2,159 results match your criteria Human Bite Infections


Five-year Audit of Infectious Diseases at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan.

Cureus 2018 Nov 5;10(11):e3551. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Miscellaneous, The Indus Hospital, Karachi, PAK.

Purpose To estimate the burden of infectious diseases and the seasonality of mosquito-borne diseases seen at The Indus Hospital, Karachi (TIH). Methodology We performed a retrospective data analysis of all infectious diseases (ID) cases, retrieved from medical records over a five-year period starting from 1 January 2012 till 31 December 2016 at The Indus Hospital (TIH), which is a 150-bed, charity-based, tertiary-care health facility. The collected data has been categorized into three groups: (A) public health-related diseases, including community and environmental IDs, i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.3551DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6324853PMC
November 2018

Immunological responses to the relapsing fever spirochete in infected Rhesus macaques: implications for pathogenesis and diagnosis.

Infect Immun 2019 Jan 14. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Department of Pediatrics, National School of Tropical Medicine, and Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

The global public health impact of relapsing fever (RF) spirochetosis is significant, as the pathogens exist on five of seven continents. The hallmark sign of infection is episodic fever and the greatest threat is to the unborn. With the goal of better understanding the specificity of B cell responses and the role of immune responses in pathogenicity, we infected Rhesus macaques with (a new world RF spirochete species) by tick bite and monitored the immune responses generated in response to the pathogen. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.00900-18DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Mosquito-borne epornitic flaviviruses: an update and review.

J Gen Virol 2019 Jan 10. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

1​FARAH Research Center, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liège, Sart Tilman B43, B-4000 Liège, Belgium.

West Nile Virus, Usutu virus, Bagaza virus, Israel turkey encephalitis virus and Tembusu virus currently constitute the five flaviviruses transmitted by mosquito bites with a marked pathogenicity for birds. They have been identified as the causative agents of severe neurological symptoms, drop in egg production and/or mortalities among avian hosts. They have also recently shown an expansion of their geographic distribution and/or a rise in cases of human infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jgv.0.001203DOI Listing
January 2019

Successful replantation of an amputated helical rim with microvascular anastomosis.

Arch Craniofac Surg 2018 Dec 27;19(4):304-308. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Uijeongbu St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu, Korea.

Replantation using microvascular anastomosis is considered to be the optimal method in treating the amputated ear in terms of resulting color, texture, and shape. Only a few cases of ear replantation have been reported because it is anatomically difficult to identify suitable vessels for anastomosis. We successfully replanted the amputated helical rim of the ear using single arterial anastomosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7181/acfs.2018.02173DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6325333PMC
December 2018

Host-feeding patterns of Culex mosquitoes in Iran.

Parasit Vectors 2018 Dec 27;11(1):669. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, WHO Collaborating Centre for Arbovirus and Hemorrhagic Fever Reference and Research, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: Different mosquito-borne pathogens are circulating in Iran including Sindbis virus, West Nile virus, filarioid worms and malaria parasites. However, the local transmission cycles of these pathogenic agents are poorly understood, especially because ecological data on vector species are scarce and there is limited knowledge about the host range; this understanding could help to direct species-specific vector control measurements or to prioritize research.

Methods: In the summers of 2015 and 2016, blood-fed mosquitoes were collected at 13 trapping sites on the coast of the Caspian Sea in northern Iran and at an additional trapping site in western Iran. Read More

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https://parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.11
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-018-3237-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6307250PMC
December 2018
3 Reads

Blood treatment of Lyme borreliae demonstrates the mechanism of CspZ-mediated complement evasion to promote systemic infection in vertebrate hosts.

Cell Microbiol 2019 Feb 7;21(2):e12998. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY, USA.

Lyme disease, caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States and Europe. The spirochetes are transmitted from mammalian and avian reservoir hosts to humans via ticks. Following tick bites, spirochetes colonize the host skin and then disseminate haematogenously to various organs, a process that requires this pathogen to evade host complement, an innate immune defence system. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/cmi.12998
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cmi.12998DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6336514PMC
February 2019
7 Reads

Mosquito-Bite Induced Controlled Human Malaria Infection with or Generates Immune Responses to Homologous and Heterologous Preerythrocytic and Erythrocytic Antigens.

Infect Immun 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Malaria Vaccine Branch, U.S. Military Malaria Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland, 20910, USA.

