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    Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Vector-Host Contact (VHC) Ratios and Ecological Niche Modeling of the West Nile Virus Mosquito Vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, in the City of New Orleans, LA, USA.
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 2017 Aug 8;14(8). Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    Department/School Entomology and Nematology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.
    The consistent sporadic transmission of West Nile Virus (WNV) in the city of New Orleans justifies the need for distribution risk maps highlighting human risk of mosquito bites. We modeled the influence of biophysical and socioeconomic metrics on the spatio-temporal distributions of presence/vector-host contact (VHC) ratios of WNV vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, within their flight range. Biophysical and socioeconomic data were extracted within 5-km buffer radii around sampling localities of gravid female Culex quinquefasciatus. Read More

    Two confirmed cases of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome with pneumonia: implication for a family cluster in East China.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Aug 3;17(1):537. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, 200336, China.
    Background: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) was first reported in China in 2011. Human-to-human transmission of the virus occurred occasionally in family clusters. However, pneumonia as an onset syndrome was not common in most SFTS cases. Read More

    Oral and Dental Aspects of Child Abuse and Neglect.
    Pediatrics 2017 08;140(2)
    In all 50 states, health care providers (including dentists) are mandated to report suspected cases of abuse and neglect to social service or law enforcement agencies. The purpose of this report is to review the oral and dental aspects of physical and sexual abuse and dental neglect in children and the role of pediatric care providers and dental providers in evaluating such conditions. This report addresses the evaluation of bite marks as well as perioral and intraoral injuries, infections, and diseases that may raise suspicion for child abuse or neglect. Read More

    HBO₂ in snake envenomation (atrox albinus rattlesnake): a case report in a human.
    Undersea Hyperb Med 2016 Jul-Aug;43(4):473-476
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.
    A patient suffered from an envenomation that, at his hospitalization, was judged severe: Grade 3 out of 3, as defined in clinical studies for CroFab™ antidote [Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab (Ovine)]. In addition to the usual antivenom treatment we applied adjunctive hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂) therapy. Our aim was to facilitate better control of the lesions, already presenting as problematic wounds and at high risk of necrotizing soft tissue infection with compartment aspects. Read More

    Prevalence of IgG antibodies for the West Nile virus in human population in Tripoli, Libya.
    J Vector Borne Dis 2017 Apr-Jun;54(2):183-186
    National Centre for Disease Control, Ministry of Health; Public Health Department, Faculty of Medical Technology, University of Tripoli, Tripoli, Libya.
    Background & Objectives: West Nile fever (WNF) is a mosquito-borne viral infection, circulated in natural cycles between birds and mosquitoes, particularly Culex species. It is transmitted to humans through mosquito bites, and causes a variety of clinical outcomes, ranging from asymptomatic or mild febrile illness to severe men in go encepha- litis with some fatalities observed in older or immunocompromised patients. West Nile virus (WNV) transmission is considerably influenced by environmental conditions; and abundance of avifauna and mosquitoes. Read More

    Chikungunya virus infection in Cynomolgus macaques following Intradermal and aerosol exposure.
    Virol J 2017 Jul 20;14(1):135. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Battelle, West Jefferson, OH, 43162, USA.
    Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is transmitted via mosquito bite and potentially by aerosol, causing chikungunya fever and arthritic disease in humans. There are currently no licensed vaccines or antiviral therapeutics to protect against CHIKV infection in humans. Animal models recapitulating human disease, especially for transmission by aerosol, are needed for licensure of such medical countermeasures. Read More

    Knowledge and Prevention Practices among U.S. Pregnant Immigrants from Zika Virus Outbreak Areas.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Jul;97(1):155-162
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.
    We administered an anonymous survey to assess knowledge, attitudes, and prevention practices related to the Zika virus among pregnant women residing in Texas. Multivariate logistic regression models controlling for age, race/ethnicity, education, and number of years in the United States assessed differences between women born in outbreak areas (N = 390) versus those born in the United States (N = 249). Results demonstrated that most women wanted more information on the Zika virus and desired to obtain it from their physician. Read More

