3,843 results match your criteria Human Bite Infections


Characterization of Immunological Responses to Immunogenic Protein A (BipA), a Species-Specific Antigen for North American Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever.

Microbiol Spectr 2022 May 17:e0172221. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Pediatrics, National School of Tropical Medicine, Baylor College of Medicinegrid.39382.33, Houston, Texas, USA.

Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is a neglected vector-borne bacterial disease distributed worldwide. Borrelia turicatae, Borrelia parkeri, and Borrelia hermsii are three argasid-borne TBRF species previously implicated in human disease in North America. TBRF is likely underdiagnosed due to its nonspecific symptoms and poorly developed diagnostic tests. Read More

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Leishmania donovani hybridisation and introgression in nature: a comparative genomic investigation.

Lancet Microbe 2021 Jun 23;2(6):e250-e258. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease transmitted by infected sandflies that results in diverse human pathologies contingent on the species of Leishmania. Leishmania donovani causes highly virulent fatal visceral leishmaniasis, whereas Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica cause less virulent, cutaneous leishmaniasis, in which the infection remains in the skin at the site of the sandfly bite. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic basis for the emergence of L donovani strains that cause cutaneous leishmaniasis instead of visceral leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka. Read More

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Inflammatory cytokine profile and T cell responses in African tick bite fever patients.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2022 Jun 11;211(2-3):143-152. Epub 2022 May 11.

Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Bernhard-Nocht-Str. 74, 20359, Hamburg, Germany.

African tick bite fever, an acute febrile illness, is caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Rickettsia africae. Immune responses to rickettsial infections have so far mainly been investigated in vitro with infected endothelial cells as the main target cells, and in mouse models. Patient studies are rare and little is known about the immunology of human infections. Read More

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The species distribution of ticks & the prevalence of Kyasanur forest disease virus in questing nymphal ticks from Western Ghats of Kerala, South India.

Indian J Med Res 2021 May;154(5):743-749

ICMR-National Institute of Virology, Kerala Unit, T D Medical College & Hospital, Alappuzha, Kerala, India.

Background & Objectives: Kyasanur forest disease (KFD) is a zoonotic tick-borne disease across the Western Ghats of India. With the discovery of a cluster of human KFD cases in the Wayanad district of Kerala, the present study was focused on detecting KFD virus (KFDV) in tick populations. To manage this disease, it is necessary to understand the diversity of the tick species and factors influencing the distribution, abundance and prevalence of infected ticks in Wayanad district. Read More

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United Against Rabies Forum: The One Health Concept at Work.

Front Public Health 2022 13;10:854419. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

House of Lords, London, United Kingdom.

Human deaths from rabies are preventable and can be eliminated by applying a systematic One Health approach. However, this ancient disease still threatens the lives of millions of people in up to 150 countries and kills an estimated 59, 000 people every year. Rabies today is largely a disease of poverty, almost always linked to dog bites, with most deaths occurring in neglected communities in Africa and Asia. Read More

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First Indications of Omsk Haemorrhagic Fever Virus beyond Russia.

Viruses 2022 Apr 4;14(4). Epub 2022 Apr 4.

Department of Virology and Intracellular Agents, Bundeswehr Institute of Microbiology, 80937 Munich, Germany.

(OHFV) is the agent leading to Omsk haemorrhagic fever (OHF), a viral disease currently only known in Western Siberia in Russia. The symptoms include fever, headache, nausea, muscle pain, cough and haemorrhages. The transmission cycle of OHFV is complex. Read More

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Assessing Tick-Borne Disease Risk and Surveillance: Toward a Multi-Modal Approach to Diagnostic Positioning and Prediction.

Microorganisms 2022 Apr 18;10(4). Epub 2022 Apr 18.

Laboratory for Human Neurobiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA.

The true extent of tick-borne disease (TBD) incidence and risk among humans is largely unknown, posing significant public health challenges. This study offers an exploratory analysis of a multimodal dataset and is part of a larger ongoing project to determine if entomological data, canine serological reports, self-reported human tick bite encounters (TBEs), and/or associated TBD diagnoses can serve as proxies for human disease risk. Focusing on the United States (U. Read More

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Breast Milk as Route of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Transmission from Mother to Infant.

Emerg Infect Dis 2022 May;28(5):1060-1061

Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is transmitted mainly by tick bites, but humans can acquire infection through consuming unpasteurized milk from infected animals. Interhuman transmission of TBEV by breast milk has not been confirmed or ruled out. We report a case of probable transmission of TBEV from an unvaccinated mother to an infant through breast-feeding. Read More

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Spatiotemporal trends and socioecological factors associated with Lyme disease in eastern Ontario, Canada from 2010-2017.

BMC Public Health 2022 04 13;22(1):736. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

School of Epidemiology and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, 600 Peter Morand Crescent, Ottawa, ON, K1G 5Z3, Canada.

