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    1991 results match your criteria Human Bite Infections

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    Prevention Practices among the United States Pregnant Women Who Travel to Zika Outbreak Areas.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Oct 23. Epub 2017 Oct 23.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.
    We surveyed pregnant women from the United States to assess the prevention practices they used when traveling to countries with ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreaks. Of the 749 who agreed to participate, 710 completed the survey's travel questions and 59 of those had traveled to a ZIKV outbreak area in the past 12 months. Only 43% of the women who had traveled to ZIKV outbreak areas reported frequently using mosquito repellant with 32% stating they did not use it at all. Read More

    Changes in total and differential leukocyte counts during the clinically silent liver phase in a controlled human malaria infection in malaria-naïve Dutch volunteers.
    Malar J 2017 Nov 10;16(1):457. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Institute for Tropical Diseases, Harbour Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Background: Both in endemic countries and in imported malaria, changes in total and differential leukocyte count during Plasmodium falciparum infection have been described. To study the exact dynamics of differential leukocyte counts and their ratios, they were monitored in a group of healthy non-immune volunteers in two separate Controlled Human Malaria Infection (CHMI) studies.

    Methods: In two CHMI trials, CHMI-a and CHMI-b, 15 and 24 healthy malaria-naïve volunteers, respectively, were exposed to bites of infected mosquitoes, using the P. Read More

    Oral and Dental Aspects of Child Abuse and Neglect.
    Pediatr Dent 2017 Jul;39(4):278-283
    Department of Pediatrics, The George Washington University School of Medicine, and Division of Oral Health, at the Children's National Medical Center, Washington, D.C., USA.
    In all 50 states, health care providers (including dentists) are mandated to report suspected cases of abuse and neglect to social service or law enforcement agencies. The purpose of this report is to review the oral and dental aspects of physical and sexual abuse and dental neglect in children and the role of pediatric care providers and dental providers in evaluating such conditions. This report addresses the evaluation of bite marks as well as perioral and intraoral injuries, infections, and diseases that may raise suspicion for child abuse or neglect. Read More

    Prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in urban and suburban areas of Switzerland.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Nov 9;10(1):558. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Spiez Laboratory, Federal Office for Civil Protection, Austrasse, Spiez, Switzerland.
    Background: Throughout Europe, Ixodes ricinus transmits numerous pathogens. Its widespread distribution is not limited to rural but also includes urbanized areas. To date, comprehensive data on pathogen carrier rates of I. Read More

    Indoor and outdoor malaria vector surveillance in western Kenya: implications for better understanding of residual transmission.
    Malar J 2017 Nov 6;16(1):443. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Program in Public Health, College of Health Sciences, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA, 92697, USA.
    Background: The widespread use of indoor-based malaria vector control interventions has been shown to alter the behaviour of vectors in Africa. There is an increasing concern that such changes could sustain residual transmission. This study was conducted to assess vector species composition, feeding behaviour and their contribution to indoor and outdoor malaria transmission in western Kenya. Read More

    Interplay between Keratinocytes and Myeloid Cells Drives Dengue Virus Spread in Human Skin.
    J Invest Dermatol 2017 Oct 26. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Center for Vaccine Research, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Electronic address:
    The skin is the site of dengue virus (DENV) transmission following the bite of an infected mosquito, but the contribution of individual cell types within skin to infection is unknown. We studied the dynamics of DENV infection in human skin explants using quantitative in situ imaging. DENV replicated primarily in the epidermis and induced a transient interferon-α response. Read More

    Transcriptome Assessment of Erythema Migrans Skin Lesions in Patients with Early Lyme Disease Reveals Predominant Interferon Signaling.
    J Infect Dis 2017 Nov 1. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York, USA.
    Background: The most common clinical manifestation of early Lyme disease is the erythema migrans (EM) skin lesion that develops at the tick bite site typically between 7 and 14 days following infection with Borreliella burgdorferi. The host-pathogen interactions that occur in the skin may have a critical role in determining outcome of infection.

