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    1 OF 44

    Longitudinal Study of Pediatric Urticaria Pigmentosa.
    Pediatr Dermatol 2017 Jan 30. Epub 2017 Jan 30.
    Department of Dermatology, Mayo Clinic Health System, Eau Claire, Wisconsin.
    Background/objectives: Urticaria pigmentosa (UP) is the most common form of mastocytosis in children and is associated with systemic signs, symptoms, and triggers. To our knowledge, the effect of UP on children's quality of life has not been studied. The objective of the current study was to characterize the natural history, triggers, and complications of pediatric UP, identify prognostic indicators, and determine its effect on quality of life. Read More

    Hymenoptera Venom Allergy. A closer collaboration is needed between allergists and emergency physicians.
    Eur Ann Allergy Clin Immunol 2017 Jan;49(1):15-17
    Allergy Unit, Loreto Crispi Hospital, ASL Napoli 1 - Centro, Naples, Italy. E-mail:
    Background. Hymenoptera stings are sometimes fatal in venom-allergic patients. Fatalities mostly occur in previously stung subjects, especially those with a history of systemic reactions, and could be avoided if patients were properly informed of the existence of a prevention strategy for insect stings, referred to an allergy follow-up and prescribed auto-injectable epinephrine and/or venom-specific immunotherapy (VIT). Read More

    [Mastocytosis : Clinical aspects, diagnostics, therapy].
    Hautarzt 2017 Jan;68(1):67-75
    Mastozytosezentrum der Klinik für Dermatologie, Venerologie, Allergologie, Universitätsmedizin Göttingen, Robert-Koch-Straße 40, 37075, Göttingen, Deutschland.
    Mastocytosis is a rare, almost exclusively sporadically occurring disease involving an increase in clonal tissue mast cells. The disease spectrum is heterogenous, ranging from isolated skin lesions with a normal life expectancy to rare, aggressive forms with very poor prognosis. Children are often affected. Read More

    Hymenoptera venom allergy in outdoor workers: Occupational exposure, clinical features and effects of allergen immunotherapy.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2017 Feb;13(2):477-483
    a Department of Health Sciences , Postgraduate School in Occupational Medicine and Occupational Medicine Unit, IRCCS AOU San Martino-IST, University of Genoa , Genoa , Italy.
    Objectives: To describe (i) the clinical characteristics of workers, exposed to hymenoptera stings, with an ascertained diagnosis of Hymenoptera Venom Allergy (HVA), (ii) the specific role of occupational exposure, (iii) the effect of Venom Immunotherapy (VIT) in reducing the severity of allergic episodes in workers exposed to repeated stings of hymenoptera, and (iv) the management of the occupational consequences caused by allergic reactions due to hymenoptera stings.

    Methods: Between 2000 and 2013 an observational study, including patients referred to the regional reference hospital of Liguria, Italy, with an ascertained diagnosis of HVA and treated with VIT, was performed. A structured questionnaire was administered to all patients to investigate the occupational features of allergic reactions. Read More

    Mastocytosis and Anaphylaxis.
    Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 2017 Feb 28;37(1):153-164. Epub 2016 Oct 28.
    Department of Dermatology and Allergy Biederstein, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany. Electronic address:
    This article updates current knowledge on epidemiology, risk factors, triggers, and management of anaphylaxis in patients with mastocytosis. Hyperactive mast cells and higher number of effector mast cells are speculated to facilitate anaphylaxis in this condition. In children, increased risk is limited to those with extensive skin involvement and high tryptase. Read More

    Fatal anaphylaxis from hymenoptera stings.
    Med Leg J 2016 Dec 26;84(4):212-214. Epub 2016 Jul 26.
    Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, India.
    Venomous insect stings are a cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The sting reactions are unpredictable and vary among individuals. A case of fatal insect sting in an elderly female is presented to discuss the associated challenges during necropsy. Read More

