468 results match your criteria Human T-Cell Lymphotrophic Viruses


In vivo antagonistic role of the Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 regulatory proteins Tax and HBZ.

PLoS Pathog 2021 01 20;17(1):e1009219. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon.

Adult T cell leukemia (ATL) is an aggressive malignancy secondary to chronic infection by the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection. Two viral proteins, Tax and HBZ, play central roles in ATL leukemogenesis. Tax expression transforms T cells in vitro and induces ATL-like disease in mice. Read More

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January 2021

The E3/E4 ubiquitin conjugation factor UBE4B interacts with and ubiquitinates the HTLV-1 Tax oncoprotein to promote NF-κB activation.

PLoS Pathog 2020 12 23;16(12):e1008504. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Penn State College School of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania, United States of America.

Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), and the neurological disease HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The HTLV-1 Tax protein persistently activates the NF-κB pathway to enhance the proliferation and survival of HTLV-1 infected T cells. Lysine 63 (K63)-linked polyubiquitination of Tax provides an important regulatory mechanism that promotes Tax-mediated interaction with the IKK complex and activation of NF-κB; however, the host proteins regulating Tax ubiquitination are largely unknown. Read More

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December 2020

Epidemiology of Virus Infection and Human Cancer.

Recent Results Cancer Res 2021 ;217:13-45

Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, 128 Academia Road, Sect. 2, Taipei, 115, Taiwan.

Seven viruses including the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), Kaposi's sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV), human immunodeficiency virus, type-1 (HIV-1), human T cell lymphotrophic virus, type-1 (HTLV-1), and human papillomavirus (HPV) have been classified as Group 1 human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The conclusions are based on the findings of epidemiological and mechanistic studies. EBV, HPV, HTLV-1, and KSHV are direct carcinogens; HBV and HCV are indirect carcinogens through chronic inflammation; and HIV-1 is an indirect carcinogen through immune suppression. Read More

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January 2021

Restoration of ceramide de novo synthesis by the synthetic retinoid ST1926 as it induces adult T-cell leukemia cell death.

Biosci Rep 2020 10;40(10)

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, American University of Beirut, Lebanon.

Ceramide (Cer) is a bioactive cellular lipid with compartmentalized and tightly regulated levels. Distinct metabolic pathways lead to the generation of Cer species with distinguishable roles in oncogenesis. Deregulation of Cer pathways has emerged as an important mechanism for acquired chemotherapeutic resistance. Read More

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October 2020

Regulation of Expression and Latency in BLV and HTLV.

Viruses 2020 09 25;12(10). Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Department of Biology, The University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, MB R3B 2E9, Canada.

(HTLV-1) and (BLV) belong to the genus. HTLV-1 is the etiologic agent of the highly aggressive and currently incurable cancer adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and a neurological disease HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (HAM)/tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP). BLV causes neoplastic proliferation of B cells in cattle: enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL). Read More

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September 2020

North American Big Brown Bats (Eptesicus fuscus) Harbor an Exogenous .

mSphere 2020 09 23;5(5). Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Animal Disease Research and Diagnostic Laboratory, South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota, USA.

Bats are the reservoir for a large number of zoonotic viruses, including members of (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus [SARS-CoV] and SARS-CoV-2), (Hendra and Nipah viruses), (rabies virus), and (Ebola virus) as exemplars. Many retroviruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus, are similarly zoonotic; however, only infectious exogenous gammaretroviruses have recently been identified in bats. Here, viral metagenomic sequencing of samples from bats submitted for rabies virus testing, largely due to human exposure, identified a novel, highly divergent exogenous from a big brown bat () in South Dakota. Read More

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September 2020

RNF8 Dysregulation and Down-regulation During HTLV-1 Infection Promote Genomic Instability in Adult T-Cell Leukemia.

PLoS Pathog 2020 05 26;16(5):e1008618. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences Bethesda, MD, United States of America.