    Cost-Effectiveness Evaluation of a Novel Integrated Bite Case Management Program for the Control of Human Rabies, Haiti 2014-2015.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Jun;96(6):1307-1317
    Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Division of High Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.
    AbstractHaiti has the highest burden of rabies in the Western hemisphere, with 130 estimated annual deaths. We present the cost-effectiveness evaluation of an integrated bite case management program combining community bite investigations and passive animal rabies surveillance, using a governmental perspective. The Haiti Animal Rabies Surveillance Program (HARSP) was first implemented in three communes of the West Department, Haiti. Read More

    Bites from the same dog, different outcomes for two patients: a case report.
    Infect Dis Poverty 2017 Jul 5;6(1):107. Epub 2017 Jul 5.
    Henan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Zhengzhou, China.
    Background: Rabies is a serious reemerging zoonosis in China. At present human rabies cases are primarily diagnosed based on clinical presentation.

    Case Presentation: In August 2012, a woman and her son were attacked by a stray dog in Henan, China. Read More

    Pathophysiological mechanisms of Flavivirus infection of the central nervous system.
    Transfus Clin Biol 2017 Jun 27. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
    Arbovirus Group, Environment and Infectious Risks, Institut Pasteur, 25 rue du Dr-Roux, 75015 Paris, France. Electronic address:
    Flaviviruses are important human pathogens. Transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes, Flaviviruses such as West Nile and Japanese encephalitis may reach the central nervous system where they can elicit severe diseases. Their ability to cross the blood-brain-barrier is still poorly understood. Read More

    Zika Virus and Sexual Transmission: A New Route of Transmission for Mosquito-borne Flaviviruses
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    Yale J Biol Med 2017 Jun 23;90(2):325-330. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT.
    Beginning in 2015, concern over a new global epidemic has spread in the media, governmental agencies, legislative bodies and the public at large. This newly emerging threat has been reported to cause symptoms ranging from mild fever, rash, and body aches, to severe birth defects and acute onset paralysis. The causative agent of this disease, Zika virus, is closely related to two other important human pathogens, dengue and West Nile Virus (WNV), but has some distinguishing features that has raised alarms from the scientific community. Read More

    Collaborative study to establish World Health Organization international reference reagents for dengue virus Types 1 to 4 RNA for use in nucleic acid testing.
    Transfusion 2017 Aug 26;57(8):1977-1987. Epub 2017 Jun 26.
    Office of Blood Research and Review, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America.
    Background: Dengue is the most important reemerging mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. Caused by dengue virus (DENV), a member of the genus Flavivirus in the Flaviviridae family, dengue can be asymptomatic (approx. 80% of cases) or symptomatic, ranging from a flu-like illness known as dengue fever, to a life-threatening form called severe dengue. Read More

    Differential Activation of Human Keratinocytes by Leishmania spp. Causing Localized or Disseminated Disease.
    J Invest Dermatol 2017 Jun 21. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    University of Iowa, Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Immunology, Iowa City, IA; University of Iowa, Department of Internal Medicine, Iowa City, IA; University of Iowa, Department of Microbiology, Iowa City, IA; VA Medical Center, Iowa City, IA. Electronic address:
    All Leishmania spp. parasites are introduced into mammalian skin through a sand fly bite, but different species cause distinct clinical outcomes. Mouse studies suggest early responses are critical determinants of subsequent adaptive immunity in leishmaniasis, yet few studies address the role of keratinocytes, the most abundant cell in the epidermis. Read More

    Incidence and mortality due to snakebite in the Americas.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jun 21;11(6):e0005662. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    CERPAGE, Faculté des Sciences de la Santé, Université d'Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou, Bénin.
    Background: Better knowledge of the epidemiological characteristics of snakebites could help to take measures to improve their management. The incidence and mortality of snakebites in the Americas are most often estimated from medical and scientific literature, which generally lack precision and representativeness.

