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    2058 results match your criteria Human Bite Infections

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    The Immune Responses of the Animal Hosts of West Nile Virus: A Comparison of Insects, Birds, and Mammals.
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2018 3;8:96. Epub 2018 Apr 3.
    School of Molecular Biosciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, United States.
    Vector-borne diseases, including arboviruses, pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. Arboviruses of the flavivirus genus, such as Zika virus (ZIKV), dengue virus, yellow fever virus (YFV), and West Nile virus (WNV), are transmitted to humans from insect vectors and can cause serious disease. In 2017, over 2,000 reported cases of WNV virus infection occurred in the United States, with two-thirds of cases classified as neuroinvasive. Read More

    Repellent efficacy of a new combination of fipronil and permethrin against Lutzomyia longipalpis.
    Parasit Vectors 2018 Apr 16;11(1):247. Epub 2018 Apr 16.
    Boehringer Ingelheim, 3239 Satellite Blvd., Duluth, GA, 30096, USA.
    Background: Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of Leishmania infantum, the agent of canine and human visceral leishmaniosis in the Americas. Considering that the dog is the main domestic host of the parasite, repellent treatment is a measure that might contribute to the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniosis. The repellent efficacy of a single treatment of a new spot-on topical combination of fipronil and permethrin (Frontline Tri-Act®, Merial, now part of Boehringer-Ingelheim) to repel Lu. Read More

    A cynomolgus macaque model for Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever.
    Nat Microbiol 2018 Apr 9. Epub 2018 Apr 9.
    Laboratory of Virology, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT, USA.
    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is the most medically significant tick-borne disease, being widespread in the Middle East, Asia, Africa and parts of Europe . Increasing case numbers, westerly movement and broadly ranging case fatality rates substantiate the concern of CCHF as a public health threat. Ixodid ticks of the genus Hyalomma are the vector for CCHF virus (CCHFV), an arbovirus in the genus Orthonairovirus of the family Nairoviridae. Read More

    Primary blood-hosts of mosquitoes are influenced by social and ecological conditions in a complex urban landscape.
    Parasit Vectors 2018 Apr 10;11(1):218. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, NY, 12545, USA.
    Background: Temperate urban landscapes support persistent and growing populations of Culex and Aedes mosquito vectors. Large urban mosquito populations can represent a significant risk for transmission of emergent arboviral infection. However, even large mosquito populations are only a risk to the animals they bite. Read More

    J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2018 Mar 22. Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    Researcher, University of West Florida, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Pensacola, FL, USA, Shark Behaviorist, Shark Research Institute, Global Shark Attack File, Princeton, NJ, USA.
    The mouth of a shark is a breeding ground for a large variety of bacteria which can easily get transferred onto a human body in the event of a shark bite. Here, we review infections originating from shark oral bacterial flora, which originate from the microbiome of its prey, as well as from the surroundings where an incident takes place. We use the example of an incident which occurred in an aquarium involving a sandtiger shark, Carcharias taurus. Read More

    Clinical signs and blood-test results of humans infected with zoonotic simian foamy viruses: a case-control study.
    J Infect Dis 2018 Mar 28. Epub 2018 Mar 28.
    Unité d'épidémiologie et Physiopathologie des Virus Oncogènes, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.
    Background: A spillover of simian foamy virus (SFV) to humans, following bites from infected nonhuman primates (NHPs), is ongoing in exposed populations. These retroviruses establish persistent infections of unknown physiological consequences to the human host.

    Methods: We performed a case-control study to compare 24 Cameroonian hunters infected with gorilla SFV and 24 controls matched for age and ethnicity. Read More

    Liver Stage Infection and Transition to Stable Blood Stage Infection in Liver-Humanized and Blood-Humanized FRGN KO Mice Enables Testing of Blood Stage Inhibitory Antibodies (Reticulocyte-Binding Protein Homolog 5) .
    Front Immunol 2018 14;9:524. Epub 2018 Mar 14.
    Center for Infectious Disease Research, Seattle, WA, United States.
    The invention of liver-humanized mouse models has made it possible to directly study the preerythrocytic stages of . In contrast, the current models to directly study blood stage infection are extremely limited. Humanization of the mouse blood stream is achievable by frequent injections of human red blood cells (hRBCs) and is currently the only system with which to study human malaria blood stage infections in a small animal model. Read More

