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    1939 results match your criteria Human Bite Infections

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    Incidence and mortality due to snakebite in the Americas.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jun 21;11(6):e0005662. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    CERPAGE, Faculté des Sciences de la Santé, Université d'Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou, Bénin.
    Background: Better knowledge of the epidemiological characteristics of snakebites could help to take measures to improve their management. The incidence and mortality of snakebites in the Americas are most often estimated from medical and scientific literature, which generally lack precision and representativeness.

    Methodology/principal Findings: Authors used the notifications of snakebites treated in health centers collected by the Ministries of Health of the American countries to estimate their incidence and mortality. Read More

    Concurrent babesiosis and serological evidence of Lyme disease in a young patient.
    J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect 2017 Jan 31;7(1):46-48. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Interfaith Medical Center, NY, USA.
    Human babesiosis co-infected with Lyme disease in a young patient is an important condition. Here, we describe a case of a 39-year-old male patient with concurrent babesiosis and Lyme disease. Co-infections of tick borne diseases are often difficult to diagnose and underreported, and resulting in significant morbidity and mortality to patients. Read More

    Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever: A State-of-the-Art Review Focused in Pulmonary Involvement.
    Lung 2017 Jun 13. Epub 2017 Jun 13.
    Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.
    Dengue fever is an arboviral disease transmitted to humans through the bites of infected female Aedes mosquitoes. Dengue virus is a member of the Flaviviridae family, and human infection can be caused by any of the four antigenically distinct serotypes (DENV 1-4). The infection has become recognized as the most important and prevalent arboviral disease in humans, endemic in almost 100 countries worldwide. Read More

    Animal, Microbial, and Fungal Borne Skin Pathology in the Mountain Wilderness: A Review.
    Wilderness Environ Med 2017 Jun;28(2):127-138
    School of Medicine, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado (Drs Brandenburg, Califf, Manly, and Levandowski).
    Mountains are home to numerous organisms known to cause skin disease. Bites, stings, poisons, chemicals, toxins, trauma, and infections all contribute to this end. Numerous plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, viruses, and protozoa are responsible. Read More

    Direct detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum by polymerase chain reaction followed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry from human blood.
    Int J Infect Dis 2017 May 16;60:61-63. Epub 2017 May 16.
    Department of Medicine 1, Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; Institut für Tropenmedizin, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany. Electronic address:
    Bacterial pathogens not detectable via commercial blood culture assays represent an important challenge for infectious disease physicians, in particular if clinical symptoms of the illness are non-specific. In this report, Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected directly in a peripheral blood sample from a febrile patient reporting a tick bite. This was done using a commercial system based on PCR followed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Read More

    The cost of Lyme borreliosis.
    Eur J Public Health 2017 Jun;27(3):538-547
    National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Centre for Infectious Disease Control, Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
    Background: Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most frequently reported tick-borne infection in Europe and North America. The aim of this study was to estimate the cost-of-illness of LB in the Netherlands. We used available incidence estimates from 2010 for tick bite consultations and three symptomatic LB outcomes: erythema migrans (EM), disseminated LB and Lyme-related persisting symptoms. Read More

    Genomic Characterization of Recrudescent Plasmodium malariae after Treatment with Artemether/Lumefantrine.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2017 Aug 15;23(8). Epub 2017 Aug 15.
    Plasmodium malariae is the only human malaria parasite species with a 72-hour intraerythrocytic cycle and the ability to persist in the host for life. We present a case of a P. malariae infection with clinical recrudescence after directly observed administration of artemether/lumefantrine. Read More

    Community-based survey during rabies outbreaks in Rangjung town, Trashigang, eastern Bhutan, 2016.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Apr 17;17(1):281. Epub 2017 Apr 17.
    Regional Livestock Development Centre, Department of Livestock, Khangma, Trashigang, Bhutan.
    Background: Rabies is a highly fatal disease transmitted through the bite of a rabid animal. Human deaths can be prevented by prompt administering of rabies vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin following the exposure. An assessment of community knowledge, awareness and practices on rabies is important during outbreak to understand their preparedness and target educational messages and response activities by the rapid response team. Read More

