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    2018 results match your criteria Human Bite Infections

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    Cellular and Humoral Immunity Protect against Vaginal Zika Virus Infection in Mice.
    J Virol 2018 Jan 17. Epub 2018 Jan 17.
    Department of Medicine/Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pathology & Immunology, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine; The Andrew M. and Jane M. Bursky Center for Human Immunology and Immunotherapy Programs, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.
    Zika virus (ZIKV), which can cause devastating disease in fetuses of infected pregnant women, can be transmitted by mosquito inoculation and sexual routes. Little is known about immune protection against sexually transmitted ZIKV. In this study, we show that previous infection through intravaginal or subcutaneous routes with a contemporary Brazilian strain of ZIKV can protect against subsequent intravaginal challenge with a homologous strain. Read More

    Clinical Guidelines for the Antibiotic Treatment for Community-Acquired Skin and Soft Tissue Infection.
    Infect Chemother 2017 Dec;49(4):301-325
    Department of Internal Medicine, Inje University Ilsan Paik Hospital, Goyang, Korea.
    Skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) is common and important infectious disease. This work represents an update to 2012 Korean guideline for SSTI. The present guideline was developed by the adaptation method. Read More

    Epidemiological characteristics and post-exposure prophylaxis of human rabies in Chongqing, China, 2007-2016.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 Jan 3;18(1). Epub 2018 Jan 3.
    Chongqing Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No.8, Changjiang 2nd Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing, China.
    Background: According to the global framework of eliminating human rabies, China is responding to achieve the target of zero human death from dog-mediated rabies by 2030. Chongqing is the largest municipality directly under central government in China. We described the epidemiological characteristics and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) of human rabies in this area, in order to provide a reliable epidemiology basis for further control and prevention of human rabies. Read More

    Streptococcus suis: a re-emerging pathogen associated with occupational exposure to pigs or pork products. Part I - Epidemiology.
    Ann Agric Environ Med 2017 Dec 29;24(4):683-695. Epub 2017 Nov 29.
    Department of Biological Health Hazards and Parasitology, Institute of Rural Health, Lublin, Poland.
    Streptococcus suis (ex Elliot 1966, Kilpper-Bälz & Schleifer 1987) is a facultatively anaerobic Gram-positive ovoid or coccal bacterium surrounded by a polysaccharide capsule. Based on the antigenic diversity of the capsule, S. suis strains are classified serologically into 35 serotypes. Read More

    A simulation study of effects of host availability on the bite rate of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) and the risk of dengue outbreaks in non-endemic areas.
    Jpn J Infect Dis 2017 Dec 26. Epub 2017 Dec 26.
    Department of Vector Ecology and Environment, Institute of Tropical Medicine (Nekken), Nagasaki University.
    Aedes albopictus is an important vector of dengue fever and tends to ambush blood host in a single place. Thus, host contact frequency may affect the bite rate and risk of disease outbreak, although no studies have examined these parameters. The present study used a simple model to clarify the fundamental relationship between host availability, bite rate, and risk of dengue outbreaks in non-endemic areas. Read More

    Humoral protection against mosquito bite-transmitted Plasmodium falciparum infection in humanized mice.
    NPJ Vaccines 2017 9;2:27. Epub 2017 Oct 9.
    Center for Infectious Disease Research, Seattle, WA USA.
    A malaria vaccine that prevents infection will be an important new tool in continued efforts of malaria elimination, and such vaccines are under intense development for the major human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). Antibodies elicited by vaccines can block the initial phases of parasite infection when sporozoites are deposited into the skin by mosquito bite and then target the liver for further development. However, there are currently no standardized in vivo preclinical models that can measure the inhibitory activity of antibody specificities against Pf sporozoite infection via mosquito bite. Read More

    Transcriptional Immunoprofiling at the Tick-Virus-Host Interface during Early Stages of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Transmission.
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2017 1;7:494. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    Institute of Zoology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia.
    Emerging and re-emerging diseases transmitted by blood feeding arthropods are significant global public health problems. Ticks transmit the greatest variety of pathogenic microorganisms of any blood feeding arthropod. Infectious agents transmitted by ticks are delivered to the vertebrate host together with saliva at the bite site. Read More