    Fractional ablative carbon dioxide laser followed by topical sodium stibogluconate application: A treatment option for pediatric cutaneous leishmaniasis.
    Pediatr Dermatol 2018 Mar 25. Epub 2018 Mar 25.
    Department of Dermatology, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Background: Leishmaniasis is a protozoan zoonotic parasitic infection with cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral manifestations. Israel is endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis, which is a self-limited disease but is associated with scarring, which is often a source of psychological and social burden for patients. Scars can be especially devastating for children and teenagers. Read More

    Splenic Rupture as the First Manifestation of Babesia Microti Infection: Report of a Case and Review of Literature.
    Am J Case Rep 2018 Mar 23;19:335-341. Epub 2018 Mar 23.
    Division of Clinical Microbiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
    BACKGROUND Babesiosis is an emerging, tick-borne zoonosis caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Babesia. Babesia microti is the main pathogen causing human disease and is endemic in the northeastern and upper midwestern parts of the USA. Severity of infection ranges from mild, self-limited, febrile viral-like illness accompanied by nonspecific symptoms to life-threatening infection complicated by severe hemolytic anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and renal or/and hepatic failure. Read More

    A Novel Scoring System Approach to Assess Patients with Lyme Disease (Nutech Functional Score).
    J Glob Infect Dis 2018 Jan-Mar;10(1):3-6
    Neurologist and Psychiatrist, Expert for Lyme Disease, Ansbach, Germany.
    Introduction: A bacterial infection by referred to as Lyme disease (LD) or borreliosis is transmitted mostly by a bite of the tick in the USA and in Europe. Various tests are used for the diagnosis of LD, but their results are often unreliable. We compiled a list of clinically visible and patient-reported symptoms that are associated with LD. Read More

    The Impact of Periodic Distribution Campaigns of Long-Lasting Insecticidal-Treated Bed Nets on Malaria Vector Dynamics and Human Exposure in Dielmo, Senegal.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Mar 19. Epub 2018 Mar 19.
    Aix Marseille University, IRD (Dakar, Marseille, Papeete), AP-HM, IHU-Méditerranée Infection, UMR Vecteurs-Infections Tropicales et Méditerranéennes (VITROME), Marseille, France.
    The implementation of long-lasting insecticidal-treated bed nets (LLINs) has contributed to halving the mortality rate due to malaria since 2000 in sub-Saharan Africa. These tools are highly effective against indoor-feeding malaria vectors. Thus, to achieve the World Health Assembly's new target to reduce the burden of malaria over the next 15 years by 90%, it is necessary to understand how the spatiotemporal dynamics of malaria vectors and human exposure to bites is modified in the context of scaling up global efforts to control malaria transmission. Read More

    First detection of Borrelia miyamotoi in Ixodes ricinus ticks from northern Italy.
    Parasit Vectors 2018 Mar 20;11(1):130. Epub 2018 Mar 20.
    Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Legnaro, Italy.
    Background: Borrelia miyamotoi is a spirochete transmitted by several ixodid tick species. It causes a relapsing fever in humans and is currently considered as an emerging pathogen. In Europe, B. Read More

    Human Babesiosis Caused by a Babesia crassa-like Pathogen: A Case Series.
    Clin Infect Dis 2018 Mar 10. Epub 2018 Mar 10.
    State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Fengtai District, Beijing, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Human babesiosis is an emerging health problem in China.

    Methods: Babesia were identified in ticks, sheep, and humans in northeastern China using PCR followed by genetic sequencing. We enrolled residents of Heilongjiang and Jilin provinces between 2015 and 2016 who reported a recent tick bite and experienced a viral like illness after recent tick bite or were healthy residents. Read More

    Capnocytophaga canimorsus: An Emerging Pathogen in Immunocompetent Patients-Experience from an Emergency Department.
    J Emerg Med 2018 Mar 6. Epub 2018 Mar 6.
    Emergency Department, San Antonio Hospital, San Daniele del Friuli, Udine, Italy.
    Background: Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a bacterium of the normal oral flora of dogs and cats. Human infection is caused by animal bite but is rarely observed, mainly in immunocompromised patients. We present 2 cases of C. Read More

