36,806 results match your criteria Hydrocephalus


Prediction of shunt failure facilitated by rapid and accurate volumetric analysis: a single institution's preliminary experience.

Childs Nerv Syst 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Division of Neurosurgery, Children's National Hospital, Washington, DC, USA.

Background: Shunt malfunction is a common complication and often presents with hydrocephalus. While the diagnosis is often supported by radiographic studies, subtle changes in CSF volume may not be detectable on routine evaluation. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel automated volumetric software for evaluation of shunt failure in pediatric patients, especially in patients who may not manifest a significant change in their ventricular size. Read More

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Quantitative Evans index estimation using ultrasonographic measurement of the optic nerve sheath diameter in supine and upright position.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2022 May 21. Epub 2022 May 21.

Neuroscience Institute of the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.

Objectives: We aimed to quantitatively assess Evans index (EI) using ultrasonographic optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) measurements in supine and upright position in normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) patients.

Methods: Ultrasonographically ONSD was measured in a supine and upright position before and 4-5 days after the ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery. The changes of the ONSD between supine and upright positions were calculated as ∆ONSD = sONSD-uONSD and as the variation ONSD_V = 100% × [(sONSD - uONSD)/sONSD]. Read More

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Novel prenatally diagnosed compound heterozygous POMT2 variants in fetal congenital primary aqueduct stenosis.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2022 May;61(3):517-520

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Taipei City Hospital, Women and Children Campus, Taiwan; Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University - Yang Ming Campus, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Objective: To study the etiology of congenital hydrocephalus in genetic aqueduct stenosis.

Case Report: We report the case of a 31-year-old pregnant female, G2P0A1, with a history of hyperthyroidism under medical control. The patient received regular prenatal care, with no specific findings in the Level II ultrasound at 21 weeks of gestation. Read More

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Squamosal Suture Synostosis: An Under-Recognized Phenomenon.

Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2022 May 20:10556656221100675. Epub 2022 May 20.

6595University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Introduction: The squamosal suture (SQS) joins the temporal to the parietal bones bilaterally and is a poorly described site of craniosynostosis. SQS fusion is thought to occur as late as the fourth decade of life and beyond; however, we have incidentally noted its presence among our pediatric patients and hypothesize that it may occur earlier in life and more frequently than previously believed.

Methods: A retrospective review of imaging performed on pediatric patients was completed to identify patients with SQS synostosis. Read More

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Congenital Hydrocephalus and Associated Risk Factors: An Institution-Based Case-Control Study, Dessie Town, North East Ethiopia.

Pediatric Health Med Ther 2022 11;13:175-182. Epub 2022 May 11.

Department of Radiography, Dessie Health Science College, Dessie, Ethiopia.

Introduction: Congenital hydrocephalus is one of the commonest congenital anomalies of the central nervous system. It is characterized by extensive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the ventricles of the brain due to an imbalance between synthesis and absorption of cerebrospinal fluid. This study was planned to investigate the incidence and associated risk factors of congenital hydrocephalus. Read More

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Angiographic Pulse Wave Coherence in the Human Brain.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2022 3;10:873530. Epub 2022 May 3.

Department of Neurosurgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States.

A stroke volume of arterial blood that arrives to the brain housed in the rigid cranium must be matched over the cardiac cycle by an equivalent volume of ejected venous blood. We hypothesize that the brain maintains this equilibrium by organizing coherent arterial and venous pulse waves. To test this hypothesis, we applied wavelet computational methods to diagnostic cerebral angiograms in four human patients, permitting the capture and analysis of cardiac frequency phenomena from fluoroscopic images acquired at faster than cardiac rate. Read More

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Clinical Characteristics of Hydrocephalus Following the Treatment of Pyogenic Ventriculitis Caused by Multi/Extensive Drug-Resistant Gram-Negative , and .

Front Surg 2022 3;9:854627. Epub 2022 May 3.

Medical Department, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Objective: Hydrocephalus is common after ventriculitis. This study explores hydrocephalus's clinical characteristics following pyogenic ventriculitis due to multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant and .

Patients And Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patients with post-neurosurgical pyogenic ventriculitis due to multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant and in our department between January 2014 and June 2020. Read More

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[Steroid-Resistant Central Nervous System Sarcoidosis: The Selections of Multi-Agent Combination as the Initial Treatment].