    Methodology/principal Findings: Authors used the notifications of snakebites treated in health centers collected by the Ministries of Health of the American countries to estimate their incidence and mortality. Read More

    Concurrent babesiosis and serological evidence of Lyme disease in a young patient.
    J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect 2017 Jan 31;7(1):46-48. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Interfaith Medical Center, NY, USA.
    Human babesiosis co-infected with Lyme disease in a young patient is an important condition. Here, we describe a case of a 39-year-old male patient with concurrent babesiosis and Lyme disease. Co-infections of tick borne diseases are often difficult to diagnose and underreported, and resulting in significant morbidity and mortality to patients. Read More

    Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever: A State-of-the-Art Review Focused in Pulmonary Involvement.
    Lung 2017 Aug 13;195(4):389-395. Epub 2017 Jun 13.
    Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.
    Dengue fever is an arboviral disease transmitted to humans through the bites of infected female Aedes mosquitoes. Dengue virus is a member of the Flaviviridae family, and human infection can be caused by any of the four antigenically distinct serotypes (DENV 1-4). The infection has become recognized as the most important and prevalent arboviral disease in humans, endemic in almost 100 countries worldwide. Read More

    Animal, Microbial, and Fungal Borne Skin Pathology in the Mountain Wilderness: A Review.
    Wilderness Environ Med 2017 Jun;28(2):127-138
    School of Medicine, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado (Drs Brandenburg, Califf, Manly, and Levandowski).
    Mountains are home to numerous organisms known to cause skin disease. Bites, stings, poisons, chemicals, toxins, trauma, and infections all contribute to this end. Numerous plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, viruses, and protozoa are responsible. Read More

    Direct detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum by polymerase chain reaction followed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry from human blood.
    Int J Infect Dis 2017 Jul 16;60:61-63. Epub 2017 May 16.
    Department of Medicine 1, Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; Institut für Tropenmedizin, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany. Electronic address:
    Bacterial pathogens not detectable via commercial blood culture assays represent an important challenge for infectious disease physicians, in particular if clinical symptoms of the illness are non-specific. In this report, Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected directly in a peripheral blood sample from a febrile patient reporting a tick bite. This was done using a commercial system based on PCR followed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Read More

    The cost of Lyme borreliosis.
    Eur J Public Health 2017 Jun;27(3):538-547
    National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Centre for Infectious Disease Control, Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
    Background: Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most frequently reported tick-borne infection in Europe and North America. The aim of this study was to estimate the cost-of-illness of LB in the Netherlands. We used available incidence estimates from 2010 for tick bite consultations and three symptomatic LB outcomes: erythema migrans (EM), disseminated LB and Lyme-related persisting symptoms. Read More

    Genomic Characterization of Recrudescent Plasmodium malariae after Treatment with Artemether/Lumefantrine.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2017 Aug 15;23(8):1300-1307. Epub 2017 Aug 15.
    Plasmodium malariae is the only human malaria parasite species with a 72-hour intraerythrocytic cycle and the ability to persist in the host for life. We present a case of a P. malariae infection with clinical recrudescence after directly observed administration of artemether/lumefantrine. Read More

    Community-based survey during rabies outbreaks in Rangjung town, Trashigang, eastern Bhutan, 2016.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Apr 17;17(1):281. Epub 2017 Apr 17.
    Regional Livestock Development Centre, Department of Livestock, Khangma, Trashigang, Bhutan.
    Background: Rabies is a highly fatal disease transmitted through the bite of a rabid animal. Human deaths can be prevented by prompt administering of rabies vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin following the exposure. An assessment of community knowledge, awareness and practices on rabies is important during outbreak to understand their preparedness and target educational messages and response activities by the rapid response team. Read More