    Mycobacterium ulcerans low infectious dose and mechanical transmission support insect bites and puncturing injuries in the spread of Buruli ulcer.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Apr 14;11(4):e0005553. Epub 2017 Apr 14.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, at the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.
    Addressing the transmission enigma of the neglected disease Buruli ulcer (BU) is a World Health Organization priority. In Australia, we have observed an association between mosquitoes harboring the causative agent, Mycobacterium ulcerans, and BU. Here we tested a contaminated skin model of BU transmission by dipping the tails from healthy mice in cultures of the causative agent, Mycobacterium ulcerans. Read More

    Anti-Trypanosomatid Elemanolide Sesquiterpene Lactones from Vernonia lasiopus O. Hoffm.
    Molecules 2017 Apr 8;22(4). Epub 2017 Apr 8.
    Institute of Pharmaceutical Biology and Phytochemistry (IPBP), University of Münster, PharmaCampus Corrensstraße 48, D-48149 Münster, Germany.
    Sleeping sickness or human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) threatening millions of peoples' lives with thousands infected. The disease is endemic in poorly developed regions of sub-Saharan Africa and is caused by the kinetoplastid "protozoan" parasite Trypanosoma brucei. The parasites are transmitted to humans through bites of infected tsetse flies of the genus Glossina. Read More

    Unusual Aetiology of Pasteurella canis Biovar 2 Causing Dacryocystitis in HIV Patient: A Case Report and Review of Literature.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2017 Feb 1;11(2):DD01-DD03. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
    Senior Resident, Department of Microbiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences , Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India .
    Pasteurella species are zoonotic bacterial pathogens implicated very infrequently in various human infections following animal bites or licks usually of dogs and cats. This case report described a rare clinical presentation of dacryocystitis caused by P.canis in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive young male patient involved in caring of cattle. Read More

    Defining the next generation of Plasmodium vivax diagnostic tests for control and elimination: Target product profiles.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Apr 3;11(4):e0005516. Epub 2017 Apr 3.
    FIND, Geneva, Switzerland.
    The global prevalence of malaria has decreased over the past fifteen years, but similar gains have not been realized against Plasmodium vivax because this species is less responsive to conventional malaria control interventions aimed principally at P. falciparum. Approximately half of all malaria cases outside of Africa are caused by P. Read More

    Gene expression analysis of hypersensitivity to mosquito bite, chronic active EBV infection and NK/T-lymphoma/leukemia.
    Leuk Lymphoma 2017 Apr 3:1-12. Epub 2017 Apr 3.
    a Department of Pediatrics , Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences , Okayama , Japan.
    The human herpes virus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), is a known oncogenic virus and plays important roles in life-threatening T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (T/NK-cell LPD) such as hypersensitivity to mosquito bite (HMB), chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV), and NK/T-cell lymphoma/leukemia. During the clinical courses of HMB and CAEBV, patients frequently develop malignant lymphomas and the diseases passively progress sequentially. In the present study, gene expression of CD16((-))CD56((+))-, EBV((+)) HMB, CAEBV, NK-lymphoma, and NK-leukemia cell lines, which were established from patients, was analyzed using oligonucleotide microarrays and compared to that of CD56(bright)CD16(dim/-) NK cells from healthy donors. Read More

    HUMAN BITE INJURIES ON THE JOS PLATEAU.
    J West Afr Coll Surg 2016 Apr-Jun;6(2):1-19
    Department of Surgery, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria.
    Background: Human bite injuries with the associated morbidity are not uncommon in this environment.

    Objective: To determine the pattern, management modalities and treatment outcome of human bites in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.