    Methods: Gene arrays were utilized to characterize the global transcriptional alterations in skin biopsy samples of EM lesions from untreated adult patients with Lyme disease in comparison to controls. Read More

    Examining the human infectious reservoir for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in areas of differing transmission intensity.
    Nat Commun 2017 Oct 26;8(1):1133. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Department of Immunology and Infection, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, WC1E 7HT, UK.
    A detailed understanding of the human infectious reservoir is essential for improving malaria transmission-reducing interventions. Here we report a multi-regional assessment of population-wide malaria transmission potential based on 1209 mosquito feeding assays in endemic areas of Burkina Faso and Kenya. Across both sites, we identified 39 infectious individuals. Read More

    Isolation and identification of R. raoultii in human cases: a surveillance study in three medical centers in China.
    Clin Infect Dis 2017 Oct 23. Epub 2017 Oct 23.
    State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, 20 Dong-Da Street, Fengtai District, Beijing 100071, P. R. China.
    Background: Rickettsia raoultii was frequently detected in multiple tick species, while human infection remained scarcely studied.

    Methods: A surveillance study was performed at 3 sentinel hospitals in China, to recruit participants with suspected tick exposure. R. Read More

    Influence of microhabitat use and behavior of Amblyomma sculptum and Amblyomma dubitatum nymphs (Acari: Ixodidae) on human risk for tick exposure, with notes on Rickettsia infection.
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2018 Jan 16;9(1):67-71. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    Laboratório de Ixodologia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Av. Pará, 1720/Campus Umuarama-Bloco 2T, CEP 38400-902 Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) is a potentially lethal human disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii transmitted by ticks, including Amblyomma sculptum. However, in Southeast Brazil, where most BSF cases occur, capybaras are key hosts for both A. sculptum and Amblyomma dubitatum. Read More

    Molecular epidemiology of mosquitoes for the transmission of forest malaria in south-central Vietnam.
    Trop Med Health 2017 12;45:27. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Department of Virology and Parasitology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, 1-98 Kutsukake, Toyoake, Aichi 470-1192 Japan.
    Human infection caused by non-human primate malarial parasites, such as Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium cynomolgi, occurs naturally in Southeast Asian countries, including Vietnam. Members of the Anopheles dirus species complex are known to be important vectors of human malarial parasites in the forested areas of southern and central Vietnam, including those in Khanh Phu commune and Khanh Hoa Province. Recent molecular epidemiological studies in Vietnam have reported cases of co-infection with Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, and P. Read More

    Immune Regulation of Plasmodium Is Anopheles Species Specific and Infection Intensity Dependent.
    MBio 2017 Oct 17;8(5). Epub 2017 Oct 17.
    W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Malaria Research Institute, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Malaria parasite ookinetes must traverse the vector mosquito midgut epithelium to transform into sporozoite-producing oocysts. The Anopheles innate immune system is a key regulator of this process, thereby determining vector competence and disease transmission. The role of Anopheles innate immunity factors as agonists or antagonists of malaria parasite infection has been previously determined using specific single Anopheles-Plasmodium species combinations. Read More

    Coordination of different ligands to copper(II) and cobalt(III) metal centers enhances Zika virus and dengue virus loads in both arthropod cells and human keratinocytes.
    Biochim Biophys Acta 2018 Jan 13;1862(1):40-50. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, USA; Center for Molecular Medicine, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, USA. Electronic address:
    Trace elements such as copper and cobalt have been associated with virus-host interactions. However, studies to show the effect of conjugation of copper(II) or cobalt(III) metal centers to thiosemicarbazone ligand(s) derived from either food additives or mosquito repellent such as 2-acetylethiazole or citral, respectively, on Zika virus (ZIKV) or dengue virus (serotype 2; DENV2) infections have not been explored. In this study, we show that four compounds comprising of thiosemicarbazone ligand derived from 2-acetylethiazole viz. Read More

