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    1 OF 38

    Does Zika virus infection affect mosquito response to repellents?
    Sci Rep 2017 Feb 16;7:42826. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Department of Entomology, Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Campus da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE, 50.740-465, Brasil.
    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that people travelling to or living in areas with Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreaks or epidemics adopt prophylactic measures to reduce or eliminate mosquito bites, including the use of insect repellents. It is, however, unknown whether repellents are effective against ZIKV-infected mosquitoes, in part because of the ethical concerns related to exposing a human subject's arm to infected mosquitoes in the standard arm-in-cage assay. We used a previously developed, human subject-free behavioural assay, which mimics a human subject to evaluate the top two recommended insect repellents. Read More

    Frequent Zika Virus Sexual Transmission and Prolonged Viral RNA Shedding in an Immunodeficient Mouse Model.
    Cell Rep 2017 Feb;18(7):1751-1760
    Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA. Electronic address:
    Circulation of Zika virus (ZIKV) was first identified in the Western hemisphere in late 2014. Primarily transmitted through mosquito bite, ZIKV can also be transmitted through sex and from mother to fetus, and maternal ZIKV infection has been associated with fetal malformations. We assessed immunodeficient AG129 mice for their capacity to shed ZIKV in semen and to infect female mice via sexual transmission. Read More

    Presumptive risk factors for monkeypox in rural communities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    PLoS One 2017 13;12(2):e0168664. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.
    Monkeypox virus (MPXV), a close relative of Variola virus, is a zoonotic virus with an unknown reservoir. Interaction with infected wildlife, bites from peri-domestic animals, and bushmeat hunting are hypothesized routes of infection from wildlife to humans. Using a Risk Questionnaire, performed in monkeypox-affected areas of rural Democratic Republic of the Congo, we describe the lifestyles and demographics associated with presumptive risk factors for MPXV infection. Read More

    Mosquito cell-derived West Nile virus replicon particles mimic arbovirus inoculum and have reduced spread in mice.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Feb 10;11(2):e0005394. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.
    Half of the human population is at risk of infection by an arthropod-borne virus. Many of these arboviruses, such as West Nile, dengue, and Zika viruses, infect humans by way of a bite from an infected mosquito. This infectious inoculum is insect cell-derived giving the virus particles distinct qualities not present in secondary infectious virus particles produced by infected vertebrate host cells. Read More

    Human case of bacteremia caused by Streptococcus canis sequence type 9 harboring the scm gene.
    IDCases 2017 20;7:48-52. Epub 2017 Jan 20.
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Kitasato Institute for Life Sciences & Graduate School of Infection Control Sciences, Kitasato University, 5-9-1 Shirokane, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8641, Japan.
    Streptococcus canis (Sc) is a zoonotic pathogen that is transferred mainly from companion animals to humans. One of the major virulence factors in Sc is the M-like protein encoded by the scm gene, which is involved in anti-phagocytic activities, as well as the recruitment of plasminogen to the bacterial surface in cooperation with enolase, and the consequent enhancement of bacterial transmigration and survival. This is the first reported human case of uncomplicated bacteremia following a dog bite, caused by Streptococcus canis harboring the scm gene. Read More

    Household exposure and animal-bite surveillance following human rabies detection in Southern Ghana.
    Pan Afr Med J 2016 1;25(Suppl 1):12. Epub 2016 Oct 1.
    Ghana Health Service, Accra, Ghana.
    Introduction: Rabies remains a neglected tropical zoonotic disease with 100% case fatality rate and estimated 6,000 global mortality annually, and yet vaccine preventable. In Ghana, rabies outbreaks receive poor response. We investigated rabies in a 5-year old boy to find the source of infection, identify exposed persons for post-exposure prophylaxis and describe animal-bite surveillance in Manya-Krobo District of Ghana. Read More