    Design: A prospective study of all human bite injuries managed at the Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria between January 2012 and December 2014. Read More

    Acute Tetraplegia Caused by Rat Bite Fever in Snake Keeper and Transmission of Streptobacillus moniliformis.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2017 Apr;23(4):719-721
    We report acute tetraplegia caused by rat bite fever in a 59-year old man (snake keeper) and transmission of Streptobacillus moniliformis. We found an identical characteristic bacterial pattern in rat and human samples, which validated genotyping-based evidence for infection with the same strain, and identified diagnostic difficulties concerning infection with this microorganism. Read More

    There Is a Method to the Madness: Strategies to Study Host Complement Evasion by Lyme Disease and Relapsing Fever Spirochetes.
    Front Microbiol 2017 2;8:328. Epub 2017 Mar 2.
    Division of Infectious Disease, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health Albany, NY, USA.
    Lyme disease and relapsing fever are caused by various Borrelia species. Lyme disease borreliae, the most common vector-borne pathogens in both the U.S. Read More

    Management and modeling approaches for controlling raccoon rabies: The road to elimination.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Mar 16;11(3):e0005249. Epub 2017 Mar 16.
    United States Department of Agriculture, National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America.
    Rabies is an ancient viral disease that significantly impacts human and animal health throughout the world. In the developing parts of the world, dog bites represent the highest risk of rabies infection to people, livestock, and other animals. However, in North America, where several rabies virus variants currently circulate in wildlife, human contact with the raccoon rabies variant leads to the highest per capita population administration of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) annually. Read More

    Molecular (ticks) and serological (humans) study of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in the Iberian Peninsula, 2013-2015.
    Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 2017 Jun - Jul;35(6):344-347. Epub 2017 Mar 11.
    Centro de Rickettsiosis y Enfermedades Transmitidas por Artrópodos Vectores, Departamento de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital San Pedro-CIBIR, Logroño, Spain. Electronic address:
    Introduction: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a viral disease, mainly transmitted through tick bite, of great importance in Public Health. In Spain, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) was detected for the first time in 2010 in Hyalomma lusitanicum ticks collected from deer in Cáceres. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of CCHFV in ticks from Cáceres, and from other Spanish areas, and to evaluate the presence of antibodies against the virus in individuals exposed to tick bites. Read More

    Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding rabies risk in community members and healthcare professionals: Pétionville, Haiti, 2013.
    Epidemiol Infect 2017 Jun 14;145(8):1624-1634. Epub 2017 Mar 14.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology,Atlanta,GA,USA.
    Haiti has the highest human rabies burden in the Western Hemisphere. There is no published literature describing the public's perceptions of rabies in Haiti, information that is critical to developing effective interventions and government policies. We conducted a knowledge, attitudes and practices survey of 550 community members and 116 health professionals in Pétionville, Haiti in 2013 to understand the perception of rabies in these populations. Read More

    A Human Case of Zoonotic Dog Tapeworm, Dipylidium caninum (Eucestoda: Dilepidiidae), in China.
    Korean J Parasitol 2017 Feb 28;55(1):61-64. Epub 2017 Feb 28.
    Department of Parasitology, Medical College, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, China.
    We described a human case of zoonotic dog tapeworm, Dipylidium caninum (Eucestoda: Dilepidiidae), rarely occurring in China. The mother of a 17 month-old boy noted the appearance of small white and active worms over a month period in her son's feces, but the boy was asymptomatic except mild diarrhea. We observed 3 tapeworm proglottids resembling cucumber seeds in his stool sample. Read More

    [Production and molecular characterization of Plasmodium falciparum recombinant circumsporozoite protein with 37 NANP and 4 NVDP epitopes].
    Mikrobiyol Bul 2017 Jan;51(1):41-51
    Turkish Red Crescent Blood Donation Center, Kayseri, Turkey.
    Malaria is caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium, the leading cause of death amongst the parasitic diseases. The disease is transmitted to human by the bites of female Anopheles mosquitoes. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) data, there were an estimated 214 million malaria cases and estimated 438. Read More

    Human Endometrial Stromal Cells Are Highly Permissive To Productive Infection by Zika Virus.
    Sci Rep 2017 Mar 10;7:44286. Epub 2017 Mar 10.
    Viral Pathogens and Biosafety Unit, Division of Immunology, Transplantation and Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.
    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a recently re-emerged flavivirus transmitted to humans by mosquito bites but also from mother to fetus and by sexual intercourse. We here show that primary human endometrial stromal cells (HESC) are highly permissive to ZIKV infection and support its in vitro replication. ZIKV envelope expression was detected in the endoplasmic reticulum whereas double-stranded viral RNA colocalized with vimentin filaments to the perinuclear region. Read More