Seroepidemiological studies on the prevalence of antibodies to malaria antigens are primarily conducted on individuals from endemic regions. It is, therefore, difficult to accurately correlate the antibody responses to the timing and number of prior malaria infection(s). This study was undertaken to assess the evolution of antibodies to the dominant surface antigens of and following CHMI in malaria-naïve individuals. Read More

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http://iai.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/IAI.00541-18
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.00541-18DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Human tularaemia associated with exposure to domestic dogs-United States, 2006-2016.

Zoonoses Public Health 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado.

Dogs have been implicated in the zoonotic transmission of numerous pathogens. Whereas cats are known to transmit Francisella tularensis to humans via bite and other routes, the role of dogs in facilitating infection is much less understood. We reviewed tularaemia case investigation records collected through national surveillance during 2006-2016 to summarize those with dog involvement, characterize the nature of dog-related exposure and describe associated clinical characteristics. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/zph.12552
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/zph.12552DOI Listing
December 2018
8 Reads

Challenging diagnosis of congenital malaria in non-endemic areas.

Malar J 2018 Dec 14;17(1):470. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Unit of Parasitology, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, Piazza Sant'Onofrio 4, 00165, Rome, Italy.

Background: Congenital malaria is usually defined as the detection of asexual forms of Plasmodium spp. in a blood sample of a neonate during perinatal age if there is no possibility of postpartum infection by a mosquito bite. The incidence of congenital malaria is highly variable and seems related to several factors, such as different diagnostic methods for Plasmodium spp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-018-2614-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6295090PMC
December 2018

Saliva Induces Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression at Bite Sites.

Front Immunol 2018 28;9:2779. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Gonçalo Moniz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Salvador, Brazil.

Sand flies bite mammalian hosts to obtain a blood meal, driving changes in the host inflammatory response that support the establishment of infection. This effect is partially attributed to components of sand fly saliva, which are able to recruit and activate leukocytes. Our group has shown that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) favors survival in infected cells by reducing inflammatory responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.02779DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6279893PMC
November 2018
1 Read

Identification and characterization of the causative triatomine bugs of anaphylactic shock in Zhanjiang, China.

Infect Dis Poverty 2018 Dec 11;7(1):127. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen, 518055, China.

Background: Two health concerns primarily related to triatomine bugs are transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi through infective feces, and allergic reactions induced by triatomine bites. In the Southwestern United States, reduviid bugs bites commonly cause insect allergy. In South China, four cases of anaphylactic shock have been reported after this bite exposure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40249-018-0509-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6291942PMC
December 2018

West Nile virus in Algeria: a comprehensive overview.

New Microbes New Infect 2019 Jan 21;27:9-13. Epub 2018 Oct 21.

UMR VITROME, Aix-Marseille Université, IRD, Service de Santé des Armées, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Marseille, IHU Méditerranée-Infection, Marseille, France.

West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne virus belonging to the genus related to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of family. It is transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. The virus is maintained in a mosquito-bird-mosquito transmission cycle. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S20522975183009
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nmni.2018.10.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6260397PMC
January 2019
6 Reads

Fournier's Gangrene of the Penis following a Human Bite Wound.

Case Rep Urol 2018 25;2018:9798607. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

West Virginia University Department of Urology, USA.

Fournier's gangrene isolated to the penis is exceedingly rare. It is an urologic emergency that requires emergent parenteral antibiotics as well as aggressive irrigation and debridement. While human bite wounds can be overlooked as a serious cause of injury and infection, they can result in highly dangerous, polymicrobial infections in affected patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/9798607DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6222233PMC
October 2018

Antibiotic resistant zoonotic bacteria in Irrawaddy squirrel (Callosciurus pygerythrus).

Vet Med Sci 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Microbiology and Veterinary Public Health, Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (CVASU), Chittagong, Bangladesh.

Irrawaddy squirrel (Callosciurus pygerythrus) may play an important role in the transmission of zoonotic bacteria, but little is known about the carriage of zoonotic bacteria in this common frugivorous rodent in Bangladesh. We aimed to investigate the presence of common zoonotic bacterial pathogens in Irrawaddy squirrel in the southeast part of Bangladesh. A total of 27 rectal and 27 oro-nasal swabs were collected from 27 healthy wild Irrawaddy squirrels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/vms3.138DOI Listing
November 2018
9 Reads

A gB/CD3 bispecific BiTE antibody construct for targeting Human Cytomegalovirus-infected cells.