    Simian Immunodeficiency Virus seroreactivity in inhabitants from rural Cameroon frequently in contact with non-human primates.
    Virology 2017 Jan 27;503:76-82. Epub 2017 Jan 27.
    Virology Unit, Associated National Reference Center for HIV, University Hospital Charles Nicolle, Rouen, France; EA2656, GRAM, Rouen University, Rouen, France. Electronic address:
    Central African tropical forests are home to several species of non-human primates (NHPs), infected by Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV). It is well-known that HIV-1 epidemic is due to cross-transmission and adaptation of SIV to humans. The main goal of this work was to investigate if a NHP bite is a risk factor for SIV acquisition. Read More

    The transovarial transmission in the dynamics of dengue infection: Epidemiological implications and thresholds.
    Math Biosci 2017 Jan 25;286:1-15. Epub 2017 Jan 25.
    UNICAMP - IMECC - DMA, Praça Sérgio Buarque de Holanda, 651, CEP 13083-859, Campinas, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:
    The anthropophilic and peridomestic female mosquito Aedes aegypti bites humans to suck blood to maturate fertilized eggs, during which dengue virus can be spread between mosquito and human populations. Besides this route of transmission, there is a possibility of dengue virus being passed directly to offspring through transovarial (or vertical) transmission. The effects of both horizontal and transovarial transmission routes on the dengue virus transmission are assessed by mathematical modeling. Read More

    Beyond the entomological inoculation rate: characterizing multiple blood feeding behavior and Plasmodium falciparum multiplicity of infection in Anopheles mosquitoes in northern Zambia.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Jan 26;10(1):45. Epub 2017 Jan 26.
    The W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, The Johns Hopkins Malaria Research Institute, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA.
    Background: A commonly used measure of malaria transmission intensity is the entomological inoculation rate (EIR), defined as the product of the human biting rate (HBR) and sporozoite infection rate (SIR). The EIR excludes molecular parameters that may influence vector control and surveillance strategies. The purpose of this study was to investigate Anopheles multiple blood feeding behavior (MBF) and Plasmodium falciparum multiplicity of infection (MOI) within the mosquito host in Nchelenge District, northern Zambia. Read More

    Defining the Risk of Zika and Chikungunya Virus Transmission in Human Population Centers of the Eastern United States.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jan 17;11(1):e0005255. Epub 2017 Jan 17.
    Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies Box AB, Sharon Turnpike Millbrook, NY United States of America.
    The recent spread of mosquito-transmitted viruses and associated disease to the Americas motivates a new, data-driven evaluation of risk in temperate population centers. Temperate regions are generally expected to pose low risk for significant mosquito-borne disease; however, the spread of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) across densely populated urban areas has established a new landscape of risk. We use a model informed by field data to assess the conditions likely to facilitate local transmission of chikungunya and Zika viruses from an infected traveler to Ae. Read More

    Probability of Transmission of Malaria from Mosquito to Human Is Regulated by Mosquito Parasite Density in Naïve and Vaccinated Hosts.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Jan 12;13(1):e1006108. Epub 2017 Jan 12.
    Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London, United Kingdom.
    Over a century since Ronald Ross discovered that malaria is caused by the bite of an infectious mosquito it is still unclear how the number of parasites injected influences disease transmission. Currently it is assumed that all mosquitoes with salivary gland sporozoites are equally infectious irrespective of the number of parasites they harbour, though this has never been rigorously tested. Here we analyse >1000 experimental infections of humans and mice and demonstrate a dose-dependency for probability of infection and the length of the host pre-patent period. Read More

    Role of Anopheles (Cellia) rufipes (Gough, 1910) and other local anophelines in human malaria transmission in the northern savannah of Cameroon: a cross-sectional survey.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Jan 11;10(1):22. Epub 2017 Jan 11.
    Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry, University of Yaounde I, P.O. Box 813- Messa, Yaounde, Cameroon.
    Background: As part of a study to determine the impact of insecticide resistance on the effectiveness of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) in the north of Cameroon, the unexpectedly high density and anthropophilic behaviour of Anopheles rufipes lead us to investigate this species bionomics and role in human malaria parasite transmission.