The genomic instability associated with adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is causally linked to Tax, the HTLV-1 viral oncoprotein, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. We have previously shown that Tax hijacks and aberrantly activates ring finger protein 8 (RNF8) - a lysine 63 (K63)-specific ubiquitin E3 ligase critical for DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair signaling - to assemble K63-linked polyubiquitin chains (K63-pUbs) in the cytosol. Tax and the cytosolic K63-pUbs, in turn, initiate additional recruitment of linear ubiquitin assembly complex (LUBAC) to produce hybrid K63-M1 pUbs, which trigger a kinase cascade that leads to canonical IKK:NF-κB activation. Read More

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Clinical features and treatment outcomes of opportunistic infections among human T-lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) carriers and patients with adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) at a single institution from 2006 to 2016.

J Clin Exp Hematop 2019 ;59(4):156-167

As opportunistic infections among human T-lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) carriers and patients with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) pose a serious problem, it is necessary to clarify their clinical characteristics and outcomes in these patients. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical features and outcomes of opportunistic infections in 127 HTLV-1 carriers and 153 ATL patients between 2006 and 2016. The cumulative incidence rates of opportunistic infections among HTLV-1 carriers and ATL patients were 1. Read More

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EOS, an Ikaros family zinc finger transcription factor, interacts with the HTLV-1 oncoprotein Tax and is downregulated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HTLV-1-infected individuals, irrespective of clinical statuses.

Virol J 2019 12 19;16(1):160. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Department of Microbiology, Kawasaki Medical School, 577 Matsushima, Okayama, 701-0192, Japan.

Background: EOS plays an important role in maintaining the suppressive function of regulatory T cells (Tregs), and induces a regulated transformation of Tregs into T helper-like cells, which are capable of secreting proinflammatory cytokines in response to specific inflammatory signals. Meanwhile, significant reduction in Treg activity along with production of proinflammatory cytokines has been reported in patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP).

Methods: In this study, to examine whether there is an alteration in EOS expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) derived from HTLV-1-infected individuals especially HAM/TSP, we investigated the expression of HTLV-1 tax genotype, proviral load (PVL), and the mRNA expression of tax, HBZ and EOS in HTLV-1 infected individuals including adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), HAM/TSP, or asymptomatic carriers. Read More

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December 2019

SQSTM-1/p62 potentiates HTLV-1 Tax-mediated NF-κB activation through its ubiquitin binding function.

Sci Rep 2019 11 5;9(1):16014. Epub 2019 Nov 5.

International Center for Research in Infectiology, Retroviral Oncogenesis Laboratory, INSERM U1111 - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR5308, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, Université Lyon, Lyon, France.

The NF-κB pathway is constitutively activated in adult T cell leukemia, an aggressive malignancy caused by Human T Leukemia Virus type 1 (HTLV-1). The viral oncoprotein Tax triggers this constitutive activation by interacting with the ubiquitin-rich IKK complex. We previously demonstrated that Optineurin and TAX1BP1, two members of the ubiquitin-binding, Sequestosome-1 (SQSTM-1/p62)-like selective autophagy receptor family, are involved in Tax-mediated NF-κB signaling. Read More

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November 2019

The ESCRT-0 Protein HRS Interacts with the Human T Cell Leukemia Virus Type 2 Antisense Protein APH-2 and Suppresses Viral Replication.

J Virol 2019 12 12;94(1). Epub 2019 Dec 12.

Centre for Research in Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland

The divergent clinical outcomes of human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2 infections have been attributed to functional differences in their antisense proteins. In contrast to HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ), the role of the antisense protein of HTLV-2 (APH-2) in HTLV-2 infection is poorly understood. In previous studies, we identified the endosomal sorting complex required for transport 0 (ESCRT-0) subunit HRS as a novel interaction partner of APH-2 but not HBZ. Read More

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December 2019

Flow cytometric methodology for the detection of de novo human T-cell leukemia virus -1 infection in vitro: A tool to study novel infection inhibitors.