    Public Health Considerations Associated with the Location and Operation of Off-Leash Dog Parks.
    J Community Health 2017 Oct 12. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    British Columbia Centre for Disease Control, 655 W 12th Avenue, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 4R4, Canada.
    Off-leash dog parks may enhance human health, but may also lead to health risk through infection or canine aggression. Published evidence was reviewed to examine positive and negative public health impacts of off-leash dog parks, as well as strategies for enhancing benefits and mitigating risks. Evidence suggests that off-leash dog parks can benefit physical and social health, as well as community connectedness. Read More

    Human cellular and humoral immune responses to Phlebotomus papatasi salivary gland antigens in endemic areas differing in prevalence of Leishmania major infection.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Oct 12;11(10):e0005905. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Laboratory of Medical Parasitology, Biotechnologies and Biomolecules, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia.
    Background: Sand fly saliva compounds are able to elicit specific immune responses that have a significant role in Leishmania parasite establishment and disease outcome. Characterizing anti-saliva immune responses in individuals living in well defined leishmaniasis endemic areas would provide valuable insights regarding their effect on parasite transmission and establishment in humans.

    Methodology/principal Findings: We explored the cellular and humoral immune responses to Phlebotomus (P. Read More

    Gastrointestinal Tract As Entry Route for Hantavirus Infection.
    Front Microbiol 2017 8;8:1721. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Institute of Clinical Physiology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin BerlinBerlin, Germany.
    Background: Hantaviruses are zoonotic agents that cause hemorrhagic fevers and are thought to be transmitted to humans by exposure to aerosolized excreta of infected rodents. Puumala virus (PUUV) is the predominant endemic hantavirus in Europe. A large proportion of PUUV-infected patients suffer from gastrointestinal symptoms of unclear origin. Read More

    Characterization of T-cell immune responses in clinical trials of the candidate RTS,S malaria vaccine.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2017 Sep 21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    a GSK Vaccines , Rue de l'Institut , 89, 1330 Rixensart , Belgium .
    The candidate malaria vaccine RTS,S has demonstrated 45.7% efficacy over 18 months against all clinical disease in a phase-III field study of African children. RTS,S targets the circumsporozoite protein (CSP), which is expressed on the Plasmodium sporozoite during the pre-erythrocyte stage of its life-cycle; the stage between mosquito bite and liver infection. Read More

    Zoonotic infection of Brazilian primate workers with New World simian foamy virus.
    PLoS One 2017 20;12(9):e0184502. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Laboratory Branch, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.
    Simian foamy viruses (SFVs) are retroviruses present in nearly all nonhuman primates (NHPs), including Old World primates (OWP) and New World primates (NWP). While all confirmed human infections with SFV are from zoonotic transmissions originating from OWP, little is known about the zoonotic transmission potential of NWP SFV. We conducted a longitudinal, prospective study of 56 workers occupationally exposed to NWP in Brazil. Read More

    Controlled Human Malaria Infection: Applications, Advances and Challenges.
    Infect Immun 2017 Sep 18. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University, Southport, Queensland, Australia.
    Controlled Human Malaria Infection (CHMI) entails deliberate infection with malaria parasites either by mosquito bite or direct injection of sporozoites or parasitised erythrocytes. When required, the resulting blood-stage infection is curtailed by the administration of anti-malarial drugs. Inducing a malaria infection via inoculation with infected blood was first used as a treatment (malariotherapy) for neurosyphilis in Europe and the United States in the early 1900s. Read More

    How often do mosquitoes bite humans in southern England? A standardised summer trial at four sites reveals spatial, temporal and site-related variation in biting rates.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Sep 15;10(1):420. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Woking, Surrey, UK.
    Background: This field-based study examined the abundance and species complement of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) attracted to humans at four sites in the United Kingdom (UK). The study used a systematic approach to directly measure feeding by mosquitoes on humans at multiple sites and using multiple volunteers. Quantifying how frequently humans are bitten in the field by mosquitoes is a fundamental parameter in assessing arthropod-borne virus transmission. Read More

