35,303 results match your criteria Hydrocephalus


Hearing brain evaluated using near-infrared spectroscopy in congenital toxoplasmosis.

Sci Rep 2021 May 12;11(1):10135. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Pediatrics, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

Congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) is a known cause of hearing loss directly caused by Toxoplasma gondii. Hearing loss might result from sensory, neural, or sensorineural lesions. Early treated infants rarely develop hearing loss, but retinochoroidal lesions, intracranial calcifications and hydrocephalus are common. Read More

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Severe hydrocephalus in a raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides).

J Vet Med Sci 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

College of Veterinary Medicine and the Research Institute for Veterinary Science, Seoul National University.

Hydrocephalus is one of the most common central nervous system malformations in domestic dogs, yet they are poorly documented and studied in wild carnivoran mammals. A pup of raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) was rescued and brought to Wildlife Center. The pup showed generalized ataxia, a domed skull, and an open bregmatic fontanelle. Read More

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The outcomes of endoscopic third ventriculostomy in the treatment of hydrocephalus: 317 pediatric and adult cases.

Turk Neurosurg 2020 Sep 14. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Adana City Training and Research Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Adana, Turkey.

Aim: We aimed to evaluate the role of ETV as a primary or secondary treatment for hydrocephalus and factors affecting ETV success.

Material And Methods: Pediatric and adult patients with symptomatic hydrocephalus treated with ETV during 11 years (2008-2019) in our clinic were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were divided into primary ETV group, in which ETV was the first method of hydrocephalus treatment, and secondary ETV group, in which cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage procedures were initially attempted. Read More

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September 2020

Analysis of genotype-phenotype correlation in Walker-Warburg syndrome with a novel mutation in different clinical manifestations.

Eur J Ophthalmol 2021 May 12:11206721211016306. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey.

Purpose: Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by congenital muscular dystrophy and severe brain and eye malformations. This study aims to analyze genotype-phenotype correlations in WWS with a novel cytidine diphosphate-l-ribitol pyrophosphorylase A () mutation in different clinical manifestations.

Case Description: We report a girl with a presentation of multiple brain and ocular anomalies. Read More

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Tuberculous meningitis: When should we consider depletive lumbar punctures?

Infect Dis Now 2021 Jun 31;51(4):401-402. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Service de Neurologie, Centre Hospitalier de Saint-Denis, Saint-Denis, France. Electronic address:

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Leptomeningeal and intraventricular myelomatosis manifesting an aggressive form of communicating hydrocephalus.

Neuropathology 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan.

Leptomeningeal myelomatosis (LMM) is a fatal complication that occurs in < 1% of patients with multiple myeloma. Many patients with LMM present with neurologic symptoms referable to cranial neuropathies, while the manifestation of communicating hydrocephalus has been underrecognized. A Japanese man with Bence Jones protein-κ multiple myeloma developed fever and headache at age 54 years. Read More

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Neurodevelopmental profile in children with benign external hydrocephalus syndrome. A pilot cohort study.

Childs Nerv Syst 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Neurotrauma and Neurosurgery Research Unit, Vall d'Hebron Institut de Recerca (VHIR), Vall d'Hebron Hospital Universitari, Vall d'Hebron Barcelona Hospital Campus, Passeig Vall d'Hebron 119-129, 08035, Barcelona, Spain.

Purpose: The management of children with benign external hydrocephalus (BEH) remains controversial. Most BEH children do well in the long-term, but a substantial number have temporary or permanent psychomotor delays. The study aims to assess the prevalence and pattern of neurodevelopmental delay in a cohort of children with BEH. Read More

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Autism medical comorbidities.

World J Clin Pediatr 2021 May 9;10(3):15-28. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Pediatrics, University Medical Center, King Abdulla Medical City, Arabian Gulf University, Manama P.O. Box 26671, Bahrain, Bahrain.

Medical comorbidities are more common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) than in the general population. Some genetic disorders are more common in children with ASD such as Fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, neurofibromatosis type I, and tuberous sclerosis complex. Children with autism are also more prone to a variety of neurological disorders, including epilepsy, macrocephaly, hydrocephalus, cerebral palsy, migraine/headaches, and congenital abnormalities of the nervous system. Read More

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Congenital medulloblastoma presented in the neonatal period.