Brain Nerve 2022 May;74(5):455-461

Department of Neurology, Yamaguchi Prefectural Grand Medical Center.

Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous multiorgan disease of unknown etiology that commonly affects the respiratory system, eyes, and skin, and less commonly affects the nervous system. Because of its rarity, a standard treatment for central nervous system (CNS) sarcoidosis has not yet been established. Corticosteroids remain the cornerstone of CNS sarcoidosis treatment. Read More

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Emerging therapies for brain recovery after IVH in neonates: Cord blood derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) and Unrestricted Somatic Stem Cells (USSC).

Semin Perinatol 2022 Mar 12:151598. Epub 2022 Mar 12.

Department of Pediatrics, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY. Electronic address:

In this report, we summarize evidence on mechanisms of injury after intraventricular hemorrhage resulting in post-hemorrhagic white matter injury and hydrocephalus and correlate that with the possibility of cellular therapy. We describe how two stem cell lines (MSC & USSC) acting in a paracrine fashion offer promise for attenuating the magnitude of injury in animal models and for improved functional recovery by: lowering the magnitude of apoptosis and neuronal cell death, reducing inflammation, and thus, mitigating white matter injury that culminates in improved motor and neurocognitive outcomes. Animal models of IVH are analyzed for their similarity to the human condition and we discuss merits of each approach. Read More

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Clinical Aspects of the Differential Diagnosis of Parkinson's Disease and Parkinsonism.

J Clin Neurol 2022 May;18(3):259-270

Department of Neurology, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Parkinsonism is a clinical syndrome presenting with bradykinesia, tremor, rigidity, and postural instability. Nonmotor symptoms have recently been included in the parkinsonian syndrome, which was traditionally associated with motor symptoms only. Various pathologically distinct and unrelated diseases have the same clinical manifestations as parkinsonism or parkinsonian syndrome. Read More

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Occipital encephalocele associated with Dandy-Walker malformation: a case-based review.

Childs Nerv Syst 2022 May 19. Epub 2022 May 19.

School of Medicine, Metropolitan University of Colombia, Barranquilla, Colombia.

Introduction: Occipital encephalocele is a brain malformation that has been remotely associated with Dandy-Walker; only case reports and very small series have been published so far; therefore, their behavior and management are still under investigation. The goal of the present case-based review is to provide a summary of the state of the art in this association.

Methods And Results: The pertinent literature has been reviewed, and an exemplary case has been reported (an 11-month-old female with Dandy-Walker malformation and occipital encephalocele). Read More

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CystiHuman: A model of human neurocysticercosis.

PLoS Comput Biol 2022 May 19;18(5):e1010118. Epub 2022 May 19.

Center for Global Health Tumbes, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru.

Introduction: The Taenia solium tapeworm is responsible for cysticercosis, a neglected tropical disease presenting as larvae in the body of a host following taenia egg ingestion. Neurocysticercosis (NCC), the name of the disease when it affects the human central nervous system, is a major cause of epilepsy in developing countries, and can also cause intracranial hypertension, hydrocephalus and death. Simulation models can help identify the most cost-effective interventions before their implementation. Read More

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Radiological correlation of mechanism of intravascular migration of the ventriculoperitoneal shunt and technical considerations for endovascular retrieval.

J Radiol Case Rep 2022 Jan 1;16(1):22-29. Epub 2022 Jan 1.

Department of Radiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.

Migration of ventriculoperitoneal shunt into the pulmonary artery is a rare complication that can lead to shunt malfunction and cardiopulmonary complications. This case illustrates the significance of accidental transvenous placement of the shunt. Identification of the transvenous course of the catheter on cross sectional imaging can predict future catheter migration and also aid at surgical extraction. Read More

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January 2022

The joint detection of CEA and ctDNA in cerebrospinal fluid: an auxiliary tool for the diagnosis of leptomeningeal metastases in cancer.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Shandong Cancer Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, People's Republic of China.

Background: Leptomeningeal metastases (LMs) are highly invasive which leads to poor prognosis, but the accurate diagnosis of LM is challenging. It is necessary to investigate more advanced diagnostic methods to realize precision medicine. The main purpose of this study was to select a more effective method for the auxiliary diagnosis of LM by comparing various detection methods. Read More

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Pathologically Verified Corticobasal Degeneration Mimicking Richardson's Syndrome Coexisting with Clinically and Radiologically Shunt-Responsive Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus.