J Virol Methods 2019 12 8;274:113728. Epub 2019 Sep 8.

Department of Biology & Hull York Medical School, University of York, UK. Electronic address:

Methodology to detect and study de novo human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV)-1 infection is required to further our knowledge of the viruses' mechanisms of infection and to study potential therapeutic interventions. Whilst methodology currently exists, utilisation of an anti-Tax antibody to detect de novo Tax expression in permissive cells labelled with cell tracker allowing for the detection by flow cytometry of new infection after co-culture with donor cell lines productively infected with HTLV-1 is an alternative strategy. Using this methodology, we have been able to detect de novo infection of the T cell line HUT78 following co-culture with the productively infected HTLV-1 donor cell line MT-2 and to confirm that infection can be effectively blocked with well characterised infection inhibitors. Read More

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December 2019

Prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus and the socio-demographic and risk factors associated with the infection among post-natal clinics women in Zaria, Nigeria.

J Immunoassay Immunochem 2019 24;40(5):485-494. Epub 2019 Jul 24.

Department of Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University , Zaria , Nigeria.

Human T-cell lymphotropic virus has long been associated with Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis, and hairy cell leukemia. The aim was to determine the prevalence of HTLV antibodies as well as the socio-demographic and risk factors associated with HTLV among women attending postnatal clinics in Zaria. A total of 190 samples were collected within the months of January and June 2017 and qualitative determination of antibodies for HTLV in serum was performed by an antigen sandwich enzyme immunoassay method. Read More

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October 2019

The human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 tax oncoprotein dissociates NF-κB p65-Stathmin complexes and causes catastrophic mitotic spindle damage and genomic instability.

Virology 2019 09 3;535:83-101. Epub 2019 Jul 3.

Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Department of Biological Sciences, The Dedman College Center for Drug Discovery, Design & Delivery, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX, 75275-0376, United States. Electronic address:

Genomic instability is a hallmark of many cancers; however, the molecular etiology of chromosomal dysregulation is not well understood. The human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) oncoprotein Tax activates NF-κB-signaling and induces DNA-damage and aberrant chromosomal segregation through diverse mechanisms which contribute to viral carcinogenesis. Intriguingly, Stathmin/oncoprotein-18 (Op-18) depolymerizes tubulin and interacts with the p65 subunit and functions as a cofactor for NF-κB-dependent transactivation. Read More

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September 2019

HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper factor protects cells from oxidative stress by upregulating expression of Heme Oxygenase I.

PLoS Pathog 2019 06 28;15(6):e1007922. Epub 2019 Jun 28.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina, United States of America.

Adult T-cell Leukemia (ATL) is a lymphoproliferative disease of CD4+ T-cells infected with Human T-cell Leukemia Virus type I (HTLV-1). With the exception of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, there are no effective treatments to cure ATL, and ATL cells often acquire resistance to conventional chemotherapeutic agents. Accumulating evidence shows that development and maintenance of ATL requires key contributions from the viral protein, HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper factor (HBZ). Read More

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Novel Interactions between the Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Antisense Protein HBZ and the SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodeling Family: Implications for Viral Life Cycle.

J Virol 2019 08 30;93(16). Epub 2019 Jul 30.

Centre for Research in Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland

The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) regulatory proteins Tax and HBZ play indispensable roles in regulating viral and cellular gene expression. BRG1, the ATPase subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, has been demonstrated to be essential not only for Tax transactivation but also for viral replication. We sought to investigate the physical interaction between HBZ and BRG1 and to determine the effect of these interactions on Tax-mediated long terminal repeat (LTR) activation. Read More

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Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus in solid-organ transplant recipients: Guidelines from the American society of transplantation infectious diseases community of practice.