    Bispecific T cell engaging antibody constructs targeting a universally conserved part of the viral M2 ectodomain cure and prevent influenza A virus infection.
    Antiviral Res 2017 May 1;141:155-164. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    Medical Biotechnology Center, VIB, Technologiepark 927, 9052, Ghent, Belgium; Department of Biomedical Molecular Biology, Ghent University, Technologiepark 927, 9052, Ghent, Belgium. Electronic address:
    The ectodomain of the influenza A matrix protein 2 (M2e) is highly conserved amongst all influenza virus A subtypes. M2e is present on the surface of influenza A virus-infected cells, and therefore a suitable target for broadly protective therapies. We designed bispecific T cell engaging (BiTE(®)) antibody constructs specific for M2e by genetically fusing a single chain variable fragment (scFv) derived from an M2e-specific murine monoclonal antibody with a CD3ɛ-specific scFv. Read More

    Mechanism study on a plague outbreak driven by the construction of a large reservoir in southwest china (surveillance from 2000-2015).
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Mar 3;11(3):e0005425. Epub 2017 Mar 3.
    National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, State Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Beijing, China.
    Background: Plague, a Yersinia pestis infection, is a fatal disease with tremendous transmission capacity. However, the mechanism of how the pathogen stays in a reservoir, circulates and then re-emerges is an enigma.

    Methodology/principal Findings: We studied a plague outbreak caused by the construction of a large reservoir in southwest China followed 16-years' surveillance. Read More

    An Evaluation of Selected Indications and Appropriateness of Ampicillin/Sulbactam, an Unrestricted Antimicrobial, at a Single Center.
    P T 2017 Mar;42(3):189-194
    Background: With antimicrobial resistance on the rise and few new agents in development, it is important to exercise prudent judgment when utilizing antimicrobials. The Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (ASP) is responsible for facilitating the appropriate use of antimicrobials at the institution. Restricted antimicrobials and select additional antimicrobials are monitored by the ASP team to determine if the indications chosen by the ordering prescribers correspond to and are appropriate for the patients' infections. Read More

    Bites before and after bedtime can carry a high risk of human malaria infection.
    Malar J 2017 Feb 28;16(1):91. Epub 2017 Feb 28.
    Ifakara Health Institute, Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Thematic Group, Coordination Office, PO Box 78373, Kiko Avenue, Mikocheni, Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania.
    Background: Understanding biting distribution of potentially infectious (parous) mosquitoes at various hours of the night would be useful in establishing the likely impact of bed nets on malaria transmission. Bed nets are highly effective at preventing biting by older malaria vectors, which occurs when most people are in bed. However, this behaviour is likely to vary across ecological settings and among mosquito populations. Read More

    American Academy of Asthma, Allergy & Immunology membership experience with venom immunotherapy in chronic medical conditions and pregnancy, and in young children.
    Allergy Asthma Proc 2017 Mar;38(2):121-129
    Background: Few data exist regarding the use of venom immunotherapy (VIT) in specific high-risk chronic medical conditions and pregnancy, and in young children.

    Methods: A Web-based survey was sent to American Academy of Asthma Allergy & Immunology members to explore their VIT experience in potential high-risk medical conditions and pregnancy, and in young children. Major problems were defined as "activation of underlying disease and/or VIT not well tolerated (systemic adverse events) and/or VIT discontinued for medical reasons. Read More

    Emerging Causes of Arbovirus Encephalitis in North America: Powassan, Chikungunya, and Zika Viruses.
    Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2017 Feb;17(2):12
    Division of Neurological Infections and Inflammatory Diseases, Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 45 Francis Street, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.
    Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses transmitted by the bite of mosquitoes, ticks, or other arthropods. Arboviruses are a common and an increasing cause of human illness in North America. Powassan virus, Chikungunya virus, and Zika virus are arboviruses that have all recently emerged as increasing causes of neurologic illness. Read More