    Secretory lipase from the human pathogen Leishmania major: Heterologous expression in the yeast Pichia pastoris and biochemical characterization.
    Biochimie 2017 Dec 12. Epub 2017 Dec 12.
    Laboratoire de Biochimie et de Génie Enzymatique des Lipases, Université de Sfax, ENIS Route de Soukra, Sfax-Tunisia. Electronic address:
    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic reticuloendotheliosis whose pathogen is a zooflagellate belonging to the genus Leishmania transmitted by the bite of an infected phlebotome. Recently, a unique secretory lipase from the human pathogen Leishmania donovani Ldlip3 has been identified and characterized. This lipase has a high identity with a putative triacylglycerol lipase of Leishmania major (Lmlip2). Read More

    Current priorities in the Zika response.
    Immunology 2017 Dec 15. Epub 2017 Dec 15.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Zika virus (ZIKV), a single-stranded RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family, is an arbovirus (viruses transmitted by arthropods) transmitted to humans and non-human primates through the bites of infected female Aedes sp. mosquitoes. Although first isolated in 1947, it only recently emerged as a global threat, present in several countries resulting in a pandemic scenario. Read More

    Buruli Ulcer, a Prototype for Ecosystem-Related Infection, Caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans.
    Clin Microbiol Rev 2018 Jan 13;31(1). Epub 2017 Dec 13.
    Aix-Marseille Université, URMITE, UMR CNRS 7278, IRD 198, INSERM 1095, Faculté de Médecine, Marseille, France
    Buruli ulcer is a noncontagious disabling cutaneous and subcutaneous mycobacteriosis reported by 33 countries in Africa, Asia, Oceania, and South America. The causative agent, Mycobacterium ulcerans, derives from Mycobacterium marinum by genomic reduction and acquisition of a plasmid-borne, nonribosomal cytotoxin mycolactone, the major virulence factor. M. Read More

    Variable manifestations, diverse seroreactivity and post-treatment persistence in non-human primates exposed to Borrelia burgdorferi by tick feeding.
    PLoS One 2017 13;12(12):e0189071. Epub 2017 Dec 13.
    Center for Comparative Medicine, Schools of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, CA, United States of America.
    The efficacy and accepted regimen of antibiotic treatment for Lyme disease has been a point of significant contention among physicians and patients. While experimental studies in animals have offered evidence of post-treatment persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi, variations in methodology, detection methods and limitations of the models have led to some uncertainty with respect to translation of these results to human infection. With all stages of clinical Lyme disease having previously been described in nonhuman primates, this animal model was selected in order to most closely mimic human infection and response to treatment. Read More

    Infection via mosquito bite alters Zika virus tissue tropism and replication kinetics in rhesus macaques.
    Nat Commun 2017 Dec 13;8(1):2096. Epub 2017 Dec 13.
    Department of Pathobiological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Veterinary Medicine, 1656 Linden Dr., Madison, WI, 53706, USA.
    Mouse and nonhuman primate models now serve as useful platforms to study Zika virus (ZIKV) pathogenesis, candidate therapies, and vaccines, but they rely on needle inoculation of virus: the effects of mosquito-borne infection on disease outcome have not been explored in these models. Here we show that infection via mosquito bite delays ZIKV replication to peak viral loads in rhesus macaques. Importantly, in mosquito-infected animals ZIKV tissue distribution was limited to hemolymphatic tissues, female reproductive tract tissues, kidney, and liver, potentially emulating key features of human ZIKV infections, most of which are characterized by mild or asymptomatic disease. Read More

    Reduction in human Lyme neuroborreliosis associated with a major epidemic among roe deer.
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2017 Dec 6. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    Department of Plant- and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address:
    Lyme neuroborreliosis is the most severe clinical manifestation of Lyme borreliosis. In most of Denmark, and also Europe, the overall prevalence of Lyme borreliosis seems to be stabilising. This is not the case on the island of Funen, Denmark, where the number of human Lyme neuroborreliosis cases has markedly declined throughout the last decade. Read More