Currently, there is limited knowledge about socioeconomic, neighbourhood, and local ecological factors that contribute to the growing Lyme disease incidence in the province of Ontario, Canada. In this study, we sought to identify these factors that play an important role at the local scale, where people are encountering ticks in their communities. We used reported human Lyme disease case data and tick surveillance data submitted by the public from 2010-2017 to analyze trends in tick exposure, spatiotemporal clusters of infection using the spatial scan statistic and Local Moran's I statistic, and socioecological risk factors for Lyme disease using a multivariable negative binomial regression model. Read More

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Reimagining zoonotic malaria control in communities exposed to Plasmodium knowlesi infection.

J Physiol Anthropol 2022 Apr 12;41(1):14. Epub 2022 Apr 12.

Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Plasmodium knowlesi malaria infection in humans has been reported throughout southeast Asia. The communities at risk are those living in areas where Macaque monkeys and Anopheles mosquito are present. Zoonotic malaria control is challenging due to the presence of the reservoir host and the possibility of human-vector-human transmission. Read More

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Evaluation of the protective efficacy of a spatial repellent to reduce malaria incidence in children in western Kenya compared to placebo: study protocol for a cluster-randomized double-blinded control trial (the AEGIS program).

Trials 2022 Apr 5;23(1):260. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

Department of Biological Sciences, Eck Institute for Global Health, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, USA.

Background: Spatial repellents are widely used for prevention of mosquito bites and evidence is building on their public health value, but their efficacy against malaria incidence has never been evaluated in Africa. To address this knowledge gap, a trial to evaluate the efficacy of Mosquito Shield™, a spatial repellent incorporating transfluthrin, was developed for implementation in Busia County, western Kenya where long-lasting insecticidal net coverage is high and baseline malaria transmission is moderate to high year-round.

Methods: This trial is designed as a cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial. Read More

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Evaluation of the protective efficacy of a spatial repellent to reduce malaria incidence in children in Mali compared to placebo: study protocol for a cluster-randomized double-blinded control trial (the AEGIS program).

Trials 2022 Apr 5;23(1):259. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

Department of Biological Sciences, Eck Institute for Global Health, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, USA.

Background: Spatial repellents have been widely used for the prevention of mosquito bites but their efficacy in reducing mosquito-borne diseases has never been evaluated in Africa. Additionally, spatial repellents have the potential of being critical tools in the prevention of mosquito-borne diseases in contexts where typical vectors control efforts such as insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spray (IRS) are inaccessible or underutilized such as among displaced populations or in emergency relief settings. To address this knowledge gap, Kolondieba District, Sikasso Region, Mali was selected as a site to estimate the impact of the Mosquito Shield™, a spatial repellent that incorporates transfluthrin on a plastic sheet, on malaria-related outcomes. Read More

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Sensitisation and allergic reactions to alpha-1,3-galactose in Podlasie, Poland, an area endemic for tick-borne infections.

Infect Dis (Lond) 2022 Apr 5:1-8. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

Department of Infectious Diseases and Neuroinfections, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland.

Purpose: Ticks transmit several pathogens and seem implicated in the production of specific IgE antibodies to alpha-1,3-galactose (α-gal sIgE). They cause delayed and immediate allergy to mammalian meat and medication including antivenoms, vaccines and monoclonal antibodies.

Methods: We assessed the prevalence of α-gal sIgE in forest workers and healthy controls in the Podlasie voivodeship, north-eastern Poland; the relationship between α-gal sIgE and allergy to α-gal-containing products; the correlation between α-gal sIgE and anti- and anti-tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) antibodies; the relationship between α-gal sIgE and markers of infection with lesser-known pathogens transmitted by ticks such as . Read More

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Personal protection measures to prevent tick bites in the United States: Knowledge gaps, challenges, and opportunities.

Authors:
Lars Eisen

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2022 Mar 26;13(4):101944. Epub 2022 Mar 26.

Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3156 Rampart Road, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA. Electronic address:

Personal protection measures to prevent human tick encounters from resulting in bites are widely recommended as the first line of defense against health impacts associated with ticks. This includes using repellents, wearing untreated or permethrin-treated protective clothing, and conducting tick checks after coming inside, aided by removing outdoor clothing articles and running them in a dryer on high heat (to kill undetected ticks) and taking a shower/bath (to aid in detecting ticks on the skin). These measures have the benefit of incurring no or low cost, but they need to be used consistently to be most effective. Read More

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Zoonotic malaria transmission and land use change in Southeast Asia: what is known about the vectors.

Malar J 2022 Mar 31;21(1):109. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Australian Institute of Tropical Health and Medicine, James Cook University, Cairns, Australia.