Mov Disord Clin Pract 2022 May 12;9(4):508-515. Epub 2022 Apr 12.

Department of Neurology National Center Hospital, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry Tokyo Japan.

Background: Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) manifests as gait instability, cognitive impairment, and urinary incontinence. This clinical triad of NPH sometimes occurs with ventriculomegaly in patients with neurodegenerative disease. Patients with pathologically verified neurodegenerative diseases, such as progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), have received antemortem diagnoses of NPH. Read More

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Neurocysticercosis: An Uncommon Cause of Acute Supratentorial Hydrocephalus.

J Belg Soc Radiol 2022 29;106(1):31. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Department of Radiology, University Hospital KU Leuven, BE.

We report a 29-year-old woman with acute supratentorial hydrocephalus due to intraventricular neurocysticercosis (NC). Aqueductal stenosis due to web formation and a free floating intraventricular cyst with scolex were pathognomonic and led to the diagnosis of NC. Worldwide, NC is the most important parasitic infection of the central nervous system but is very uncommon in non-endemic regions. Read More

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Deep Learning Achieves Neuroradiologist-Level Performance in Detecting Hydrocephalus Requiring Treatment.

J Digit Imaging 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, 10065, USA.

In large clinical centers a small subset of patients present with hydrocephalus that requires surgical treatment. We aimed to develop a screening tool to detect such cases from the head MRI with performance comparable to neuroradiologists. We leveraged 496 clinical MRI exams collected retrospectively at a single clinical site from patients referred for any reason. Read More

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Discovering a new part of the phenotypic spectrum of Coffin-Siris syndrome in a fetal cohort.

Genet Med 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Centre for Rare Diseases, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Purpose: Genome-wide sequencing is increasingly being performed during pregnancy to identify the genetic cause of congenital anomalies. The interpretation of prenatally identified variants can be challenging and is hampered by our often limited knowledge of prenatal phenotypes. To better delineate the prenatal phenotype of Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS), we collected clinical data from patients with a prenatal phenotype and a pathogenic variant in one of the CSS-associated genes. Read More

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An eye on the future for defeating hydrocephalus, ciliary dyskinesia-related hydrocephalus: review article.

Br J Neurosurg 2022 May 17:1-11. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Neurosurgery, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Congenital hydrocephalus affects approximately one in 1000 newborn children and is fatal in approximately 50% of untreated cases. The currently known management protocols usually necessitate multiple interventions and long-term use of healthcare resources due to a relatively high incidence of complications, and many of them mostly provide a treatment of the effect rather than the cause of cerebrospinal fluid flow reduction or outflow obstruction. Future studies discussing etiology specific hydrocephalus alternative treatments are needed. Read More

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Management of patients with cervical myelopathy and normal pressure hydrocephalus: Epidemiology, medical and surgical complications.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2022 Apr 30;218:107269. Epub 2022 Apr 30.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI 02903, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) and degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) can each lead to gait dysfunction and urinary incontinence and may occur concurrently in some patients. In patients presenting with NPH and DCM, there is a paucity of literature describing the medical and surgical complications of treatment and the potential consequences of the sequence of surgical procedures. The aim of this study is to evaluate patients with DCM, NPH, and dual pathology to determine epidemiology and how the order of surgical intervention for both conditions may impact complications and patient outcomes. Read More

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Monocyte Count on Admission Is Predictive of Shunt-Dependent Hydrocephalus After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

Front Surg 2022 28;9:879050. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine, Roanoke, VA, United States.

The authors sought to evaluate whether immunologic counts on admission were associated with shunt-dependent hydrocephalus following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A retrospective analysis of 143 consecutive patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage over a 9-year period was performed. A stepwise algorithm was followed for external ventricular drain weaning and determining the necessity of shunt placement. Read More

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Comparison of Sex Differences in Outcomes of Patients With Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Single-Center Retrospective Study.

Front Neurol 2022 28;13:853513. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Department of Neurosurgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Background: Sex differences in the outcomes of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) remain controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate sex differences in the outcomes of patients with aSAH.