Sci Rep 2018 Nov 28;8(1):17453. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Children's Cancer Research Institute, Vienna, Austria.

Bispecific T cell engager (BiTE) antibody constructs are successfully used as cancer therapeutics. We hypothesized that this treatment strategy could also be applicable for therapy of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection, since HCMV-encoded proteins are abundantly expressed on the surface of infected cells. Here we show that a BiTE antibody construct directed against HCMV glycoprotein B (gB) and CD3 efficiently triggers T cells to secrete IFN-γ and TNF upon co-culture with fibroblasts infected with HCMV strain AD169, Towne or Toledo. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-36055-2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-36055-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6261951PMC
November 2018
9 Reads

Exposure history, post-exposure prophylaxis use, and clinical characteristics of human rabies cases in China, 2006-2012.

Sci Rep 2018 Nov 21;8(1):17188. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Rabies is still a public health threat in China. Evaluating the exposure history, clinical characteristics, and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) of the cases could help in identifying approaches to reducing the number of these preventable deaths. We analysed data collected from 10,971 case-investigations conducted in China from 2006 to 2012. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-35158-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6249250PMC
November 2018
1 Read

Capnocytophaga canimorsus Capsular Serovar and Disease Severity, Helsinki Hospital District, Finland, 2000-2017.

Emerg Infect Dis 2018 Dec;24(12):2195-2201

We assembled a collection of 73 Capnocytophaga canimorsus isolates obtained from blood cultures taken from patients treated at Helsinki University Hospital (Helsinki, Finland) during 2000-2017. We serotyped these isolates by PCR and Western blot and attempted to correlate pathogen serovar with patient characteristics. Our analyses showed, in agreement with previous research, that 3 C. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2412.172060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6256374PMC
December 2018

Knowledge, attitudes and practices towards dog-bite related rabies in para-medical staff at rural primary health centres in Baramati, western India.

PLoS One 2018 16;13(11):e0207025. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

College of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, Western Australia, Australia.

The lack of awareness regarding rabies amongst rural primary care health staff and their adverse practices towards the management of dog-bite wounds is a major contributor to the high incidence of rabies infection and subsequent human mortality in India. A Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices survey was carried out involving 54 nursing and non-nursing staff working in 18 rural Primary Health centres and sub-centres around Baramati town of Pune district in Western India. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to assess factors that influenced knowledge of rabies and practices towards management of dog-bite related wounds. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0207025PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6239288PMC
November 2018

Human rabies control in Lebanon: a call for action.

Epidemiol Infect 2018 Nov 15:1-8. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Internal Medicine,Division of Infectious Diseases, American University of Beirut Medical Center,Beirut,Lebanon.

The status of rabies as a neglected disease has made its eradication rather challenging in different parts of the world despite the availability of a successful vaccine. Lebanon, in particular, is a country endemic to the disease with several cases of rabies deaths reported over the past 30 years. The risk of rabies, however, has taken a new turn over the past few years in Lebanon with two emerging situations that have made the control of the disease rather challenging: the neighbouring Syrian war and the local garbage crisis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S095026881800300XDOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

[Dirofilariasis in the head and neck region. Case report].

Orv Hetil 2018 11;159(45):1844-1847

Fül-Orr-Gégészeti és Fej-Nyaksebészeti Klinika, Semmelweis Egyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar Budapest, Szigony u. 36., 1083.

Dirofilariasis refers to an infection caused by a specific parasitic roundworm. Dirofilaria repens - transmitted by mosquito bites - accounts for most human cases. The parasite forms a subcutaneous mass called cutaneous dirofilariasis near the original site of intrusion. Read More

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https://www.akademiai.com/doi/10.1556/650.2018.31216
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/650.2018.31216DOI Listing
November 2018
9 Reads

Ante-mortem Diagnosis of Human Rabies Cases Using SYBR Green Real-Time PCR.

Arch Iran Med 2018 Oct 1;21(10):473-477. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Virology Department, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Rabies, as the most important zoonotic disease, is transmitted through a bite or scratch by an infected domestic or wild carnivores and bats or contact of open wound with infected saliva. The fluorescent antibody test (FAT) is the "gold standard" diagnostic method for suspected brain samples. For close monitoring of unknown encephalitis, rabies surveillance, and also the limitations for post-mortem diagnosis of rabies in human and performing fast prophylactic measures for other individuals in contact with rabid patients, ante-mortem diagnosis based on molecular methods such as real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) seems to be more reliable. Read More

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October 2018
8 Reads
1.110 Impact Factor

Proteome characterization in various biological fluids of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense-infected subjects.