    Animal and human bite injuries: a 5-year retrospective study in a large urban public hospital in Venezuela.
    Oral Maxillofac Surg 2017 Dec 13;21(4):425-428. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, "Dr. Angel Larralde" University Hospital, Carabobo University, Altos De La Colina De Bárbula 15-25, Naguanagua, Carabobo, 2042, Venezuela.
    Introduction: Animal bite injuries to the head and neck regions are an important public health problem. Most of these bites are from dogs. A 10-year retrospective study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of animal and human bites. Read More

    HIV-related knowledge, attitude and practices of healthy adults in Cross River State Nigeria: a population based-survey.
    Pan Afr Med J 2017 4;27:170. Epub 2017 Jul 4.
    Department of Chemical pathology, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria.
    Introduction: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) remains a global health problem disproportionately distributed across Nigeria. Cross river state (CRS), a tourist state, located in the Niger delta, has one of the highest prevalence rates. There is evidence that poor knowledge and stigmatization are obstacles to achieving universal access to HIV prevention programs. Read More

    Modest heterologous protection after Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite immunization: a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial.
    BMC Med 2017 Sep 13;15(1):168. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Geert Grooteplein 28, Microbiology 268, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Background: A highly efficacious vaccine is needed for malaria control and eradication. Immunization with Plasmodium falciparum NF54 parasites under chemoprophylaxis (chemoprophylaxis and sporozoite (CPS)-immunization) induces the most efficient long-lasting protection against a homologous parasite. However, parasite genetic diversity is a major hurdle for protection against heterologous strains. Read More

    Aedes Aegypti saliva enhances chikungunya virus replication in human skin fibroblasts via inhibition of the type I interferon signaling pathway.
    Infect Genet Evol 2017 Nov 1;55:68-70. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    Laboratoire MIVEGEC, UMR 224 IRD/CNRS/UM1, Montpellier, France. Electronic address:
    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmission occurs through the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito which injects virus-containing saliva into the skin of the human host during blood feeding. In the present study, we have determined the effect of Aedes aegypti saliva on CHIKV replication in human skin fibroblasts, a major cell type for viral entry, which mimics the events that occur during natural transmission. A significant increase in the expression of viral transcripts and infectious viral particles was observed in fibroblasts infected with CHIKV in the presence of saliva, as compared with those infected with virus alone. Read More

    The role of asymptomatics and dogs on leishmaniasis propagation.
    Math Biosci 2017 Nov 31;293:46-55. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    Unidad de Medicina Experimental, Hospital General Dr. Eduardo Liceaga, México, D.F. 06726, Mexico. Electronic address:
    Leishmaniasis is a parasite disease transmitted by the bites of sandflies. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most common form of the disease and it is endemic in the Americas. Around 70 animal species, including humans, have been found as natural reservoir hosts of leishmania parasites. Read More

    Characterization of Yersinia pestis Interactions with Human Neutrophils In vitro.
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2017 9;7:358. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Laboratory of Zoonotic Pathogens, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of HealthHamilton, MT, United States.
    Yersinia pestis is a gram-negative, zoonotic, bacterial pathogen, and the causative agent of plague. The bubonic form of plague occurs subsequent to deposition of bacteria in the skin by the bite of an infected flea. Neutrophils are recruited to the site of infection within the first few hours and interactions between neutrophils and Y. Read More

    Laceration Management.
    J Emerg Med 2017 Sep 25;53(3):369-382. Epub 2017 Aug 25.
    East Orange General Hospital, East Orange, New Jersey.
    Background: Traumatic lacerations to the skin represent a fairly common reason for seeking emergency department care. Although the incidence of lacerations has decreased over the past decades, traumatic cutaneous lacerations remain a common reason for patients to seek emergency department care.

