoc 2017 Apr;67(4):580-585
    Medical Unit-II, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, Pakistan.
    Objective: To study the causes, characteristics and outcome of treatment of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.

    Methods: This retrospective cohort analysis was conducted at the Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, and comprised data of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism between 2004 and 2014. . Read More

    Metastatic human breast cancer to the spine produces mechanical hyperalgesia and gait deficits in rodents.
    Spine J 2017 Apr 13. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Department of Neurosurgery, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:
    Background Context: Metastases to the spine are a common source of severe pain in cancer patients. The secondary effects of spinal metastases include pain, bone fractures, hypercalcemia, and neurological deficits. As the disease progresses, pain severity can increase until it becomes refractory to medical treatments and leads to a decreased quality of life for patients. Read More

    Autophagy and renal epithelial transport: eat to survive.
    Kidney Int 2017 May;91(5):1003-1005
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology and Transplantation, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Autophagy is an adaptive cellular response to "stress" in which proteins are targeted for lysosomal degradation. Using a combined proteomics and microscopy approach, Khositseth et al. show that autophagy contributes to the downregulation of the water channel aquaporin-2 in response to hypercalcemia. Read More

    Selective Calcium-Dependent Inhibition of ATP-gated P2X3 Receptors by Bisphosphonates-induced Endogenous ATP analogue ApppI.
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2017 Apr 12. Epub 2017 Apr 12.
    A.I.Virtanen Institute, University of Eastern Finland; Kazan Federal University
    Pain is the most unbearable symptom accompanying primary bone cancers and bone metastases. Bone resorptive disorders are often associated with hypercalcemia contributing to the pathological process. Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (NBP) are efficiently used to treat bone-cancers and metastases. Read More

    Adult acute precursor B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia presenting as hypercalcemia and osteolytic bone lesions.
    Exp Hematol Oncol 2017 11;6. Epub 2017 Apr 11.
    Division of Hematology, Antwerp University Hospital, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650 Edegem, Belgium.
    Background: Osteolytic bone lesions and hypercalcemia without peripheral blasts B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) is reported in children but rarely seen in adults.

    Case Presentation: We describe the case of a 34-year old man presenting with hypercalcemia and symptomatic osteolytic bone lesions of vertebrae and ribs who was initially suspected as having a solid malignancy. Diagnostic work-up including peripheral blood examination, radiographic and nuclear studies could, however, not detect a primary tumor. Read More

    Feasibility of extended dosing intervals of denosumab.
    J Oncol Pharm Pract 2017 Jan 1:1078155217703791. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    3 Department of Pharmacy, Froedtert and the Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA.
    Purpose Denosumab is a crucial supportive care agent for patients with advanced cancers affecting the bone. Despite the importance of treatment, logistical and financial obstacles hinder the ability to maintain long-term adherence. This analysis was designed to provide preliminary data regarding the feasibility of extended denosumab dosing intervals. Read More

    Thiazide Treatment in Primary Hyperparathyroidism-A New Indication for an Old Medication?
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 Apr;102(4):1270-1276
    Institute of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, and.
    Context: There is no therapy for control of hypercalciuria in nonoperable patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Thiazides are used for idiopathic hypercalciuria but are avoided in PHPT to prevent exacerbating hypercalcemia. Nevertheless, several reports suggested that thiazides may be safe in patients with PHPT. Read More

    Retrospective Study Looking at Cinacalcet in the Management of Hyperparathyroidism after Kidney Transplantation.
    J Transplant 2017 13;2017:8720283. Epub 2017 Mar 13.
    Division of Nephrology, Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital and the Department of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada.
    Objectives. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the use of cinacalcet in the management of hyperparathyroidism in kidney transplant recipients. The secondary objective is to identify baseline factors that predict cinacalcet use after transplantation. Read More

    Factors influencing preoperative urinary calcium excretion in primary hyperparathyroidism.
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2017 Apr 6. Epub 2017 Apr 6.
    Section of Endocrine Surgery, Division of General Surgery, Department of Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Austria.
    Objective: Normal or elevated 24-hour urinary calcium (Ca) excretion is a diagnostic marker in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). It is used to distinguish familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia (FHH) from PHPT by calculating the Ca/creatinine clearance ratio (CCCR). The variance of CCCR in patients with PHPT is considerable. Read More

    IgM Myeloma: A Multicenter Retrospective Study of 134 Patients.
    Am J Hematol 2017 Apr 6. Epub 2017 Apr 6.
    Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
    IgM myeloma is a rare hematologic malignancy for which the clinicopathological features and patient outcomes have not been extensively studied. We carried out a multicenter retrospective study in patients with diagnosis of IgM myeloma defined by >10% marrow involvement by monoclonal plasma cells, presence of an IgM monoclonal paraproteinemia of any size, and anemia, renal dysfunction, hypercalcemia, lytic lesions and/or t(11;14) identified by FISH. A total of 134 patients from 20 centers were included in this analysis. Read More