Clin Transplant 2019 09 12;33(9):e13575. Epub 2019 May 12.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

These updated guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation review the diagnosis, prevention, and management of Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus 1 (HTLV)-1 in the pre- and post-transplant period. HTLV-1 is an oncogenic human retrovirus rare in North America but endemic in the Caribbean and parts of Africa, South America, Asia, and Oceania. While most infected persons do not develop disease, <5% will develop adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma or neurological disease. Read More

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September 2019

HTLV-1 Tax-1 interacts with SNX27 to regulate cellular localization of the HTLV-1 receptor molecule, GLUT1.

PLoS One 2019 21;14(3):e0214059. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Center for Retrovirus Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America.

An estimated 10-20 million people worldwide are infected with human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), with endemic areas of infection in Japan, Australia, the Caribbean, and Africa. HTLV-1 is the causative agent of adult T cell leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-1 associated myopathy/tropic spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). HTLV-1 expresses several regulatory and accessory genes that function at different stages of the virus life cycle. Read More

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December 2019

Degradation of p47 by autophagy contributes to CADM1 overexpression in ATLL cells through the activation of NF-κB.

Sci Rep 2019 03 5;9(1):3491. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Division of Tumor and Cellular Biochemistry, Department of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, Japan.

Cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is identified as a novel cell surface marker for human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-1)-infected T cells. Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is developed in HTLV-1-infected T-cells after a long infection period. To examine the mechanism of CADM1 overexpression in ATLL, we first identified that CADM1 is transcriptionally up-regulated by a transcriptional enhancer element through NF-κB signaling pathway. Read More

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[Primary cutaneous localization revealing leukemia/T-cell lymphoma associated with chronic HTLV-1 infection in a adult. A case presentation].

Ann Pathol 2019 Feb 19;39(1):40-46. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Centre hospitalier universitaire Aristide le Dantec, service d'hématologie, avenue Pasteur, BP 3001, Dakar, Sénégal.

Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is a rare medical condition and a diagnosis that ought to be considered for patients living in an area endemic for the HTLV-1 virus (human T-lymphotrophic virus) where a T-cell lymphoproliferative diagnosis has been made. The cutaneous clinical forms may be the first manifestation of the disease. We report here an observation in a 60-year-old Senegalese woman whose skin lesions were sampled to reveal the ATLL immunophenotypic profile CD4+, CD25+, FoxP3-, and CD7-. Read More

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February 2019

Diversity of cell phenotypes among MT-2 cell lines affects the growth of U937 cells and cytokine production.

Hum Cell 2019 Apr 17;32(2):185-192. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Rheumatology, Infectious Diseases and Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, 5200 Kihara, Kiyotake, Miyazaki, 889-1692, Japan.

We previously reported the diversity of structure and integration sites of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) provirus among different MT-2 cell lines. This raised the question as to whether cell phenotypes also differed among MT-2 cell lines. The influence of two different MT-2 cell lines (MT-2J and MT-2B) on the growth of the promonocytic leukemia cell line, U937, was investigated. Read More

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Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I and II seroprevalence among volunteer blood donors in Thailand.

Pathog Glob Health 2018 10 14;112(7):343-348. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

d Department of Transfusion Medicine and Clinical Microbiology, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences , Chulalongkorn University , Bangkok , Thailand.

Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type I and II (HTLV-I/II) are closely related but distinct retroviruses that can infect humans. Both the viruses can be transmitted via transfusion of contaminated blood components. HTLV pre-transfusion screening is not mandatory in Thailand until now. Read More

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October 2018

[Genetic analysis and its clinical implication in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma].

Rinsho Ketsueki 2018;59(10):2127-2135

Division of Molecular Oncology, National Cancer Center Research Institute.

Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a peripheral T-cell neoplasm with a dismal prognosis. This disease is caused by human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) retrovirus. Not only viral proteins, such as Tax and HBZ, but also additional genetic and epigenetic aberrations, including gain-of-function alterations in the components of T-cell receptor/NF-κB pathway or deteriorating alterations responsible for immune surveillance, are essential for ATL development and progression. Read More

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-mRNA-Carrying Exosomes from Human T Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1-Infected Cells Can Induce Interferon-Gamma Production .