    Mycobacterium ulcerans low infectious dose and mechanical transmission support insect bites and puncturing injuries in the spread of Buruli ulcer.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Apr 14;11(4):e0005553. Epub 2017 Apr 14.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, at the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.
    Addressing the transmission enigma of the neglected disease Buruli ulcer (BU) is a World Health Organization priority. In Australia, we have observed an association between mosquitoes harboring the causative agent, Mycobacterium ulcerans, and BU. Here we tested a contaminated skin model of BU transmission by dipping the tails from healthy mice in cultures of the causative agent, Mycobacterium ulcerans. Read More

    Anti-Trypanosomatid Elemanolide Sesquiterpene Lactones from Vernonia lasiopus O. Hoffm.
    Molecules 2017 Apr 8;22(4). Epub 2017 Apr 8.
    Institute of Pharmaceutical Biology and Phytochemistry (IPBP), University of Münster, PharmaCampus Corrensstraße 48, D-48149 Münster, Germany.
    Sleeping sickness or human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) threatening millions of peoples' lives with thousands infected. The disease is endemic in poorly developed regions of sub-Saharan Africa and is caused by the kinetoplastid "protozoan" parasite Trypanosoma brucei. The parasites are transmitted to humans through bites of infected tsetse flies of the genus Glossina. Read More

    Unusual Aetiology of Pasteurella canis Biovar 2 Causing Dacryocystitis in HIV Patient: A Case Report and Review of Literature.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2017 Feb 1;11(2):DD01-DD03. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
    Senior Resident, Department of Microbiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences , Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India .
    Pasteurella species are zoonotic bacterial pathogens implicated very infrequently in various human infections following animal bites or licks usually of dogs and cats. This case report described a rare clinical presentation of dacryocystitis caused by P.canis in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive young male patient involved in caring of cattle. Read More

    Defining the next generation of Plasmodium vivax diagnostic tests for control and elimination: Target product profiles.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Apr 3;11(4):e0005516. Epub 2017 Apr 3.
    FIND, Geneva, Switzerland.
    The global prevalence of malaria has decreased over the past fifteen years, but similar gains have not been realized against Plasmodium vivax because this species is less responsive to conventional malaria control interventions aimed principally at P. falciparum. Approximately half of all malaria cases outside of Africa are caused by P. Read More

    Gene expression analysis of hypersensitivity to mosquito bite, chronic active EBV infection and NK/T-lymphoma/leukemia.
    Leuk Lymphoma 2017 Nov 3;58(11):2683-2694. Epub 2017 Apr 3.
    a Department of Pediatrics , Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences , Okayama , Japan.
    The human herpes virus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), is a known oncogenic virus and plays important roles in life-threatening T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (T/NK-cell LPD) such as hypersensitivity to mosquito bite (HMB), chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV), and NK/T-cell lymphoma/leukemia. During the clinical courses of HMB and CAEBV, patients frequently develop malignant lymphomas and the diseases passively progress sequentially. In the present study, gene expression of CD16((-))CD56((+))-, EBV((+)) HMB, CAEBV, NK-lymphoma, and NK-leukemia cell lines, which were established from patients, was analyzed using oligonucleotide microarrays and compared to that of CD56(bright)CD16(dim/-) NK cells from healthy donors. Read More

    HUMAN BITE INJURIES ON THE JOS PLATEAU.
    J West Afr Coll Surg 2016 Apr-Jun;6(2):1-19
    Department of Surgery, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria.
    Background: Human bite injuries with the associated morbidity are not uncommon in this environment.

    Objective: To determine the pattern, management modalities and treatment outcome of human bites in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.