    Methods: For four consecutive years (2011-2014), annual cross-sectional sampling of adult mosquitoes was conducted during the peak malaria season (September-October) in three health districts in northern Cameroon. Mosquitoes sampled by human landing catch and pyrethrum spray catch methods were morphologically identified, their ovaries dissected for parity determination and Anopheles gambiae siblings were identified by molecular assay. Read More

    The risk of exposure to rickettsial infections and human granulocytic anaplasmosis associated with Ixodes ricinus tick bites in humans in Romania: A multiannual study.
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2017 Mar 29;8(3):375-378. Epub 2016 Dec 29.
    Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj Napoca, Department of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases, Cluj Napoca, Cluj, Romania.
    Anaplasma phagocytophilum and spotted fever group Rickettsia are obligate intracellular Gram-negative tick-borne bacteria, among which several may cause clinical infections in humans. Several Rickettsia spp. and A. Read More

    Complete attenuation of genetically engineered Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites in human subjects.
    Sci Transl Med 2017 Jan;9(371)
    Center for Infectious Disease Research, formerly Seattle Biomedical Research Institute, 307 Westlake Avenue North, Suite 500, Seattle, WA 98109, USA.
    Immunization of humans with whole sporozoites confers complete, sterilizing immunity against malaria infection. However, achieving consistent safety while maintaining immunogenicity of whole parasite vaccines remains a formidable challenge. We generated a genetically attenuated Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) malaria parasite by deleting three genes expressed in the pre-erythrocytic stage (Pf p52(-)/p36(-)/sap1(-)). Read More

    Zika virus infection: Past and present of another emerging vector-borne disease.
    J Vector Borne Dis 2016 Oct-Dec;53(4):305-311
    Microbiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece.
    Zika virus infection is an emerging mosquito-borne disease, first identified in Uganda in 1947. It is caused by the Zika arbovirus, and transmitted by the bites of infected mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. For almost half a century, the Zika virus was reported as the causative agent of sporadic human infections. Read More

    Potential Exposures to Australian Bat Lyssavirus Notified in Queensland, Australia, 2009-2014.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Dec 29;10(12):e0005227. Epub 2016 Dec 29.
    Communicable Diseases Branch, Queensland Health, Brisbane, Australia.
    Background: Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) belongs to the genus Lyssavirus which also includes classic rabies virus and the European lyssaviruses. To date, the only three known human ABLV cases, all fatal, have been reported from Queensland, Australia. ABLV is widely distributed in Australian bats, and any bite or scratch from an Australian bat is considered a potential exposure to ABLV. Read More

    Emerging Zika Virus Infection: A Rapidly Evolving Situation.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2016 Dec 29. Epub 2016 Dec 29.
    Department of Arbovirology and Hemorrhagic Fevers, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, Pará, Brazil.
    Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus, firstly identified in Uganda and responsible for sporadic human cases in Africa and Asia until recently, when large outbreak occurred in Pacific Ocean and the Americas. Since the main vectors during its spread outside of Africa have been Ae. albopictus and Ae. Read More

    Mosquito behaviour change after distribution of bednets results in decreased protection against malaria exposure.
    J Infect Dis 2016 Dec 22. Epub 2016 Dec 22.
    Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool L35QA, United Kingdom
    Background: Behavioural resilience in mosquitoes poses a significant challenge to mosquito control. Although behaviour changes in anopheline vectors have been reported over the last decade, there are no empirical data to suggest they compromise the efficacy of vector control in reducing malaria transmission.

    Methods: In this study, we quantified human exposure to both bites and infective bites of a major malaria vector in Papua New Guinea over the course of four years surrounding a nationwide bednet distribution. Read More

    Topical azithromycin for the prevention of Lyme borreliosis: a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 efficacy trial.
    Lancet Infect Dis 2016 Dec 19. Epub 2016 Dec 19.
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:
    Background: Lyme borreliosis develops in 1-5% of individuals bitten by ticks, but with a diagnostic gap affecting up to 30% of patients, a broadly applicable pharmacological prevention strategy is needed. Topical azithromycin effectively eradicated Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from the skin in preclinical studies. We assessed its efficacy in human beings. Read More