Zoonotic Plasmodium infections in humans in many Southeast Asian countries have been increasing, including in countries approaching elimination of human-only malaria transmission. Most simian malarias in humans are caused by Plasmodium knowlesi, but recent research shows that humans are at risk of many different simian Plasmodium species. In Southeast Asia, simian Plasmodium species are mainly transmitted by mosquitoes in the Anopheles leucosphyrus and Anopheles dirus complexes. Read More

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Rabies Elimination in Rural Kenya: Need for Improved Availability of Human Vaccines, Awareness and Knowledge on Rabies and Its Management Among Healthcare Workers.

Front Public Health 2022 10;10:769898. Epub 2022 Mar 10.

Center for Global Health Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya.

Background: In Africa, rabies causes an estimated 24,000 human deaths annually. Mass dog vaccinations coupled with timely post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for dog-bite patients are the main interventions to eliminate human rabies deaths. A well-informed healthcare workforce and the availability and accessibility of rabies biologicals at health facilities are critical in reducing rabies deaths. Read More

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Evidence mapping of current status, impact, prevention and control measures from rabies research in Bangladesh (2010-2021): a scoping review protocol.

BMJ Open 2022 Mar 30;12(3):e056024. Epub 2022 Mar 30.

Department of Physiology Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Science University, Chittagong, Bangladesh.

Introduction: Rabies is one of the priority zoonotic diseases in Bangladesh. Though the rabies cases have been reduced over the years due to the mass dog vaccination programme since 2011 throughout the country, it is still a major health problem in Bangladesh with an annual estimated 200 000 animal bite cases and over 2000 human deaths. This article presented a scoping review protocol for published literature on rabies in Bangladesh and believes to create impact in Bangladesh by identifying the research gap and guiding the evidence-informed policy adaptation from its findings in the future which will strongly underscore the elimination of Rabies and reduce preventable mortalities. Read More

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The knowns and unknowns of the efficacy of neem oil (Azadirachta indica) used as a preventative measure against Leishmania sand fly vectors (Phlebotomus genus).

Prev Vet Med 2022 May 19;202:105618. Epub 2022 Mar 19.

formerly, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy.

Since domestic dogs are the main reservoir hosts of Leishmania infantum throughout the world, they are the main focus in terms of controlling zoonotic visceral leishmaniosis. To protect dogs from leishmaniosis, chemical repellents of durable efficacy are available in the form of collars, spot-on and sprays. However, the negative effects of chemical pesticides on the environment are well established as they affect animals and plants. Read More

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Francisella tularensis infection: variable clinical aspects with persistent pulmonary nodules presentation, a case series of human tularemia in Franche-Comté, France.

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2022 May 10;13(3):101941. Epub 2022 Mar 10.

Infectious Disease Department, Nord Franche-Comté Hospital, France.

Tularemia is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by the facultative intracellular Gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis. Depending on the transmission route of this agent tularemia can present itself as a local infection or a systemic disease. We describe herein three cases of confirmed tularemia in immunocompetent patients during the summer of 2019; two patients with unusual respiratory presentation and pulmonary nodules on imaging, following exposure to aerosols. Read More

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Pharmacokinetics of oral moxidectin in individuals with Onchocerca volvulus infection.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2022 Mar 25;16(3):e0010005. Epub 2022 Mar 25.

College of Pharmacy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States of America.

Background: Onchocerciasis ("river blindness"), is a neglected tropical disease caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus and transmitted to humans through repeated bites by infective blackflies of the genus Simulium. Moxidectin was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration in 2018 for the treatment of onchocerciasis in people at least 12 years of age. The pharmacokinetics of orally administered moxidectin in 18- to 60-year-old men and women infected with Onchocerca volvulus were investigated in a single-center, ivermectin-controlled, double-blind, randomized, single-ascending-dose, ascending severity of infection study in Ghana. Read More

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The Role of Human Behavior in Malaria Infection: A Systematic Review.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 03 19;19(6). Epub 2022 Mar 19.

Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 56000, Malaysia.

Objectives: is a non-human parasite that causes zoonotic disease in humans. This systematic review aims to highlight and summarize studies describing human behaviors and activities that expose humans to mosquito bites. English entries in PubMed, Web of Science, and Science Direct from 2010 to 2020 were systematically perused, and the results were synthesized. Read More

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Tick-borne encephalitis virus and West-Nile fever virus as causes of serous meningitis of unknown origin in Kazakhstan.

Zoonoses Public Health 2022 Mar 23. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

Department of Virology and Intracellular Agents, Bundeswehr Institute of Microbiology, German Centre for Infection Research, Munich Partner Site, Munich, Germany.

Flaviviruses are a family of viruses that cause many diseases in humans. Their similarity in the antigenic structure causes a cross-reaction, which complicates the precise diagnostic of disease causing agents. Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), a member of the flavivirus family, is the cause of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). Read More

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Development of a dual antigen lateral flow immunoassay for detecting Yersinia pestis.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2022 Mar 23;16(3):e0010287. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Nevada, Reno School of Medicine, Reno, Nevada, United States of America.