    Design: A prospective study of all human bite injuries managed at the Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria between January 2012 and December 2014. Read More

    Acute Tetraplegia Caused by Rat Bite Fever in Snake Keeper and Transmission of Streptobacillus moniliformis.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2017 Apr;23(4):719-721
    We report acute tetraplegia caused by rat bite fever in a 59-year old man (snake keeper) and transmission of Streptobacillus moniliformis. We found an identical characteristic bacterial pattern in rat and human samples, which validated genotyping-based evidence for infection with the same strain, and identified diagnostic difficulties concerning infection with this microorganism. Read More

    What's eating you? lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum).
    Cutis 2017 Feb;99(2):111-114
    Department of Dermatology and Dermatologic Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, USA.
    Amblyomma americanum, also known as the lone star tick, is found in much of the eastern United States. Since the mid-20th century, the lone star tick has been implicated in human disease. Today, A americanum remains an important vector for tick-borne illness. Read More

    There Is a Method to the Madness: Strategies to Study Host Complement Evasion by Lyme Disease and Relapsing Fever Spirochetes.
    Front Microbiol 2017 2;8:328. Epub 2017 Mar 2.
    Division of Infectious Disease, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health Albany, NY, USA.
    Lyme disease and relapsing fever are caused by various Borrelia species. Lyme disease borreliae, the most common vector-borne pathogens in both the U.S. Read More

    Management and modeling approaches for controlling raccoon rabies: The road to elimination.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Mar 16;11(3):e0005249. Epub 2017 Mar 16.
    United States Department of Agriculture, National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America.
    Rabies is an ancient viral disease that significantly impacts human and animal health throughout the world. In the developing parts of the world, dog bites represent the highest risk of rabies infection to people, livestock, and other animals. However, in North America, where several rabies virus variants currently circulate in wildlife, human contact with the raccoon rabies variant leads to the highest per capita population administration of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) annually. Read More

    Molecular (ticks) and serological (humans) study of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in the Iberian Peninsula, 2013-2015.
    Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 2017 Jun - Jul;35(6):344-347. Epub 2017 Mar 11.
    Centro de Rickettsiosis y Enfermedades Transmitidas por Artrópodos Vectores, Departamento de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital San Pedro-CIBIR, Logroño, Spain. Electronic address:
    Introduction: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a viral disease, mainly transmitted through tick bite, of great importance in Public Health. In Spain, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) was detected for the first time in 2010 in Hyalomma lusitanicum ticks collected from deer in Cáceres. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of CCHFV in ticks from Cáceres, and from other Spanish areas, and to evaluate the presence of antibodies against the virus in individuals exposed to tick bites. Read More

    Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding rabies risk in community members and healthcare professionals: Pétionville, Haiti, 2013.
    Epidemiol Infect 2017 Jun 14;145(8):1624-1634. Epub 2017 Mar 14.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology,Atlanta,GA,USA.
    Haiti has the highest human rabies burden in the Western Hemisphere. There is no published literature describing the public's perceptions of rabies in Haiti, information that is critical to developing effective interventions and government policies. We conducted a knowledge, attitudes and practices survey of 550 community members and 116 health professionals in Pétionville, Haiti in 2013 to understand the perception of rabies in these populations. Read More

    A Human Case of Zoonotic Dog Tapeworm, Dipylidium caninum (Eucestoda: Dilepidiidae), in China.
    Korean J Parasitol 2017 Feb 28;55(1):61-64. Epub 2017 Feb 28.
    Department of Parasitology, Medical College, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, China.
    We described a human case of zoonotic dog tapeworm, Dipylidium caninum (Eucestoda: Dilepidiidae), rarely occurring in China. The mother of a 17 month-old boy noted the appearance of small white and active worms over a month period in her son's feces, but the boy was asymptomatic except mild diarrhea. We observed 3 tapeworm proglottids resembling cucumber seeds in his stool sample. Read More

    [Production and molecular characterization of Plasmodium falciparum recombinant circumsporozoite protein with 37 NANP and 4 NVDP epitopes].
    Mikrobiyol Bul 2017 Jan;51(1):41-51
    Turkish Red Crescent Blood Donation Center, Kayseri, Turkey.
    Malaria is caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium, the leading cause of death amongst the parasitic diseases. The disease is transmitted to human by the bites of female Anopheles mosquitoes. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) data, there were an estimated 214 million malaria cases and estimated 438. Read More