    Stinging the Conscience: A Case of Severe Hymenoptera Anaphylaxis and the Need for Provider Awareness.
    Mil Med 2016 Oct;181(10):e1400-e1403
    Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda MD 20889.
    Hymenoptera venom allergy accounts for approximately 17% of all cases of anaphylaxis. Insect stings are a common occurrence across the world, with significant impact on active duty personnel. Venom immunotherapy (VIT) provides an effective treatment for those with systemic reactions to insect stings and other similar indications. Read More

    Specific IgE sensitization to honey bee venom and auto-injector adrenaline prescriptions for Japanese beekeepers.
    Allergol Int 2017 Jan 8;66(1):149-151. Epub 2016 Aug 8.
    Department of Respiratory Medicine and Clinical Immunology, Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital, Saitama, Japan.

    [Not Available].
    Lakartidningen 2016 Aug 4;113. Epub 2016 Aug 4.
    Futurum - Akademin för hälsa och vård - Länssjukhuset Ryhov Jönköping, Sweden Futurum - Akademin för hälsa och vård - Länssjukhuset Ryhov Jönköping, Sweden.
    Bee and wasp stings can cause allergic reactions. Although the local reactions are more frequent, anaphylaxis due to insect stings can be potentially fatal. Rapid recognition of anaphylaxis is therefore critical and reactions should immediately be treated with i. Read More

    Application of recombinant antigen 5 allergens from seven allergy-relevant Hymenoptera species in diagnostics.
    Allergy 2017 Jan 26;72(1):98-108. Epub 2016 Aug 26.
    Center of Allergy and Environment (ZAUM), Technical University of Munich and Helmholtz Center Munich, Munich, Germany.
    Background: Hymenoptera stings can cause severe anaphylaxis in untreated venom-allergic patients. A correct diagnosis regarding the relevant species for immunotherapy is often hampered by clinically irrelevant cross-reactivity. In vespid venom allergy, cross-reactivity between venoms of different species can be a diagnostic challenge. Read More

    Evaluation of Anaphylaxis Management in a Pediatric Emergency Department.
    Pediatr Emerg Care 2016 Aug;32(8):508-13
    From the Departments of *Pediatrics Emergency Medicine †Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, and ‡Biostatistics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Arkansas Children Hospital, Little Rock, AR.
    Objective: In 2006, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease established evidence-based treatment guidelines for anaphylaxis. The purpose of our study was to evaluate provider adherence to guidelines-based management for anaphylaxis in a tertiary care pediatric emergency department (ED).

    Methods: Retrospective chart review was conducted of patients (0-18 years) presenting to the Arkansas Children Hospital ED from 2004 to 2011 for the treatment of anaphylaxis using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition, codes. Read More

    Changes in the Expression of MicroRNA in the Buildup Phase of Wasp Venom Immunotherapy: A Pilot Study.
    Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2016 22;170(2):97-100. Epub 2016 Jul 22.
    Department of Allergology, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland.
    Background: Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the most effective method of treatment in allergy to wasp venom. However, its mechanism of action is still not fully understood. The aim of this study is to describe changes in microRNA (miRNA) expression in patients undergoing the buildup phase of venom immunotherapy. Read More

    Hymenoptera stings in the head region induce impressive, but not severe sting reactions.
    Allergy 2016 Nov 15;71(11):1632-1634. Epub 2016 Jul 15.
    Department of Dermatology and Venerology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
    Stings in the head region are considered to be a risk factor for severe systemic reactions to hymenoptera stings. We supposed that stings in skin areas, which are well supplied with blood, lead to more severe reactions and tested our hypothesis in 847 patients with confirmed hymenoptera venom allergy. However, symptom severity was independent from sting site: only 16. Read More

    Short-, Intermediate-, and Long-Term Changes in Basophil Reactivity Induced by Venom Immunotherapy.
    Allergy Asthma Immunol Res 2016 Sep;8(5):412-20
    San Pedro de Alcántara Hospital, Immunology Department, Cáceres Spain.
    Purpose: The basophil activation test (BAT) has been used to monitor venom immunotherapy (VIT) due to its high specificity. A previous study has reported a good correlation between a significant decrease in basophil activation during 5 years of VIT and clinical protection assessed by sting challenge. The following prospective study was performed to examine changes in basophil reactivity over a complete VIT period of 5 years. Read More

    Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2016 24;58:40. Epub 2016 May 24.
    Centro de Educação e Saúde, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Paraíba, Brasil.
    In the American continent, honeybee envenomation is a public health problem due to the high incidence and severity of the cases. Despite its medical importance, there is a lack of epidemiological studies on this topic in Brazil, especially referring to the Northeastern states. The present study has aimed to describe the epidemiological features of honeybee envenomation cases in the state of the Ceará, Northeastern Brazil, from 2007 to 2013. Read More

    Self-medication of anaphylactic reactions due to Hymenoptera stings-an EAACI Task Force Consensus Statement.
    Allergy 2016 Jul 29;71(7):931-43. Epub 2016 Apr 29.
    Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Ludwig-Maximilian University, Munich, Germany.
    An anaphylactic reaction due to a Hymenoptera sting is a clinical emergency, and patients, their caregivers as well as all healthcare professionals should be familiar with its recognition and acute management. This consensus report has been prepared by a European expert panel of the EAACI Interest Group of Insect Venom Hypersensitivity. It is targeted at allergists, clinical immunologists, internal medicine specialists, pediatricians, general practitioners, emergency department doctors, and any other healthcare professional involved. Read More

    The Basophil Activation Test Is Not a Useful Screening Tool for Hymenoptera Venom-Related Anaphylaxis in Patients with Systemic Mastocytosis.
    Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2016 8;169(2):125-9. Epub 2016 Apr 8.
    Section of Clinical Immunology, Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Background: Systemic mastocytosis (SM) patients are at a high risk for anaphylaxis, with Hymenoptera as the main culprit. A screening instrument to identify which patients are sensitized to Hymenoptera before they experience anaphylaxis would therefore be of great value. The basophil activation test (BAT) is proposed as a possible tool for diagnosing Hymenoptera venom-related allergy (HVA), especially in patients in whom conventional allergy tests yield contradictory results. Read More

    Myocardial infarction following a bee sting: A case report of Kounis syndrome.
    Ann Card Anaesth 2016 Apr-Jun;19(2):375-8
    Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.
    In this case report study a 41-year-old man envenomed by a bee sting and diagnosed as Kounis syndrome secondary to hymenoptera envenomation. The patient developed a typical course of myocardial infarction, but the electrocardiogram changes were reversed to almost normal limits. He had a nonsignificant mild lesion in the proximal port of right coronary artery in coronary angiography. Read More

    IgE Reactivity of Recombinant Pac c 3 from the Asian Needle Ant (Pachycondyla chinensis).
    Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2016 5;169(2):93-100. Epub 2016 Apr 5.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Allergy, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Background: Stings from the Asian needle ant are an important cause of anaphylaxis in East Asia. A 23-kDa protein homologous to antigen 5 is the major allergen produced by these ants. In this study, we aimed to produce a recombinant antigen 5 allergen, Pac c 3. Read More

    Safety of Ultrarush Venom Immunotherapy: Comparison Between Children and Adults.
    J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2016 ;26(1):40-7
    Background: The ultrarush protocol is an attractive approach in the buildup phase of venom immunotherapy (VIT-UR). However, the degree of risk of VIT-UR in children remains unknown. The objective of this study was to compare the safety of VIT-UR in children and adults. Read More

    Natural history of Hymenoptera venom allergy in children not treated with immunotherapy.
    Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2016 Mar;116(3):225-9
    Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Jaffe Food Allergy Institute, New York, New York.
    Background: Differences in treatment approach still exist for children after systemic sting reactions. In addition, there are still some doubts about when systemic reactors should be treated with venom immunotherapy (VIT).