    Pasteurella multocida Infective Endocarditis.
    J Heart Valve Dis 2015 Nov;24(6):778-779
    Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Shonan Kamakura General Hospital, Kamakura City, Kanagawa, Japan.
    Pasteurella multocida, a Gram-negative facultative anaerobic coccobacillus, is a common oral flora of dogs and cats. P. multocida often causes infection in humans after animal bites and scratches, and human pasteurellosis is generally a locoregional infection. Read More

    Molecular Analysis of Pfs47-Mediated Plasmodium Evasion of Mosquito Immunity.
    PLoS One 2016 19;11(12):e0168279. Epub 2016 Dec 19.
    Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America.
    Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by Plasmodium falciparum parasites that is transmitted through the bites of infected anopheline mosquitoes. P. falciparum dispersal from Africa, as a result of human migration, required adaptation of the parasite to several different indigenous anopheline species. Read More

    Evidence for a LOS and a capsular polysaccharide in Capnocytophaga canimorsus.
    Sci Rep 2016 Dec 15;6:38914. Epub 2016 Dec 15.
    Université de Namur, URBM, 5000 Namur, Belgium.
    Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a dog's and cat's oral commensal which can cause fatal human infections upon bites or scratches. Infections mainly start with flu-like symptoms but can rapidly evolve in fatal septicaemia with a mortality as high as 40%. Here we present the discovery of a polysaccharide capsule (CPS) at the surface of C. Read More

    Zika virus: A new threat to human reproduction.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2017 Feb 14;77(2). Epub 2016 Dec 14.
    Reproductive Medicine Unit, Department "Femme-Mere-Enfant", Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Zika virus (ZIKV) was first isolated in 1947 in a rhesus monkey from the Zika forest of Uganda. Until 2007, only 14 human cases were reported. The first large human outbreak occurred in 2007 (Yap Island, Federated States of Micronesia, Pacific) followed by French Polynesia in 2013 and Brazil in 2015. Read More

    Plasmodium vivax Controlled Human Malaria Infection - Progress and Prospects.
    Trends Parasitol 2017 Feb 10;33(2):141-150. Epub 2016 Dec 10.
    The Jenner Institute Laboratories, Old Road Campus Research Building, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 7DQ, UK. Electronic address:
    Modern controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) clinical trials have almost entirely focussed on Plasmodium falciparum, providing a highly informative means to investigate host-pathogen interactions as well as assess potential new prophylactic and therapeutic interventions. However, in recent years, there has been renewed interest in Plasmodium vivax, with CHMI models developed by groups in Colombia, the USA, and Australia. This review summarizes the published experiences, and examines the advantages and disadvantages of the different models that initiate infection either by mosquito bite or using a blood-stage inoculum. Read More

    Genomic analysis reveals the presence of a class D beta-lactamase with broad substrate specificity in animal bite associated Capnocytophaga species.
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2016 Dec 1. Epub 2016 Dec 1.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Capnocytophga canimorsus and Capnocytophga cynodegmi can be transmitted from cats and dogs to humans, and can cause a wide range of infections including wound infections, sepsis, or endocarditis. We and others recently discovered two new Capnocytophaga species, C. canis and C. Read More

    A Presumptive Case of Human Rabies: A Rare Survived Case in Rural Ghana.
    Front Public Health 2016 11;4:256. Epub 2016 Nov 11.
    Ghana Health Service, Talensi District Hospital , Tongo , Ghana.
    Rabies remains endemic in Ghana and continues to pose a major public health threat to humans and animals with a nearly 100% case fatality rate in humans. We report of a presumptive case of human rabies whose survival represents a rare occurrence in rural Ghana and worldwide. Lessons from this case study provide a critically needed focus in helping improve rabies surveillance and case management in Ghana. Read More

    Wild animals as reservoirs of Anaplasma phagocytophilum for humans
    Przegl Epidemiol 2016;70(3):428-435
    University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Epizootiology and Clinic of Infectious Diseases
    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a tick-transmitted obligate-intracellular gram-negative bacteria that causes emerging human zoonosis. A. phagocytophilum is transmitted by Ixodid ticks. Read More