    Objective: Innovations in laceration management have the potential to improve patient experience with this common presentation. Read More

    O'nyong-nyong fever: a neglected mosquito-borne viral disease.
    Pathog Glob Health 2017 Sep 22;111(6):271-275. Epub 2017 Aug 22.
    b Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Institute for Human Infections and Immunity , University of Texas Medical Branch , Galveston , TX , USA.
    O'nyong nyong virus (ONNV), a mosquito-borne Alphavirus, is primarily transmitted through the bite of Anopheles funestus and Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, which are also malaria parasite vectors in Africa. The virus, first isolated in Uganda in 1959, is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa and has caused several major outbreaks both in West and East Africa. ONNV fever, characterized by severe arthralgia, is similar to chikungunya fever, with the exception of cervical lymphadenitis, which is peculiar to the former. Read More

    MALDI-TOF MS identification of Anopheles gambiae Giles blood meal crushed on Whatman filter papers.
    PLoS One 2017 17;12(8):e0183238. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    Aix Marseille Université, Unité de Recherche en Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes (URMITE), UM63, CNRS 7278, IRD 198 (Dakar, Sénégal), Inserm 1095, AP-HM, IHU Méditerranée Infection, Marseille, France.
    Background: Identification of the source of mosquito blood meals is an important component for disease control and surveillance. Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) profiling has emerged as an effective tool for mosquito blood meal identification, using the abdomens of freshly engorged mosquitoes. In the field, mosquito abdomens are crushed on Whatman filter papers to determine the host feeding patterns by identifying the origin of their blood meals. Read More

    Public sentiment and discourse about Zika virus on Instagram.
    Public Health 2017 Sep 12;150:170-175. Epub 2017 Aug 12.
    Penn Medicine Center for Digital Health, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
    Objective: Social media have strongly influenced the awareness and perceptions of public health emergencies, and a considerable amount of social media content is now shared through images, rather than text alone. This content can impact preparedness and response due to the popularity and real-time nature of social media platforms. We sought to explore how the image-sharing platform Instagram is used for information dissemination and conversation during the current Zika outbreak. Read More

    Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Vector-Host Contact (VHC) Ratios and Ecological Niche Modeling of the West Nile Virus Mosquito Vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, in the City of New Orleans, LA, USA.
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 2017 Aug 8;14(8). Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    Department/School Entomology and Nematology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.
    The consistent sporadic transmission of West Nile Virus (WNV) in the city of New Orleans justifies the need for distribution risk maps highlighting human risk of mosquito bites. We modeled the influence of biophysical and socioeconomic metrics on the spatio-temporal distributions of presence/vector-host contact (VHC) ratios of WNV vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, within their flight range. Biophysical and socioeconomic data were extracted within 5-km buffer radii around sampling localities of gravid female Culex quinquefasciatus. Read More

    Ticks from diverse genera encode chemokine-inhibitory evasin proteins.
    J Biol Chem 2017 Sep 4;292(38):15670-15680. Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    From the Infection and Immunity Program, Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute, and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and
    To prolong residence on their hosts, ticks secrete many salivary factors that target host defense molecules. In particular, the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus has been shown to produce three salivary glycoproteins named "evasins," which bind to host chemokines, thereby inhibiting the recruitment of leukocytes to the location of the tick bite. Using sequence similarity searches, we have identified 257 new putative evasin sequences encoded by the genomes or salivary or visceral transcriptomes of numerous hard ticks, spanning the genera Rhipicephalus, Amblyomma, and Ixodes of the Ixodidae family. Read More

    Two confirmed cases of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome with pneumonia: implication for a family cluster in East China.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Aug 3;17(1):537. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, 200336, China.
    Background: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) was first reported in China in 2011. Human-to-human transmission of the virus occurred occasionally in family clusters. However, pneumonia as an onset syndrome was not common in most SFTS cases. Read More

    Oral and Dental Aspects of Child Abuse and Neglect.
    Pediatrics 2017 08;140(2)
    In all 50 states, health care providers (including dentists) are mandated to report suspected cases of abuse and neglect to social service or law enforcement agencies. The purpose of this report is to review the oral and dental aspects of physical and sexual abuse and dental neglect in children and the role of pediatric care providers and dental providers in evaluating such conditions. This report addresses the evaluation of bite marks as well as perioral and intraoral injuries, infections, and diseases that may raise suspicion for child abuse or neglect. Read More