J Proteomics 2018 Nov 7. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Institute of Neuroepidemiology and Tropical Neurology, School of Medicine, CNRS FR 3503 GEIST, University of Limoges, INSERM UMR 1094 Tropical Neuroepidemiology, Limoges, France. Electronic address:

Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a neglected tropical disease that is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. Control of the disease has been recently improved by better screening and treatment strategies, and the disease is on the WHO list of possible elimination. However, some physiopathological aspects of the disease transmission and progression remain unclear. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S18743919183039
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2018.11.005DOI Listing
November 2018
9 Reads

Extensive Diversity of RNA Viruses in Australian Ticks.

J Virol 2019 Feb 17;93(3). Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, Charles Perkins Centre, School of Life and Environmental Sciences and Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

Understanding the microbiome of ticks in Australia is of considerable interest given the ongoing debate over whether Lyme disease and its causative agent, the bacterium , are present in Australia. The diversity of bacteria infecting Australian ticks has been studied using both culture- and metagenomics-based techniques. However, little is known about the virome of Australian ticks, including whether this includes viruses with the potential to infect mammals. Read More

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http://jvi.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/JVI.01358-18
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01358-18DOI Listing
February 2019
10 Reads

Prophylactic Antibiotics Are Not Needed Following Rattlesnake Bites.

Am J Med 2018 Nov 4;131(11):1367-1371. Epub 2018 Jul 4.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine. Electronic address:

Background: Antibiotics are sometimes administered to victims of rattlesnake bites in the hope of preventing infections. Experts in the field recommend that prophylactic antibiotics not be used because secondary infections are rare. Current recommendations are based on a small number of studies conducted in the United States. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2018.06.006DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

High seroprevalence of Babesia antibodies among Borrelia burgdorferi-infected humans in Sweden.

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2019 01 28;10(1):186-190. Epub 2018 Oct 28.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden. Electronic address:

In northern Europe, tick-borne diseases such as Lyme borreliosis (LB) and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) are well known. The actual incidence of Babesia infections, however, has remained elusive. In this study, the prevalence of antibodies against two Babesia spp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2018.10.007DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Outdoor malaria transmission risks and social life: a qualitative study in South-Eastern Tanzania.

Malar J 2018 Oct 29;17(1):397. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Department, Ifakara Health Institute, Kiko Avenue, Mikocheni, PO Box 78373, Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania.

Background: Behaviour changes in mosquitoes from indoor to outdoor biting result in continuing risk of malaria from outdoor activities, including routine household activities and occasional social and cultural practices and gatherings. This study aimed to identify the range of social and cultural gatherings conducted outdoors and their associated risks for mosquito bites.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in four villages in the Kilombero Valley from November 2015 to March 2016. Read More

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https://malariajournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-018-2550-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6206631PMC
October 2018
5 Reads

Vector bionomics and malaria transmission in an area of sympatry of An. arabiensis, An. coluzzii and An. gambiae.

Acta Trop 2019 Jan 16;189:129-136. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Unité d'entomologie médicale, Institut Pasteur de Dakar, BP 220, Dakar, Senegal. Electronic address:

Despite extensive genetic studies on their variability and differentiation, few is known about the specific and relative role of An. coluzzii, An. gambiae and An. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.10.005DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

A recombinant antibody against Plasmodium vivax UIS4 for distinguishing replicating from dormant liver stages.

Malar J 2018 Oct 17;17(1):370. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Center for Infectious Disease Research, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background: Plasmodium vivax is the most geographically widespread of the human malaria parasites, causing 50,000 to 100,000 deaths annually. Plasmodium vivax parasites have the unique feature of forming dormant liver stages (hypnozoites) that can reactivate weeks or months after a parasite-infected mosquito bite, leading to new symptomatic blood stage infections. Efforts to eliminate P. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-018-2519-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6192329PMC
October 2018
1 Read

Current Status of Tick-Borne Diseases in South Korea.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2018 Oct 17. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

1 Department of Internal Medicine and Inha University School of Medicine , Incheon, Republic of Korea.

Background: Bites with tick-borne pathogens can cause various bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases in humans. Tick-transmitted diseases are known as contributing factors to the increasing incidence and burden of diseases. The present article investigated the epidemiology of tick-borne diseases in South Korea. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2018.2298DOI Listing
October 2018
2 Reads

Safety and efficacy of novel malaria vaccine regimens of RTS,S/AS01B alone, or with concomitant ChAd63-MVA-vectored vaccines expressing ME-TRAP.