    Leishmaniasis and IFN-γ dependent chemokines.
    Clin Ter 2016 Sep-Oct;167(5):e117-e122
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa.
    Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by Leishmania and spread by the bite of certain types of sandflies. Leishmaniasis affects as many as 12 million people worldwide, with 2 million new cases each year. Leishmania infection, and Leishmaniasis, following occupational exposure has been also reported. Read More

    Capnocytophaga canimorsus – an underestimated danger after dog or cat bite – review of literature
    Przegl Epidemiol 2016;70(2):289-295
    Medical University of Bialystok, Department of Infectious Diseases and Neuroinfections
    Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a gram-negative, capnophilic rod constituting normal bacterial flora of the oral cavity of dogs and cats. It is also considered to be an etiological factor of infections in human that may lead to multiple complications, i.a. Read More

    Fight bite injury: emergency department assessment and management.
    Emerg Nurse 2016 Nov;24(7):34-37
    Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin.
    Human bite wounds to the hand are relatively common injuries and are associated with high infection rates. Given the unique anatomy of the hand, the bite mechanism and the organisms found in human saliva, even the smallest wound can result in an aggressive infection. Failure to recognise and treat human bite wounds appropriately, can therefore have negative outcomes for patients. Read More

    A monoclonal antibody-based immunoassay to measure the antibody response against the repeat region of the circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum.
    Malar J 2016 Nov 8;15(1):543. Epub 2016 Nov 8.
    Center for Vaccinology (CEVAC), Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Background: The malaria vaccine candidate RTS,S/AS01 (GSK Vaccines) induces high IgG concentration against the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of Plasmodium falciparum. In human vaccine recipients circulating anti-CSP antibody concentrations are associated with protection against infection but appear not to be the correlate of protection. However, in a humanized mouse model of malaria infection prophylactic administration of a human monoclonal antibody (MAL1C), derived from a RTS,S/AS01-immunized volunteer, directed against the CSP repeat region, conveyed full protection in a dose-dependent manner suggesting that antibodies alone are able to prevent P. Read More

    Origin of the Zika virus revealed: a historical journey across the world.
    Int J Dermatol 2016 Dec 21;55(12):1369-1372. Epub 2016 Sep 21.
    Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA.
    Background: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus within the Flaviviridae family, the recent spread of which has promoted public concern.

    Methods: This study outlines the clinical features, potential for teratogenicity, diagnosis, and treatment of ZIKV infection.

    Results: Zika virus is transmitted through the bite of an infected Stegomyia (= Aedes) mosquito, blood transfusion, sexual intercourse, and perinatal routes. Read More

    A case of Bacteroides pyogenes bacteremia secondary to liver abscess.
    Anaerobe 2016 Dec 8;42:78-80. Epub 2016 Sep 8.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Genetics, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    Bacteroides pyogenes, a non-spore-forming, anaerobic, gram-negative rod, is a component of the oral flora of animals and has, on occasion, been reported to cause human infection through dog or cat bites. We report the first case of B. pyogenes bacteremia secondary to liver abscess with no history of an animal bite. Read More

    Supersuppression: Reservoir Competency and Timing of Mosquito Host Shifts Combine to Reduce Spillover of West Nile Virus.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2016 Nov 8;95(5):1174-1184. Epub 2016 Aug 8.
    Department of Environmental Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.
    In the eastern United States, human cases of West Nile virus (WNV) result from spillover from urban epizootic transmission between passerine birds and Culex mosquitoes. In Atlanta, GA, substantial WNV presence in hosts and vectors has not resulted in the human disease burden observed in cities with similar infection pressure. Our study goal was to investigate extrinsic ecological conditions that potentially contribute to these reduced transmission rates. Read More