    Objective: To determine the rate of sting recurrence and natural history of Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA) in children not treated with VIT. Read More

    Acute interstitial nephritis, toxic hepatitis and toxic myocarditis following multiple Asian giant hornet stings in Shaanxi Province, China.
    Environ Health Prev Med 2016 Jul 24;21(4):231-6. Epub 2016 Feb 24.
    Department of Medical Education, 3201 Affiliated Hospital of Medical College of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Hanzhong, 723000, Shaanxi, China.
    Objectives: During July to October 2013, the Asian giant hornet has killed 42 and injured 1,675 people in the southern part of Shaanxi Province, China. This study investigated this unusual and frequent public health event.

    Methods: During the 3 months, 103 patients with severe Asian hornet stings were hospitalized in our hospital. Read More

    Climate data, localisation of the sting, grade of anaphylaxis and therapy of hymenoptera stings.
    Swiss Med Wkly 2016 9;146:w14272. Epub 2016 Feb 9.
    University Clinic for Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergology, Insel Hospital, University Hospital Bern, Switzerland.
    International epidemiological studies indicate that around 1-7% of the population respond with an allergic reaction to a hymenoptera sting, which is frequently associated with admission to an emergency department. This retrospective study included patients admitted between 2009 and 2013 to an emergency department after a hymenoptera sting. In all, 86 (60. Read More

    Comparing the ability of molecular diagnosis and CAP-inhibition in identifying the really causative venom in patients with positive tests to Vespula and Polistes species.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2016 8;14. Epub 2016 Feb 8.
    Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation, ICP Hospital, Via Bignami 1, 20100 Milan, Italy.
    Background: Cross-reactivity among Hymenoptera venoms is an important issue when prescribing venom immunotherapy (VIT). Using all venoms eliciting a positive response results in treatment excess and unjustified cost increase. The first in vitro method that helped to identify the really causative venom was RAST-inhibition, but in latest years also molecular allergy (MA) diagnostics, that detects specific sIgE to single venom allergens, was introduced. Read More

    Pathophysiological effects caused by the venom of the social wasp Synoeca surinama.
    Toxicon 2016 Apr 5;113:41-8. Epub 2016 Feb 5.
    Laboratory of Toxinology, Department of Physiological Sciences, Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Brasilia, Campus Universitário Darcy Ribeiro, Brasília, DF, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Envenomation by wasp stings is a public health preoccupation, and signals after stings have variable effects depending on the number of attacks and individual sensitivities. Even with the high rate of wasp sting cases, the study of phatophysiological effects of the envenomation is still very incipient. In this context, early and accurate assessment of this prognostic can aid in the reduction of the symptomatology and complete remission of the later symptoms. Read More

    Longitudinal Validation of the Spanish Version of the Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire for Hymenoptera Venom Allergy (HRQLHA).
    J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2015 ;25(6):426-30
    Background And Objective: The Spanish version of the health-related quality of life questionnaire for allergy to hymenoptera venom (HRQLHA) has been shown to be reliable, internally consistent, and externally valid. The aim of this study was to complete the validation of the HRQLHA by analyzing its sensitivity to changes (longitudinal validity) using the sting challenge test (SCT) as the variable of change.

    Patients And Methods: Patients over the age of 17 years with a systemic allergic reaction to Apis, Vespula, or Polistes venom were included during their first year of venom-specific immunotherapy. Read More

    Agreement of skin test with IL-4 production and CD40L expression by T cells upon immunotherapy of subjects with systemic reactions to Hymenoptera stings.
    Mol Immunol 2016 Feb 7;70:134-9. Epub 2016 Jan 7.
    Alergology Section, Hospital General Universitario de Ciudad Real, Spain; Medical Faculty of Ciudad Real, University of Castilla La Mancha, Spain.
    Venom immunotherapy is the only curative intervention for subjects with Hymenoptera venom allergy who suffering systemic reactions upon bee or wasp stings. Venom immunotherapy can restore normal immunity against venom allergens, as well as providing to allergic subjects a lifetime tolerance against venoms. Nevertheless, it is necessary using safety assays to monitoring the development of tolerance in the VIT protocols to avoid fatal anaphylactic reactions. Read More