    Human Endometrial Stromal Cells Are Highly Permissive To Productive Infection by Zika Virus.
    Sci Rep 2017 Mar 10;7:44286. Epub 2017 Mar 10.
    Viral Pathogens and Biosafety Unit, Division of Immunology, Transplantation and Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.
    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a recently re-emerged flavivirus transmitted to humans by mosquito bites but also from mother to fetus and by sexual intercourse. We here show that primary human endometrial stromal cells (HESC) are highly permissive to ZIKV infection and support its in vitro replication. ZIKV envelope expression was detected in the endoplasmic reticulum whereas double-stranded viral RNA colocalized with vimentin filaments to the perinuclear region. Read More

    Bispecific T cell engaging antibody constructs targeting a universally conserved part of the viral M2 ectodomain cure and prevent influenza A virus infection.
    Antiviral Res 2017 May 1;141:155-164. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    Medical Biotechnology Center, VIB, Technologiepark 927, 9052, Ghent, Belgium; Department of Biomedical Molecular Biology, Ghent University, Technologiepark 927, 9052, Ghent, Belgium. Electronic address:
    The ectodomain of the influenza A matrix protein 2 (M2e) is highly conserved amongst all influenza virus A subtypes. M2e is present on the surface of influenza A virus-infected cells, and therefore a suitable target for broadly protective therapies. We designed bispecific T cell engaging (BiTE(®)) antibody constructs specific for M2e by genetically fusing a single chain variable fragment (scFv) derived from an M2e-specific murine monoclonal antibody with a CD3ɛ-specific scFv. Read More

    Mechanism study on a plague outbreak driven by the construction of a large reservoir in southwest china (surveillance from 2000-2015).
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Mar 3;11(3):e0005425. Epub 2017 Mar 3.
    National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, State Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Beijing, China.
    Background: Plague, a Yersinia pestis infection, is a fatal disease with tremendous transmission capacity. However, the mechanism of how the pathogen stays in a reservoir, circulates and then re-emerges is an enigma.

    Methodology/principal Findings: We studied a plague outbreak caused by the construction of a large reservoir in southwest China followed 16-years' surveillance. Read More

    An Evaluation of Selected Indications and Appropriateness of Ampicillin/Sulbactam, an Unrestricted Antimicrobial, at a Single Center.
    P T 2017 Mar;42(3):189-194
    Background: With antimicrobial resistance on the rise and few new agents in development, it is important to exercise prudent judgment when utilizing antimicrobials. The Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (ASP) is responsible for facilitating the appropriate use of antimicrobials at the institution. Restricted antimicrobials and select additional antimicrobials are monitored by the ASP team to determine if the indications chosen by the ordering prescribers correspond to and are appropriate for the patients' infections. Read More

    Bites before and after bedtime can carry a high risk of human malaria infection.
    Malar J 2017 Feb 28;16(1):91. Epub 2017 Feb 28.
    Ifakara Health Institute, Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Thematic Group, Coordination Office, PO Box 78373, Kiko Avenue, Mikocheni, Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania.
    Background: Understanding biting distribution of potentially infectious (parous) mosquitoes at various hours of the night would be useful in establishing the likely impact of bed nets on malaria transmission. Bed nets are highly effective at preventing biting by older malaria vectors, which occurs when most people are in bed. However, this behaviour is likely to vary across ecological settings and among mosquito populations. Read More

    American Academy of Asthma, Allergy & Immunology membership experience with venom immunotherapy in chronic medical conditions and pregnancy, and in young children.
    Allergy Asthma Proc 2017 Mar;38(2):121-129
    Background: Few data exist regarding the use of venom immunotherapy (VIT) in specific high-risk chronic medical conditions and pregnancy, and in young children.