    An Investigation of the First Case of Human Rabies Caused by a Fox in China in May 2016.
    Biomed Environ Sci 2017 Nov;30(11):825-828
    China Field Epidemiology Training Program, Beijing 100050, China.
    This study assesses the causes and prevention measures of rabies through epidemiological investigation and analysis. A field epidemiological survey was conducted to investigate a case of rabies by fox bite. The onset of symptoms began 50 days after the bite. Read More

    A randomized trial of the prophylactic activity of DSM265 against pre-erythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum controlled human malaria infection by mosquito bites and direct venous inoculation.
    J Infect Dis 2017 Dec 5. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    Seattle Malaria Clinical Trials Center, Fred Hutch Cancer Research Center, United States of America.
    Background: DSM265 is a selective inhibitor of Plasmodium dihydroorotate dehydrogenase that fully protected against controlled human malarial infection (CHMI) by direct venous inoculation of Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites when administered one day pre-challenge and provided partial protection when administered seven days pre-challenge.

    Methods: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was performed to assess safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and efficacy of one oral dose of 400 mg DSM265 pre-CHMI. Three cohorts were studied with DSM265 dosing three or seven days before direct venous inoculation of sporozoites or seven days before five infected mosquito bites. Read More

    The course of pregnancy and delivery in a patient with malaria.
    Ginekol Pol 2017 ;88(10):574-575
    Mother's Memorial Hospital Research Institute in Łódź, Rzgowska 281/289, 93-338, Lodz, Poland.
    Malaria is one of the most common lethal parasitic diseases. Infection is transmitted when an infected female mosquito bites a human introducing the sporozoites into human blood. The article presents the course of pregnancy and delivery in a patient complicated by Plasmodium infection. Read More

    Nat Rev Dis Primers 2017 Nov 30;3:17091. Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA), Wildlife Zoonoses and Vector Borne Diseases Research Group, (WHO Collaborating Centre for the Characterisation of Rabies and Rabies-Related Viruses, World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Reference Laboratory for Rabies), Weybridge, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, UK.
    Rabies is a life-threatening neglected tropical disease: tens of thousands of cases are reported annually in endemic countries (mainly in Africa and Asia), although the actual numbers are most likely underestimated. Rabies is a zoonotic disease that is caused by infection with viruses of the Lyssavirus genus, which are transmitted via the saliva of an infected animal. Dogs are the most important reservoir for rabies viruses, and dog bites account for >99% of human cases. Read More

    Oral and Dental Aspects of Child Abuse and Neglect.
    • Authors:
    Pediatr Dent 2017 Sep;39(6):235-241
    In all 50 states, health care providers (including dentists) are mandated to report suspected cases of abuse and neglect to social service or law enforcement agencies. The purpose of this report is to review the oral and dental aspects of physical and sexual abuse and dental neglect in children and the role of pediatric care providers and dental providers in evaluating such conditions. This report addresses the evaluation of bite marks as well as perioral and intraoral injuries, infections, and diseases that may raise suspicion for child abuse or neglect. Read More

    Dataset generated for Dissection of mechanisms of Trypanothione Reductase and Tryparedoxin Peroxidase through dynamic network analysis and simulations in leishmaniasis.
    Data Brief 2017 Dec 19;15:757-769. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    National Centre for Cell Science, NCCS Complex, Ganeshkhind, SP Pune University Campus, Pune 411007, India.
    Leishmaniasis is the second largest parasitic killer disease caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania, transmitted by the bite of sand flies. It's endemic in the eastern India with 165.4 million populations at risk with the current drug regimen. Read More

    Upregulation of Aedes aegypti Vago1 by Wolbachia and its effect on dengue virus replication.
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 2017 Nov 21;92:45-52. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Australian Infectious Disease Research Centre, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 Australia. Electronic address:
    Dengue infection along with its related disease conditions poses a significant threat to human health. The pathogen responsible for this infection is dengue virus (DENV) which is primarily transmitted to humans through the bites of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Unavailability of a potent vaccine has recently sparked renewed research endeavours aimed at vector control. Read More