NPJ Vaccines 2018 9;3:49. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

1The Jenner Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 7DQ UK.

We assessed a combination multi-stage malaria vaccine schedule in which RTS,S/AS01B was given concomitantly with viral vectors expressing multiple-epitope thrombospondin-related adhesion protein (ME-TRAP) in a 0-month, 1-month, and 2-month schedule. RTS,S/AS01B was given as either three full doses or with a fractional (1/5th) third dose. Efficacy was assessed by controlled human malaria infection (CHMI). Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41541-018-0084-2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41541-018-0084-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6177476PMC
October 2018
13 Reads

Risk factors for HTLV-1 infection in Central Africa: A rural population-based survey in Gabon.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 10 12;12(10):e0006832. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Institut Pasteur, Unité d'Epidémiologie et Physiopathologie des Virus Oncogènes, Département de Virologie, Paris, France.

Background: Human T-Lymphotropic Virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a human oncoretrovirus that infects at least 5 to 10 million people worldwide and is associated with severe diseases. Africa appears as the largest HTLV-1 endemic area. However, the risk factors for the acquisition of HTLV-1 remain poorly understood in Central Africa. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006832
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006832DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6200283PMC
October 2018
5 Reads

The effect of assortative mixing on stability of low helminth transmission levels and on the impact of mass drug administration: Model explorations for onchocerciasis.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 10 8;12(10):e0006624. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Stable low pre-control prevalences of helminth infection are not uncommon in field settings, yet it is poorly understood how such low levels can be sustained, thereby challenging efforts to model them. Disentangling possible facilitating mechanisms is important, since these may differently affect intervention impact. Here we explore the role of assortative (i. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006624
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006624DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6175282PMC
October 2018
2 Reads

Assessment of a Rabies Virus Rapid Diagnostic Test for the Detection of Australian Bat Lyssavirus.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2018 Oct 4;3(4). Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Mahidol-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand.

Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) is closely related to the classical rabies virus and has been associated with three human fatalities and two equine fatalities in Australia. ABLV infection in humans causes encephalomyelitis, resulting in fatal disease, but has no effective therapy. The virus is maintained in enzootic circulation within fruit bats ( spp. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2414-6366/3/4/109
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed3040109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6306826PMC
October 2018
4 Reads

Ehrlichiosis masquerading as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

BMJ Case Rep 2018 Oct 2;2018. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, USA.

Ehrlichiosis is a rare tickborne illness that can manifest from an asymptomatic, self-limiting disease to a severe presentation with encephalopathy and renal failure. Ehrlichiosis is diagnosed largely based on patient history with confirmatory tests including peripheral blood smear, serology and PCR. Empiric treatment is warranted in patients with suspected tick bites as a delay in treatment can result in multiorgan failure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2018-226665DOI Listing
October 2018
2 Reads

Human and Animal Bites.

Pediatr Rev 2018 Oct;39(10):490-500

Department of Pediatrics, Sanford Children's Hospital, Sioux Falls, SD.

In the United States, nearly 56% of households owned a pet in 2011 according to the by the American Veterinary Medical Association. The survey also reports that approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats lived in households in the United States during the same year. (1)Human and animal bites are a frequent cause of primary care and emergency department visits for children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/pir.2017-0212DOI Listing
October 2018
15 Reads

The History of Bancroftian Lymphatic Filariasis in Australasia and Oceania: Is There a Threat of Re-Occurrence in Mainland Australia?

Trop Med Infect Dis 2018 Jun 4;3(2). Epub 2018 Jun 4.

Molecular Parasitology Laboratory, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, QLD 4006, Australia.