    Elevated Plasmodium infection rates and high pyrethroid resistance in major malaria vectors in a forested area of Cameroon highlight challenges of malaria control.
    Parasit Vectors 2018 Mar 8;11(1):157. Epub 2018 Mar 8.
    Vector group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, L3 5QA, UK.
    Background: High coverage of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) is the cornerstone of the malaria control strategy of the national malaria control program (NMCP) in Cameroon, with a target of reducing malaria transmission to less than 10% by 2035. To this end, more than 20 million LLINs have been distributed to populations countrywide since 2011. The present study evaluated entomological indices and Anopheles susceptibility to pyrethroids in a rural forested area of south Cameroon with high coverage of LLINs. Read More

    Out of the net: An agent-based model to study human movements influence on local-scale malaria transmission.
    PLoS One 2018 6;13(3):e0193493. Epub 2018 Mar 6.
    Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Instituto de Geografía, Quito, Ecuador.
    Though malaria control initiatives have markedly reduced malaria prevalence in recent decades, global eradication is far from actuality. Recent studies show that environmental and social heterogeneities in low-transmission settings have an increased weight in shaping malaria micro-epidemiology. New integrated and more localized control strategies should be developed and tested. Read More

    [Tularemia in a jogger woman after the attack by a common buzzard (Buteo buteo): A "One Health" case report].
    Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 2018 Mar;160(3):185-188
    Infektiologie und Spitalhygiene, Kantonsspital Baden.
    Introduction: A female jogger was attacked by a common buzzard (Buteo buteo) and was scratched lightly at the back of the head. One week later she was taken ill with high fever and headache which was later diagnosed as ulcero-glandular tularemia in regional lymph nodes, caused by Francisella tularensis. Recovery was only achieved after several weeks of systemic antibiotic treatment (Gentamicin/ Ciprofloxacine). Read More

    Adenovirus-prime and baculovirus-boost heterologous immunization achieves sterile protection against malaria sporozoite challenge in a murine model.
    Sci Rep 2018 Mar 1;8(1):3896. Epub 2018 Mar 1.
    Laboratory of Vaccinology and Applied Immunology, Kanazawa University School of Pharmacy, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, 920-1192, Japan.
    With the increasing prevalence of artemisinin-resistant malaria parasites, a highly efficacious and durable vaccine for malaria is urgently required. We have developed an experimental virus-vectored vaccine platform based on an envelope-modified baculovirus dual-expression system (emBDES). Here, we show a conceptually new vaccine platform based on an adenovirus-prime/emBDES-boost heterologous immunization regimen expressing the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP). Read More

    The clinical characteristics and the features of immunophenotype of peripheral lymphocytes of adult onset chronic active Epstein-Barr virus disease at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Beijing.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Mar;97(9):e9854
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (CAEBV) infection is a rare disease with high mortality. Most of CAEBV patients have been reported from Japan and are pediatric cases.The goal was to describe the clinical characteristics and the immunophenotypic features of peripheral lymphocytes in adult onset CAEBV patients. Read More

    A randomized feasibility trial comparing four antimalarial drug regimens to induce gametocytemia in the controlled human malaria infection model.
    Elife 2018 Feb 27;7. Epub 2018 Feb 27.
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Malaria elimination strategies require a thorough understanding of parasite transmission from human to mosquito. A clinical model to induce gametocytes to understand their dynamics and evaluate transmission-blocking interventions (TBI) is currently unavailable. Here, we explore the use of the well-established Controlled Human Malaria Infection model (CHMI) to induce gametocyte carriage with different antimalarial drug regimens. Read More

    Asymptomatic carriers of Leishmania infantum in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Morocco.
    Parasitol Res 2018 Apr 24;117(4):1237-1244. Epub 2018 Feb 24.
    Ecology and the Environment Laboratory L2E (URAC 32, CNRST ERACNERS 06), Faculty of Sciences Semlalia, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakech, Morocco.
    In Morocco, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a parasitic disease caused by the flagellated protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum. L. infantum is transmitted by the bite of female phlebotomine sandflies, and its main reservoir hosts are domestic dogs. Read More