    Methods: A Web-based survey was sent to American Academy of Asthma Allergy & Immunology members to explore their VIT experience in potential high-risk medical conditions and pregnancy, and in young children. Major problems were defined as "activation of underlying disease and/or VIT not well tolerated (systemic adverse events) and/or VIT discontinued for medical reasons. Read More

    Intensive trapping of blood-fed Anopheles darlingi in Amazonian Peru reveals unexpectedly high proportions of avian blood-meals.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Feb 23;11(2):e0005337. Epub 2017 Feb 23.
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY, United States of America.
    Anopheles darlingi, the main malaria vector in the Neotropics, has been considered to be highly anthropophilic. However, many behavioral aspects of this species remain unknown, such as the range of blood-meal sources. Barrier screens were used to collect resting Anopheles darlingi mosquitoes from 2013 to 2015 in three riverine localities (Lupuna, Cahuide and Santa Emilia) in Amazonian Peru. Read More

    Emerging Causes of Arbovirus Encephalitis in North America: Powassan, Chikungunya, and Zika Viruses.
    Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2017 Feb;17(2):12
    Division of Neurological Infections and Inflammatory Diseases, Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 45 Francis Street, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.
    Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses transmitted by the bite of mosquitoes, ticks, or other arthropods. Arboviruses are a common and an increasing cause of human illness in North America. Powassan virus, Chikungunya virus, and Zika virus are arboviruses that have all recently emerged as increasing causes of neurologic illness. Read More

    Use of Mass-Participation Outdoor Events to Assess Human Exposure to Tickborne Pathogens.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2017 Mar;23(3):463-467
    Mapping the public health threat of tickborne pathogens requires quantification of not only the density of infected host-seeking ticks but also the rate of human exposure to these ticks. To efficiently sample a high number of persons in a short time, we used a mass-participation outdoor event. In June 2014, we sampled ≈500 persons competing in a 2-day mountain marathon run across predominantly tick-infested habitat in Scotland. Read More

    Does Zika virus infection affect mosquito response to repellents?
    Sci Rep 2017 Feb 16;7:42826. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Department of Entomology, Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Campus da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE, 50.740-465, Brasil.
    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that people travelling to or living in areas with Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreaks or epidemics adopt prophylactic measures to reduce or eliminate mosquito bites, including the use of insect repellents. It is, however, unknown whether repellents are effective against ZIKV-infected mosquitoes, in part because of the ethical concerns related to exposing a human subject's arm to infected mosquitoes in the standard arm-in-cage assay. We used a previously developed, human subject-free behavioural assay, which mimics a human subject to evaluate the top two recommended insect repellents. Read More

    Frequent Zika Virus Sexual Transmission and Prolonged Viral RNA Shedding in an Immunodeficient Mouse Model.
    Cell Rep 2017 Feb;18(7):1751-1760
    Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA. Electronic address:
    Circulation of Zika virus (ZIKV) was first identified in the Western hemisphere in late 2014. Primarily transmitted through mosquito bite, ZIKV can also be transmitted through sex and from mother to fetus, and maternal ZIKV infection has been associated with fetal malformations. We assessed immunodeficient AG129 mice for their capacity to shed ZIKV in semen and to infect female mice via sexual transmission. Read More

    Presumptive risk factors for monkeypox in rural communities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    PLoS One 2017 13;12(2):e0168664. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.
    Monkeypox virus (MPXV), a close relative of Variola virus, is a zoonotic virus with an unknown reservoir. Interaction with infected wildlife, bites from peri-domestic animals, and bushmeat hunting are hypothesized routes of infection from wildlife to humans. Using a Risk Questionnaire, performed in monkeypox-affected areas of rural Democratic Republic of the Congo, we describe the lifestyles and demographics associated with presumptive risk factors for MPXV infection. Read More

    Mosquito cell-derived West Nile virus replicon particles mimic arbovirus inoculum and have reduced spread in mice.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Feb 10;11(2):e0005394. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.
    Half of the human population is at risk of infection by an arthropod-borne virus. Many of these arboviruses, such as West Nile, dengue, and Zika viruses, infect humans by way of a bite from an infected mosquito. This infectious inoculum is insect cell-derived giving the virus particles distinct qualities not present in secondary infectious virus particles produced by infected vertebrate host cells. Read More

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