Lymphatic filariasis (LF) infects an estimated 120 million people worldwide, with a further 856 million considered at risk of infection and requiring preventative chemotherapy. The majority of LF infections are caused by , named in honour of the Australian physician Joseph Bancroft, with the remainder due to and . Infection with LF through the bite of an infected mosquito, can lead to the development of the condition known as elephantiasis, where swelling due to oedema leads to loss of function in the affected area and thickening of the skin, 'like an elephant'. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2414-6366/3/2/58
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed3020058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6073764PMC
June 2018
5 Reads

STLV-1 co-infection is correlated with an increased SFV proviral load in the peripheral blood of SFV/STLV-1 naturally infected non-human primates.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 10 1;12(10):e0006812. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

International Center for Research in Infectiology, Retroviral Oncogenesis laboratory, INSERM U1111 -Université Claude CNRS, UMR5308, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, Université Lyon, Lyon, France.

Simian T-Leukemia Virus type 1 and Simian Foamy Virus infect non-human primates. While STLV-1, as HTLV-1, causes Adult T-cell Leukemia/lymphoma, SFV infection is asymptomatic. Both retroviruses can be transmitted from NHPs to humans through bites that allow contact between infected saliva and recipient blood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006812DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6181429PMC
October 2018
1 Read

Minimal infectious dose and dynamics of Babesia microti parasitemia in a murine model.

Transfusion 2018 Dec 28;58(12):2903-2910. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California.

Background: Babesia microti is a parasite that infects red blood cells (RBCs) in mammals. It is transmitted to humans by tick bites, transfusion, organ transplantation, and congenital acquisition. Although the Babesia natural history and seroprevalence in donors have been well described, gaps in knowledge relevant to transfusion remain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.14889DOI Listing
December 2018
12 Reads

Lipoproteins from vertebrate host blood plasma are involved in Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigote agglutination and participate in interaction with the vector insect, Rhodnius prolixus.

Exp Parasitol 2018 Dec 24;195:24-33. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Laboratório de Biologia de Insetos - UFF, Niterói, RJ, Brazil. Electronic address:

Chagas disease, infecting ca. 8 million people in Central and South America, is mediated by the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi. The parasite is transmitted by the bite of blood sucking triatomine insects, such as Rhodnius prolixus, that had previously fed on parasite-infected vertebrate blood and voided their contaminated feces and urine into the wound. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2018.09.017DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Bartonella quintana and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. vinsonii bloodstream co-infection in a girl from North Carolina, USA.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 Sep 24. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Intracellular Pathogens Research Laboratory, Comparative Medicine Institute, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, 1060 William Moore Dr., Raleigh, NC, 27607, USA.

The genus Bartonella consists of globally distributed and highly diverse alpha-proteobacteria that infect a wide-range of mammals. Medically, Bartonella spp. constitute emerging, vector-borne, zoonotic, intravascular organisms that induce long-lasting bacteremia in reservoir-adapted (passive carrier of a microorganism) hosts. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00430-018-0563-0
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0563-0DOI Listing
September 2018
5 Reads

Masquelet technique for the treatment of acute osteomyelitis of the PIP joint caused by clenched-fist human bite injury: A case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2018 17;51:282-287. Epub 2018 Sep 17.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, 2-1-1 Tomioka, Urayasu, Chiba, 279-0021, Japan.

Introduction: The Masquelet technique is a well-known and efficient procedure for lower limb soft tissue reconstruction after severe osteomyelitis requiring bone excision. However, this technique is rarely used in the hand.

Presentation Of Case: The patient was 38-year-old man. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijscr.2018.09.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6149196PMC
September 2018
1 Read

Biomarkers Associated With Exposure, Infection, and Disease in Dogs.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2018 6;8:302. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

Global Health and Tropical Medicine (GHTM), Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical (IHMT), Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Lisbon, Portugal.

Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is a vector-borne disease caused by the protozoan () species [syn. . (. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2018.00302DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6136405PMC
September 2018

Exposure to Ticks and their Pathogens in Northeast Missouri.

Authors:
Deborah A Hudman

Mo Med 2018 Jul-Aug;115(4):374-379

Deborah A. Hudman, MS, is in the Department of Microbiology/Immunology, A.T. Still University Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine.

While the prevalence of human pathogens has been quantified in ticks in Adair County, Missouri, the prevalence of residents acquiring tick-borne diseases and seeking medical treatment has not. A public survey (n=109) revealed that 96% of respondents reported finding attached ticks on their person; of these, 38% developed symptoms post tick bite; of these, 55% reported consultation with a health care provider. Overall, 89% of practitioners surveyed had treated at least one patient for tick-borne disease. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6140261PMC
September 2018
4 Reads

Insights into ZIKV-Mediated Innate Immune Responses in Human Dermal Fibroblasts and Epidermal Keratinocytes.