    Investigating zoonotic infection barriers to ape Plasmodium parasites using faecal DNA analysis.
    Int J Parasitol 2018 Feb 21. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; Department of Microbiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address:
    African apes are endemically infected with numerous Plasmodium spp. including close relatives of human Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, and Plasmodium malariae. Although these ape parasites are not believed to pose a zoonotic threat, their ability to colonise humans has not been fully explored. Read More

    Spatio-temporal distribution of mosquitoes and risk of malaria infection in Rwanda.
    Acta Trop 2018 Jun 21;182:149-157. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University & Research, PO Box 16, 6700 AA, Wageningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
    To date, the Republic of Rwanda has not systematically reported on distribution, diversity and malaria infectivity rate of mosquito species throughout the country. Therefore, we assessed the spatial and temporal variation of mosquitoes in the domestic environment, as well as the nocturnal biting behavior and infection patterns of the main malaria vectors in Rwanda. For this purpose, mosquitoes were collected monthly from 2010 to 2013 by human landing catches (HLC) and pyrethrum spray collections (PSC) in seven sentinel sites. Read More

    Serosurvey of in high risk population in Turkey, endemic to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus.
    J Vector Borne Dis 2017 Oct-Dec;54(4):341-347
    Vocational School of Health Services, Cumhuriyet University, Sivas, Turkey.
    Background & Objectives: Q fever caused by Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic infection that spreads to human beings from animals. This study was aimed to demographically examine the C. burnetii seroprevalence in the people living in villages where Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is endemic, in terms of various risk factors such as tick bites, tick contact, and occupational groups. Read More

    A Human Bite on the Scrotum: Case Report and Review of Management in the Emergency Department.
    J Emerg Med 2018 Feb 10. Epub 2018 Feb 10.
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore.
    Background: Human bites involving the genitalia rarely present to the emergency department (ED). They have the potential to cause life-threatening secondary infections as well as serious physical and functional damage.

    Case Report: We report a case of an adult male who sustained a human bite to the scrotum, resulting in a ragged laceration on the anterior scrotum, with a devascularized flap and necrotic edges overlying the wound. Read More

    Turning the tables on cytomegalovirus: targeting viral Fc receptors by CARs containing mutated CH2-CH3 IgG spacer domains.
    J Transl Med 2018 Feb 8;16(1):26. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    Children's Cancer Research Institute, Zimmermannplatz 10, 1090, Vienna, Austria.
    Background: During infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) several viral proteins occur on cell surfaces in high quantity. We thus pursue an HLA-independent approach for immunotherapy of HCMV using chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) and bispecific BiTE antibody constructs. In this context, HCMV-encoded proteins that mediate viral immune evasion and bind human IgG might represent particularly attractive target antigens. Read More

    Rates and risk factors for human cutaneous anthrax in the country of Georgia: National surveillance data, 2008-2015.
    PLoS One 2018 7;13(2):e0192031. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Branch of Battelle Memorial Institute in Georgia, Tbilisi, Georgia.
    Introduction: Anthrax is endemic in the country of Georgia. The most common cutaneous anthrax form accounts for 95% of anthrax cases and often is self-resolving. Humans are infected from processing contaminated animal products, contacting sick animals, or by insect bites. Read More

    Neutrophils kill the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis using trogocytosis.
    PLoS Biol 2018 Feb 6;16(2):e2003885. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology & Molecular Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America.
    T. vaginalis, a human-infective parasite, causes the most common nonviral sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide and contributes to adverse inflammatory disorders. The immune response to T. Read More

    Outbreak of Zika virus pathogenesis and quest of its vaccine development: Where do we stand now?
    Microb Pathog 2018 Mar 3;116:289-295. Epub 2018 Feb 3.
    Department of Pharmacology, Anesthesia and Analgesia, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Toluca, Mexico.
    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is a life-threatening tropical infection, mainly caused by mosquito bite. After a very long period of quietness, ZIKV infections have become a problematic issue again. Previously, the virus was limited to Africa and Asia only but later it emerged in Brazil, South America, and other parts of the world in 2015. Read More