    HBO₂ in snake envenomation (atrox albinus rattlesnake): a case report in a human.
    Undersea Hyperb Med 2016 Jul-Aug;43(4):473-476
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.
    A patient suffered from an envenomation that, at his hospitalization, was judged severe: Grade 3 out of 3, as defined in clinical studies for CroFab™ antidote [Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab (Ovine)]. In addition to the usual antivenom treatment we applied adjunctive hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂) therapy. Our aim was to facilitate better control of the lesions, already presenting as problematic wounds and at high risk of necrotizing soft tissue infection with compartment aspects. Read More

    Prevalence of IgG antibodies for the West Nile virus in human population in Tripoli, Libya.
    J Vector Borne Dis 2017 Apr-Jun;54(2):183-186
    National Centre for Disease Control, Ministry of Health; Public Health Department, Faculty of Medical Technology, University of Tripoli, Tripoli, Libya.
    Background & Objectives: West Nile fever (WNF) is a mosquito-borne viral infection, circulated in natural cycles between birds and mosquitoes, particularly Culex species. It is transmitted to humans through mosquito bites, and causes a variety of clinical outcomes, ranging from asymptomatic or mild febrile illness to severe men in go encepha- litis with some fatalities observed in older or immunocompromised patients. West Nile virus (WNV) transmission is considerably influenced by environmental conditions; and abundance of avifauna and mosquitoes. Read More

    Chikungunya virus infection in Cynomolgus macaques following Intradermal and aerosol exposure.
    Virol J 2017 Jul 20;14(1):135. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Battelle, West Jefferson, OH, 43162, USA.
    Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is transmitted via mosquito bite and potentially by aerosol, causing chikungunya fever and arthritic disease in humans. There are currently no licensed vaccines or antiviral therapeutics to protect against CHIKV infection in humans. Animal models recapitulating human disease, especially for transmission by aerosol, are needed for licensure of such medical countermeasures. Read More

    Knowledge and Prevention Practices among U.S. Pregnant Immigrants from Zika Virus Outbreak Areas.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Jul;97(1):155-162
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.
    We administered an anonymous survey to assess knowledge, attitudes, and prevention practices related to the Zika virus among pregnant women residing in Texas. Multivariate logistic regression models controlling for age, race/ethnicity, education, and number of years in the United States assessed differences between women born in outbreak areas (N = 390) versus those born in the United States (N = 249). Results demonstrated that most women wanted more information on the Zika virus and desired to obtain it from their physician. Read More

    Cost-Effectiveness Evaluation of a Novel Integrated Bite Case Management Program for the Control of Human Rabies, Haiti 2014-2015.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Jun;96(6):1307-1317
    Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Division of High Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.
    AbstractHaiti has the highest burden of rabies in the Western hemisphere, with 130 estimated annual deaths. We present the cost-effectiveness evaluation of an integrated bite case management program combining community bite investigations and passive animal rabies surveillance, using a governmental perspective. The Haiti Animal Rabies Surveillance Program (HARSP) was first implemented in three communes of the West Department, Haiti. Read More

    Bites from the same dog, different outcomes for two patients: a case report.
    Infect Dis Poverty 2017 Jul 5;6(1):107. Epub 2017 Jul 5.
    Henan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Zhengzhou, China.
    Background: Rabies is a serious reemerging zoonosis in China. At present human rabies cases are primarily diagnosed based on clinical presentation.

    Case Presentation: In August 2012, a woman and her son were attacked by a stray dog in Henan, China. Read More

    Pathophysiological mechanisms of Flavivirus infection of the central nervous system.
    Transfus Clin Biol 2017 Sep 27;24(3):96-100. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
    Arbovirus Group, Environment and Infectious Risks, Institut Pasteur, 25 rue du Dr-Roux, 75015 Paris, France. Electronic address:
    Flaviviruses are important human pathogens. Transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes, Flaviviruses such as West Nile and Japanese encephalitis may reach the central nervous system where they can elicit severe diseases. Their ability to cross the blood-brain-barrier is still poorly understood. Read More