J Invest Dermatol 2018 Sep 12. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged as a global pathogen causing significant public health concern. ZIKV infections in humans principally occur via mosquito bites. Thus, host skin cells are permissive to ZIKV infection and are the first line of defense against the virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jid.2018.07.038DOI Listing
September 2018

[Surgical treatment of bites].

Authors:
D Saul K Dresing

Oper Orthop Traumatol 2018 Oct 12;30(5):321-341. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Klinik für Unfallchirurgie, Orthopädie und Plastische Chirurgie, Universitätsmedizin Göttingen, Robert-Koch-Straße 40, 37075, Göttingen, Deutschland.

Objective: Thorough and profound debridement for acute bite injuries while sparing nerves, vessels and tendons.

Indications: Acute traumatic and late presented bite injuries.

Contraindications: General contraindication for anesthesia or surgery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00064-018-0563-7DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

Evaluation of Human Exposure to Bites in Rubber and Palm Cultivations Using an Immunoepidemiological Biomarker.

Biomed Res Int 2018 9;2018:3572696. Epub 2018 Aug 9.

Université Nangui Abrogoua, 02 BP 801, Abidjan 02, Côte d'Ivoire.

Arbovirus infections, mainly transmitted by mosquito, are emerging in Africa. Efficient vector control requires an understanding of ecological factors which could impact on the risk of transmission, such as environmental changes linked to agricultural practices. The present study aims to assess the level of human exposure to mosquito bites in different agroecosystem area, using an immunological tool which quantifies human IgG antibody response to one salivary peptide. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/3572696DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6106716PMC
November 2018
1 Read

Screening for potential prophylactics targeting sporozoite motility through the skin.

Malar J 2018 Aug 31;17(1):319. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Integrative Parasitology, Center for Infectious Diseases, Heidelberg University Medical School, Im Neuenheimer Feld 324, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: Anti-malarial compounds have not yet been identified that target the first obligatory step of infection in humans: the migration of Plasmodium sporozoites in the host dermis. This movement is essential to find and invade a blood vessel in order to be passively transported to the liver. Here, an imaging screening pipeline was established to screen for compounds capable of inhibiting extracellular sporozoites. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-018-2469-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6119338PMC
August 2018
2 Reads

Human Pathogenic Entomophthorales.

Clin Microbiol Rev 2018 Oct 29;31(4). Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Biomedical Laboratory Diagnostics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA

SUMMARYThe pathogenic entomophthoralean fungi cause infection in insects and mammalian hosts. and species can be found in soil and insect, reptile, and amphibian droppings in tropical and subtropical areas. The life cycles of these fungi occur in these environments where infecting sticky conidia are developed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/CMR.00014-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6148186PMC
October 2018
10 Reads

Unexpectedly high Plasmodium sporozoite rate associated with low human blood index in Anopheles coluzzii from a LLIN-protected village in Burkina Faso.

Sci Rep 2018 Aug 24;8(1):12806. Epub 2018 Aug 24.

Dipartimento di Sanità Pubblica e Malattie Infettive, Laboratory affiliated to Istituto Pasteur Italia - Fondazione Cenci Bolognetti, Sapienza Università di Roma, Rome, 00185, Italy.

Despite the effectiveness of mass distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) in reducing malaria transmission in Africa, in hyperendemic areas such as Burkina Faso the burden of malaria remains high. We here report the results of a 4-month survey on the feeding habits and Plasmodium infection in malaria vectors from a village in Burkina Faso one year following a national LLIN distribution programme. Low values of human blood index (HBI) observed in the major malaria vectors in the area (Anopheles coluzzii: N = 263, 20. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-31117-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6109043PMC
August 2018
1 Read

Comparison of the dynamics of Japanese encephalitis virus circulation in sentinel pigs between a rural and a peri-urban setting in Cambodia.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 08 23;12(8):e0006644. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

Institut Pasteur du Cambodge, Epidemiology and Public Health Unit, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

Japanese encephalitis is mainly considered a rural disease, but there is growing evidence of a peri-urban and urban transmission in several countries, including Cambodia. We, therefore, compared the epidemiologic dynamic of Japanese encephalitis between a rural and a peri-urban setting in Cambodia. We monitored two cohorts of 15 pigs and determined the force of infection-rate at which seronegative pigs become positive-in two study farms located in a peri-urban and rural area, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006644DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6107123PMC
August 2018
1 Read