    Pathogen transmission in relation to duration of attachment by Ixodes scapularis ticks.
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2018 Mar 31;9(3):535-542. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3156, Rampart Road, Fort Collins, CO 80521, United States. Electronic address:
    The blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, is the primary vector to humans in the eastern United States of the deer tick virus lineage of Powassan virus (Powassan virus disease); the protozoan parasite Babesia microti (babesiosis); and multiple bacterial disease agents including Anaplasma phagocytophilum (anaplasmosis), Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia mayonii (Lyme disease), Borrelia miyamotoi (relapsing fever-like illness, named Borrelia miyamotoi disease), and Ehrlichia muris eauclairensis (a minor causative agent of ehrlichiosis). With the notable exception of Powassan virus, which can be transmitted within minutes after attachment by an infected tick, there is no doubt that the risk of transmission of other I. scapularis-borne pathogens, including Lyme disease spirochetes, increases with the length of time (number of days) infected ticks are allowed to remain attached. Read More

    A bite to fight: front-line innate immune defenses against malaria parasites.
    Pathog Glob Health 2018 Jan 29:1-12. Epub 2018 Jan 29.
    a Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Department of Sciences , Notre Dame University , Louaize , Lebanon.
    Malaria infection caused by Plasmodium parasites remains a major health burden worldwide especially in the tropics and subtropics. Plasmodium exhibits a complex life cycle whereby it undergoes a series of developmental stages in the Anopheles mosquito vector and the vertebrate human host. Malaria severity is mainly attributed to the genetic complexity of the parasite which is reflected in the sophisticated mechanisms of invasion and evasion that allow it to overcome the immune responses of both its invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. Read More

    Prevalence and Geographic Distribution of Borrelia miyamotoi in Host-Seeking Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) Nymphs in Mendocino County, California.
    J Med Entomol 2018 Jan 21. Epub 2018 Jan 21.
    Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO.
    Borrelia miyamotoi is an increasingly recognized human pathogen transmitted by Ixodes ticks in the Northern Hemisphere. In North America, infection prevalences of B. miyamotoi are characteristically low (<10%) in Ixodes scapularis (Say; Acari: Ixodidae) and Ixodes pacificus (Cooley & Kohls; Acari: Ixodidae), both of which readily bite humans. Read More

    Can Vaccination Save a Zika Virus Epidemic?
    Bull Math Biol 2018 03 22;80(3):598-625. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Puerto Rico Mayagüez, Mayagüez, 00681-9018, Puerto Rico.
    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a vector-borne disease that has rapidly spread during the year 2016 in more than 50 countries around the world. If a woman is infected during pregnancy, the virus can cause severe birth defects and brain damage in their babies. The virus can be transmitted through the bites of infected mosquitoes as well as through direct contact from human to human (e. Read More

    Characterization of skin blister fluids from children with Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disease.
    J Dermatol 2018 Apr 20;45(4):444-449. Epub 2018 Jan 20.
    Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Institute of Medical, Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan.
    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated T- or natural killer (NK)-cell lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by chronic proliferation of EBV-infected lymphocytes. Patients may present with severe skin manifestations, including hypersensitivity to mosquito bites (HMB) and hydroa vacciniforme (HV)-like eruption, which are characterized by blister formation and necrotic ulceration. Skin biopsy specimens show inflammatory reactions comprising EBV-infected lymphocytes. Read More

    Borrelia miyamotoi Infections in Humans and Ticks, Northeastern China.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2018 Feb;24(2):236-241
    We conducted an investigation of Borrelia miyamotoi infections in humans and ticks in northeastern China. Of 984 patients reporting recent tick bites, 14 (1.4%) were found to be infected with B. Read More

    Cellular and Humoral Immunity Protect against Vaginal Zika Virus Infection in Mice.
    J Virol 2018 Jan 17. Epub 2018 Jan 17.
    Department of Medicine/Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pathology & Immunology, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine; The Andrew M. and Jane M. Bursky Center for Human Immunology and Immunotherapy Programs, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.
    Zika virus (ZIKV), which can cause devastating disease in fetuses of infected pregnant women, can be transmitted by mosquito inoculation and sexual routes. Little is known about immune protection against sexually transmitted ZIKV. In this study, we show that previous infection through intravaginal or subcutaneous routes with a contemporary Brazilian strain of ZIKV can protect against subsequent intravaginal challenge with a homologous strain. Read More

    Clinical Guidelines for the Antibiotic Treatment for Community-Acquired Skin and Soft Tissue Infection.
    Infect Chemother 2017 Dec;49(4):301-325
    Department of Internal Medicine, Inje University Ilsan Paik Hospital, Goyang, Korea.
    Skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) is common and important infectious disease. This work represents an update to 2012 Korean guideline for SSTI. The present guideline was developed by the adaptation method. Read More