    Zika Virus and Sexual Transmission: A New Route of Transmission for Mosquito-borne Flaviviruses
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    Yale J Biol Med 2017 Jun 23;90(2):325-330. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT.
    Beginning in 2015, concern over a new global epidemic has spread in the media, governmental agencies, legislative bodies and the public at large. This newly emerging threat has been reported to cause symptoms ranging from mild fever, rash, and body aches, to severe birth defects and acute onset paralysis. The causative agent of this disease, Zika virus, is closely related to two other important human pathogens, dengue and West Nile Virus (WNV), but has some distinguishing features that has raised alarms from the scientific community. Read More

    Collaborative study to establish World Health Organization international reference reagents for dengue virus Types 1 to 4 RNA for use in nucleic acid testing.
    Transfusion 2017 Aug 26;57(8):1977-1987. Epub 2017 Jun 26.
    Office of Blood Research and Review, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America.
    Background: Dengue is the most important reemerging mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. Caused by dengue virus (DENV), a member of the genus Flavivirus in the Flaviviridae family, dengue can be asymptomatic (approx. 80% of cases) or symptomatic, ranging from a flu-like illness known as dengue fever, to a life-threatening form called severe dengue. Read More

    Differential Activation of Human Keratinocytes by Leishmania Species Causing Localized or Disseminated Disease.
    J Invest Dermatol 2017 Oct 22;137(10):2149-2156. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    University of Iowa, Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Immunology, Iowa City, Iowa, USA; University of Iowa, Department of Internal Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa, USA; University of Iowa, Department of Microbiology, Iowa City, Iowa, USA; Veterans' Affairs Medical Center, Iowa City, Iowa, USA. Electronic address:
    All Leishmania species parasites are introduced into mammalian skin through a sand fly bite, but different species cause distinct clinical outcomes. Mouse studies suggest that early responses are critical determinants of subsequent adaptive immunity in leishmaniasis, yet few studies address the role of keratinocytes, the most abundant cell in the epidermis. We hypothesized that Leishmania infection causes keratinocytes to produce immunomodulatory factors that influence the outcome of infection. Read More

    Incidence and mortality due to snakebite in the Americas.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jun 21;11(6):e0005662. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    CERPAGE, Faculté des Sciences de la Santé, Université d'Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou, Bénin.
    Background: Better knowledge of the epidemiological characteristics of snakebites could help to take measures to improve their management. The incidence and mortality of snakebites in the Americas are most often estimated from medical and scientific literature, which generally lack precision and representativeness.

    Methodology/principal Findings: Authors used the notifications of snakebites treated in health centers collected by the Ministries of Health of the American countries to estimate their incidence and mortality. Read More

    Concurrent babesiosis and serological evidence of Lyme disease in a young patient.
    J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect 2017 Jan 31;7(1):46-48. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Interfaith Medical Center, NY, USA.
    Human babesiosis co-infected with Lyme disease in a young patient is an important condition. Here, we describe a case of a 39-year-old male patient with concurrent babesiosis and Lyme disease. Co-infections of tick borne diseases are often difficult to diagnose and underreported, and resulting in significant morbidity and mortality to patients. Read More

    Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever: A State-of-the-Art Review Focused in Pulmonary Involvement.
    Lung 2017 Aug 13;195(4):389-395. Epub 2017 Jun 13.
    Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.
    Dengue fever is an arboviral disease transmitted to humans through the bites of infected female Aedes mosquitoes. Dengue virus is a member of the Flaviviridae family, and human infection can be caused by any of the four antigenically distinct serotypes (DENV 1-4). The infection has become recognized as the most important and prevalent arboviral disease in humans, endemic in almost 100 countries worldwide. Read More

    Animal, Microbial, and Fungal Borne Skin Pathology in the Mountain Wilderness: A Review.
    Wilderness Environ Med 2017 Jun;28(2):127-138
    School of Medicine, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado (Drs Brandenburg, Califf, Manly, and Levandowski).
    Mountains are home to numerous organisms known to cause skin disease. Bites, stings, poisons, chemicals, toxins, trauma, and infections all contribute to this end. Numerous plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, viruses, and protozoa are responsible. Read More

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