Autops Case Rep 2021 Apr 22;11:e2021258. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Hospital Universitario "Dr. José Eleuterio González", Departamento de Patología y Citología, Monterrey, México.

Congenital medulloblastoma is a rare brain tumor that appears in less than 1% of pediatric patients. Congenital medulloblastoma has a poor prognosis and should be suspected in patients with clinical manifestations of hyporeactivity, slow suction reflexes, and the presence of hydrocephalus. Herein we present the case of a 12-day-old female newborn who developed non-communicative hydrocephalus, hyporeactivity, and hyporeflexia. Read More

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A Needle in the Fetal Brain: The Rare Role of Transabdominal Cephalocentesis in Fetal Hydrocephalus.

Cureus 2021 Apr 7;13(4):e14337. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Jagadguru Jayadeva Murugarajendra Medical College, Davangere, IND.

Fetal hydrocephalus is a fairly common occurrence in pregnant women, surfacing early or late in the pregnancy. The perinatal and pediatric outcomes are largely determined by the cause of hydrocephalus and the extent of the irreversible destruction of the brain tissue. In pregnancies where the fetal prognosis is unfavorable, aspirating the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to facilitate vaginal delivery is an option. Read More

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Extrapulmonary tuberculosis.

Expert Rev Respir Med 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill International TB Centre, McGill University, Canada.

: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) constitutes about 15%-20% of all TB patients but accounts for 50% among HIV-coinfected. Confirmation of microbial diagnosis of EPTB is usually challenging. Read More

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Technical Nuances in Neuroendoscopic Lavage for Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage in Preterm Infants: Twenty Tips and Pearls after More than One Hundred Procedures.

Pediatr Neurosurg 2021 May 7:1-9. Epub 2021 May 7.

Neurosurgery Service Virgen del Rocío, University Hospital, Seville, Spain.

Introduction: Posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus in preterm infants is a serious entity related to high mortality and morbidity. Neuroendoscopic lavage (NEL) is a suitable alternative for the management of this pathology. However, as with every endoscopic technique, it requires some experience and several cases to master. Read More

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Long-Term Outcomes of Patients with Hydrocephalus Secondary to Tectal Plate Glioma versus Idiopathic Aqueductal Stenosis: Results from a Single Center.

Pediatr Neurosurg 2021 May 7:1-11. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Introduction: Tectal plate gliomas (TPG) constitute a distinct entity of benign tumors of the brain stem which show an indolent clinical course. Adequate treatment of secondary hydrocephalus is undoubtedly a major factor in the outcome. However, little is known about to what degree the tumor itself determines the long-term outcome of these patients. Read More

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The wandering ventriculoperitoneal shunt and the scope of its salvage.

Childs Nerv Syst 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Purpose: Distal shunt tube migration following ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placement in children is mostly managed by an initial shunt diversion/removal and subsequent replacement. Lately, shunt salvage is being used as an alternative in certain conditions. We have focused on the situations where one can consider or disregard shunt salvage in such cases. Read More

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The incidence of hydrocephalus among patients with and without spinal muscular atrophy (SMA): Results from a US electronic health records study.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2021 May 7;16(1):207. Epub 2021 May 7.

Biogen, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Background: The incidence of hydrocephalus in the spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) population relative to the general population is currently unknown. Since the approval of nusinersen, an intrathecally administered drug for SMA, a small number of hydrocephalus cases among nusinersen users have been reported. Currently, the incidence of hydrocephalus in untreated SMA patients is not available, thereby making it difficult to determine if hydrocephalus is a side effect of nusinersen or part of SMA's natural history. Read More

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Tethered spinal cord among individuals with myelomeningocele: an analysis of the National Spina Bifida Patient Registry.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2021 May 7:1-7. Epub 2021 May 7.

8Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics, Seattle Children's Hospital and University of Washington College of Medicine, Seattle, Washington.

Objective: The aims of this study were to review the National Spina Bifida Patient Registry (NSBPR) data set to study the rates of tethered spinal cord release (TCR) among patients with myelomeningocele and variability between centers, to compare TCR rates between males and females, and to study the relationships between TCR rates and other condition-specific characteristics.

