NanoImpact 2021 Apr 15;22:100325. Epub 2021 May 15.
Center for Nanotechnology and Nanotoxicology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Bldg 1, Rm 1310B, Boston, MA 02115, USA; School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, N4.1, #01-21, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798, Singapore. Electronic address:
Toner-based printing equipment (TPE), including laser printers and photocopiers, utilize several engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) to improve toner performance. Operation of TPE, which rarely employ any exposure controls, generates high exposures to nanoparticles that contain ENMs and complex organics. Epidemiological literature in copier operators documents respiratory effects, including nasal blockage, cough, excessive sputum, and breathing difficulties, cardiovascular effects, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Read More