Method: This study retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of consecutive patients with aSAH, admitted to the Department of Neurosurgery, Wuhan University Zhongnan Hospital, from May 1, 2020 to December 31, 2020. Read More

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Pathophysiological Mechanisms Underlying Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus: A Review of Recent Insights.

Front Aging Neurosci 2022 28;14:866313. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States.

The pathophysiologic mechanisms underpinning idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH), a clinically diagnosed dementia-causing disorder, continue to be explored. An increasing body of evidence implicates multiple systems in the pathogenesis of this condition, though a unifying causative etiology remains elusive. Increased knowledge of the aberrations involved has shed light on the iNPH phenotype and has helped to guide prognostication for treatment with cerebrospinal fluid diversion. Read More

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Case Report: Two Novel Mutations in Two Unrelated Chinese Families With X-Linked Hydrocephalus.

Front Genet 2022 29;13:810853. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Department of Prenatal Diagnostic Center, Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

L1 cell adhesion molecule is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily. Pathogenic mutations of can cause L1 syndrome, referred to as a variety of disease spectrums characterized by hydrocephalus. In the present study, we reported two novel variants of in two unrelated Chinese families with fetal hydrocephalus history. Read More

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A new screening test for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus using bimanual coordination: A preliminary study.

NeuroRehabilitation 2022 May 10. Epub 2022 May 10.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Nishishimbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: The clinical spectrum of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) comprises the triad of gait disturbance, cognitive impairment, and urinary incontinence. However, motor abnormalities involving the upper extremities in iNPH patients have few quantitative studies.

Objective: The present study was designed to quantitatively assess bimanual tapping tasks in iNPH patients and to compare with the control groups. Read More

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A case of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus with fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2022 May 4;218:107278. Epub 2022 May 4.

Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, 1500 E Medical Center Dr, UH B2, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

Clinical management of patients with fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a challenge, and there has been not an established treatment for FXTAS, which is now treated symptomatically. Diagnosis of coexistent idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) with FXTAS is also hard because clinical and imaging features can overlap between the FXTAS patients coexistent with and without iNPH. We present a 79-year-old male genetically diagnosed with FXTAS who was successfully treated by a shunt surgery and consequently diagnosed with iNPH, and suggest the management of coexistent iNPH with FXTAS when it is clinically suspicious. Read More

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Cognitive Impairment in Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus.

Neurosci Bull 2022 May 15. Epub 2022 May 15.

Institute of Neuroscience, Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200031, China.

Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a significant cause of the severe cognitive decline in the elderly population. There is no cure for iNPH, but cognitive symptoms can be partially alleviated through cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion. In the early stages of iNPH, cognitive deficits occur primarily in the executive functions and working memory supported by frontostriatal circuits. Read More

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A concise guide to transtemporal contrast-enhanced ultrasound in children.

J Ultrasound 2022 May 14. Epub 2022 May 14.

Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 3401 Civic Center Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

Brain contrast-enhanced ultrasound offers insights into the brain beyond the anatomic information offered by conventional grayscale ultrasound. In infants, the open fontanelles serve as acoustic windows. In children, whose fontanelles are closed, the temporal bone serves as the ideal acoustic window due to its relatively smaller thickness than the other skull bones. Read More

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Somatic Development Disorders in Children and Adolescents Affected by Syndromes and Diseases Associated with Neurodysfunction and Hydrocephalus Treated/Untreated Surgically.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 May 7;19(9). Epub 2022 May 7.

Institute of Health Sciences, University of Rzeszow, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland.

Background: This study was conducted to evaluate the co-occurrence of hydrocephalus treated/untreated surgically and congenital nervous system disorders or neurological syndromes with symptoms visible since childhood, and with somatic development disorders, based on significant data obtained during admission to a neurological rehabilitation unit for children and adolescents.

Methods: The study applied a retrospective analysis of data collected during hospitalization of 327 children and adolescents, aged 4-18 years, all presenting congenital disorders of the nervous system and/or neurological syndromes associated with at least one neurodysfunction that existed from early childhood. To allow the identification of individuals with somatic development disorders in the group of children and adolescents with hydrocephalus treated/untreated surgically, the adopted criteria considered the z-score values for body height, body weight, head circumference, body mass index, and head circumference index. Read More

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