    Tumor-Stroma Interactions in Bone Metastasis: Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutic Implications.
    Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 2017 Apr 5. Epub 2017 Apr 5.
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544.
    Metastasis and associated complications are the major cause of death for cancer patients. The incidence of bone metastasis is among the highest in cancers arising from breast, prostate, and lung. Common skeletal-related events caused by bone metastasis include aberrant bone remodeling (osteolytic, osteoblastic, and mixed), bone pain, fracture, spinal cord compression, and life-threatening hypercalcemia. Read More

    A Bare-Bones Approach.
    N Engl J Med 2017 Apr;376(14):1371-1376
    From the Department of Medicine, Legacy Emanuel and Legacy Good Samaritan Hospitals, Portland, OR (K.L., D.J.G.); the Ann Arbor Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Services Research and Development Center of Excellence, the Patient Safety Enhancement Program, University of Michigan Health System, and the Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School - all in Ann Arbor (S.S.); the Department of Medicine and Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY (M.A.J.); and the Medical Service, San Francisco VA Medical Center, and the Department of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco School of Medicine - both in San Francisco (G.D.).

    Secondary Hyperparthyroidism: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, Preventive and Therapeutic Strategies.
    Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2017 Mar;18(1):79-95
    Laboratory of Nephrology, IIS Fundación Jiménez Díaz, REDinREN, Madrid, Spain.
    Uremic secondary hyperparathyroidism is a multifactorial and complex disease often present in advanced stages of chronic kidney disease. The accumulation of phosphate, the increased FGF23 levels, the reduction in active vitamin D production, and the tendency to hypocalcemia are persistent stimuli for the development and progression of parathyroid hyperplasia with increased secretion of PTH. Parathyroid proliferation may become nodular mainly in cases of advanced hyperparathyroidism. Read More

    Safety and Efficacy of Treatment with Asfotase Alfa in Patients with Hypophosphatasia: Results from a Japanese Clinical Trial.
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2017 Apr 4. Epub 2017 Apr 4.
    Department of Pediatrics, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.
    Objective: Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is a rare skeletal disease characterized by hypomineralization and low alkaline phosphatase activity. Asfotase alfa (AA) has been recently developed to treat HPP complications. This study evaluated its safety and efficacy in Japan. Read More

    Two cases of humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy complicating infantile fibrosarcoma.
    Pediatr Blood Cancer 2017 Mar 29. Epub 2017 Mar 29.
    Department of Pediatrics, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.
    We report two infants with infantile fibrosarcoma (IFS) complicated by severe hypercalcemia. Assessment demonstrated suppressed parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels with elevated circulating levels of parathyroid hormone related protein, indicating the diagnosis of humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM). HHM is a paraneoplastic syndrome rarely associated with pediatric malignancies. Read More

    End Stage Renal Disease-induced Hypercalcemia May Promote Aortic Valve Calcification via Annexin VI Enrichment of Valve Interstitial Cell Derived-Matrix Vesicles.
    J Cell Physiol 2017 Mar 30. Epub 2017 Mar 30.
    The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Edinburgh EH25 9RG, UK.
    Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have elevated circulating calcium (Ca) and phosphate (Pi), and exhibit accelerated progression of calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD). We hypothesised that matrix vesicles (MVs) initiate the calcification process in CAVD. Ca induced rat valve interstitial cells (VICs) calcification at 4. Read More

    Adult B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Dominated by Osteolytic Bone Involvement on CT But Less Impressive PET on FDG PET/CT Images.
    Clin Nucl Med 2017 Mar 31. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    From the Departments of *Nuclear Medicine & PET/CT, and †Hematology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.
    A 47-year-old man presented with abdominal pain, vomiting, and bone pain. Laboratory findings revealed severe hypercalcemia, anemia, and renal insufficiency with decreased serum parathyroid hormone. FDG PET/CT was performed for characteristics suggestive of multiple myeloma and other occult malignancy. Read More

    Small cell carcinoma of the ovary hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT): A rare case after in vitro fertilization (IVF).
    Pak J Med Sci 2017 Jan-Feb;33(1):241-244
    Nikita Islam, MBBS, MD, MRCOG. Department of Gyne Oncology, King Abdullah Medical City (KAMC-HC), Makkah, Saudi Arabia.
    Small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT) is a very rare and lethal tumor, mostly affecting young women, with aggressive clinical course. It has a worse prognosis in younger women and most of them died within two years of diagnosis. We are reporting a unique case of SCCOHT in a 35 years old, nulliparous lady with primary infertility in which symptomatic hypercalcemia was a presenting feature of her cancer. Read More