Methods: The NSBPR registry was queried to identify all patients with myelomeningocele. TCR rates were calculated over time using survival analyses; rates between centers and between males and females were compared. Read More

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The Fetus with Ganglionic Eminence Abnormality: Head Size and Extracranial Sonographic Findings Predict Genetic Diagnoses and Postnatal Outcomes.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Pediatric Radiology and Neuroradiology (A.R.), Vittore Buzzi Children's Hospital, Milan, Italy.

Background And Purpose: Ganglionic eminence abnormalities on fetal MR imaging are associated with cerebral malformations. Their presumed genetic basis and associated postnatal outcomes remain largely unknown. We aimed to elucidate these through a multicenter study. Read More

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Serial Tap Test of patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: impact on cognitive function and its meaning.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2021 May 6;18(1):22. Epub 2021 May 6.

Neurology Service, Internal Medicine Department, Hospital Clinics, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.

Background: Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) is characterized by gait disturbance, urinary incontinence and cognitive decline. Symptoms are potentially reversible and treatment is based on cerebrospinal fluid shunting. The tap test (TT) is used to identify patients that will benefit from surgery. Read More

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Effectiveness of a Standardized External Ventricular Drain Placement Protocol for Infection Control.

World Neurosurg 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL, 60153, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Placement of an external ventricular drain (EVD) is a common procedure routinely completed at bedside by neurosurgical residents. A standardized protocol for placement and maintenance of an EVD is potentially useful.

Methods: This single-institution retrospective review analyzes all patients who underwent placement of an EVD over a five-year span using a standardized protocol. Read More

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Usefulness of the Monti-Malone procedure as a reconstruction of the antegrade continence enema procedure: a case report.

Surg Case Rep 2021 May 6;7(1):112. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 1-757 Asahimachi-dori, Chuo-ku, Niigata, Niigata, Japan.

Background: The antegrade continence enema (ACE) procedure is effective for severe constipation in patients with spina bifida and can improve quality of life (QOL). The Monti-Malone procedure (MM), which is a method of creating an enema tract from the colon, has been reported as an alternative to the ACE procedure when the appendix cannot be used. We report the usefulness of MM as a reconstruction of the antegrade continence enema procedure. Read More

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Reconversion to ventriculoperitoneal shunt following ventriculoatrial shunt malfunction in children.

Childs Nerv Syst 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Neurosurgery, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan.

Purpose: To analyze the long-term efficacy of the ventriculoatrial shunt (VAS) in pediatric patients with hydrocephalus, focusing on the atrial catheter and suitable revision procedures of the distal catheter following VAS malformation performed at our institution.

Methods: The authors retrospectively analyzed data of 28 pediatric patients under the age of 10 years who were treated with VAS for hydrocephalus and who had a follow-up period of at least 5 years.

Results: A total of 42 atrial tube revision procedures were performed in 28 patients during the study period. Read More

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Multi-omic analysis elucidates the genetic basis of hydrocephalus.

Cell Rep 2021 May;35(5):109085

Division of Genetic Medicine, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA; Vanderbilt Genetics Institute, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA; Data Science Institute, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232, USA; Clare Hall, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 9AL, UK; MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 9AL, UK. Electronic address:

We conducted PrediXcan analysis of hydrocephalus risk in ten neurological tissues and whole blood. Decreased expression of MAEL in the brain was significantly associated (Bonferroni-adjusted p < 0.05) with hydrocephalus. Read More

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Intracranial Cerebrospinal Fluid volume Evaluation in Healthy People and Hydrocephalus Patients using SPACE Sequence.

Curr Med Imaging 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Neurosurgery, Jiangyin Hospital, Southeast University, Jiangyin, 214400, Jiangsu province. China.

Introduction: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced mainly by the choroid plexus but with a substantial influence by the ependymal lining of the ventricles in the brain. Hydrocephalus occurs as a result of discrepancy in the production as well as circulation of CSF as a result of congenital and acquired conditions. Nevertheless, studies on the differences between CSF dynamics according to age and gender are still insufficient. Read More

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Encephalitis with autoantibodies against the glutamate kainate receptors GluK2.