Background: Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of plague, a zoonosis associated with small mammals. Plague is a severe disease, especially in the pneumonic and septicemic forms, where fatality rates approach 100% if left untreated. The bacterium is primarily transmitted via flea bite or through direct contact with an infected host. Read More

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Mapping the Risk for West Nile Virus Transmission, Africa.

Emerg Infect Dis 2022 04;28(4):777-785

West Nile virus (WNV) is an emergent arthropodborne virus that is transmitted from bird to bird by mosquitoes. Spillover events occur when infected mosquitoes bite mammals. We created a geopositioned database of WNV presence in Africa and considered reports of the virus in all animal components: reservoirs, vectors, and nonhuman dead-end hosts. Read More

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A TCR mimic monoclonal antibody for the HPV-16 E7-epitope p11-19/HLA-A*02:01 complex.

PLoS One 2022 17;17(3):e0265534. Epub 2022 Mar 17.

Molecular Pharmacology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, United States of America.

More effective treatments are needed for human papilloma virus (HPV)-induced cancers despite HPV virus vaccination. The oncogenic HPV protein targets are currently undruggable and intracellular and therefore there are no antibodies to these targets. Here we report the discovery of TCR mimic monoclonal antibodies (TCRm mAb) specific for the HPV E7 protein p11-19, YMLDLQPET, when presented on the cell surface in the context of HLA-A*02:01 by use of human phage display libraries. Read More

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Controlled human malaria infections by mosquito bites induce more severe clinical symptoms than asexual blood-stage challenge infections.

EBioMedicine 2022 Mar 9;77:103919. Epub 2022 Mar 9.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Radboud Center for Infectious Diseases, Radboud university medical center, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: Fever and inflammation are a hallmark of clinical Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) malaria induced by circulating asexual parasites. Although clinical manifestations of inflammation are associated with parasite density, this relationship is influenced by a complex network of immune-modulating factors of both human and parasite origin.

Methods: In the Controlled Human Malaria infection (CHMI) model, we compared clinical inflammation in healthy malaria-naïve volunteers infected by either Pf-infected mosquito bites (MB, n=12) or intravenous administration of Pf-infected red blood cells (BS, n=12). Read More

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Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding tick-borne disease prevention in Lyme disease-endemic areas of the Upper Midwest, United States.

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2022 May 19;13(3):101925. Epub 2022 Feb 19.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, 3156 Rampart Road, Fort Collins, CO 80521, United States. Electronic address:

Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases are a major public health threat in the Upper Midwestern United States, including Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. To prevent tick bites and tick-borne diseases, public health officials commonly recommend personal protective measures and property management techniques. Adoption of tick-borne disease prevention behaviors and practices by individuals are, however, highly variable. Read More

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Knowledge, attitudes, practices (KAP) and control of rabies among community households and health practitioners at the human-wildlife interface in Limpopo National Park, Massingir District, Mozambique.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2022 03 7;16(3):e0010202. Epub 2022 Mar 7.

Centre for Veterinary Wildlife Studies, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.

Background: Rabies is a viral zoonotic disease that kills more than 26,000 people each year in Africa. In Mozambique, poverty and inadequate surveillance result in gross underreporting and ineffective control of the disease in animals and people. Little is known of the role of human attitudes and behaviour in prevention or control of rabies, thus this study was undertaken to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices amongst selected households and health practitioners in one affected area, the Limpopo National Park (LNP), Massingir district. Read More

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Blood-feeding patterns of Anopheles vectors of human malaria in Malawi: implications for malaria transmission and effectiveness of LLIN interventions.

Malar J 2022 Mar 3;21(1):67. Epub 2022 Mar 3.

Department of Entomology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 48824, USA.

Background: Access to human hosts by Anopheles mosquitoes is a key determinant of vectorial capacity for malaria, but it can be limited by use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). In Malawi, pyrethroid-treated LLINs with and without the synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) were distributed to control malaria. This study investigated the blood-feeding patterns of malaria vectors and whether LLINs containing pyrethroid and PBO led to a reduction of human blood feeding than those containing only pyrethroids. Read More

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Molecular detection of Francisella tularensis in small ruminants and their ticks in western Iran.

Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2022 Apr 24;83:101779. Epub 2022 Feb 24.

National Reference Laboratory for Plague, Tularemia and Q fever, Research Centre for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Akanlu, Kabudar Ahang, Hamadan, Iran; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatics, Research Centre for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of tularemia an infectious zoonotic disease. We attempted the molecular detecting of F. tularensis in small ruminants and ticks attached to these animals in Kurdistan province (the west of Iran). Read More

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