    Use of Mass-Participation Outdoor Events to Assess Human Exposure to Tickborne Pathogens.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2017 Mar;23(3):463-467
    Mapping the public health threat of tickborne pathogens requires quantification of not only the density of infected host-seeking ticks but also the rate of human exposure to these ticks. To efficiently sample a high number of persons in a short time, we used a mass-participation outdoor event. In June 2014, we sampled ≈500 persons competing in a 2-day mountain marathon run across predominantly tick-infested habitat in Scotland. Read More

    Does Zika virus infection affect mosquito response to repellents?
    Sci Rep 2017 Feb 16;7:42826. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Department of Entomology, Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Campus da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE, 50.740-465, Brasil.
    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that people travelling to or living in areas with Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreaks or epidemics adopt prophylactic measures to reduce or eliminate mosquito bites, including the use of insect repellents. It is, however, unknown whether repellents are effective against ZIKV-infected mosquitoes, in part because of the ethical concerns related to exposing a human subject's arm to infected mosquitoes in the standard arm-in-cage assay. We used a previously developed, human subject-free behavioural assay, which mimics a human subject to evaluate the top two recommended insect repellents. Read More

    Frequent Zika Virus Sexual Transmission and Prolonged Viral RNA Shedding in an Immunodeficient Mouse Model.
    Cell Rep 2017 Feb;18(7):1751-1760
    Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA. Electronic address:
    Circulation of Zika virus (ZIKV) was first identified in the Western hemisphere in late 2014. Primarily transmitted through mosquito bite, ZIKV can also be transmitted through sex and from mother to fetus, and maternal ZIKV infection has been associated with fetal malformations. We assessed immunodeficient AG129 mice for their capacity to shed ZIKV in semen and to infect female mice via sexual transmission. Read More

    Presumptive risk factors for monkeypox in rural communities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    PLoS One 2017 13;12(2):e0168664. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.
    Monkeypox virus (MPXV), a close relative of Variola virus, is a zoonotic virus with an unknown reservoir. Interaction with infected wildlife, bites from peri-domestic animals, and bushmeat hunting are hypothesized routes of infection from wildlife to humans. Using a Risk Questionnaire, performed in monkeypox-affected areas of rural Democratic Republic of the Congo, we describe the lifestyles and demographics associated with presumptive risk factors for MPXV infection. Read More

    Mosquito cell-derived West Nile virus replicon particles mimic arbovirus inoculum and have reduced spread in mice.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Feb 10;11(2):e0005394. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.
    Half of the human population is at risk of infection by an arthropod-borne virus. Many of these arboviruses, such as West Nile, dengue, and Zika viruses, infect humans by way of a bite from an infected mosquito. This infectious inoculum is insect cell-derived giving the virus particles distinct qualities not present in secondary infectious virus particles produced by infected vertebrate host cells. Read More

    Human case of bacteremia caused by Streptococcus canis sequence type 9 harboring the scm gene.
    IDCases 2017 20;7:48-52. Epub 2017 Jan 20.
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Kitasato Institute for Life Sciences & Graduate School of Infection Control Sciences, Kitasato University, 5-9-1 Shirokane, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8641, Japan.
    Streptococcus canis (Sc) is a zoonotic pathogen that is transferred mainly from companion animals to humans. One of the major virulence factors in Sc is the M-like protein encoded by the scm gene, which is involved in anti-phagocytic activities, as well as the recruitment of plasminogen to the bacterial surface in cooperation with enolase, and the consequent enhancement of bacterial transmigration and survival. This is the first reported human case of uncomplicated bacteremia following a dog bite, caused by Streptococcus canis harboring the scm gene. Read More

    Household exposure and animal-bite surveillance following human rabies detection in Southern Ghana.
    Pan Afr Med J 2016 1;25(Suppl 1):12. Epub 2016 Oct 1.
    Ghana Health Service, Accra, Ghana.
    Introduction: Rabies remains a neglected tropical zoonotic disease with 100% case fatality rate and estimated 6,000 global mortality annually, and yet vaccine preventable. In Ghana, rabies outbreaks receive poor response. We investigated rabies in a 5-year old boy to find the source of infection, identify exposed persons for post-exposure prophylaxis and describe animal-bite surveillance in Manya-Krobo District of Ghana. Read More