Ann Neurol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Hospital Clínic, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Objective: To report the identification of antibodies against the glutamate kainate receptor subunit 2 (GluK2-abs) in patients with autoimmune encephalitis, and describe the clinical-immunological features and antibody effects.

Methods: Two sera from 8 patients with similar rat brain immunostaining were used to precipitate the antigen from neuronal cultures. A cell-based assay (CBA) with GluK2-expressing HEK293 cells was used to assess 596 patients with different neurological disorders, and 23 healthy controls. Read More

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Choroid plexus cyst causing acute hydrocephalus and transtentorial herniation: report of a rare case and its successful neuroendoscopic treatment.

Childs Nerv Syst 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Neurosurgery Department, Garrahan Hospital, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Choroid plexus cysts (CPC) are a frequent incidental neuroimaging finding and completely asymptomatic in the vast majority of cases. We hereby describe a rare case of acute hydrocephalus secondary to a CPC, atypical in size, location and presentation, which required urgent neuroendoscopic management. There are very few reported cases of CPC causing obstructive hydrocephalus. Read More

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Hydrocephalus Induced by Intraventricular Peroxiredoxin-2: The Role of Macrophages in the Choroid Plexus.

Biomolecules 2021 Apr 29;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

The choroid plexus (CP) is the primary source of cerebrospinal fluid in the central nervous system. Recent evidence indicates that inflammatory pathways at the CP may be involved in hydrocephalus development. Peroxiredoxin 2 (Prx2) is a major component of red blood cells. Read More

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CD47 blocking antibody accelerates hematoma clearance and alleviates hydrocephalus after experimental intraventricular hemorrhage.

Neurobiol Dis 2021 May 1;155:105384. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. Electronic address:

Background CD47, a glycoprotein on red blood cell membranes, inhibits phagocytosis via interaction with signal regulatory protein α on phagocytes. Our previous research has demonstrated that blocking CD47 accelerates hematoma clearance and reduces brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage. The current study investigated whether phagocytosis or erythrocyte CD47 impacts hematoma resolution and hydrocephalus development after intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). Read More

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The extreme anterior interhemispheric transcallosal approach for pure aqueduct tumors: surgical technique and case series.

Neurosurg Rev 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, Yeditepe University School of Medicine, Yeditepe University Kosuyolu Hospital, Kosuyolu Mah, Kosuyolu Cad. No: 168, 34718, Kadiköy, Istanbul, Turkey.

Purely aqueductal tumors represent a rare but distinct entity of neoplasms with characteristic morphology and clinical presentation. This study aims to describe the extreme anterior interhemispheric transcallosal approach as a surgical option for purely aqueductal tumors in the upper part of the cerebral aqueduct and present the surgical results. Prospectively collected data of 4 patients undergoing the extreme anterior interhemispheric transcallosal approach for purely aqueductal tumors in the upper cerebral aqueduct was analyzed. Read More

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Transcranial sonographic assessment of the third ventricle in neuro-ICU patients to detect hydrocephalus: a diagnostic reliability pilot study.

Ann Intensive Care 2021 May 4;11(1):69. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Anaesthesia & Critical Care Medicine, Montpellier University Hospital Center, Gui de Chauliac Hospital, Montpellier, France.

Background: Transcranial sonography is a point-of-care tool recommended in intensive care units (ICU) to monitor brain injured patients. Objectives of the study was to assess feasibility and reliability of the third ventricle (V3) diameter measurement using transcranial sonography (TCS) compared to brain computed-tomography (CT), the gold standard measurement, and to measure the TCS learning curve.

Design: prospective study, in a 16-bed neurological ICU in an academic hospital. Read More

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Optimal timing and sequence of ventriculoperitoneal shunt and gastrostomy placement.

Neurol Res 2021 May 4:1-7. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Il, USA.

The optimal timing of ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) and gastrostomy placement, relative to the safety of simultaneous versus staged surgery, has not been clearly delineated in the literature. To study the optimal inter-procedural timing relative to distal VPS infection and pertinent reoperation. A fifteen-year, retrospective, single-center study was conducted on adults undergoing VPS and gastrostomy within 30-days. Read More

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