    Epidemiological characteristics and post-exposure prophylaxis of human rabies in Chongqing, China, 2007-2016.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 01 3;18(1). Epub 2018 Jan 3.
    Chongqing Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No.8, Changjiang 2nd Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing, China.
    Background: According to the global framework of eliminating human rabies, China is responding to achieve the target of zero human death from dog-mediated rabies by 2030. Chongqing is the largest municipality directly under central government in China. We described the epidemiological characteristics and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) of human rabies in this area, in order to provide a reliable epidemiology basis for further control and prevention of human rabies. Read More

    Streptococcus suis: a re-emerging pathogen associated with occupational exposure to pigs or pork products. Part I - Epidemiology.
    Ann Agric Environ Med 2017 Dec 29;24(4):683-695. Epub 2017 Nov 29.
    Department of Biological Health Hazards and Parasitology, Institute of Rural Health, Lublin, Poland.
    Streptococcus suis (ex Elliot 1966, Kilpper-Bälz & Schleifer 1987) is a facultatively anaerobic Gram-positive ovoid or coccal bacterium surrounded by a polysaccharide capsule. Based on the antigenic diversity of the capsule, S. suis strains are classified serologically into 35 serotypes. Read More

    Simulation Study of the Effects of Host Availability on Bite Rate of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Risk of Dengue Outbreaks in Non-Endemic Areas.
    Jpn J Infect Dis 2018 Jan 26;71(1):28-32. Epub 2017 Dec 26.
    Department of Vector Ecology and Environment, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University.
    Aedes albopictus is an important vector of dengue fever and tends to live in specific area, where it may ambush blood host that it encounters. Thus, host contact frequency may affect the bite rate and risk of disease outbreak, although no studies have examined these parameters. The present study used a simple model to clarify the fundamental relationship between host availability, bite rate, and risk of dengue outbreaks in non-endemic areas. Read More

    Humoral protection against mosquito bite-transmitted infection in humanized mice.
    NPJ Vaccines 2017 9;2:27. Epub 2017 Oct 9.
    Center for Infectious Disease Research, Seattle, WA USA.
    A malaria vaccine that prevents infection will be an important new tool in continued efforts of malaria elimination, and such vaccines are under intense development for the major human malaria parasite (). Antibodies elicited by vaccines can block the initial phases of parasite infection when sporozoites are deposited into the skin by mosquito bite and then target the liver for further development. However, there are currently no standardized in vivo preclinical models that can measure the inhibitory activity of antibody specificities against sporozoite infection via mosquito bite. Read More

    Transcriptional Immunoprofiling at the Tick-Virus-Host Interface during Early Stages of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Transmission.
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2017 1;7:494. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    Institute of Zoology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia.
    Emerging and re-emerging diseases transmitted by blood feeding arthropods are significant global public health problems. Ticks transmit the greatest variety of pathogenic microorganisms of any blood feeding arthropod. Infectious agents transmitted by ticks are delivered to the vertebrate host together with saliva at the bite site. Read More

    Secretory lipase from the human pathogen Leishmania major: Heterologous expression in the yeast Pichia pastoris and biochemical characterization.
    Biochimie 2018 Mar 13;146:119-126. Epub 2017 Dec 13.
    Laboratoire de Biochimie et de Génie Enzymatique des Lipases, Université de Sfax, ENIS Route de Soukra, Sfax, Tunisia. Electronic address:
    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic reticuloendotheliosis whose pathogen is a zooflagellate belonging to the genus Leishmania transmitted by the bite of an infected phlebotome. Recently, a unique secretory lipase from the human pathogen Leishmania donovani Ldlip3 has been identified and characterized. This lipase has a high identity with a putative triacylglycerol lipase of Leishmania major (Lmlip2). Read More

    Current priorities in the Zika response.
    Immunology 2018 Apr 2;153(4):435-442. Epub 2018 Jan 2.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Zika virus (ZIKV), a single-stranded RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family, is an arbovirus (viruses transmitted by arthropods) transmitted to humans and non-human primates through the bites of infected female Aedes sp. mosquitoes. Although first isolated in 1947, it only recently emerged as a global threat, present in several countries resulting in a pandemic scenario. Read More