    Prevention Practices among United States Pregnant Women Who Travel to Zika Outbreak Areas.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Jan 1;98(1):178-180. Epub 2018 Jan 1.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.
    We surveyed pregnant women from the United States to assess the prevention practices they used when traveling to countries with ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreaks. Of the 749 who agreed to participate, 710 completed the survey's travel questions and 59 of those had traveled to a ZIKV outbreak area in the past 12 months. Only 43% of the women who had traveled to ZIKV outbreak areas reported frequently using mosquito repellant with 32% stating they did not use it at all. Read More

    A tiny tick can cause a big health problem.
    Indian J Ophthalmol 2017 Nov;65(11):1228-1232
    Former Professor, Electron Microscopy Centre, Plymouth University, England, United Kingdom.
    Ticks are tiny crawling bugs in the spider family that feed by sucking blood from animals. They are second only to mosquitoes as vectors of human disease, both infectious and toxic. Infected ticks spread over a hundred diseases, some of which are fatal if undetected. Read More

    Changes in total and differential leukocyte counts during the clinically silent liver phase in a controlled human malaria infection in malaria-naïve Dutch volunteers.
    Malar J 2017 Nov 10;16(1):457. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Institute for Tropical Diseases, Harbour Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Background: Both in endemic countries and in imported malaria, changes in total and differential leukocyte count during Plasmodium falciparum infection have been described. To study the exact dynamics of differential leukocyte counts and their ratios, they were monitored in a group of healthy non-immune volunteers in two separate Controlled Human Malaria Infection (CHMI) studies.

    Methods: In two CHMI trials, CHMI-a and CHMI-b, 15 and 24 healthy malaria-naïve volunteers, respectively, were exposed to bites of infected mosquitoes, using the P. Read More

    Oral and Dental Aspects of Child Abuse and Neglect.
    Pediatr Dent 2017 Jul;39(4):278-283
    Department of Pediatrics, The George Washington University School of Medicine, and Division of Oral Health, at the Children's National Medical Center, Washington, D.C., USA.
    In all 50 states, health care providers (including dentists) are mandated to report suspected cases of abuse and neglect to social service or law enforcement agencies. The purpose of this report is to review the oral and dental aspects of physical and sexual abuse and dental neglect in children and the role of pediatric care providers and dental providers in evaluating such conditions. This report addresses the evaluation of bite marks as well as perioral and intraoral injuries, infections, and diseases that may raise suspicion for child abuse or neglect. Read More

    Prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in urban and suburban areas of Switzerland.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Nov 9;10(1):558. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Spiez Laboratory, Federal Office for Civil Protection, Austrasse, Spiez, Switzerland.
    Background: Throughout Europe, Ixodes ricinus transmits numerous pathogens. Its widespread distribution is not limited to rural but also includes urbanized areas. To date, comprehensive data on pathogen carrier rates of I. Read More

    Indoor and outdoor malaria vector surveillance in western Kenya: implications for better understanding of residual transmission.
    Malar J 2017 Nov 6;16(1):443. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Program in Public Health, College of Health Sciences, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA, 92697, USA.
    Background: The widespread use of indoor-based malaria vector control interventions has been shown to alter the behaviour of vectors in Africa. There is an increasing concern that such changes could sustain residual transmission. This study was conducted to assess vector species composition, feeding behaviour and their contribution to indoor and outdoor malaria transmission in western Kenya. Read More

    Interplay between Keratinocytes and Myeloid Cells Drives Dengue Virus Spread in Human Skin.
    J Invest Dermatol 2017 Oct 26. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Center for Vaccine Research, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Electronic address:
    The skin is the site of dengue virus (DENV) transmission following the bite of an infected mosquito, but the contribution of individual cell types within skin to infection is unknown. We studied the dynamics of DENV infection in human skin explants using quantitative in situ imaging. DENV replicated primarily in the epidermis and induced a transient interferon-α response. Read More

    Transcriptome Assessment of Erythema Migrans Skin Lesions in Patients With Early Lyme Disease Reveals Predominant Interferon Signaling.
    J Infect Dis 2017 Dec;217(1):158-167
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Valhalla.
    Background: The most common clinical manifestation of early Lyme disease is the erythema migrans (EM) skin lesion that develops at the tick bite site typically between 7 and 14 days after infection with Borreliella burgdorferi. The host-pathogen interactions that occur in the skin may have a critical role in determining outcome of infection.