    Eikenella corrodens bone and hip joint infection. A case report and literature review.
    Arch Pediatr 2016 Nov 20;23(11):1146-1149. Epub 2016 Sep 20.
    Pediatric orthopedics department, Strasbourg university hospital center, Hautepierre hospital, avenue Molière, 67098 Strasbourg, France.
    Eikenella corrodens (EC) is a human commensal microorganism of the mouth flora. This bacterium is rarely reported in bone and joint infections in children, but the consequences on the joint function can be devastating and irreversible. We report the case of septic arthritis of the hip following an oral wound in a 12-year-old boy. Read More

    A chronological review of experimental infection studies of the role of wild animals and livestock in the maintenance and transmission of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.
    Antiviral Res 2016 Nov 3;135:31-47. Epub 2016 Oct 3.
    Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Galveston, TX, USA; Galveston National Laboratory, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA.
    This article provides a definitive review of experimental studies of the role of wild animals and livestock in the maintenance and transmission of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), the etiologic agent of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), beginning with the first recognized outbreak of the human disease in Crimea in 1944. Published reports by researchers in the former Soviet Union, Bulgaria, South Africa, and other countries where CCHF has been observed show that CCHFV is maintained in nature in a tick-vertebrate-tick enzootic cycle. Human disease most commonly results from the bite of an infected tick, but may also follow crushing of infected ticks or exposure to the blood and tissues of infected animals during slaughter. Read More

    Bacteroides pyogenes causing serious human wound infection from animal bites.
    Anaerobe 2016 Dec 19;42:172-175. Epub 2016 Oct 19.
    Monash Infectious Diseases, Monash University, Monash Health, Clayton, Australia; Department of Microbiology, Monash Health, Clayton, Australia.
    Bacteroides pyogenes is part of the normal oral flora of domestic animals. There is one previous report of human infection, with B. pyogenes bacteremia following a cat bite (Madsen 2011). Read More

    Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Complicated by Co-infection with Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae, China.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2016 Nov;22(11):1957-1960
    During 2013-2015 in central China, co-infection with spotted fever group rickettsiae was identified in 77 of 823 patients infected with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus. Co-infection resulted in delayed recovery and increased risk for death, prompting clinical practices in the region to consider co-infection in patients with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. Read More

    Protective Efficacy of Plasmodium vivax Radiation-Attenuated Sporozoites in Colombian Volunteers: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Oct 19;10(10):e0005070. Epub 2016 Oct 19.
    Malaria Vaccine and Drug Development Center (MVDC), Cali, Colombia.
    Background: Immunizing human volunteers by mosquito bite with radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites (RAS) results in high-level protection against infection. Only two volunteers have been similarly immunized with P. vivax (Pv) RAS, and both were protected. Read More

    Natural Mosquito-Pathogen Hybrid IgG4 Antibodies in Vector-Borne Diseases: A Hypothesis.
    Front Immunol 2016 29;7:380. Epub 2016 Sep 29.
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, University of South Carolina School of Medicine , Columbia, SC , USA.
    Chronic exposure to antigens may favor the production of IgG4 antibodies over other antibody types. Recent studies have shown that up to a 30% of normal human IgG4 is bi-specific and is able to recognize two antigens of different nature. A requirement for this specificity is the presence of both eliciting antigens in the same time and at the same place where the immune response is induced. Read More

    Primary actinomycosis of vulva with inguinal lymphadenopathy.
    Indian Dermatol Online J 2016 Sep-Oct;7(5):402-405
    Department of Skin and VD, Government Medical College, Akola, Maharashtra, India.
    Actinomycosis is a chronic suppurative granulomatous infection of subcutaneous tissues caused by bacterium Actinomyces israelii. It is a normal commensal of the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, and vagina. Infection is first established locally by breach of mucosal barrier during various procedures, aspiration, trauma, or human bite. Read More

    Epidemiology of Lyme Neuroborreliosis.
    Neurol Clin 2016 Nov;34(4):875-886
    Division of Neuroepidemiology, Department of Neurology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; College of Global Public Health, New York University, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:
    Lyme disease is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected blacklegged ticks. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, it is the most commonly reported vector-borne illness and the fifth most common disease in the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. If left untreated, infection disseminates to the nervous system. Read More