    Primary hyperparathyroidism: insights from the Indian PHPT registry.
    J Bone Miner Metab 2017 Mar 31. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    Department of Endocrinology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, 160012, India.
    The presentation of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is variable throughout the world. The present study explored retrospective data submitted to the Indian PHPT registry ( http://www.indianphptregistry. Read More

    Impact of experimental hypercalcemia on routine haemostasis testing.
    PLoS One 2017 31;12(3):e0175094. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    Department of Haematology, Sydney Centres for Thrombosis and Haemostasis, Institute of Clinical Pathology and Medical Research, NSW Health Pathology, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia.
    Background: The blood to anticoagulant ratio is standardized according to the physiological calcium concentration in blood samples conventionally used for hemostasis testing. Specifically, one fixed volume of 0.109 mmol/L sodium citrate is added to 9 volumes of blood. Read More

    A Diagnosis to Consider in an Adult Patient with Facial Features and Intellectual Disability: Williams Syndrome.
    Korean J Fam Med 2017 Mar 22;38(2):102-105. Epub 2017 Mar 22.
    Division of Pediatric Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Williams syndrome (OMIM #194050) is a rare, well-recognized, multisystemic genetic condition affecting approximately 1/7,500 individuals. There are no marked regional differences in the incidence of Williams syndrome. The syndrome is caused by a hemizygous deletion of approximately 28 genes, including ELN on chromosome 7q11. Read More

    Persistent arthralgia, vomiting and hypercalcemia as the initial manifestations of hyperthyroidism: A case report.
    Mol Clin Oncol 2017 Feb 10;6(2):258-260. Epub 2017 Jan 10.
    Department of Endocrinology, The First Hospital of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, P.R. China.
    A 53-year-old woman presented with persistent edema and pain of the metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints and the wrist, knee and ankle joints, with more recent intermittent nausea and vomiting. Treatment for rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis was ineffective. No clinical manifestations typical of hyperthyroidism were observed. Read More

    [Diagnostic approach and management of hypercalcaemia in dogs exemplary of primary hyperparathyroidism].
    Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere 2017 Apr 29;45(2):122-133. Epub 2017 Mar 29.
    Dr. B. Désirée Ballhausen, Tierärztliche Fachklinik für Kleintiere, Keferloher Straße 25, 85540 Haar, E-Mail:
    Hypercalcaemia can be caused by many different diseases. This article summarizes the causes, pathophysiologic mechanisms and diagnostic procedures as well as treatment recommendations. The main focus is on hypercalcaemia in primary hyperparathyroidism (PH), complemented by a case report. Read More

    Effect of Vitamin D and Calcium Supplementation on Cancer Incidence in Older Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
    JAMA 2017 03;317(12):1234-1243
    GrassrootsHealth, La Mesa, California.
    Importance: Evidence suggests that low vitamin D status may increase the risk of cancer.

    Objective: To determine if dietary supplementation with vitamin D3 and calcium reduces the risk of cancer among older women.

    Design, Setting, And Participants: A 4-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled, population-based randomized clinical trial in 31 rural counties (June 24, 2009, to August 26, 2015-the final date of follow-up). Read More

    Vitamin D in Chronic Kidney Disease and Dialysis Patients.
    Nutrients 2017 Mar 25;9(4). Epub 2017 Mar 25.
    NephroCare Tassin Charcot, Sainte Foy les Lyon, 69110, France.
    Vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL) and insufficiency (20-29 ng/mL) are common among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or undergoing dialysis. In addition to nutritional and sunlight exposure deficits, factors that affect vitamin D deficiency include race, sex, age, obesity and impaired vitamin D synthesis and metabolism. Serum 1,25(OH)₂D levels also decrease progressively because of 25(OH)D deficiency, together with impaired availability of 25(OH)D by renal proximal tubular cells, high fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23 and decreased functional renal tissue. Read More

    Effect of 1,25(OH)2 D3 and 20(OH)D3 on interleukin-1β-stimulated interleukin-6 and -8 production by human gingival fibroblasts.
    J Periodontal Res 2017 Mar 27. Epub 2017 Mar 27.
    College of Dentistry, Department of Periodontology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA.
    Background And Objective: Vitamin D-1,25(OH)2 D3 or 1,25D3-maintains healthy osseous tissue, stimulates the production of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin and has anti-inflammatory effects, but it can cause hypercalcemia. Evidence links diminished serum levels of 1,25D3 with increased gingival inflammation. Periodontitis progression is associated with increased local production of inflammatory mediators by immune cells and gingival fibroblasts. Read More

    Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma: A Problem Abroad and at Home.
    Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 2017 Apr;31(2):255-272
    Division of Hematology and Oncology, Boston University Medical Center, 820 Harrison Avenue, FGH Building, 1st Floor, Boston, MA 02118, USA.
    Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is a rare T-cell disorder that is etiologically linked to chronic infection with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1. ATLL is divided into four subtypes: acute, lymphomatous, chronic, and smoldering. The acute and lymphomatous variants are often described clinically as the aggressive types of ATLL. Read More

    Is severe hypercalcemia immediately life-threatening?
    Eur J Emerg Med 2017 Mar 23. Epub 2017 Mar 23.
    Departments of aEmergency Medicine bNephrology, Nantes University Hospital, Nantes Cedex 01, France.
    Objective: Severe hypercalcemia is often considered an emergency because of a potential risk of cardiac arrest or coma. However, there is little evidence to support this. The aim of our study was to assess whether severe hypercalcemia (Ca>4 mmol/l or 16 mg/dl) was associated with immediately life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias or neurological complications in patients admitted to the Emergency Department (ED). Read More

    [Disorders Caused by Mutations in Calcium-Sensing Receptor and Related Diseases.]
    Clin Calcium 2017 ;27(4):521-527
    Disorders Caused by Mutations in Calcium-Sensing Receptor and Related Diseases.
    Sensing of extracellular calcium(Ca2+)levels involves the Ca-sensing receptor(CaSR), its downstream signaling molecule Gα11, and the adaptor-related protein complex 2(AP2)that plays a role in clathrin-dependent endocytosis of CaSR. Inactivating mutations in CaSR cause familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type 1(FHH1)and neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism(NSHPT), while activating mutations lead to autosomal dominant hypocalcemia type 1(ADH1)and Bartter syndrome type Ⅴ. Recent studies have identified that inactivating mutations in Gα11 and σ-subunit of AP2(AP2σ)also cause FHH, and these conditions have been classified as FHH2 and FHH3, respectively. Read More

    [Etiology and pathogenesis of primary hyperparathyroidism.]
    Clin Calcium 2017 ;27(4):507-514
    Internal Medicine 1, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Japan.
    Primary hyperparathyroidism(pHPT)is a frequent endocrine disease in which abnormal calcium(Ca)regulation leads to hypercalcemia. The most frequent cause of pHPT in more than 80% of patients is an adenoma, followed by hyperplasia in about 15%, and cancer in 1~5%. Although most cases of pHPT are sporadic, a few are familial(hereditary), and this is known as familial hyperparathyroidism(FHPT). Read More

    [Regulatory mechanism of calcium metabolism.]
    Clin Calcium 2017 ;27(4):483-490
    Department of Pediatrics Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan.
    It is often difficult for terrestrial animals to take enough calcium. To maintain serum or extracellular calcium levels is very important for muscle and nerve function. Two major regulators to increase the serum calcium levels are parathyroid hormone(PTH)and vitamin D. Read More

    [Parathyroid cancer].
    Vnitr Lek 2017 ;63(2):139-144
    Parathyroid cancer is a rare endocrine malignancy, representing less than 1 % of all cases of primary hyperparathyroidism. The exact etiology of the disease remains unknown. Known risk factors include neck irradiation, end stage renal failure, genetic factors, particularly the the HPRT2/CDCT73 gene mutation. Read More

    WITHDRAWN: Radioisotopes for metastatic bone pain.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 03 23;3:CD003347. Epub 2017 Mar 23.
    Iberoamerican Cochrane Centre, Biomedical Research Institute Sant Pau (IIB Sant Pau), CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Spain, Sant Antoni Maria Claret 171 - Edifici Casa de Convalescencia, Barcelona, Catalunya, Spain, 08041.
    Background: This is an update of the review published in Issue 4, 2003. Bone metastasis cause severe pain as well as pathological fractures, hypercalcaemia and spinal cord compression. Treatment strategies currently available to relieve pain from bone metastases include analgesia, radiotherapy, surgery, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, radioisotopes and bisphosphonates. Read More

    Efficacy and safety of paricalcitol in children with stages 3 to 5 chronic kidney disease.
    Pediatr Nephrol 2017 Mar 22. Epub 2017 Mar 22.
    AbbVie Inc., North Chicago, IL, USA.
    Background: Elevated intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels can contribute to morbidity and mortality in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We evaluated the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of oral paricalcitol in reducing iPTH levels in children with stages 3-5 CKD.

    Methods: Children aged 10-16 years with stages 3-5 CKD were enrolled in two phase 3 studies. Read More

    Malignant hypercalcaemia related to parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) secretion from a metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour (NET).
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 Mar 22;2017. Epub 2017 Mar 22.
    The ARDEN NET Centre, ENETS CoE, University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust, Coventry, UK.
    A 54-year-old woman presented to our centre with acute abdominal pain and vomiting. Routine blood tests showed severe hypercalcaemia (>4 mmol/L). Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) was suppressed. Read More

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