    Methods: Gene arrays were used to characterize the global transcriptional alterations in skin biopsy samples of EM lesions from untreated adult patients with Lyme disease in comparison to controls. Read More

    Examining the human infectious reservoir for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in areas of differing transmission intensity.
    Nat Commun 2017 Oct 26;8(1):1133. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Department of Immunology and Infection, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, WC1E 7HT, UK.
    A detailed understanding of the human infectious reservoir is essential for improving malaria transmission-reducing interventions. Here we report a multi-regional assessment of population-wide malaria transmission potential based on 1209 mosquito feeding assays in endemic areas of Burkina Faso and Kenya. Across both sites, we identified 39 infectious individuals. Read More

    Isolation and identification of R. raoultii in human cases: a surveillance study in three medical centers in China.
    Clin Infect Dis 2017 Oct 23. Epub 2017 Oct 23.
    State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, 20 Dong-Da Street, Fengtai District, Beijing 100071, P. R. China.
    Background: Rickettsia raoultii was frequently detected in multiple tick species, while human infection remained scarcely studied.

    Methods: A surveillance study was performed at 3 sentinel hospitals in China, to recruit participants with suspected tick exposure. R. Read More

    Influence of microhabitat use and behavior of Amblyomma sculptum and Amblyomma dubitatum nymphs (Acari: Ixodidae) on human risk for tick exposure, with notes on Rickettsia infection.
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2018 Jan 16;9(1):67-71. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    Laboratório de Ixodologia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Av. Pará, 1720/Campus Umuarama-Bloco 2T, CEP 38400-902 Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) is a potentially lethal human disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii transmitted by ticks, including Amblyomma sculptum. However, in Southeast Brazil, where most BSF cases occur, capybaras are key hosts for both A. sculptum and Amblyomma dubitatum. Read More

    Molecular epidemiology of mosquitoes for the transmission of forest malaria in south-central Vietnam.
    Trop Med Health 2017 12;45:27. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Department of Virology and Parasitology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, 1-98 Kutsukake, Toyoake, Aichi 470-1192 Japan.
    Human infection caused by non-human primate malarial parasites, such as Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium cynomolgi, occurs naturally in Southeast Asian countries, including Vietnam. Members of the Anopheles dirus species complex are known to be important vectors of human malarial parasites in the forested areas of southern and central Vietnam, including those in Khanh Phu commune and Khanh Hoa Province. Recent molecular epidemiological studies in Vietnam have reported cases of co-infection with Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, and P. Read More

    Immune Regulation of Plasmodium Is Anopheles Species Specific and Infection Intensity Dependent.
    MBio 2017 Oct 17;8(5). Epub 2017 Oct 17.
    W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Malaria Research Institute, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Malaria parasite ookinetes must traverse the vector mosquito midgut epithelium to transform into sporozoite-producing oocysts. The Anopheles innate immune system is a key regulator of this process, thereby determining vector competence and disease transmission. The role of Anopheles innate immunity factors as agonists or antagonists of malaria parasite infection has been previously determined using specific single Anopheles-Plasmodium species combinations. Read More

    Coordination of different ligands to copper(II) and cobalt(III) metal centers enhances Zika virus and dengue virus loads in both arthropod cells and human keratinocytes.
    Biochim Biophys Acta 2018 Jan 13;1862(1):40-50. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, USA; Center for Molecular Medicine, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, USA. Electronic address:
    Trace elements such as copper and cobalt have been associated with virus-host interactions. However, studies to show the effect of conjugation of copper(II) or cobalt(III) metal centers to thiosemicarbazone ligand(s) derived from either food additives or mosquito repellent such as 2-acetylethiazole or citral, respectively, on Zika virus (ZIKV) or dengue virus (serotype 2; DENV2) infections have not been explored. In this study, we show that four compounds comprising of thiosemicarbazone ligand derived from 2-acetylethiazole viz. Read More