    Simian Immunodeficiency Virus seroreactivity in inhabitants from rural Cameroon frequently in contact with non-human primates.
    Virology 2017 Mar 27;503:76-82. Epub 2017 Jan 27.
    Virology Unit, Associated National Reference Center for HIV, University Hospital Charles Nicolle, Rouen, France; EA2656, GRAM, Rouen University, Rouen, France. Electronic address:
    Central African tropical forests are home to several species of non-human primates (NHPs), infected by Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV). It is well-known that HIV-1 epidemic is due to cross-transmission and adaptation of SIV to humans. The main goal of this work was to investigate if a NHP bite is a risk factor for SIV acquisition. Read More

    The transovarial transmission in the dynamics of dengue infection: Epidemiological implications and thresholds.
    Math Biosci 2017 Apr 25;286:1-15. Epub 2017 Jan 25.
    UNICAMP - IMECC - DMA, Praça Sérgio Buarque de Holanda, 651, CEP 13083-859, Campinas, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:
    The anthropophilic and peridomestic female mosquito Aedes aegypti bites humans to suck blood to maturate fertilized eggs, during which dengue virus can be spread between mosquito and human populations. Besides this route of transmission, there is a possibility of dengue virus being passed directly to offspring through transovarial (or vertical) transmission. The effects of both horizontal and transovarial transmission routes on the dengue virus transmission are assessed by mathematical modeling. Read More

    Beyond the entomological inoculation rate: characterizing multiple blood feeding behavior and Plasmodium falciparum multiplicity of infection in Anopheles mosquitoes in northern Zambia.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Jan 26;10(1):45. Epub 2017 Jan 26.
    The W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, The Johns Hopkins Malaria Research Institute, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA.
    Background: A commonly used measure of malaria transmission intensity is the entomological inoculation rate (EIR), defined as the product of the human biting rate (HBR) and sporozoite infection rate (SIR). The EIR excludes molecular parameters that may influence vector control and surveillance strategies. The purpose of this study was to investigate Anopheles multiple blood feeding behavior (MBF) and Plasmodium falciparum multiplicity of infection (MOI) within the mosquito host in Nchelenge District, northern Zambia. Read More

    Defining the Risk of Zika and Chikungunya Virus Transmission in Human Population Centers of the Eastern United States.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jan 17;11(1):e0005255. Epub 2017 Jan 17.
    Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies Box AB, 2801 Sharon Turnpike Millbrook, NY United States of America.
    The recent spread of mosquito-transmitted viruses and associated disease to the Americas motivates a new, data-driven evaluation of risk in temperate population centers. Temperate regions are generally expected to pose low risk for significant mosquito-borne disease; however, the spread of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) across densely populated urban areas has established a new landscape of risk. We use a model informed by field data to assess the conditions likely to facilitate local transmission of chikungunya and Zika viruses from an infected traveler to Ae. Read More

    Probability of Transmission of Malaria from Mosquito to Human Is Regulated by Mosquito Parasite Density in Naïve and Vaccinated Hosts.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Jan 12;13(1):e1006108. Epub 2017 Jan 12.
    Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London, United Kingdom.
    Over a century since Ronald Ross discovered that malaria is caused by the bite of an infectious mosquito it is still unclear how the number of parasites injected influences disease transmission. Currently it is assumed that all mosquitoes with salivary gland sporozoites are equally infectious irrespective of the number of parasites they harbour, though this has never been rigorously tested. Here we analyse >1000 experimental infections of humans and mice and demonstrate a dose-dependency for probability of infection and the length of the host pre-patent period. Read More

    Role of Anopheles (Cellia) rufipes (Gough, 1910) and other local anophelines in human malaria transmission in the northern savannah of Cameroon: a cross-sectional survey.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Jan 11;10(1):22. Epub 2017 Jan 11.
    Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry, University of Yaounde I, P.O. Box 813- Messa, Yaounde, Cameroon.
    Background: As part of a study to determine the impact of insecticide resistance on the effectiveness of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) in the north of Cameroon, the unexpectedly high density and anthropophilic behaviour of Anopheles rufipes lead us to investigate this species bionomics and role in human malaria parasite transmission.