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 12 1;34(12):1075-1082. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Department of Clinical, Toxicological and Bromatological Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.

Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma. The development of HAM/TSP, a chronic neuroinflammatory disease, is correlated to complex interaction between the host immune response and the infecting virus. Tax expression plays an important role in HAM/TSP pathogenesis by activating various cellular genes, including the cytokines interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Read More

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December 2018

Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.

Cutis 2018 Jul;102(1):E4-E7

Integrated Health Associates, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is an uncommon neoplasm of mature T lymphocytes associated with infection by human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1), which is increasing in incidence in areas of the United States with large immigrant populations. Human T-lymphotrophic virus 1 infection is asymptomatic in most patients and has been associated with ATLL as well as tropical spastic paraparesis. Because there is considerable histologic overlap with other cutaneous T-cell lymphomas, high suspicion and clinical features must be present to make the diagnosis of ATLL. Read More

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The clinical impact of human T-lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection on the development of adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) or HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (HAM) / atypical HAM after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) and renal transplantation.

J Clin Exp Hematop 2018 Sep 8;58(3):107-121. Epub 2018 Aug 8.

Because there are limited clinical reports on the impact of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) on organ transplantation, its effects on the development of adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL), post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (HAM) or atypical HAM after organ transplantation remain unclear.We retrospectively analyzed the impact of HTLV-1 in 54 allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) cases and 31 renal transplantation cases between January 2006 and December 2016.Among the 54 allo-HSCT cases, nine recipients with ATL tested positive for HTLV-1, and one was found to be an HTLV-1 carrier. Read More

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September 2018

Droplet digital PCR for absolute quantification of proviral load of human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) types 1 and 2.

J Virol Methods 2018 10 10;260:70-74. Epub 2018 Jul 10.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.

Background: Human T-lymphotrophic virus (HTLV) types 1 and 2 cause lifelong infection whereby most infected individuals are asymptomatic whilst a minority develop infection-related disease. These latter patients invariably have been found to have high proviral load (PVL). Therefore, infected patients are monitored by determining the proportion of lymphocytes that are infected with HTLV-1/2. Read More

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October 2018

FOXP3-positive T-cell lymphomas in non-HTLV1 carriers include ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma: expanding the spectrum of T-cell lymphomas with regulatory phenotype.

Hum Pathol 2018 10 10;80:138-144. Epub 2018 Jun 10.

Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Electronic address:

Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) is a specific marker for regulatory T-cells (Tregs). We report 6 cases of T-cell lymphomas with Treg phenotype based on diffuse positivity for FOXP3 in tumor cells. The patients showed a median age of 56 years with a male predominance. Read More

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October 2018

The Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Basic Leucine Zipper Factor Attenuates Repair of Double-Stranded DNA Breaks via Nonhomologous End Joining.

J Virol 2018 08 17;92(15). Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Brody School of Medicine, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina, USA

Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is a fatal malignancy of CD4 T cells infected with human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). ATL cells often exhibit random gross chromosomal rearrangements that are associated with the induction and improper repair of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs). The viral oncoprotein Tax has been reported to impair DSB repair but has not been shown to be consistently expressed throughout all phases of infection. Read More

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Unexpected donor-derived infectious transmissions by kidney transplantation: A systematic review.

Transpl Infect Dis 2018 Apr 6;20(2):e12851. Epub 2018 Mar 6.

Centre for Kidney Research, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background: Unexpected donor-derived transmission of infections is rare, but is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We aimed to provide an overview of published cases on unexpected infectious transmissions.

Methods: We systematically reviewed all published evidence describing any unexpected donor-derived viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic infections in kidney transplant recipients. Read More

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