    Public Health Considerations Associated with the Location and Operation of Off-Leash Dog Parks.
    J Community Health 2017 Oct 12. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    British Columbia Centre for Disease Control, 655 W 12th Avenue, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 4R4, Canada.
    Off-leash dog parks may enhance human health, but may also lead to health risk through infection or canine aggression. Published evidence was reviewed to examine positive and negative public health impacts of off-leash dog parks, as well as strategies for enhancing benefits and mitigating risks. Evidence suggests that off-leash dog parks can benefit physical and social health, as well as community connectedness. Read More

    Human cellular and humoral immune responses to Phlebotomus papatasi salivary gland antigens in endemic areas differing in prevalence of Leishmania major infection.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Oct 12;11(10):e0005905. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Laboratory of Medical Parasitology, Biotechnologies and Biomolecules, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia.
    Background: Sand fly saliva compounds are able to elicit specific immune responses that have a significant role in Leishmania parasite establishment and disease outcome. Characterizing anti-saliva immune responses in individuals living in well defined leishmaniasis endemic areas would provide valuable insights regarding their effect on parasite transmission and establishment in humans.

    Methodology/principal Findings: We explored the cellular and humoral immune responses to Phlebotomus (P. Read More

    Gastrointestinal Tract As Entry Route for Hantavirus Infection.
    Front Microbiol 2017 8;8:1721. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Institute of Clinical Physiology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin BerlinBerlin, Germany.
    Background: Hantaviruses are zoonotic agents that cause hemorrhagic fevers and are thought to be transmitted to humans by exposure to aerosolized excreta of infected rodents. Puumala virus (PUUV) is the predominant endemic hantavirus in Europe. A large proportion of PUUV-infected patients suffer from gastrointestinal symptoms of unclear origin. Read More

    Characterization of T-cell immune responses in clinical trials of the candidate RTS,S malaria vaccine.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018 Jan 1;14(1):17-27. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    a GSK Vaccines , Rixensart , Belgium.
    The candidate malaria vaccine RTS,S has demonstrated 45.7% efficacy over 18 months against all clinical disease in a phase-III field study of African children. RTS,S targets the circumsporozoite protein (CSP), which is expressed on the Plasmodium sporozoite during the pre-erythrocyte stage of its life-cycle; the stage between mosquito bite and liver infection. Read More

    Zoonotic infection of Brazilian primate workers with New World simian foamy virus.
    PLoS One 2017 20;12(9):e0184502. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Laboratory Branch, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.
    Simian foamy viruses (SFVs) are retroviruses present in nearly all nonhuman primates (NHPs), including Old World primates (OWP) and New World primates (NWP). While all confirmed human infections with SFV are from zoonotic transmissions originating from OWP, little is known about the zoonotic transmission potential of NWP SFV. We conducted a longitudinal, prospective study of 56 workers occupationally exposed to NWP in Brazil. Read More

    Controlled Human Malaria Infection: Applications, Advances, and Challenges.
    Infect Immun 2018 Jan 19;86(1). Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University, Southport, Queensland, Australia.
    Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) entails deliberate infection with malaria parasites either by mosquito bite or by direct injection of sporozoites or parasitized erythrocytes. When required, the resulting blood-stage infection is curtailed by the administration of antimalarial drugs. Inducing a malaria infection via inoculation with infected blood was first used as a treatment (malariotherapy) for neurosyphilis in Europe and the United States in the early 1900s. Read More

    How often do mosquitoes bite humans in southern England? A standardised summer trial at four sites reveals spatial, temporal and site-related variation in biting rates.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Sep 15;10(1):420. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Woking, Surrey, UK.
    Background: This field-based study examined the abundance and species complement of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) attracted to humans at four sites in the United Kingdom (UK). The study used a systematic approach to directly measure feeding by mosquitoes on humans at multiple sites and using multiple volunteers. Quantifying how frequently humans are bitten in the field by mosquitoes is a fundamental parameter in assessing arthropod-borne virus transmission. Read More

    Animal and human bite injuries: a 5-year retrospective study in a large urban public hospital in Venezuela.
    Oral Maxillofac Surg 2017 Dec 13;21(4):425-428. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, "Dr. Angel Larralde" University Hospital, Carabobo University, Altos De La Colina De Bárbula 15-25, Naguanagua, Carabobo, 2042, Venezuela.
    Introduction: Animal bite injuries to the head and neck regions are an important public health problem. Most of these bites are from dogs. A 10-year retrospective study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of animal and human bites. Read More