    Deaths from bee stings: a report of three cases from Pretoria, South Africa.
    Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2016 Mar 12;12(1):81-5. Epub 2016 Jan 12.
    Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X323, Arcadia, 0007, South Africa.
    In South Africa bee stings are most commonly caused by either Apis mellifera capensis or A. mellifera scutellata, indigenous species which are notoriously aggressive when compared to European honey bees. According to Statistics South Africa, 109 deaths were documented for the period 2001-2011 as having been caused by hornets, wasps, and bees (ICD10-X26). Read More

    Ant allergens and hypersensitivity reactions in response to ant stings.
    Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol 2015 Dec;33(4):267-75
    Department of Medical Entomology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.
    Hypersensitivity reactions caused by ant stings are increasingly recognized as an important cause of death by anaphylaxis. Only some species of ants ( e.g. Read More

    Venomous and poisonous arthropods: identification, clinical manifestations of envenomation, and treatments used in human injuries.
    Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2015 Nov-Dec;48(6):650-7
    Clínica Privada, Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil.
    This review presents the main species of venomous and poisonous arthropods, with commentary on the clinical manifestations provoked by the toxins and therapeutic measures used to treat human envenomations. The groups of arthopods discussed include the class Arachnida (spiders and scorpions, which are responsible for many injuries reported worldwide, including Brazil); the subphylum Myriapoda, with the classes Chilopoda and Diplopoda (centipedes and millipedes); and the subphylum Hexapoda, with the class Insecta and the orders Coleoptera (beetles), Hemiptera (stink bugs, giant water bugs, and cicadas), Hymenoptera (ants, wasps, and bees), and Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths). Read More

    Determinants of venom-specific IgE antibody concentration during long-term wasp venom immunotherapy.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2015 15;13:29. Epub 2015 Dec 15.
    Unit of Allergology and Immunology, Niguarda Ca' Granda Hospital, Milan, Italy.
    Background: Venom immunotherapy (VIT) is an effective treatment for subjects with systemic allergic reactions (SR) to Hymenoptera stings, however there are few studies concerning the relevance of the venom specific IgE changes to decide about VIT cessation. We assessed IgE changes during a 5-year VIT, in patients stung and protected within the first 3 years (SP 0-3) or in the last 2 years (SP 3-5), and in patients not stung (NoS), to evaluate possible correlations between IgE changes and clinical protection.

    Methods: Yellow jacket venom (YJV)-allergic patients who completed 5 years of VIT were retrospectively evaluated. Read More

    Current advances in ant venom proteins causing hypersensitivity reactions in the Asia-Pacific region.
    Mol Immunol 2016 Jan 28;69:24-32. Epub 2015 Nov 28.
    Molecular Allergy Research Laboratory College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia; Centre for Biodiscovery and Molecular Development of Therapeutics, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia. Electronic address:
    The main insects causing allergy reactions to stinging insect in humans are Apidae (bees), Vespidae (wasps, yellow jackets and hornets) and Formicidae (ants). Their venom stings are composed of various biologically active peptides and protein components, some of which can cause toxicity or anaphylaxis in humans. The protein venom demonstrate some common allergenic activity such as for fire ants and vespids, which have two common allergens that are phospholipase A1 (enzymatic activity) and antigen 5 with unknown biological activity. Read More

    Rev Prat 2015 Sep;65(7):976-80
    Anaphylactic shock is a systemic immediate hypersensitivity reaction involving 2 or more organs. Symptoms occur in the minutes after the administration of a drug, a food or after hymenoptera sting and are the consequence of the activation of tissue mast cells and blood basophils which release histamine and other inflammatory mediatars. This chapter, written by allergo-anesthesists, concerns mostly, but not exclusively, per-anesthetic anaphylaxis, its diagnosis, prevention and treatment. Read More