    Methods: For four consecutive years (2011-2014), annual cross-sectional sampling of adult mosquitoes was conducted during the peak malaria season (September-October) in three health districts in northern Cameroon. Mosquitoes sampled by human landing catch and pyrethrum spray catch methods were morphologically identified, their ovaries dissected for parity determination and Anopheles gambiae siblings were identified by molecular assay. Read More

    The risk of exposure to rickettsial infections and human granulocytic anaplasmosis associated with Ixodes ricinus tick bites in humans in Romania: A multiannual study.
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2017 Mar 29;8(3):375-378. Epub 2016 Dec 29.
    Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj Napoca, Department of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases, Cluj Napoca, Cluj, Romania.
    Anaplasma phagocytophilum and spotted fever group Rickettsia are obligate intracellular Gram-negative tick-borne bacteria, among which several may cause clinical infections in humans. Several Rickettsia spp. and A. Read More

    Complete attenuation of genetically engineered Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites in human subjects.
    Sci Transl Med 2017 Jan;9(371)
    Center for Infectious Disease Research, formerly Seattle Biomedical Research Institute, 307 Westlake Avenue North, Suite 500, Seattle, WA 98109, USA.
    Immunization of humans with whole sporozoites confers complete, sterilizing immunity against malaria infection. However, achieving consistent safety while maintaining immunogenicity of whole parasite vaccines remains a formidable challenge. We generated a genetically attenuated Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) malaria parasite by deleting three genes expressed in the pre-erythrocytic stage (Pf p52(-)/p36(-)/sap1(-)). Read More

    Zika virus infection: Past and present of another emerging vector-borne disease.
    J Vector Borne Dis 2016 Oct-Dec;53(4):305-311
    Microbiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece.
    Zika virus infection is an emerging mosquito-borne disease, first identified in Uganda in 1947. It is caused by the Zika arbovirus, and transmitted by the bites of infected mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. For almost half a century, the Zika virus was reported as the causative agent of sporadic human infections. Read More

    Potential Exposures to Australian Bat Lyssavirus Notified in Queensland, Australia, 2009-2014.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Dec 29;10(12):e0005227. Epub 2016 Dec 29.
    Communicable Diseases Branch, Queensland Health, Brisbane, Australia.
    Background: Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) belongs to the genus Lyssavirus which also includes classic rabies virus and the European lyssaviruses. To date, the only three known human ABLV cases, all fatal, have been reported from Queensland, Australia. ABLV is widely distributed in Australian bats, and any bite or scratch from an Australian bat is considered a potential exposure to ABLV. Read More

    Emerging Zika Virus Infection: A Rapidly Evolving Situation.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2017 ;972:61-86
    Department of Arbovirology and Hemorrhagic Fevers, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, Pará, Brazil.
    Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus, firstly identified in Uganda and responsible for sporadic human cases in Africa and Asia until recently, when large outbreak occurred in Pacific Ocean and the Americas. Since the main vectors during its spread outside of Africa have been Ae. albopictus and Ae. Read More

    Inactivation of human coagulation factor X by a protease of the pathogen Capnocytophaga canimorsus.
    J Thromb Haemost 2017 Mar 22;15(3):487-499. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    Department of Biology, University of Namur, Namur, Belgium.
    Essentials Capnocytophaga canimorsus causes severe dog bite related blood stream infections. We investigated if C. canimorsus contributes to bleeding abnormalities during infection. Read More

    Mosquito Behavior Change After Distribution of Bednets Results in Decreased Protection Against Malaria Exposure.
    J Infect Dis 2017 Mar;215(5):790-797
    Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, United Kingdom.
    Background.: Behavioral resilience in mosquitoes poses a significant challenge to mosquito control. Although behavior changes in anopheline vectors have been reported over the last decade, there are no empirical data to suggest they compromise the efficacy of vector control in reducing malaria transmission. Read More

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