    HIV-related knowledge, attitude and practices of healthy adults in Cross River State Nigeria: a population based-survey.
    Pan Afr Med J 2017 4;27:170. Epub 2017 Jul 4.
    Department of Chemical pathology, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria.
    Introduction: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) remains a global health problem disproportionately distributed across Nigeria. Cross river state (CRS), a tourist state, located in the Niger delta, has one of the highest prevalence rates. There is evidence that poor knowledge and stigmatization are obstacles to achieving universal access to HIV prevention programs. Read More

    Modest heterologous protection after Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite immunization: a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial.
    BMC Med 2017 Sep 13;15(1):168. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Geert Grooteplein 28, Microbiology 268, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Background: A highly efficacious vaccine is needed for malaria control and eradication. Immunization with Plasmodium falciparum NF54 parasites under chemoprophylaxis (chemoprophylaxis and sporozoite (CPS)-immunization) induces the most efficient long-lasting protection against a homologous parasite. However, parasite genetic diversity is a major hurdle for protection against heterologous strains. Read More

    Aedes Aegypti saliva enhances chikungunya virus replication in human skin fibroblasts via inhibition of the type I interferon signaling pathway.
    Infect Genet Evol 2017 Nov 1;55:68-70. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    Laboratoire MIVEGEC, UMR 224 IRD/CNRS/UM1, Montpellier, France. Electronic address:
    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmission occurs through the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito which injects virus-containing saliva into the skin of the human host during blood feeding. In the present study, we have determined the effect of Aedes aegypti saliva on CHIKV replication in human skin fibroblasts, a major cell type for viral entry, which mimics the events that occur during natural transmission. A significant increase in the expression of viral transcripts and infectious viral particles was observed in fibroblasts infected with CHIKV in the presence of saliva, as compared with those infected with virus alone. Read More

    The role of asymptomatics and dogs on leishmaniasis propagation.
    Math Biosci 2017 Nov 31;293:46-55. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    Unidad de Medicina Experimental, Hospital General Dr. Eduardo Liceaga, México, D.F. 06726, Mexico. Electronic address:
    Leishmaniasis is a parasite disease transmitted by the bites of sandflies. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most common form of the disease and it is endemic in the Americas. Around 70 animal species, including humans, have been found as natural reservoir hosts of leishmania parasites. Read More

    Characterization of Yersinia pestis Interactions with Human Neutrophils In vitro.
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2017 9;7:358. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Laboratory of Zoonotic Pathogens, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of HealthHamilton, MT, United States.
    Yersinia pestis is a gram-negative, zoonotic, bacterial pathogen, and the causative agent of plague. The bubonic form of plague occurs subsequent to deposition of bacteria in the skin by the bite of an infected flea. Neutrophils are recruited to the site of infection within the first few hours and interactions between neutrophils and Y. Read More

    Laceration Management.
    J Emerg Med 2017 Sep 25;53(3):369-382. Epub 2017 Aug 25.
    East Orange General Hospital, East Orange, New Jersey.
    Background: Traumatic lacerations to the skin represent a fairly common reason for seeking emergency department care. Although the incidence of lacerations has decreased over the past decades, traumatic cutaneous lacerations remain a common reason for patients to seek emergency department care.

    Objective: Innovations in laceration management have the potential to improve patient experience with this common presentation. Read More

    O'nyong-nyong fever: a neglected mosquito-borne viral disease.
    Pathog Glob Health 2017 Sep 22;111(6):271-275. Epub 2017 Aug 22.
    b Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Institute for Human Infections and Immunity , University of Texas Medical Branch , Galveston , TX , USA.
    O'nyong nyong virus (ONNV), a mosquito-borne Alphavirus, is primarily transmitted through the bite of Anopheles funestus and Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, which are also malaria parasite vectors in Africa. The virus, first isolated in Uganda in 1959, is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa and has caused several major outbreaks both in West and East Africa. ONNV fever, characterized by severe arthralgia, is similar to chikungunya fever, with the exception of cervical lymphadenitis, which is peculiar to the former. Read More

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