    Buruli Ulcer, a Prototype for Ecosystem-Related Infection, Caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans.
    Clin Microbiol Rev 2018 Jan 13;31(1). Epub 2017 Dec 13.
    Aix-Marseille Université, URMITE, UMR CNRS 7278, IRD 198, INSERM 1095, Faculté de Médecine, Marseille, France
    Buruli ulcer is a noncontagious disabling cutaneous and subcutaneous mycobacteriosis reported by 33 countries in Africa, Asia, Oceania, and South America. The causative agent, , derives from by genomic reduction and acquisition of a plasmid-borne, nonribosomal cytotoxin mycolactone, the major virulence factor. -specific sequences have been readily detected in aquatic environments in food chains involving small mammals. Read More

    Variable manifestations, diverse seroreactivity and post-treatment persistence in non-human primates exposed to Borrelia burgdorferi by tick feeding.
    PLoS One 2017 13;12(12):e0189071. Epub 2017 Dec 13.
    Center for Comparative Medicine, Schools of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, CA, United States of America.
    The efficacy and accepted regimen of antibiotic treatment for Lyme disease has been a point of significant contention among physicians and patients. While experimental studies in animals have offered evidence of post-treatment persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi, variations in methodology, detection methods and limitations of the models have led to some uncertainty with respect to translation of these results to human infection. With all stages of clinical Lyme disease having previously been described in nonhuman primates, this animal model was selected in order to most closely mimic human infection and response to treatment. Read More

    Infection via mosquito bite alters Zika virus tissue tropism and replication kinetics in rhesus macaques.
    Nat Commun 2017 Dec 13;8(1):2096. Epub 2017 Dec 13.
    Department of Pathobiological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Veterinary Medicine, 1656 Linden Dr., Madison, WI, 53706, USA.
    Mouse and nonhuman primate models now serve as useful platforms to study Zika virus (ZIKV) pathogenesis, candidate therapies, and vaccines, but they rely on needle inoculation of virus: the effects of mosquito-borne infection on disease outcome have not been explored in these models. Here we show that infection via mosquito bite delays ZIKV replication to peak viral loads in rhesus macaques. Importantly, in mosquito-infected animals ZIKV tissue distribution was limited to hemolymphatic tissues, female reproductive tract tissues, kidney, and liver, potentially emulating key features of human ZIKV infections, most of which are characterized by mild or asymptomatic disease. Read More

    Reduction in human Lyme neuroborreliosis associated with a major epidemic among roe deer.
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2018 Feb 6;9(2):379-381. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    Department of Plant- and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address:
    Lyme neuroborreliosis is the most severe clinical manifestation of Lyme borreliosis. In most of Denmark, and also Europe, the overall prevalence of Lyme borreliosis seems to be stabilising. This is not the case on the island of Funen, Denmark, where the number of human Lyme neuroborreliosis cases has markedly declined throughout the last decade. Read More

    An Investigation of the First Case of Human Rabies Caused by a Fox in China in May 2016.
    Biomed Environ Sci 2017 Nov;30(11):825-828
    China Field Epidemiology Training Program, Beijing 100050, China.
    This study assesses the causes and prevention measures of rabies through epidemiological investigation and analysis. A field epidemiological survey was conducted to investigate a case of rabies by fox bite. The onset of symptoms began 50 days after the bite. Read More

    A Randomized Trial Evaluating the Prophylactic Activity of DSM265 Against Preerythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum Infection During Controlled Human Malarial Infection by Mosquito Bites and Direct Venous Inoculation.
    J Infect Dis 2018 Feb;217(5):693-702
    Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.
    Background: DSM265 is a selective inhibitor of Plasmodium dihydroorotate dehydrogenase that fully protected against controlled human malarial infection (CHMI) by direct venous inoculation of Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites when administered 1 day before challenge and provided partial protection when administered 7 days before challenge.

    Methods: A double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was performed to assess safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of 1 oral dose of 400 mg of DSM265 before CHMI. Three cohorts were studied, with DSM265 administered 3 or 7 days before direct venous inoculation of sporozoites or 7 days before 5 bites from infected mosquitoes. Read More

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