    Zika Virus on a Spreading Spree: what we now know that was unknown in the 1950's.
    Virol J 2016 Oct 6;13(1):165. Epub 2016 Oct 6.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI, 49931, USA.
    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is transmitted through the bite of Aedes spp mosquitoes and less predominantly, through sexual intercourse. Prior to 2007, ZIKV was associated with only sporadic human infections with minimal or no clinical manifestations. Recently the virus has caused disease outbreaks from the Pacific Islands, the Americas, and off the coast of West Africa with approximately 1. Read More

    Molecular Detection of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Humans with Tick Bites and Erythema Migrans, in the Netherlands.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Oct 5;10(10):e0005042. Epub 2016 Oct 5.
    Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, the Netherlands.
    Background: Tick-borne diseases are the most prevalent vector-borne diseases in Europe. Knowledge on the incidence and clinical presentation of other tick-borne diseases than Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis is minimal, despite the high human exposure to these pathogens through tick bites. Using molecular detection techniques, the frequency of tick-borne infections after exposure through tick bites was estimated. Read More

    First case of a dog bite wound infection caused by Streptococcus minor in human.
    New Microbes New Infect 2016 Nov 12;14:49-50. Epub 2016 Aug 12.
    Department of Microbiology, Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.
    We report the first case of human infection caused by Streptococcus minor in a 51-year-old immunocompetent woman admitted for dog bite injuries. At present, the role of Streptococcus minor in bite wound infections is unknown. Further studies on virulence factors are needed to elucidate its pathogenicity mechanisms. Read More

    Chlamydia-Like Organisms (CLOs) in Finnish Ixodes ricinus Ticks and Human Skin.
    Microorganisms 2016 Aug 18;4(3). Epub 2016 Aug 18.
    Department of Virology, Hartman institute, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00014, Finland.
    Ticks carry several human pathogenic microbes including Borreliae and Flavivirus causing tick-born encephalitis. Ticks can also carry DNA of Chlamydia-like organisms (CLOs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of CLOs in ticks and skin biopsies taken from individuals with suspected tick bite. Read More

    [An unusual cause of the hand cyst: finger dirofilariasis].
    Orv Hetil 2016 Sep;157(39):1571-1574
    Laboratóriumi Osztály, Parazitológiai Laboratórium, Baranya Megyei Kormányhivatal Népegészségügyi Szakigazgatási Szerve Pécs.
    Dirofilariasis is a zoonosis affecting dogs and cats. It can be transmitted to human by mosquito bites. Because of the local inflammation caused by the parasite, a lump may develop. Read More

    High malaria transmission in a forested malaria focus in French Guiana: How can exophagic Anopheles darlingi thwart vector control and prevention measures?
    Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2016 Sep;111(9):561-9
    Institut Pasteur de la Guyane, Unité d'Entomologie Médicale, Cayenne, Guyane, France.
    In French Guiana, malaria vector control and prevention relies on indoor residual spraying and distribution of long lasting insecticidal nets. These measures are based on solid epidemiological evidence but reveal a poor understanding of the vector. The current study investigated the behaviour of both vectors and humans in relation to the ongoing prevention strategies. Read More

    Analysis of the human population bitten by Ixodes scapularis ticks in Quebec, Canada: Increasing risk of Lyme disease.
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2016 Oct 13;7(6):1075-1081. Epub 2016 Sep 13.
    Institut National de Santé Publique du Québec, Laboratoire de Santé Publique du Québec, 20045, Chemin Sainte-Marie, Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec H9X 3R5, Canada. Electronic address:
    Ixodes scapularis, the main vector of Borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochetal agent of Lyme disease, is expanding its range in southern Canada and bringing risk to the public from Lyme disease. The aims of this study were to (i) describe how risk of Lyme disease in Quebec, Canada, has changed from 2008 to 2014 by analysis of the number of tick submissions, the geographic scope of ticks submitted and the prevalence of B. burgdorferi in ticks removed from people and submitted through the Quebec passive tick surveillance program and (ii) explore whether exposure to ticks is influenced by age and sex. Read More

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