    Henoch Schonlein purpura associated with bee sting: case report.
    Medwave 2015 Oct 30;15(9):e6297. Epub 2015 Oct 30.
    Departamento de Fisiología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, Trujillo, Perú
    Henoch Schonlein purpura (HSP) is a common childhood vasculitis, characterized by a non-thrombocytopenic palpable purpura and systemic features. It can be triggered by conditions like infections and insect bites. We present the case of a six-year-old girl with palpable maculopapular lesions on the lower limbs, itching, mild pain, swelling of feet, limitation of limb mobility, and a history of bee sting. Read More

    Risk of anaphylaxis in patients with large local reactions to hymenoptera stings: a retrospective and prospective study.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2015 9;13:21. Epub 2015 Nov 9.
    Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation, ICP Hospital, via Bignami 1, 20126 Milan, Italy.
    Background: In the few studies available, the risk of developing systemic reactions (SR) to hymenoptera stings in patients with previous large local reactions (LLRs) to stings ranges from 0 to 7 %. We evaluated both retrospectively and prospectively the risk of SRs in patients with LLRs to stings.

    Methods: An overall number of 477 patients, 396 with an SR as the first manifestation of allergy and 81 with a history of only LLRs after hymenoptera stings, were included in the study. Read More

    Clinical History-Driven Diagnosis of Allergic Diseases: Utilizing in vitro IgE Testing.
    J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2015 Nov-Dec;3(6):871-6; quiz 877-8
    Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Md.
    This case illustrates the importance of a thorough clinical history in providing an interpretation of previously collected IgE antibody serology as part of a workup for allergic disease. Although a yellow-jacket sting was the allergenic insult that led the patient to the emergency department, nonindicated IgE antibody serology tests were ordered that subsequently required interpretation. This report systematically evaluates the relative significance of previously measured IgE antibody serology responses to 4 major allergen groups (inhalants [aeroallergens], foods, venoms, and drugs) within the context of the patient's history. Read More

    Rush immunotherapy for wasp venom allergy seems safe and effective in patients with mastocytosis.
    Eur Ann Allergy Clin Immunol 2015 Nov;47(6):192-6
    Department of Dermatology/Allergology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Background: Patients with mastocytosis and wasp venom allergy (WA) may benefit from venom immunotherapy (VIT). However, fatal insect sting reactions have been described in mastocytosis patients despite previous immunotherapy. We investigated the safety and efficacy of (rush) VIT in patients with mastocytosis and WA. Read More

    Honeybee venom proteome profile of queens and winter bees as determined by a mass spectrometric approach.
    Toxins (Basel) 2015 Oct 30;7(11):4468-83. Epub 2015 Oct 30.
    Laboratory of Molecular Entomology and Bee Pathology, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S2, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Venoms of invertebrates contain an enormous diversity of proteins, peptides, and other classes of substances. Insect venoms are characterized by a large interspecific variation resulting in extended lists of venom compounds. The venom composition of several hymenopterans also shows different intraspecific variation. Read More

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy caused by epinephrine-treated bee sting anaphylaxis: a case report.
    J Med Case Rep 2015 Oct 31;9:247. Epub 2015 Oct 31.
    Department of Cardiology, B Padeh Medical Center, Poriya, Lower Galilee, Israel.
    Introduction: Stress-induced cardiomyopathy (Takotsubo) after bee stings in patients who have received catecholamines is rare. Endogenous as well as exogenous administration of catecholamines is thought to trigger stress-induced cardiomyopathy.

    Case Presentation: A 37-year-old healthy white woman was stung by an unknown Hymenoptera that resulted in an anaphylactic reaction. Read More

    J Egypt Soc Parasitol 2015 Aug;45(2):403-12
    The Hymenoptera are the third largest order of insects, comprising the sawflies, wasps, bees and ants. Worldwide, over 150,000 species are recognized, with many more remaining to be described. The name refers to the wings of the insects, but the original derivation is ambiguous. Read More

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